WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d-ddtc pixel detectors

  1. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  2. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  3. Diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

  4. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  5. CMS pixel detector Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaldi, L M

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the compact muon solenoid pixel detector effort is presented. Pixel detectors are being built for use at the large hadron collider beginning in the year 2007. It is reported that a good progress is made in 2002 on the critical issues of readout chip and token bit manager design, bump bonding and sensor testing. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  6. The pixelated detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Sutton, C

    1990-01-01

    "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

  7. SOI monolithic pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, T.; Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Ikemoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tauchi, K.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detector using fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel process technology. The SOI substrate is high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions and another layer is a low resistivity silicon for SOI-CMOS circuitry. Tungsten vias are used for the connection between two silicons. Since flip-chip bump bonding process is not used, high sensor gain in a small pixel area can be obtained. In 2010 and 2011, high-resolution integration-type SOI pixel sensors, DIPIX and INTPIX5, have been developed. The characterizations by evaluating pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, quantum efficiency (QE), dark noise, and energy resolution were done. A phase-contrast imaging was demonstrated using the INTPIX5 pixel sensor for an X-ray application. The current issues and future prospect are also discussed.

  8. The ATLAS pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinziani, M.

    2007-01-01

    After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

  9. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  10. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  11. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  12. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  13. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

  14. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  15. The ALICE pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  16. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marcisovsky, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  17. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  18. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  19. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  20. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  1. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  2. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  3. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  4. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jarron, P.; Moraes, D.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dunand, S.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS)...

  5. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    OpenAIRE

    Bugiel, Szymon; Dasgupta, Roma; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for t...

  6. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  7. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Szymon; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for time and amplitude measurements. In addition the design of a Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR ADC) is also presented. A 10-bit SAR ADC is developed for spectroscopic measurements and a lower resolution 6-bit SAR ADC is integrated in the pixel matrix as a column ADC, for tracking applications.

  8. Hybrid pixel detector development for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-year project has been initiated to develop hybrid pixel detectors for medical radiography. Crystalline semiconductor will be bonded to a pixellated readout chip where individual integrated circuits process each event, transferring the position, energy and timing information to the data acquisition controller. Chips will be tiled to produce a large area detector, capable of energy dispersive photon counting at moderate spatial resolution. Preliminary results from studies examining the design features and operation of the device are presented

  9. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Wiggins, Brenden; Milburn, Rob; Burger, Arnold; Bilheux, Hassina; Santodonato, Louis; Chvala, Ondrej; Stowe, Ashley; Lukosi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, 6LiInSe2 or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of 6Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 μm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm3 LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 μm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  10. Pixel Hit Reconstruction with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giurgiu, Gavril; Maksimovic, P; Swartz, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a new technique for pixel hit reconstruction with the CMS pixel detector. The technique is based on fitting the pixel cluster projections to templates obtained using a detailed simulation called Pixelav. Pixelav successfully describes the profiles of clusters measured in beam tests of radiation-damaged sensors. Originally developed to optimally estimate the coordinates of hits after the radiation damage, the technique has superior performance before irradiation as well, reducing the resolution tails of reconstructed track parameters and significantly reducing the light quark background of tagged b-quarks. It is the only technique currently available to simulate hits from a radiation-damaged detector.

  11. Pixel detectors from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo; Rohe, Tilman; Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel detectors are a particularly important class of particle and radiation detection devices. They have an extremely broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-energy physics to the photo cameras of everyday life. This book is a general purpose introduction into the fundamental principles of pixel detector technology and semiconductor-based hybrid pixel devices. Although these devices were developed for high-energy ionizing particles and radiation beyond visible light, they are finding new applications in many other areas. This book will therefore benefit all scientists and engineers working in any laboratory involved in developing or using particle detection.

  12. Physics performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuno, Soshi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One noticeable upgrade from Run-1 to Run-2 with ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at LHC is the introduction of the new pixel detector, IBL, located on the beam pipe as the extra innermost pixel layer. The tracking and vertex reconstruction are significantly improved and good performance is expected in high level object such a $b$-quark jet tagging, in turn, it leads the better physics results. This note summarizes what is the impact on the IBL detector to the physics results especially focusing on the analyses using the $b$-quark jets throughout 2016 summer physics program.

  13. Operational Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Karancsi, Janos

    2016-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector was repaired successfully, calibrated and commissioned for the second run of Large Hadron Collider during the first long shutdown between 2013 and 2015. The replaced pixel modules were calibrated separately and show the expected behavior of an un-irradiated detector. In 2015, the system performed very well with an even improved spatial resolution compared to 2012. During this time, the operational team faced various challenges including the loss of a sector in one half shell which was only partially recovered. In 2016, the detector is expected to withstand instantaneous luminosities beyond the design limits and will need a combined effort of both online and offline teams in order to provide the high quality data that is required to reach the physics goals of CMS. We present the operational experience gained during the second run of the LHC and show the latest performance results of the CMS pixel detector.

  14. High efficiency pixellated CdTe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Position sensitive detectors constructed from compound semiconductors (CdTe, CdZnTe, HgI2) are being developed for a variety of applications where high sensitivity and improved energy resolution are significant advantages over scintillator or gas based systems. We have investigated the possibility of using a CdTe detector array in a SPECT gamma camera that would require a high efficiency at 140 keV. The problem of worsening photopeak efficiencies in thick detectors (due to incomplete charge collection) makes it difficult to maintain a high efficiency which, ironically, is the primary reason for choosing a thicker detector. Recent research has shown that following a simple geometrical design criterion can greatly reduce this deleterious effect. This paper reports on the results from a small prototype pixellated array fabricated using this design. We verify the 'small pixel effect' for a detector thickness and pixel size significantly larger than those used in most other work. A 9-element detector (1 x 1 mm pixels, 4 mm thick) has been fabricated and characterized in terms of energy resolution, peak-to-valley ratio and detection efficiency. Testing of the detector in a fast pulse mode to obtain its high count rate response has also been performed. (orig.)

  15. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  16. Commissioning the CMS pixel detector with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Heyburn, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    commissioning activities in the CMS pixel detector. Results from cosmic ray studies will be presented, in addition to results obtained from the integration of the pixel detector within the CMS detector and various calibration and alignment analyses.

  17. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  18. Development of a CMOS SOI pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Hazumi, M; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Tajima, O; Terada, S; Tsuboyama, T; Unno, Y; Ushiroda, Y; Ikeda, H; Hara, K; Ishino, H; Kawasaki, T; Miyake, H; Martin, E; Varner, G; Tajima, H; Ohno, M; Fukuda, K; Komatsubara, H; Ida, J

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic radiation pixel detector using silicon on insulator (SOI) with a commercial 0.15 m fullydepleted- SOI technology and a Czochralski high resistivity silicon substrate in place of a handle wafer. The SOI TEG (Test Element Group) chips with a size of 2.5 x 2.5mm2 consisting of 20 x 20 um2 pixels have been designed and manufactured. Performance tests with a laser light illumination and a . ray radioactive source indicate successful operation of the detector. We also brie y discuss the back gate effect as well as the simulation study.

  19. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  20. The ALICE silicon pixel detector readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, M; Burns, M; Caselle, M; Kluge, A; Manzari, V; Torcato de Matos, C; Morel, M; Riedler, P; Aglieri Rinella, G; Sandor, L; Stefanini, G

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE Collaboration, 1999) [1]. The SPD is built with 120 detector modules (half-staves) and contains about 10 million pixels in total. The half-staves are connected to the off-detector electronics, housed in a control room 100 m away, via bidirectional optical links. The stream of data from the front-end electronics is processed in 20 VME readout modules, called routers, based on FPGAs. Three 2-channel link-receiver daughter cards, also based on FPGAs, are plugged in each router. Each link-receiver card receives data via the optical link from two half-staves, applies the zero suppression and passes them to the router to be processed and sent to the ALICE–DAQ system through the detector data link (DDL). The SPD control, configuration and data monitoring are performed using the VME interface embedded in the router.

  1. Commissioning of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Golling, Tobias; ATLAS Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and su...

  2. Optical Link of the Atlas Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, K. K.

    2007-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 32 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2) and the experience from the production.

  3. Electrical characteristics of silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mata-Bruni, V.; Santistevan, G.; Seidel, S.C. E-mail: seidel@dot.phys.unm.edu; Ciocio, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Emes, J.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Marchesini, R.; McCormack, F.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Pengg, F.; Richardson, J.; Zizka, G.; Ackers, M.; Comes, G.; Fischer, P.; Keil, M.; Martinez, G.; Peric, I.; Runolfsson, O.; Stockmanns, T.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.; Goessling, C.; Huegging, F.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Krasel, O.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Barberis, D.; Beccherle, R.; Caso, C.; Cervetto, M.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Netchaeva, P.; Osculati, B.; Rossi, L.; Charles, E.; Fasching, D.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnon, P.; Calvet, D.; Clemens, J.-C.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Laugier, D.; Mouthuy, T.; Rozanov, A.; Valin, I.; Andreazza, A.; Caccia, M.; Citterio, M.; Lari, T.; Meroni, C.; Ragusa, F.; Troncon, C.; Vegni, G.; Lutz, G.; Richter, R.H.; Rohe, T.; Boyd, G.R.; Skubic, P.L.; Sicho, P.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Cauz, D.; Cobal-Grassmann, M.; D' Auria, S.; De Lotto, B.; Del Papa, C.; Grassmann, H.; Santi, L.; Becks, K.H.; Lenzen, G.; Linder, C

    2002-08-21

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge-collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  4. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  5. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x1015 p/cm2

  6. SOIKID, SOI pixel detector combined with superconducting detector KID

    CERN Document Server

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Kida, Yosuke; Yamada, Yousuke

    2015-01-01

    We present the development status of the SOIKID, a detector combining the SOI pixel detector and the superconducting detector KID (Kinetic Inductance Detector). The aim of the SOIKID is to measure X-ray photon energy with the resolution better than that of the semiconductor detector. The silicon substrate is used as the X-ray photon absorber. The recoiled electron creates athermal phonons as well as the ionizing electron-hole pairs. The KID formed at one side of the substrate surface detects the phonons to measure the total energy deposited, while the SOI pixel detector formed on the other side of the substrate detects the ionized carries to measure the position. Combining the position and energy measurements, it is in principle possible to have the extremely high energy resolution.

  7. Characterization of the CMS Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC. The main tasks of the system are vertex detection and flavor tagging. The high luminosity and the high particle multiplicity as well as the small bunch spacing at the LHC impose great challenges on the pixel detectors: radiation hardness of sensors and electronics, fast signal processing and a high granularity are the essential requirements. This thesis concentrates on the study of the suitability of two test stands, which are implemented to characterize the CMS pixel detectors: one is con-cerned with test puls...

  8. Readout architecture of the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the readout architecture of the CMS pixel chip. In column drain architecture the complex tasks of data buffering and trigger verification are performed in the circuit periphery. This allows to use a rather simple pixel unit cell which requires only a small number of transistors. The column periphery logic is designed for readout and trigger rates expected for full LHC luminosity. At LHC the high particle flux can create single event upsets in the readout chips. At small radii the upsets of logic cells could severely affect the performance of the pixel detector readout. We have therefore performed a measurement of the upset rate at the PSI pion beam and describe the consequences for the design of the readout chip. (5 refs).

  9. Radiation Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Veszpremi, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracker occupying the region around the centre of CMS, where the LHC beams are crossed, between 4.3~cm and 30~cm in radius and 46.5~cm along the beam axis. It operates in a high-occupancy and high-radiation environment created by particle collisions. Studies of radiation damage effects to the sensors were performed throughout the first running period of the LHC. Leakage current, depletion voltage, pixel read-out thresholds, and hit finding efficiencies were monitored as functions of the increasing particle fluence. The methods and results of these measurements will be described together with their implications to detector operation as well as to performance parameters in offline hit reconstruction.

  10. Radiation experience with the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veszpremi, V.

    2015-04-01

    The CMS pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracker occupying the region around the centre of CMS, where the LHC beams are crossed, between 4.3 cm and 30 cm in radius and 46.5 cm along the beam axis. It operates in a high-occupancy and high-radiation environment created by particle collisions. Studies of radiation damage effects to the sensors were performed throughout the first running period of the LHC . Leakage current, depletion voltage, pixel readout thresholds, and hit finding efficiencies were monitored as functions of the increasing particle fluence. The methods and results of these measurements will be described together with their implications to detector operation as well as to performance parameters in offline hit reconstruction.

  11. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Characterization of the CMS pixel detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors a...

  13. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Hans-Günther

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55-60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70-85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the 'internal gate' modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X0). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO2 system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  14. optical links for the atlas pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  15. Optical links for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  16. The Phase1 CMS Pixel detector upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul

    2016-01-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be replaced in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 with an upgraded one able to cope with peak instantaneous luminosities beyond the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity of $1 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Under the conditions expected in the coming years, which will see an increase of a factor two in instantaneous luminosity, the present system would experience a dynamic inefficiency caused mainly by data losses due to buffer overflows. The Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector, described in this paper, will operate at full efficiency at an instantaneous luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, thanks to a new readout chip. The new detector will feature one additional tracking point both in the barrel and in the forward regions, while reducing the material budget as a result of a new CO$_{2}$ cooling system and optimised layout of the services. In this paper, the design and the technological choices of the Phase I detect...

  17. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  18. ATLAS rewards two pixel detector suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, presented the ATLAS supplier award to Herbert Reichl, IZM director, and to Simonetta Di Gioia, from the SELEX company.Two of ATLAS’ suppliers were awarded prizes at a ceremony on Wednesday 13 June attended by representatives of the experiment’s management and of CERN. The prizes went to the Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM) in Berlin and the company SELEX Sistemi Integrati in Rome for the manufacture of modules for the ATLAS pixel detector. SELEX supplied 1500 of the modules for the tracker, while IZM produced a further 1300. The modules, each made up of 46080 channels, form the active part of the ATLAS pixel detector. IZM and SELEX received the awards for the excellent quality of their work: the average number of faulty channels per module was less than 2.10-3. They also stayed within budget and on schedule. The difficulty they faced was designing modules based on electronic components and sensor...

  19. Commissioning the CMS pixel detector with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Heyburn, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of two general purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS experiment prides itself on an ambitious, all silicon based, tracking system. After almost 20 years of design and construction the CMS tracker detector has been installed and commissioned. The tracker detector consists of ten layers of silicon microstrip detectors while three layers of pixel detector modules are situated closest to the interaction point. The pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels of 100mm 150mm size, and is designed to use the shape of the actual charge distribution of charged particles to gain hit resolutions down to 12mm. This paper will focus on commissioning activities in the CMS pixel detector. Results from cosmic ray studies will be presented, in addition to results obtained from the integration of the pixel detector within the CMS detector and various calibration and alignment analyses.

  20. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  1. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapoire, C.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy is sufficiently low and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  2. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.7% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  3. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  4. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5\\% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, ...

  5. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.8% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  6. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  7. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  8. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump- bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, a...

  9. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  10. Pixel detector modules performance for ATLAS IBL and future pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355104; Pernegger, Heinz

    2015-11-06

    The ATLAS Detector is one of the four big particle physics experiments at CERN’s LHC. Its innermost tracking system consisted of the 3-Layer silicon Pixel Detector (~80M readout channels) in the first run (2010-2012). Over the past two years it was refurbished and equipped with new services as well as a new beam monitor. The major upgrade, however, was the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It adds ~12M readout channels for improved vertexing, tracking robustness and b-tagging performance for the upcoming runs, before the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will take place. This thesis covers two main aspects of Pixel detector performance studies: The main work was the planning, commissioning and operation of a test bench that meets the requirements of current pixel detector components. Each newly built ATLAS IBL stave was thoroughly tested, following a specifically developed procedure, and initially calibrated in that setup. A variety of production accompanying measurements as well as preliminary results after integ...

  11. Semiconductor Pixel detectors and their applications in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in semiconductor technology allow construction of highly efficient and low noise pixel detectors of ionizing radiation. Steadily improving quality of front end electronics enables fast digital signal processing in each pixel which offers recording of more complete information about each detected quantum (energy, time, number of particles). All these features improve an extend applicability of pixel technology in different fields. Some applications of this technology especially for imaging in life sciences will be shown (energy and phase sensitive X-ray radiography and tomography, radiography with heavy charged particles, neutron radiography, etc). On the other hand a number of obstacles can limit the detector performance if not handled. The pixel detector is in fact an array of individual detectors (pixels), each of them has its own efficiency, energy calibration and also noise. The common effort is to make all these parameters uniform for all pixels. However an ideal uniformity can be never reached. Moreover, it is often seen that the signal in one pixel can affect the neighbouring pixels due to various reasons (e.g. charge sharing). All such effects have to be taken into account during data processing to avoid false data interpretation. A brief view into the future of pixel detectors and their applications including also spectroscopy, tracking and dosimetry is given too. Special attention is paid to the problem of detector segmentation in context of the charge sharing effect.

  12. Status of the digital pixel array detector for protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Datte, P; Beuville, E; Endres, N; Druillole, F; Luo, L; Millaud, J E; Xuong, N H

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional photon counting digital pixel array detector is being designed for static and time resolved protein crystallography. The room temperature detector will significantly enhance monochromatic and polychromatic protein crystallographic through-put data rates by more than three orders of magnitude. The detector has an almost infinite photon counting dynamic range and exhibits superior spatial resolution when compared to present crystallographic phosphor imaging plates or phosphor coupled CCD detectors. The detector is a high resistivity N-type Si with a pixel pitch of 150x150 mu m, and a thickness of 300 mu m, and is bump bonded to an application specific integrated circuit. The event driven readout of the detector is based on the column architecture and allows an independent pixel hit rate above 1 million photons/s/pixel. The device provides energy discrimination and sparse data readout which yields minimal dead-time. This type of architecture allows a continuous (frameless) data acquisition, a f...

  13. Status of the CMS Phase I pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagel, S.

    2016-09-01

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  14. Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083994

    2016-01-01

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase~I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  15. Small pixel CZT detector for hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew David; Cernik, Robert; Chen, Henry; Hansson, Conny; Iniewski, Kris; Jones, Lawrence L.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.

    2011-10-01

    A new small pixel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has been developed for hard X-ray spectroscopy. The X-ray performance of four detectors is presented and the detectors are analysed in terms of the energy resolution of each pixel. The detectors were made from CZT crystals grown by the travelling heater method (THM) bonded to a 20×20 application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and data acquisition (DAQ) system. The detectors had an array of 20×20 pixels on a 250 μm pitch, with each pixel gold-stud bonded to an energy resolving circuit in the ASIC. The DAQ system digitised the ASIC output with 14 bit resolution, performing offset corrections and data storage to disc in real time at up to 40,000 frames per second. The detector geometry and ASIC design was optimised for X-ray spectroscopy up to 150 keV and made use of the small pixel effect to preferentially measure the electron signal. A 241Am source was used to measure the spectroscopic performance and uniformity of the detectors. The average energy resolution (FWHM at 59.54 keV) of each pixel ranged from 1.09±0.46 to 1.50±0.57 keV across the four detectors. The detectors showed good spectral performance and uniform response over almost all pixels in the 20×20 array. A large area 80×80 pixel detector will be built that will utilise the scalable design of the ASIC and the large areas of monolithic spectroscopic grade THM grown CZT that are now available. The large area detector will have the same performance as that demonstrated here.

  16. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking regi...

  17. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  18. DAQ Hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment was extended by about 12 million pixels with the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented by employing newly designed read-out hardware, which supports the full detector bandwidth even for calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the read-out boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the read-out bandwidth for the two outermost layers of the ATLAS Pixel Barrel (54 million pixels). We present the IBL read-out hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  19. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  20. New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Neyret, Damien; Bedfer, Yann; Burtin, Etienne; d'Hose, Nicole; Giganon, Arnaud; Ketzer, Bernhard; Konorov, Igor; Kunne, Fabienne; Magnon, Alain; Marchand, Claude; Paul, Bernard; Platchkov, Stéphane; Vandenbroucke, Maxence

    2009-01-01

    New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm^2, 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

  1. Monolithic CMOS pixel detector for international linear collider vertex detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J E Brau; O Igonkina; N Sinew; D Strom; C Baltay; W Emmet; H Neal; D Rabinowitz

    2007-12-01

    A monolithic CMS pixel detector is under development for an ILC experiment. This chronopixel array provides a time stamp resolution of one bunch crossing, a critical feature for background suppression. The status of this effort is summarized.

  2. A new CMS pixel detector for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Carlotta; Collaboration, for the CMS

    2011-01-01

    The CMS inner pixel detector system is planned to be replaced during the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The plans foresee an ultra low mass system with four barrel layers and three disks on either end. With the expected increase in particle rates, the electronic readout chain will be changed for fast digital signals. An overview of the envisaged design options for the upgraded CMS pixel detector is given, as well as estimates of the tracking and vertexing performance.

  3. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  4. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Menichelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel detector will be replaced in the shutdown period 2016/17 by an upgraded version due to the following reasons: increased luminosity at reduced bunch spacing ( from 7 x 10 33 cm - 2 s - 1 at 50 ns bunch spacing to 2 x 10 34 cm - 2 s - 1 at 25 ns bunch spacing) in the LHC , and radiation damage effects that will significantly degrade the present detector. The new upgraded detector will have higher tracking efficiency and lower mass with four barrel layer and three forward/backward disks to provide higher hit pixel coverage out to pseudorapidities of ±2.5. In this paper we will describe the new pixel detector focus ing mostly on the barrel detector design, construction and expected performances

  5. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two disks per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1\\,m$^2$. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run~1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of $1\\cdot 10^{34}\\,$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to~16\\,\\%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  6. First Results of the Pixel Detector Performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels arranged in three cylindric layers in the barrel region and two end-cap disks on each side of the barrel. It is used for seeding in track reconstruction. It is also the most important tool for vertex reconstruction. This report documents the good fraction of the pixel detector at the start of data-taking in 2015, its efficiency at low luminosity and 50 ns bunch-spacing, and the first measurements of the Lorentz-angle. Details are also given on the timing adjustment in the first collisions, and verification of the full depletion voltage.

  7. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  8. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed read-out hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the read-out boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the read-out bandwidth for the two outermost layers of the ATLAS Pixel Barrel (54 million pixels). We present the IBL read-out hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  9. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  10. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing be- tween pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. How- ever, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambigui- ties in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional charge distribution.

  11. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  12. Charge induction in semiconductor detectors with pixellated structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable interest is now being attracted to the next generation of compound semiconductor detectors with pixellated structure in application to x-ray and gamma-astronomy, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear medicine. The spatial resolution of this type of detectors is mainly determined by the proce

  13. Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Chengxing; Goullioud, Renaud; Nemati, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    Precise centroid estimation plays a critical role in accurate astrometry using telescope images. Conventional centroid estimation fits a template point spread function (PSF) to the image data. Because the PSF is typically not known to high accuracy due to wavefront aberrations and uncertainties in optical system, a simple Gaussian function is commonly used. PSF knowledge error leads to systematic errors in the conventional centroid estimation. In this paper, we present an accurate centroid estimation algorithm by reconstructing the PSF from well sampled (above Nyquist frequency) pixelated images. In the limit of an ideal focal plane array whose pixels have identical response function (no inter-pixel variation), this method can estimate centroid displacement between two 32$\\times$32 images to sub-micropixel accuracy. Inter-pixel response variations exist in real detectors, {\\it e.g.}~CCDs, which we can calibrate by measuring the pixel response of each pixel in Fourier space. The Fourier transforms of the inter...

  14. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C

    2010-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector has been designed for a peak luminosity of 10^34cm-2s-1 and a total dose corresponding to 2 years of LHC operation at a radius of 4 cm from the interaction region. Parts of the pixel detector will have to be replaced until 2015. The detector performance will be degraded for two reasons: radiation damage of the innermost layers and the planned increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 2-3. Based on the experience in planning, constructing and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking region.

  15. The Level 0 Pixel Trigger System for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector: implementation, testing and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector transmits 1200 Fast-OR signals every 100 ns on 120 optical readout channels. They indicate the presence of at least one hit in the pixel matrix of each readout chip. The ALICE Level 0 Pixel Trigger System extracts them, processes them and delivers an input signal to the Central Trigger Processor for the first level trigger decision within a latency of 800 ns. This paper describes tests and measurements made on the system during the qualification and commissioning phases. These included Bit Error Rate tests on the Fast-OR data path, the measurement of the overall process latency and the recording of calibration data with cosmic rays. The first results of the operation of the Pixel Trigger System with the SPD detector in the ALICE experiment are also presented.

  16. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  17. The CMS pixel detector and challenges for its upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, A

    2009-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector was installed in July 2008 in the innermost region of CMS. It consists of 66M pixels of 100um*150um size over 3 barrel layers and 2 forward disks. The pixel system has been successfully commissioned. Over 80K muon tracks were taken during the CMS cosmic runs and the detector is ready for the first physics run. The pixel detector, so close to the interaction point, will be exposed to a very high radiation dose. The estimation is that the first barrel layer, located at 4.3 cm from the beam pipe, after 3 years of LHC running at full luminosity, will become inefficient for position resolution reconstruction. For this reason, a substitution of a new pixel detector in 2014 has been already scheduled. At the same time an LHC luminosity upgrade is also planned. While a simple rebuild of the current detector could be done, the expectation is to design a new one, optimized for higher luminosity. This paper describes the present system and its performance as well as possible solutions for the upgr...

  18. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Szelezniak, Michal A.

    2008-01-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations of MAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of t...

  19. Online Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 million electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. This paper describes the tuning and calibration of the optical links and the detector modules, including measurements of threshold, noise, charge measurement, timing performance and the sensor leakage current.

  20. Calibration Analysis Software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of the Pixel detector fulfills two main purposes: to tune front-end registers for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel detector scans and analyses is called Calibration Console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new Front End-I4 Chips, required an update the Console architecture. It now handles scans and scans analyses applied toghether to chips with dierent characteristics. An overview of the newly developed Calibration Analysis Software will be presented, together with some preliminary result.

  1. Calibration Analysis Software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel detector scans and analyses is called Calibration Console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new Front End-I4 Chips, required an update the Console architecture. It now handles scans and scans analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed Calibration Analysis Software will be presented, together with some preliminary result.

  2. Calibration analysis software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel Detector scans and analyses is called calibration console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new FE-I4 chips, required an update of the console architecture. It now handles scans and scan analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed calibration analysis software will be presented, together with some preliminary results.

  3. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  4. Novel integrated CMOS pixel structures for vertex detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Matis, Howard S.; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans Georg; Wieman, Howard H.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2003-10-29

    Novel CMOS active pixel structures for vertex detector applications have been designed and tested. The overriding goal of this work is to increase the signal to noise ratio of the sensors and readout circuits. A large-area native epitaxial silicon photogate was designed with the aim of increasing the charge collected per struck pixel and to reduce charge diffusion to neighboring pixels. The photogate then transfers the charge to a low capacitance readout node to maintain a high charge to voltage conversion gain. Two techniques for noise reduction are also presented. The first is a per-pixel kT/C noise reduction circuit that produces results similar to traditional correlated double sampling (CDS). It has the advantage of requiring only one read, as compared to two for CDS, and no external storage or subtraction is needed. The technique reduced input-referred temporal noise by a factor of 2.5, to 12.8 e{sup -}. Finally, a column-level active reset technique is explored that suppresses kT/C noise during pixel reset. In tests, noise was reduced by a factor of 7.6 times, to an estimated 5.1 e{sup -} input-referred noise. The technique also dramatically reduces fixed pattern (pedestal) noise, by up to a factor of 21 in our tests. The latter feature may possibly reduce pixel-by-pixel pedestal differences to levels low enough to permit sparse data scan without per-pixel offset corrections.

  5. Overview of the BTeV Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BTeV is a new Fermilab beauty and charm experiment designed to operate in the CZero region of the Tevatron collider. Critical to the success of BTeV is its pixel detector. The unique features of this pixel detector include its proximity to the beam, its operation with a beam crossing time of 132 ns, and the need for the detector information to be read out quickly enough to be used for the lowest level trigger. This talk presents an overview of the pixel detector design, giving the motivations for the technical choices made. The status of the current RandD on detector components is also reviewed. Additional Pixel 2002 talks on the BTeV pixel detector are given by Dave Christian[1], Mayling Wong[2], and Sergio Zimmermann[3]. Table 1 gives a selection of pixel detector parameters for the ALICE, ATLAS, BTeV, and CMS experiments. Comparing the progression of this table, which I have been updating for the last several years, has shown a convergence of specifications. Nevertheless, significant differences endure. The BTeV data-driven readout, horizontal and vertical position resolution better than 9 (micro)m with the ± 300 mr forward acceptance, and positioning in vacuum and as close as 6 mm from the circulating beams remain unique. These features are driven by the physics goals of the BTeV experiment. Table 2 demonstrates that the vertex trigger performance made possible by these features is requisite for a very large fraction of the B meson decay physics which is so central to the motivation for BTeV. For most of the physics quantities of interest listed in the table, the vertex trigger is essential. The performance of the BTeV pixel detector may be summarized by looking at particular physics examples; e.g., the Bs meson decay Bs → Ds- K+. For that decay, studies using GEANT3 simulations provide quantitative measures of performance. For example, the separation between the Bs decay point and the primary proton-antiproton interaction can be measured with an rms

  6. Planar pixel detector module development for the HL-LHC ATLAS pixel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Richard L., E-mail: richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Buttar, C.; Stewart, A.; Blue, A.; Doonan, K.; Ashby, J. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Tsurin, I. [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Brown, S.; Pater, J. [The Univiersty of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    The ATLAS pixel detector for the HL-LHC requires the development of large area pixel modules that can withstand doses up to 10{sup 16} 1 MeV n{sub eq} cm{sup −2}. The area of the pixel detector system will be over 5 m{sup 2} and as such low cost, large area modules are required. The development of a quad module based on 4 FE-I4 readout integrated chips (ROIC) will be discussed. The FE-I4 ROIC is a large area chip and the yield of the flip-chip process to form an assembly is discussed for single chip assemblies. The readout of the quad module for laboratory tests will be reported.

  7. Planar pixel detector module development for the HL-LHC ATLAS pixel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard L.; Buttar, C.; Stewart, A.; Blue, A.; Doonan, K.; Ashby, J.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Tsurin, I.; Brown, S.; Pater, J.

    2013-12-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector for the HL-LHC requires the development of large area pixel modules that can withstand doses up to 1016 1 MeV neq cm-2. The area of the pixel detector system will be over 5 m2 and as such low cost, large area modules are required. The development of a quad module based on 4 FE-I4 readout integrated chips (ROIC) will be discussed. The FE-I4 ROIC is a large area chip and the yield of the flip-chip process to form an assembly is discussed for single chip assemblies. The readout of the quad module for laboratory tests will be reported.

  8. Planar pixel detector module development for the HL-LHC ATLAS pixel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS pixel detector for the HL-LHC requires the development of large area pixel modules that can withstand doses up to 1016 1 MeV neq cm−2. The area of the pixel detector system will be over 5 m2 and as such low cost, large area modules are required. The development of a quad module based on 4 FE-I4 readout integrated chips (ROIC) will be discussed. The FE-I4 ROIC is a large area chip and the yield of the flip-chip process to form an assembly is discussed for single chip assemblies. The readout of the quad module for laboratory tests will be reported

  9. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  10. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Marco, E-mail: marco.rossini@phys.ethz.ch

    2014-11-21

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  11. Leakage current measurements on pixelated CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of the R and D of a new generation hard X-ray cameras for space applications we focus on the use of pixelated CdTe or CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. They are covered with 64 (0.9x0.9 mm2) or 256 (0.5x0.5 mm2) pixels, surrounded by a guard ring and operate in the energy ranging from several keV to 1 MeV, at temperatures between -20 and +20 oC. A critical parameter in the characterisation of these detectors is the leakage current per pixel under polarisation (∼50-500 V/mm). In operation mode each pixel will be read-out by an integrated spectroscopy channel of the multi-channel IDeF-X ASIC currently developed in our lab. The design and functionality of the ASIC depends directly on the direction and value of the current. A dedicated and highly insulating electronics circuit is designed to automatically measure the current in each individual pixel, which is in the order of tens of pico-amperes. Leakage current maps of different CdZnTe detectors of 2 and 6 mm thick and at various temperatures are presented and discussed. Defect density diagnostics have been performed by calculation of the activation energy of the material

  12. 3D electronics for hybrid pixel detectors – TWEPP-09

    CERN Document Server

    Godiot, S; Chantepie, B; Clémens, J C; Fei, R; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Krueger, H; Mekkaoui, A; Pangaud, P; Rozanov, A; Wermes, N

    2009-01-01

    Future hybrid pixel detectors are asking for smaller pixels in order to improve spatial resolution and to deal with an increasing counting rate. Facing these requirements is foreseen to be done by microelectronics technology shrinking. However, this straightforward approach presents some disadvantages in term of performances and cost. New 3D technologies offer an alternative way with the advantage of technology mixing. For the upgrade of ATLAS pixel detector, a 3D conception of the read-out chip appeared as an interesting solution. Splitting the pixel functionalities into two separate levels will reduce pixel size and open the opportunity to take benefit of technology's mixing. Based on a previous prototype of the read-out chip FE-I4 (IBM 130nm), this paper presents the design of a hybrid pixel read-out chip using threedimensional Tezzaron-Chartered technology. In order to disentangle effects due to Chartered 130nm technology from effects involved by 3D architecture, a first translation of FEI4 prototype had ...

  13. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  14. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  15. KPIX a pixel detector imaging chip

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, S; Caria, M

    2002-01-01

    We present a VLSI custom device, named KPIX, developed in a 0.6 mu m CMOS technology. The circuit is dedicated to readout solid-state detectors covering large areas (on the order of square centimetre) and featuring very small currents. KPIX integrates 1024 channels (current amplifiers) and 8 ADCs on a 15.5x4 mm sup 2 area. Both an analogue and digital readout are allowed, with a 10 bit amplitude resolution. Amplifiers are organized in 8 columns of 128 rows. When choosing the digital or the analogue readout, the complete set of channels can be read out in about 30 ms. The specific design of the amplification cells allows to measure very small input current levels, on the order of fractions of pico-ampere. Power consumption has also been kept at the level of 80 mu W per cell and 150 mW (peak value) in total. The specific chip architecture and geometry allow use of many KPIX circuits together in order to serve a large detector sensitive area. The KPIX structure is presented along with some measurements character...

  16. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  17. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  18. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  19. A Novel Optical Package for ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K

    2001-01-01

    An optical package of novel design has been developed for the ATLAS pixel detector. The package contains two VCSELs and one PIN diode to transmit and receive optical signals. The design is based on a simple connector-type concept and is made of radiation-hard material. Several packages have been fabricated and show promising results.

  20. Pixelated Single-crystal Diamond Detector for fast neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystal Diamond Detectors (SDDs), due to their high radiation hardness, fast response time and small size, are good candidates as fast neutron detectors in those environments where the high neutron flux is an issue, such as spallation neutron sources and the next generation thermonuclear fusion plasmas, i.e. the ITER experiment. Neutron detection in SDDs is based on the collection of electron-hole pairs produced by charged particles generated by neutron interactions with 12C. Recent measurements have demonstrated the SDD capability of measuring the neutron flux with a good energy resolution and at high rates. In this work a novel detector based on a 12-pixels SDD matrix will be presented. Each pixel is equipped with an independent electronic chain: the fast shaping preamplifier coupled to a digitizer is able to combine the high rate capability and the good energy resolution. Two CAEN digitizers are compared and the possibility of performing good energy resolution measurements (<2%) and at high rates (>1 MHz per channel) is described. Each pixel was characterized and calibrated using an 241Am source: the energy resolution was evaluated and gives a mean value of 1.73% at 5.5 MeV. The good energy resolution achieved and its uniformity between pixels are the demonstration of the capability of this novel detector as a spectrometer. This system will be installed during the next Deuterium-Tritium campaign on a collimated vertical line of sight at JET for 14 MeV neutron measurements

  1. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and the sensor which can stand radiation levels beyond 5E15 neq/cm2. ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation and allows detector cooling with CO2 at -40C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and test ready for installation in ATLAS in 2013. The presentation summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip with new sensors, the construction ...

  2. A Sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bellazzini, R.; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Baldini, L; Brez, A.; Latronico, L; Omodei, N.; Razzano, M.; Massai, M. M.; Pinchera, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; SGRO, C.; Costa, E; P. Soffitta(a); Sipila, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of a new, sealed, Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system, make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the...

  3. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors

  4. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetta, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors.

  5. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  6. Optical Links for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, Ingrid-Maria

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird eine strahlentolerante optische Datenstrecke mit hoher Datenrate für den Einsatz in dem Hochenergiephysikexperiment Atlas am Lhc Beschleuniger entwickelt. Da die Lhc-Experimente extremen Strahlenbelastungen ausgesetzt sind, müssen die Komponenten spezielle Ansprüche hinsichtlich der Strahlentoleranz erfüllen. Die Qualifikation der einzelnen Bauteile wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit durchgeführt. Die zu erwartenden Fluenzen im Atlas Inner Detector für Silizium und Gallium Arsenid (GaAs) wurden berechnet. Siliziumbauteile werden einer Fluenz von bis zu 1.1.1015neq /cm2 in 1 MeV äquivalenten Neutronen ausgesetzt sein, wohingegen GaAs Bauteile bis zu 7.8.1015neq /cm2 ausgesetzt sein werden. Die Strahlentoleranz der einzelnen benötigten Komponenten wie z.B. der Laserdioden sowie der jeweiligen Treiberchips wurde untersucht. Sowohl die Photo- als auch die Laserdioden haben sich als strahlentolerant für die Fluenzen an dem vorgesehenen Radius erwiesen. Aus de...

  7. GaAs Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kostamo, P; Vähänen, S; Tlustos, L; Fröjdh, C; Campbell, M; Zhilyaev, Y; Lipsanen, H

    2008-01-01

    A GaAs Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector based on high purity epitaxial GaAs material was successfully fabricated. The mesa type GaAs sensor with 256×256 pixels and total area of 1.4×1.4 cm2 was made of a 140-μm-thick epitaxial p–i–n structure utilizing reactive ion etching. A final thickness of approximately 110 μm for the all-epitaxial sensor element is achieved by back-thinning procedure. The sensor element is bump bonded to a Medipix2 read-out ASIC. The detector is capable of room temperature spectroscopic operation and it demonstrates the potential of GaAs for high resolution X-ray imaging systems operating at room temperature. This work describes the manufacturing process and electrical properties of the GaAs Medipix2 hybrid detector.

  8. Compensation of radiation damages for SOI pixel detector via tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Miho; Kurachi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detectors based on SOI technology for high energy physics, X-ray applications and so on.To employ SOI pixel detector on such radiation environments, we have to solve effects of total ionization damages (TID) for transistors which are enclosed in oxide layer.The holes which are generated and trapped in the oxide layers after irradiation affect characteristics of near-by transistors due to its positive electric field.Annealing and radiation of ultraviolet are not realistic to remove trapped holes for a fabricated detector due to thermal resistance of components and difficulty of handling. We studied compensation of TID effects by tunneling using a high-voltage. For decrease of trapped holes, applied high-voltage to buried p-well which is under oxide layer to inject the electrons into the oxide layer.In this report, recent progress of this study is shown.

  9. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  10. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    Ahigh resolution(σ< 2 μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. EUDET was a coordinated detector R&D programme for the future International Linear Collider providing test beam infrastructure to detector R&D groups. The telescope consists of six sensor planes with a pixel pitch of either 18.4 μm or 10 μmand canbe operated insidea solenoidal magnetic fieldofupto1.2T.Ageneral purpose cooling, positioning, data acquisition (DAQ) and offine data analysis tools are available for the users. The excellent resolution, readout rate andDAQintegration capabilities made the telescopea primary beam tests tool also for several CERN based experiments. In this report the performance of the final telescope is presented. The plans for an even more flexible telescope with three differentpixel technologies(ATLASPixel, Mimosa,Timepix) withinthenew European detector infrastructure project AIDA are presented.

  11. Development of a counting pixel detector for 'Digitales Roentgen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a single photon counting X-ray imaging detector for medical applications using hybrid pixel detectors is reported. The electronics development from the first prototype derived from detector development for particle physics experiments (ATLAS) to the imaging chip MPEC (multi picture element counters) for medical applications is described. This chip consists of 32 x 32 pixels of 200 μm x 200 μm size, each containing the complete read out electronics, i.e. an amplifier, two discriminators with adjustable thresholds and two 18-bit linear feedback shift-counters allowing energy windowing for contrast increase. Results on electronics performance are shown as well as measurements with several semiconductor materials (Si, GaAs, CdTe). Important aspects like detection efficiency, sensor homogeneity, linearity and spatial resolution are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Validation studies of the ATLAS pixel detector control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, Joachim [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)]. E-mail: schultes@physik.uni-wuppertal.de; Becks, Karl-Heinz [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Flick, Tobias [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Henss, Tobias [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Imhaeuser, Martin [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Kersten, Susanne [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Kind, Peter [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Lantzsch, Kerstin [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Maettig, Peter [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Reeves, Kendall [University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Weingarten, Jens [University of Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector consists of 1744 identical silicon pixel modules arranged in three barrel layers providing coverage for the central region, and three disk layers on either side of the primary interaction point providing coverage of the forward regions. Once deployed into the experiment, the detector will employ optical data transfer, with the requisite powering being provided by a complex system of commercial and custom-made power supplies. However, during normal performance and production tests in the laboratory, only single modules are operated and electrical readout is used. In addition, standard laboratory power supplies are used. In contrast to these normal tests, the data discussed here were obtained from a multi-module assembly which was powered and read out using production items: the optical data path, the final design power supply system using close to final services, and the Detector Control System (DCS)

  13. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  14. Hybrid Pixel Detector Development for the Linear Collider Vertex Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marco; Campagnolo, R; Caccia, M; Kucewicz, W; Jalocha, P; Palka, J; Zalewska-Bak, A

    2001-01-01

    In order to fully exploit the physics potential of the future high energy e+e- linear collider, a Vertex Tracker able to provide particle track extrapolation with very high resolution is needed. Hybrid Si pixel sensors are an attractive technology due to their fast read-out capabilities and radiation hardness. A novel pixel detector layout with interleaved cells has been developed to improve the single point resolution. Results of the characterisation of the first processed prototypes by electrostatic measurements and charge collection studies are discussed.

  15. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  16. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  17. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczygiel, R., E-mail: robert.szczygiel@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-07-11

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm Multiplication-Sign 4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40 Multiplication-Sign 32 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  18. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.1034 cm-2s-1. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.1034 cm-2s-1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2s-1, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φeq=2.1016 cm-2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in Hamburg will be 120 MHz

  19. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ{sub eq}=2.10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip

  20. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Cantatore, E; Cencelli, V; Dinapoli, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Lamanna, P; Minervini, D; O'Shea, V; Quiquempoix, V; San Segundo-Bello, D; Van Koningsveld, B; Wyllie, Ken H

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 collaboration provided the basis to obtain radiation tolerance in commercial submicron CMOS through special circuit layout. The new ALICE1LMB chip was developed to serve two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 mu m*435 mu m pixel cells in the 256*32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32*32 array of 400 mu m*425 mu m cells. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMO...

  1. CMS Pixel Detector design for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Migliore, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 7.5$\\times$10$^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity scenario, HL-LHC, will present new challenges in higher data rates and increased radiation.In order to maintain its physics reach the CMS Collaboration has undertaken a preparation program of the detector known as Phase-2 upgrade. The CMS Phase-2 Pixel upgrade will require a high bandwidth readout system and high radiation tolerance for sensors and on-detector ASICs. Several technologies for the upgrade sensors are being studied. Serial powering schemes are under consideration to accommodate significant constraints on the system. These prospective designs, as well as new layout geometries that include very forward pixel discs, will be presented together with performance estimations.

  2. Optimisation of ROB mapping for SCT and Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S

    1999-01-01

    A simple object-oriented program has been written to simulate the SCT and Pixel detectors in order to determine the suitability of various ROB mapping schemes in the context of the Level 2 trigger. Layer and tower mappings have been investigated separately for the SCT barrel and endcap and for the Pixel barrel and endcap. Events containing one RoI were fired at each detector part and the number of ROBs hit determined. As a result, plots of ROB output data rates and ROB hit frequency as a function of ROB ID were obtained. In general it was found that layer mapping schemes might result in unacceptably high data rates and frequencies. This result would have to be confirmed with more detailed modelling. The tower mappings investigated, in general produced acceptable rates.

  3. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  4. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  5. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, A.; Pérez, A. Pérez; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Claus, G; Goffe, M.; de Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming ...

  6. Descent of the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) for ALICE Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm, respectively. It is a fundamental element for the determination of the position of the primary vertex as well as for the measurement of the impact parameter of secondary tracks originating from the weak decays of strange, charm and beauty particles.

  7. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10-4. A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  8. Pixel diamond detectors for excimer laser beam diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, M.; Allegrini, P.; Conte, G.; Salvatori, S.

    2011-05-01

    Laser beam profiling technology in the UV spectrum of light is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers and lamps applications, that span from lithography for VLSI circuits to eye surgery. The development of a beam-profiler, able to capture the excimer laser single pulse and process the acquired pixel current signals in the time period between each pulse, is mandatory for such applications. 1D and 2D array detectors have been realized on polycrystalline CVD diamond specimens. The fast diamond photoresponse, in the ns time regime, suggests the suitability of such devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics, also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark has allowed the fabrication of photoconductive vertical pixel-detectors. A semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact has been used for detector biasing. Each pixel signal has been conditioned by a multi-channel read-out electronics made up of a high-sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ A/D converter. The 500 μs conversion time has allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS (Sample Per Second).

  9. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  10. Pixel hybrid photon detector magnetic distortions characterization and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Forty, Roger W; Gys, Thierry; Patel, Mitesh; Piedigrossi, Didier; Van Lysebetten, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb experiment requires positive kaon identification in the momentum range 2-100 GeV/c. This is provided by two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are fully satisfied by the novel pixel hybrid photon detector, HPD. The HPD is a vacuum tube with a quartz window, S20 photo-cathode, cross-focusing electron optics and a silicon anode encapsulated within the tube. The anode is a 32*256 pixels hybrid detector, with a silicon sensor bump-bonded onto a readout chip containing 8192 channels with analogue front-end and digital read-out circuitry. An external magnetic field influences the trajectory of the photoelectrons and could thereby degrade the inherent excellent space resolution of the HPD. The HPDs must be operational in the fringe magnetic field of the LHCb magnet. This paper reports on an extensive experimental characterization of the distortion effects. The characterization has allowed the development of parameterisations and of a compensation algorithm. ...

  11. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution (σ∼2μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six monolithic active pixel sensor planes (Mimosa26) with a pixel pitch of 18.4 \\mu m and thinned down to 50 \\mu m. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope is being further extended in terms of cooling and powering infrastructure, read-out speed, area of acceptance, and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community a combination of various state-of-the-art pixel technologies is foreseen. Furthermore, new central dead-time-free trigger logic unit (TLU) has been developed to provide LHC-speed response with one-trigger-per-particle operating mode and a synchronous clock for all conn...

  12. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  13. Low energy polarization sensitivity of the Gas Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Muleri, F; Baldini, L; Bellazzini, R; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Costa, E; Frutti, M; Latronico, L; Minuti, M; Negri, M B; Omodei, N; Pinchera, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Razzano, M; Rubini, A; Sgro', C; Spandre, G

    2007-01-01

    An X-ray photoelectric polarimeter based on the Gas Pixel Detector has been proposed to be included in many upcoming space missions to fill the gap of about 30 years from the first (and to date only) positive measurement of polarized X-ray emission from an astrophysical source. The estimated sensitivity of the current prototype peaks at an energy of about 3 keV, but the lack of readily available polarized sources in this energy range has prevented the measurement of detector polarimetric performances. In this paper we present the measurement of the Gas Pixel Detector polarimetric sensitivity at energies of a few keV and the new, light, compact and transportable polarized source that was devised and built to this aim. Polarized photons are produced, from unpolarized radiation generated with an X-ray tube, by means of Bragg diffraction at nearly 45 degrees. The employment of mosaic graphite and flat aluminum crystals allow the production of nearly completely polarized photons at 2.6, 3.7 and 5.2 keV from the di...

  14. A Sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, R; Minuti, M; Baldini, L; Brez, A; Latronico, L; Omodei, N; Razzano, M; Massai, M M; Pinchera, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Sgro, C; Costa, E; Soffitta, P; Sipilä, H; Lempinen, E

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of a new, sealed, Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system, make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the pitch of a pixel ASIC which is the collecting anode of the GPD (105k, 50 micron wide, hexagonal cells). The device is able to simultaneously perform good imaging (50-60 micron), moderate spectroscopy (~15% at 6 keV) as well as fast, high rate timing in the 1-10keV range. Moreover, being truly 2D, it is non dispersive and does not require any rotation. The great improvement of sensitivity, at least two orders of magnitude with respect to traditional polarimeters (based on Bragg crystals or Thomson scattering), will allow ...

  15. Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Spannagel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Based on the strong performance of the LHC accelerator, it is anticipated that peak luminosities of two times the design luminosity of L = 2 x10^34 cm^-2s^-1 are likely to be reached before 2018 and probably significantly exceeded in the so-called Phase I period until 2022. At this higher luminosity and increased hit occupancies the current CMS pixel detector would be subject to severe dead time and inefficiencies introduced by limited buffers in the analog read-out chip and effects of radiat...

  16. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  17. A DEPFET pixel system for the ILC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Trimpl, M; Kohrs, R; Krüger, H; Lodomez, P; Reuen, L; Sandow, C; Toerne, E; Velthuis, J J; Wermes, N; Andricek, L; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Lutz, Gerhard; Giesen, F; Fischer, P; Peric, I

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a prototype system for the ILC vertex detector based on DEPFET pixels. The system operates a 128x64 pixel matrix and uses two dedicated microchips, the SWITCHER II chip for matrix steering and the CURO II chip for readout. The system development has been driven by the final ILC requirements which above all demand a detector thinned to 50 micron and a row wise read out with line rates of 20MHz and more. The targeted noise performance for the DEPFET technology is in the range of ENC=100e-. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated using different radioactive sources in an energy range from 6keV to 60keV. In recent test beam experiments using 6GeV electrons, a signal-to-noise ratio of S/N~120 has been achieved with present sensors being 450 micron thick. For improved DEPFET systems using 50 micron thin sensors in future, a signal-to-noise of 40 is expected.

  18. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dinardo, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R\\&D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of $2\\times10^{16}$~1MeV~eq.n.~/~cm$^2$, or equivalently 10~MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3~cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R\\&D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65~nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R\\&D effort are presented and discussed in this article.

  19. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, M. E.

    2015-04-01

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R&D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of 2×1016 1 MeV eq.n. / cm2, or equivalently 10 MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3 cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R&D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R&D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65 nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R&D effort are presented and discussed in this article.

  20. The pixel detector for the CMS phase-II upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a major pixel detector R and D effort to develop both readout chip and sensor that are capable to withstand unprecedented extremely high radiation. The target integrated luminosity of 3000 fb−1, that the HL-LHC is expected to deliver over about 10 years of operation, translates into a hadron fluence of 2×1016 1 MeV eq.n. / cm2, or equivalently 10 MGy of radiation dose in silicon, at about 3 cm from the interaction region where the first layer of the pixel detector could be located. The CMS collaboration has undertaken two baseline sensor R and D programs on thin n-on-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. Together with the ATLAS collaboration it has also been established a common R and D effort for the development of the readout chip in the 65 nm CMOS technology. Status, progresses, and prospects of the CMS R and D effort are presented and discussed in this article

  1. Tests of the gated mode for Belle II pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinker, Eduard [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer intrinsic amplification and very high signal to noise ratio. They form an integral building block for the vertex detector system of the Belle II experiment, which will start data taking in the year 2017 at the SuperKEKB Collider in Japan. A special Test board (Hybrid4) is used, which contains a small version of the DEPFET sensor with a read-out (DCD) and a steering chip (Switcher) attached, both controlled by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as the central interface to the computer. In order to keep the luminosity of the collider constant over time, the particle bunch currents have to be topped off by injecting additional bunches at a rate of 50 Hz. The particles in the daughter bunches produce a high rate of background (noisy bunches) for a short period of time, saturating the occupancy of the sensor. Operating the DEPFET sensor in a Gated Mode allows preserving the signals from collisions of normal bunches while protecting the pixels from background signals of the passing noisy bunches. An overview of the Gated Mode and first results is presented.

  2. Simulation of gas mixture drift properties for GasPixel detector for modernization of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of simulation of gas mixture drift properties for GasPixel detector are presented. The properties of gaseous mixtures for the GasPixel detector have been studied in view of its use in high luminosity tracking applications for the ATLAS Inner Detector in a future super-LHC collider

  3. A sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the results of a new, sealed Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high-gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the pitch of a pixel ASIC which is the collecting anode of the GPD (105k, 50 μm wide, hexagonal cells). The device is able to simultaneously perform good imaging (50-60 μm), moderate spectroscopy (∼15% at 6 keV) as well as fast, high-rate timing in the 1-10 keV range. Moreover, being truly 2D, it is non-dispersive and does not require any rotation. The great improvement of sensitivity, at least two orders of magnitude with respect to traditional polarimeters (based on Bragg crystals or Thomson scattering), will allow the direct exploration of the most dramatic objects of the X-ray sky. At the focus of the large mirror area of the XEUS telescope it will be decisive in reaching many of the scientific goals of the mission. With integration times of the order of 1 day, polarimetry of Active Galactic Nuclei at the percent level will be possible, making for a real breakthrough in high-energy astrophysics

  4. A sealed Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: ronaldo.bellazzini@pi.infn.it; Spandre, G.; Minuti, M.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Razzano, M.; Massai, M.M. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C. [INFN sez.Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Costa, Enrico; Soffitta, Paolo [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Sipila, H.; Lempinen, E. [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy, Nihtisillankuja 5, FI-02631 Espoo (Finland)

    2007-09-01

    We report on the results of a new, sealed Gas Pixel Detector. The very compact design and the absence of the gas flow system make this detector substantially ready for use as focal plane detector for future X-ray space telescopes. The instrument brings high sensitivity to X-ray polarimetry, which is the last unexplored field of X-ray astronomy. It derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons that are imaged by a high-gain (>1000), fine pitch GEM that matches the pitch of a pixel ASIC which is the collecting anode of the GPD (105k, 50 {mu}m wide, hexagonal cells). The device is able to simultaneously perform good imaging (50-60 {mu}m), moderate spectroscopy ({approx}15% at 6 keV) as well as fast, high-rate timing in the 1-10 keV range. Moreover, being truly 2D, it is non-dispersive and does not require any rotation. The great improvement of sensitivity, at least two orders of magnitude with respect to traditional polarimeters (based on Bragg crystals or Thomson scattering), will allow the direct exploration of the most dramatic objects of the X-ray sky. At the focus of the large mirror area of the XEUS telescope it will be decisive in reaching many of the scientific goals of the mission. With integration times of the order of 1 day, polarimetry of Active Galactic Nuclei at the percent level will be possible, making for a real breakthrough in high-energy astroph0011ysi.

  5. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  6. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile-ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed

  7. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, N. Alipour; Arfaoui, S.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Dette, K.; Hynds, D.; Kulis, S.; Perić, I.; Petrič, M.; Redford, S.; Sicking, E.; Valerio, P.

    2016-07-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor, where efficiencies of greater than 99% have been achieved at -60 V substrate bias, with a single hit resolution of 6.1 μm . Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  8. Pixel Detector Trial Assembly Test in the SR1 building

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Giugni

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months the Pixel group [LBL, Milan and Wuppertal] made a successful integration test on the mechanics of the barrel. The scope of the test was to qualify the integration procedures and the various assembling tools. The test took place in the clean room of the SR1 building at CERN, where the detector has been assembled around a dummy beam pipe made of Stainless Steel. The process is rather complex: the shells come in two parts and they have to be clamped together to get the full shell. This operation is carried out by a dedicated tool which is shown to the right in the picture below. The layer 1 shell is clamped around a "service" pipe that will be used for moving the full layer to the integration tool [ITT] which is visible on the left. View of the tools devoted to the Pixel barrel integration in the SR1 building Also visible in the picture is the global frame that is actually held by the tool. It will engage the layers sliding onto the rails. The first two layers are sequentially...

  9. A generic readout environment for prototype pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turqueti, Marcos, E-mail: turqueti@fnal.go [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk and Wilson Road, 60510-500 (United States); Rivera, Ryan; Prosser, Alan; Kwan, Simon [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk and Wilson Road, 60510-500 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Pixel detectors for experimental particle physics research have been implemented with a variety of readout formats and potentially generate massive amounts of data. Examples include the PSI46 device for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which implements an analog readout, the Fermilab FPIX2.1 device with a digital readout, and the Fermilab Vertically Integrated Pixel device. The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the various needs of these devices to support laboratory test bench as well as test beam applications. The system is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and is characterized by its flexibility, versatility and scalability by virtue of several key architectural features. These include a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and a core group of boards that provide specific processing and readout capabilities for the system. System software based on distributed computing techniques supports an expandable network of CAPTANs. In this paper, we describe the system architecture and give an overview of its capabilities.

  10. ATLAS pixel detector timing optimisation with the back of crate card of the optical pixel readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flick, T; Gerlach, P; Reeves, K; Maettig, P [Department of Physics, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    As with all detector systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the assignment of data to the correct bunch crossing, where bunch crossings will be separated in time by 25 ns, is one of the challenges for the ATLAS pixel detector. This document explains how the detector system will accomplish this by describing the general strategy, its implementation, the optimisation of the parameters, and the results obtained during a combined testbeam of all ATLAS subdetectors.

  11. Design and implementation of an expert system for the detector control systems of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of this thesis an expert system ''Pixel-Advisor'' for the control system of the pixel detector was designed and implemented. This supports the operational personnel in the diagnosis and removal of possible problems, which are in connection with the detector control system and unburdens the few available DCS experts

  12. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, A; Spiriti, E; Baudot, J; Claus, G; Goffe, M; Winter, M

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  13. Charge Sharing Effect on 600 {\\mu}m Pitch Pixelated CZT Detector for Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yongzhi; Xu, Dapeng; Chen, Ximeng

    2013-01-01

    We are currently investigating the spatial resolution of highly pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector for imaging applications. A 20 mm {\\times} 20 mm {\\times} 5 mm CZT substrate was fabricated with 600 {\\mu}m pitch pixels (500 {\\mu}m anode pixels with 100 {\\mu}m gap) and coplanar cathode. Charge sharing between two pixels was studied using collimated 122 keV gamma ray source. Experiments show a resolution of 125 {\\mu}m FWHM for double-pixel charge sharing events when the 600 {\\mu}m pixelated and 5 mm thick CZT detector biased at -1000 V. In addition, we analyzed the energy response of the 600 {\\mu}m pitch pixelated CZT detector.

  14. Characterization of M-π-n CdTe pixel detectors coupled to HEXITEC readout chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Kalliopuska, J.; Pohjonen, H.; Andersson, H.; Nenonen, S.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of the anode-side of an M-π-n CdTe diode, where the pn-junction is diffused into the detector bulk, produces large improvements in the spatial and energy resolution of CdTe pixel detectors. It has been shown that this fabrication technique produces very high inter-pixel resistance and low leakage currents are obtained by physical isolation of the pixels of M-π-n CdTe detectors. In this paper the results from M-π-n CdTe detectors stud bonded to a spectroscopic readout ASIC are reported. The CdTe pixel detectors have 250 μm pitch and an area of 5 × 5 mm2 with thicknesses of 1 and 2 mm. The polarization and energy resolution dependence of the M-π-n CdTe detectors as a function of detector thickness are discussed.

  15. Display of cosmic ray event going through the pixel detector taken on October 18th 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Shown are the XY view (of SCT and pixels and of pixels alone) and an RZ view. The track has a hit in each of the layers in both the upper and the lower hemisphere. In the bottom of L0 there are even two hits due to a module overlap. Apart from the signal hits there is only one other hit in the pixel detector demonstrating the very low noise level in the detector.

  16. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  17. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to the surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  18. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge c...

  19. Status and future of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of disks in each forward end-cap. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. Intensive calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7×1033cm−2s−1 recently surpassed at the LHC generated a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulated, the first effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors as an increase in the silicon leakage current and the change of the voltage required to fully deplete the sensor. A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014) together with the replacement of pixel services. A letter of intent was submitted for a completely new Pixel Detector after 2023, capable to take data with extremely high leveled luminosities of 5×1034cm−2s−1 at the high luminosity LHC. -- Highlights: •The ATLAS Pixel Detector provides hermetic coverage with three layers with 80 million pixels. •Calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. •First effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors. •A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014). •Replacement of pixel services in 2013–2014. •A letter of intent was submitted for new Pixel Detector after 2023 for high luminosity LHC

  20. Optical Readout in a Multi-Module System Test for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; Gerlach, P; Kersten, S; Mättig, P; Kirichu, S N; Reeves, K; Richter, J; Schultes, J; Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Kirichu, Simon Nderitu; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. In this paper the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain is described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given.

  1. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-10-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  2. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumbiehl, A. E-mail: zumbiehl@phase.c-strasbourg.fr; Hage-Ali, M.; Fougeres, P.; Koebel, J.M.; Regal, R.; Rit, C.; Ayoub, M.; Siffert, P

    2001-08-11

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: after showing our approach for the weighting potential calculation, we present our results performed by a 'pseudo-Monte Carlo' simulation. Results are supported by a few experimental comparisons. We argue about the optimum sizes with clarifying the problems caused by too small and too large pixel sizes. The study field is chosen to be vast, i.e. pixel size to detector thickness ratios (W/L) of 1/8-1, and detector thickness of 1.0-8.0 mm. In addition, several electrical transport properties are used. Since efficiency is often of primary interest, thick detectors could be very attractive, which are shown to be really feasible even on CdTe.

  3. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbiehl, A.; Hage-Ali, M.; Fougeres, P.; Koebel, J. M.; Regal, R.; Rit, C.; Ayoub, M.; Siffert, P.

    2001-08-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: after showing our approach for the weighting potential calculation, we present our results performed by a "pseudo-Monte Carlo" simulation. Results are supported by a few experimental comparisons. We argue about the optimum sizes with clarifying the problems caused by too small and too large pixel sizes. The study field is chosen to be vast, i.e. pixel size to detector thickness ratios ( W/ L) of 1/8-1, and detector thickness of 1.0-8.0 mm. In addition, several electrical transport properties are used. Since efficiency is often of primary interest, thick detectors could be very attractive, which are shown to be really feasible even on CdTe.

  4. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  5. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  6. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  7. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, M.

    2016-09-01

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO2 based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  8. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeys, W.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Cencelli, V.; Dinapoli, R.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lamanna, P.; Minervini, D.; O'Shea, V.; Quiquempoix, V.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Koningsveld, van B.; Wyllie, K.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 coll

  9. Commissioning and Operation of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the CERN LHC Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Physics program at the CERN LHC collider started in autumn 2009. Since then, LHC daily delivers collisions between its two proton beams. This talk was devoted to the commissioning and early operation of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The Pixel Detector is working nicely and all the required performances like efficiency, resolution and low noise were met. The fraction of working modules is as high as 97.4 %. The Pixel Detector fully participates in the reconstruction of charged particles trajectories, and is a key element in finding primary and secondary verticies and in tagging of short-lived particles.

  10. Modeling Inter-Pixel Crosstalk in Teledyne Imaging Sensors H4RG Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Dorland, B N; Veillette, D; Waczynski, A; Lane, B; Loose, M; Kan, E; Waterman, J; Pravdo, S

    2012-01-01

    CMOS-hybrid arrays have recently surfaced as competitive optical detectors for use in ground- and space-based astronomy. One source of error in these detectors that does not appear in more traditional CCD arrays is the inter-pixel capacitance component of crosstalk. In this paper we use a single pixel reset method to model inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). We combine this IPC model with a model for charge diffusion to estimate the total crosstalk on H4RG arrays. Finally, we compare our model results to Fe55 data obtained using an astrometric camera built to test the H4RG-B0 generation detectors.

  11. Signal and noise of diamond pixel detectors at high radiation fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, J.-W.; Havranek, M.; Hügging, F.; Kagan, H.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2012-09-01

    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors mainly because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 1015 neq cm-2, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design and performance, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the change of the mean free path λe/h of the charge carriers is determined as a function of irradiation fluence. We make use of the FE-I4 pixel chip developed for ATLAS upgrades to realistically estimate the expected noise figures: the expected leakage current at a given fluence is taken from calibrated calculations and the pixel capacitance is measured using a purposely developed chip (PixCap). We compare the resulting S/N figures with those for planar silicon pixel detectors using published charge loss measurements and the same extrapolation methods as for diamond. It is shown that the expected S/N of a diamond pixel detector with pixel pitches typical for LHC, exceeds that of planar silicon pixels at fluences beyond 1015 particles cm-2, the exact value only depending on the maximum operation voltage assumed for irradiated silicon pixel detectors.

  12. Uncooled infrared detectors toward smaller pixel pitch with newly proposed pixel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Endoh, Tsutomu; Sano, Masahiko; Kato, Koji; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Imai, Tadashi

    2013-12-01

    An uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with 23.5 μm pixel pitch has been successfully demonstrated and has found wide commercial applications in the areas of thermography, security cameras, and other applications. One of the key issues for uncooled IRFPA technology is to shrink the pixel pitch because the size of the pixel pitch determines the overall size of the FPA, which, in turn, determines the cost of the IR camera products. This paper proposes an innovative pixel structure with a diaphragm and beams placed in different levels to realize an uncooled IRFPA with smaller pixel pitch (≦17 μm). The upper level consists of a diaphragm with VOx bolometer and IR absorber layers, while the lower level consists of the two beams, which are designed to be placed on the adjacent pixels. The test devices of this pixel design with 12, 15, and 17 μm pitch have been fabricated on the Si read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) of quarter video graphics array (QVGA) (320×240) with 23.5 μm pitch. Their performances are nearly equal to those of the IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch. For example, a noise equivalent temperature difference of 12 μm pixel is 63.1 mK for F/1 optics with the thermal time constant of 14.5 ms. Then, the proposed structure is shown to be effective for the existing IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch because of the improvements in IR sensitivity. Furthermore, the advanced pixel structure that has the beams composed of two levels are demonstrated to be realizable.

  13. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  14. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  15. The simulation of charge sharing in semiconductor X-ray pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Rahman, M; Smith, K M; Watt, J; Whitehill, C

    2002-01-01

    Two simulation packages were used to model the sharing of charge, due to the scattering and diffusion of carriers, between adjacent pixel elements in semiconductors X-ray detectors. The X-ray interaction and the consequent multiple scattering was modelled with the aid of the Monte Carlo package, MCNP. The resultant deposited charge distribution was then used to create the charge cloud profile in the finite element semiconductor simulation code MEDICI. The analysis of the current pulses induced on pixel electrodes for varying photon energies was performed for a GaAs pixel detector. For a pixel pitch of 25 mu m, the charge lost to a neighbouring pixel was observed to be constant, at 0.6%, through the energies simulated. Ultimately, a fundamental limit on the pixel element size for imaging and spectroscopic devices may be set due to these key physical principles.

  16. X-CSIT: a toolkit for simulating 2D pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joy, Ashley; Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Rüter, Tonn

    2015-01-01

    A new, modular toolkit for creating simulations of 2D X-ray pixel detectors, X-CSIT (X-ray Camera SImulation Toolkit), is being developed. The toolkit uses three sequential simulations of detector processes which model photon interactions, electron charge cloud spreading with a high charge density plasma model and common electronic components used in detector readout. In addition, because of the wide variety in pixel detector design, X-CSIT has been designed as a modular platform so that existing functions can be modified or additional functionality added if the specific design of a detector demands it. X-CSIT will be used to create simulations of the detectors at the European XFEL, including three bespoke 2D detectors: the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and DePFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC). These simulations will be used by the detector group at the European XFEL for detector characterisation and calibration. For this purpose, X-CSIT has been integrat...

  17. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. - Highlights: • High efficiency phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) can be achieved using pixelated detectors followed by a ptychographic reconstruction. • Ptychographic reconstruction offers the highest PCTF across the entire spatial frequency range compared to DPC and ABF. • Image simulations show that a ptychographic reconstruction using pixelated detectors offers a superior low dose performance for imaging weak phase objects. • Optimisation of imaging conditions using pixelated detectors are discussed by considering the contrast transfer function for various cases

  18. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrere, Didier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  19. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Giordani, MarioPaolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  20. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao, E-mail: hao.yang@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Materials. Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pennycook, Timothy J.; Nellist, Peter D. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials. Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. - Highlights: • High efficiency phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) can be achieved using pixelated detectors followed by a ptychographic reconstruction. • Ptychographic reconstruction offers the highest PCTF across the entire spatial frequency range compared to DPC and ABF. • Image simulations show that a ptychographic reconstruction using pixelated detectors offers a superior low dose performance for imaging weak phase objects. • Optimisation of imaging conditions using pixelated detectors are discussed by considering the contrast transfer function for various cases.

  1. Si and CdTe pixel detector developments at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single X-ray photon counting pixel detectors have become the most advanced detector technology in synchrotron radiation experiments recently. In particular, the PILATUS detector based on a silicon sensor has reached a very mature state and represents the world's largest detector in this field. This paper first reports on threshold energy calibrations and the capability of applying an energy-resolved X-ray imaging with PILATUS. Second the design of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) pixel detector is described. A high density and high-atomic number sensor material is required in high energy X-ray applications available at SPring-8. For this purpose we are developing a CdTe pixel detector with the SP8-01 readout ASIC covering a wide dynamic range between 10 and 100 keV and containing lower and upper discriminators.

  2. Optimization of CZT Detectors with Sub-mm Pixel Pitches Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and optimize 0.5 cm thick Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors with very small pixel pitches, i.e. 350 micron and 600 micron. The proposed...

  3. 320x240 GaAs pixel detectors with improved X-ray imaging quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.; Fakoor-Biniaz, Z.; Froejdh, C.; Helander, P.; Martijn, H.; Meikle, D.; Oestlund, M.; O' Shea, V.; Smith, K

    2001-03-11

    We report on gain and offset corrections for GaAs X-ray pixel detectors, which were hybridised to silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The whole detector array contains 320x240 square-shaped pixels with a pitch of 38 {mu}m. The GaAs pixel detectors are based on semi-insulating and VPE grown substrates. The ROIC operates in the charge integration mode and provides snapshot as well as real time video images. Previously we have reported that the image quality of semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors suffer from local variations in X-ray sensitivity. We have now developed a method to compensate for the sensitivity variations by applying suitable offset and gain corrections. The improvement in image quality is demonstrated in the measured signal-to-noise ratio of flood exposure images.

  4. 320x240 GaAs pixel detectors with improved X-ray imaging quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on gain and offset corrections for GaAs X-ray pixel detectors, which were hybridised to silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). The whole detector array contains 320x240 square-shaped pixels with a pitch of 38 μm. The GaAs pixel detectors are based on semi-insulating and VPE grown substrates. The ROIC operates in the charge integration mode and provides snapshot as well as real time video images. Previously we have reported that the image quality of semi-insulating GaAs pixel detectors suffer from local variations in X-ray sensitivity. We have now developed a method to compensate for the sensitivity variations by applying suitable offset and gain corrections. The improvement in image quality is demonstrated in the measured signal-to-noise ratio of flood exposure images

  5. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  6. Accessing photon bunching with photon number resolving multi-pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A.; Tan, Si-Hui; Chekhova, Maria V.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2010-01-01

    In quantum optics and its applications, there is an urgent demand for photon-number resolving detectors. Recently, there appeared multi-pixel detectors (MPPC) that are able to distinguish between 1,2,..10 photons. At the same time, strong coupling between different pixels (cross-talk) hinders their photon-number resolution. In this work, we suggest a method for `filtering out' the cross-talk effect in the measurement of intensity correlation functions.

  7. Modular pixelated detector system with the spectroscopic capability and fast parallel read-out

    OpenAIRE

    Vavřík, D. (Daniel); Holík, M.; Jakůbek, J; Jakůbek, M.; Kraus, V.; Krejčí, F.; Soukup, P. (Pavel); Tureček, D.; Vacík, J. (Jiří); Žemlička, J.

    2014-01-01

    A modular pixelated detector system was developed for imaging applications, where spectroscopic analysis of detected particles is advantageous e.g. for energy sensitive X-ray radiography, fluorescent and high resolution neutron imaging etc. The presented system consists of an arbitrary number of independent versatile modules. Each module is equipped with pixelated edgeless detector with spectroscopic ability and has its own fast read-out electronics. Design of the modules allows assembly of v...

  8. Characterization of edgeless pixel detectors coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Tlustos, Lukas; Eränen, Simo; Virolainen, Tuula

    2011-08-01

    VTT has developed a straightforward and fast process to fabricate four-side buttable (edgeless) microstrip and pixel detectors on 6 in. (150 mm) wafers. The process relies on advanced ion implantation to activate the edges of the detector instead of using polysilicon. The article characterizes 150 μm thick n-on-n edgeless pixel detector prototypes with a dead layer at the edge below 1 μm. Electrical and radiation response characterization of 1.4×1.4 cm2 n-on-n edgeless detectors has been done by coupling them to the Medipix2 readout chips. The distance of the detector's physical edge from the pixels was either 20 or 50 μm. The leakage current of flip-chip bonded edgeless Medipix2 detector assembles were measured to be ˜90 nA/cm2 and no breakdown was observed below 110 V. Radiation response characterization includes X-ray tube and radiation source responses. The characterization results show that the detector's response at the pixels close to the physical edge of the detector depend dramatically on the pixel-to-edge distance.

  9. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Poikela, T; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; De Gaspari, M; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; van Beuzekom, M; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 µm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures.

  10. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  11. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-04-07

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 {mu}m. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  12. Radiationhard components for the control system of a future ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, K; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Püllen, L; Zeitnitz, C

    2015-01-01

    will include a new pixel detector. A completely new detector control system (DCS) for this pixel detector will be required in order to cope with the substantial increase in radiation at the HL-LHC. The DCS has to have a very high reliability and all components installed within the detector volume have to be radiationhard. This will ensure a safe operation of the pixel detector and the experiment. A further design constraint is the minimization of the used material and cables in order to limit the impact on the tracking performance to a minimum. To meet these requirements we propose a DCS network which consists of a DCS chip and a DCS controller. In the following we present the development of the first prototypes for the DCS chip and the DCS controller with a special focus on the communication interface, radiation hardness and robustness against single event upsets.

  13. Fabrication of pixelated CdTe and CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) are compound semiconductor characterized by wide semiconducting band gap and high photon stopping power due to its high atomic number and density. The mobility-life time product (μ t product) for holes in the materials is smaller than that for electrons. Hence, the effect of trapping losses is more pronounced on holes than on electrons. The trapping losses for holes limit achievable energy resolutions for planar detectors. In this study, pixelated CdTe detectors and pixelated CdZnTe detectors were fabricated and tested by 662 KeV gamma-rays of 137Cs at room temperature. Electrodes were formed on both sides of CdTe crystals and CdZnTe crystals by vacuum evaporation of gold. For purpose of comparison, a planar CdTe detector and a planar CdZnTe detector were evaluated. Since the pixelated CdTe detectors and the pixelated CdZnTe detectors operated as a single-polarity charge sensing device, the obtained energy resolutions were significantly higher than those for the planar detectors. Further improvement of energy resolutions of the detectors will be achieved by optimizing electrode structures. (M. Suetake)

  14. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 μm pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 μm pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-μm thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 μm circular holes with 170 μm pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order to investigate the general feasibility of this imaging probe and its resolving power. Measurements show the high resolution but low efficiency performance of the detector-collimator set, which is able to image the 122 keV source with <1 mm FWHM resolution

  15. Operational Performance and Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experi- ment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individu- ally read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n+-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including moni- toring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 · 1033 cm−2s−1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silico...

  16. Simulation on the Charged Particle Response of the STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaroli, Alex; Li, Xin

    2009-10-01

    The main task of the STAR experiment, located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is to study the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which is believed to have been created a few microseconds after the ``Big Bang.'' Heavy quarks are ideal tools for studying the properties of QGP. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is the central part of the STAR future heavy flavor physics program and will enable STAR to directly measure heavy flavor mesons. The core of HFT is a pixel detector (PIXEL) using CMOS Active PIXEL Sensor. This poster will describe the development of a detailed simulation of the pixel detector response to charged particles and the corresponding fast simulation that dramatically enhances the simulation speed with little sacrifice in accuracy. The full simulation randomly generates ionized electrons along an incoming track and diffuses the electrons inside the pixel array until they are collected by the electronics or recombined inside a pixel. With the same result, the fast simulation, which quickens processing time from one hour to 5 seconds, generates a grid inside a single pixel and create a map of probability distribution functions for a single ionized electron generated from a grid point. We will also discuss the study of pixel detector position resolution using a simple clustering algorithm.

  17. Results on 0.7% X0 thick pixel modules for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Netchaeva, P; Darbo, G; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Gilchriese, M G D; Oppizzi, P; Richardson, J; Rossi, L; Ruscino, E; Vernocchi, F; Znizka, G

    2001-01-01

    Modules are the basic building blocks of the ATLAS pixel detector system, they are made of a silicon sensor tile containing ~46000 pixel cells of 50 mu m*400 mu m, 16 front-end chips connected to the sensor through bump bonding, a kapton flex circuit and the module controller chip. The pixel detector is the first to encounter particles emerging from LHC interactions, minimization of radiation length of pixel modules is therefore very important. We report here on the construction techniques and on the operation of the first ATLAS pixel modules of 0.7% radiation length thickness. We have operated these modules with threshold of 3700*10+or-300*10, mean noise value of 225*10 and 0.3% dead channels. (3 refs).

  18. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  19. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The hit signals read out from pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters, to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through. The resolution of the individual pixel sizes can be improved significantly using the information from the cluster of adjacent pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years giving an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, is likely that the charge deposited by two or more close-by tracks merges into one single cluster. A new pattern recognition algorithm based on neural network methods has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. This can identify the shared clusters, split them if necessary, and estimate the positions of all particles traversing the cluster. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurements to tracks within jets, and improves the positional accuracy with respect to stand...

  20. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  1. X-ray analog pixel array detector for single synchrotron bunch time-resolved imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Koerner, Lucas J

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic x-ray studies may reach temporal resolutions limited by only the x-ray pulse duration if the detector is fast enough to segregate synchrotron pulses. An analog integrating pixel array detector with in-pixel storage and temporal resolution of around 150 ns, sufficient to isolate pulses, is presented. Analog integration minimizes count-rate limitations and in-pixel storage captures successive pulses. Fundamental tests of noise and linearity as well as high-speed laser measurements are shown. The detector resolved individual bunch trains at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) at levels of up to 3.7x10^3 x-rays/pixel/train. When applied to turn-by-turn x-ray beam characterization single-shot intensity measurements were made with a repeatability of 0.4% and horizontal oscillations of the positron cloud were detected. This device is appropriate for time-resolved Bragg spot single crystal experiments.

  2. 4.3 μm quantum cascade detector in pixel configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, A; Schwarz, B; Schuler, S; Reininger, P; Wirthmüller, A; Detz, H; MacFarland, D; Zederbauer, T; Andrews, A M; Rothermund, M; Oppermann, H; Schrenk, W; Strasser, G

    2016-07-25

    We present the design simulation and characterization of a quantum cascade detector operating at 4.3μm wavelength. Array integration and packaging processes were investigated. The device operates in the 4.3μm CO2 absorption region and consists of 64 pixels. The detector is designed fully compatible to standard processing and material growth methods for scalability to large pixel counts. The detector design is optimized for a high device resistance at elevated temperatures. A QCD simulation model was enhanced for resistance and responsivity optimization. The substrate illuminated pixels utilize a two dimensional Au diffraction grating to couple the light to the active region. A single pixel responsivity of 16mA/W at room temperature with a specific detectivity D* of 5⋅107 cmHz/W was measured. PMID:27464155

  3. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  4. Module Production and Qualification for the Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086689

    2015-01-01

    After consolidation of the LHC in 2013/14 its centre-of-mass energy will increase to 13TeV and the luminosity will reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}\\, \\textnormal{cm}^{-2} \\textnormal{s}^{-1}$, which is twice the design luminosity. The latter will result in more simultaneous particle collisions, which would significantly increase the dead time of the current readout chip of the CMS pixel detector. Therefore the entire CMS pixel detector is replaced in 2016/17 and a new digital readout with larger buffers will be used to handle increasing pixel hit rates. An additional fourth barrel-layer provides more space points to improve track reconstruction. Half of the required modules for layer four is being produced at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This poster deals with the smallest discrete subunit of the pixel detector, the module and its assembly process. Moreover first production experience will be shown.

  5. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Takubo, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair the modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using light weight staves and CO$_{2}$ based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and the IBL pr...

  6. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  7. The ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run II at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Marilyn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  8. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed as well as a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm technology and with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. The new detector is the first large scale application of of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL project will be presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the productio...

  9. X-ray characterization of a multichannel smart-pixel array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 × 48 pixels, each 130 µm × 130 µm × 520 µm thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. PMID:26698064

  10. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  11. X-ray Characterization of a Multichannel Smart-Pixel Array Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A.; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 x 48 pixels, each 130 mu m x 130 mu m x 520 mu m thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements.

  12. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Pixel Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as ...

  13. A study on the shielding mechanisms of SOI pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yunpeng; Wu, Zhigang; Ouyang, Qun; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In order to tackle the charge injection issue that had perplexed the counting type SOI pixel for years, two successive chips CPIXTEG3 and CPIXTEG3b were developed utilizing two shielding mechanisms, Nested-well and Double-SOI, in the LAPIS process. A TCAD simulation showed the shielding effectiveness influenced by the high sheet resistance of shielding layers. Test structures specially designed to measure the crosstalk associated to charge injection were implemented in CPIXTEG3/3b. Measurement results proved that using shielding layer is indispensable for counting type pixel and Double-SOI is superior to Nested-well in terms of shielding effectiveness and design flexibility.

  14. Design of analog-to-digital converters for energy sensitive hybrid pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, David; Nauta, Bram; Visschers, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An important feature of hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors is the fact that detector and readout electronics are manufactured separately, allowing the use of industrial state-of-the-art CMOS processes to manufacture the readout electronics. As the feature size of these processes decreases, faster

  15. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  16. Pixel array detector for X-ray free electron laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hromalik, Marianne [Electrical and Computer Engineering, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Tate, Mark; Koerner, Lucas [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wilson Laboratory, Cornell University, CHESS, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) promise to revolutionize X-ray science with extremely high peak brilliances and femtosecond X-ray pulses. This will require novel detectors to fully realize the potential of these new sources. There are many current detector development projects aimed at the many challenges of meeting the XFEL requirements . This paper describes a pixel array detector (PAD) that has been developed for the Coherent X-ray Imaging experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Laboratory . The detector features 14-bit in-pixel digitization; a 2-level in-pixel gain setting that can be used to make an arbitrary 2-D gain pattern that is adaptable to a particular experiment; the ability to handle instantaneous X-ray flux rates of 10{sup 17} photons per second; and continuous frames rates in excess of 120 Hz. The detector uses direct detection of X-rays in a silicon diode. The charge produced by the diode is integrated in a pixilated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which digitizes collected holes with single X-ray photon capability. Each ASIC is 194x185 pixels, each pixel is 110{mu}mx110{mu}m on a side. Each pixel can detect up to 2500 X-rays per frame in low-gain mode, yet easily detects single photons at high-gain. Cooled, single-chip detectors have been built and meet all the required specifications. SLAC National Laboratory is engaged in constructing a tiled, multi-chip 1516x1516 pixel detector.

  17. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm2 area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm3. The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(G...

  18. The Layer 1 / Layer 2 readout upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mullier, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of instantaneous luminosity foreseen during the LHC Run 2, will lead to an increased detector occupancy that is expected to saturate the readout links of the outermost layers of the pixel detector: Layers 1 and 2. To ensure a smooth data taking under such conditions, the read out system of the recently installed fourth innermost pixel layer, the Insertable B-Layer, was modified to accomodate the needs of the older detector. The Layer 2 upgrade installation took place during the 2015 winter shutdown, with the Layer 1 installation scheduled for 2016. A report of the successful installation, together with the design of novel dedicated optical to electrical converters and the software and firmware updates will be presented.

  19. The pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb-RICH project

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout to be used in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The paper starts with the general specification of the baseline option. Followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. It concludes with a description of the remaining work towards the final photon detector. (17 refs).

  20. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Zumbiehl, A; Fougeres, P; Koebel, J M; Regal, R; Rit, C; Ayoub, M; Siffert, P

    2001-01-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: af...

  1. Design, production and first operation of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Cavicchioli, C; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, M; Librizzi, F; Manzari, V; Marangio, G; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjol, H; Viesti, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE experiment. The SPD is the detector closest to the interaction point, mounted around the beam pipe with the two layers at r=3.9 cm and 7.6 cm distance from beam axis. In order to reduce multiple scattering the material budget per layer in the active region has been limited to ≈1% X0. The SPD consists of 120 hybrid silicon pixel detectors modules with a total of ~107 cells. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The readout electronics, located in the control room, is housed in 20 VME boards; it is the interface to the ALICE trigger, data acquisition, control system and detector electronics. In this contribution the SPD detector components design and production are reviewed. First operation results are reported.

  2. DEPFET Active Pixel Detectors for a Future Linear e(+}e({-)) Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, O.; Casanova, R.; Dieguez, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Kleinohl, T.; Koch, M.; Kruger, H.; Lemarenko, M.; Lutticke, F.; Marinas, C.; Schnell, M.; Wermes, N.; Campbell, A.; Ferber, T.; Kleinwort, C.; Niebuhr, C.; Soloviev, Y.; Steder, M.; Volkenborn, R.; Yaschenko, S.; Fischer, P.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Knopf, J.; Ritzert, M.; Curras, E.; Lopez-Virto, A.; Moya, D.; Vila, I.; Boronat, M.; Esperante, D.; Fuster, J.; Garcia, I. Garcia; Lacasta, C.; Oyanguren, A.; Ruiz, P.; Timon, G.; Vos, M.; Gessler, T.; Kuhn, W.; Lange, S.; Munchow, D.; Spruck, B.; Frey, A.; Geisler, C.; Schwenker, B.; Wilk, F.; Barvich, T.; Heck, M.; Heindl, S.; Lutz, O.; Muller, Th.; Pulvermacher, C.; Simonis, H. J.; Weiler, T.; Krausser, T.; Lipsky, O.; Rummel, S.; Schieck, J.; Schluter, T.; Ackermann, K.; Andricek, L.; Chekelian, V.; Chobanova, V.; Dalseno, J.; Kiesling, C.; Koffmane, C.; Gioi, L. Li; Moll, A.; Moser, H. G.; Muller, F.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ninkovic, J.; Petrovics, S.; Prothmann, K.; Richter, R.; Ritter, A.; Ritter, M.; Simon, F.; Vanhoefer, P.; Wassatsch, A.; Dolezal, Z.; Drasal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Kvasnicka, P.; Scheirich, J.

    2013-04-01

    The DEPFET collaboration develops highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detectors for high-performance vertex reconstruction at future collider experiments. The characterization of detector prototypes has proven that the key principle, the integration of a first amplification stage in a detector-grade sensor material, can provide a comfortable signal to noise ratio of over 40 for a sensor thickness of 50-75 $\\mathrm{\\mathbf{\\mu m}}$. ASICs have been designed and produced to operate a DEPFET pixel detector with the required read-out speed. A complete detector concept is being developed, including solutions for mechanical support, cooling and services. In this paper the status of DEPFET R & D project is reviewed in the light of the requirements of the vertex detector at a future linear $\\mathbf{e^+ e^-}$ collider.

  3. Calibration of the CMS Pixel Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that reconstruct the products of high energy particle interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It determines the trajectories of charged particles originating from the interaction region in three points with high resolution enabling precise momentum and impact parameter measurements in the tracker. The pixel detector is exposed to intense ionizing radiation generated by particle collisions in the LHC. This irradiation could result in temporary or permanent malfunctions of the sensors and could decrease the efficiency of the detector. We have developed procedures in order to correct for these effects. In this paper, we present the types of malfunctions and the offline calibration procedures. We will also show the efficiency and the resolution of the detector in 2012.

  4. DEPFET active pixel detectors for a future linear e+e− collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, M

    2010-01-01

    The DEPFET collaboration develops highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detectors for high-performance vertex reconstruction at future collider experiments. The characterization of detector prototypes has proven that the key principle, the integration of a first amplification stage in a detector-grade sensor material, can provide a comfortable signal to noise ratio of over 40 for a sensor thickness of 50-75 µm. ASICs have been designed and produced to operate a DEPFET pixel detector with the required read-out speed. A complete detector concept is being developed, including solutions for mechanical support, cooling and services. In this paper the status of DEPFET R & D project is reviewed in the light of the requirements of the vertex detector at a future linear e^+e^− collider.

  5. DEPFET active pixel detectors for a future linear $e^+e^-$ collider

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, O; Dieguez, A; Dingfelder, J; Hemperek, T; Kishishita, T; Kleinohl, T; Koch, M; Krueger, H; Lemarenko, M; Luetticke, F; Marinas, C; Schnell, M; Wermes, N; Campbell, A; Ferber, T; Kleinwort, C; Niebuhr, C; Soloviev, Y; Steder, M; Volkenborn, R; Yaschenko, S; Fischer, P; Kreidl, C; Peric, I; Knopf, J; Ritzert, M; Curras, E; Lopez-Virto, A; Moya, D; Vila, I; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Fuster, J; Garcia Garcia, I; Lacasta, C; Oyanguren, A; Ruiz, P; Timon, G; Vos, M; Gessler, T; Kuehn, W; Lange, S; Muenchow, D; Spruck, B; Frey, A; Geisler, C; Schwenker, B; Wilk, F; Barvich, T; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Lutz, O; Mueller, Th; Pulvermacher, C; Simonis, H.J; Weiler, T; Krausser, T; Lipsky, O; Rummel, S; Schieck, J; Schlueter, T; Ackermann, K; Andricek, L; Chekelian, V; Chobanova, V; Dalseno, J; Kiesling, C; Koffmane, C; Gioi, L.Li; Moll, A; Moser, H.G; Mueller, F; Nedelkovska, E; Ninkovic, J; Petrovics, S; Prothmann, K; Richter, R; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Simon, F; Vanhoefer, P; Wassatsch, A; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Kodys, P; Kvasnicka, P; Scheirich, J

    2013-01-01

    The DEPFET collaboration develops highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detectors for high-performance vertex reconstruction at future collider experiments. The characterization of detector prototypes has proven that the key principle, the integration of a first amplification stage in a detector-grade sensor material, can provide a comfortable signal to noise ratio of over 40 for a sensor thickness of 50-75 $\\mathrm{\\mathbf{\\mu m}}$. ASICs have been designed and produced to operate a DEPFET pixel detector with the required read-out speed. A complete detector concept is being developed, including solutions for mechanical support, cooling and services. In this paper the status of DEPFET R & D project is reviewed in the light of the requirements of the vertex detector at a future linear $\\mathbf{e^+ e^-}$ collider.

  6. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects

  7. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Takubo, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detect or and of the IBL project as...

  8. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Mark W; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert M; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (EMPAD - electron microscope pixel array detector) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128 x 128 pixel detector consists of a 500 um thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as loc...

  9. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . Taking advantage of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) during 2014/2015, the Pixel Detector was brought to surface to equip it with new service panels and to repair modules. The Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel sensors, was installed in-between the existing Pixel Detector and a new beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) were used and a new readout chip has been designed with CMOS 130 nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical performance. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL project is presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the production, integration, installation and commissioning phases of the detector. Early performance tests using cosmic and beam data are also presented

  10. A study on the shielding mechanisms of SOI pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yunpeng; Liu, Yi; Wu, Zhigang; Ouyang, Qun; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In order to tackle the charge injection issue that had perplexed the counting type SOI pixel for years, two successive chips CPIXTEG3 and CPIXTEG3b were developed utilizing two shielding mechanisms, Nested-well and Double-SOI, in the LAPIS process. A TCAD simulation showed the shielding effectiveness influenced by the high sheet resistance of shielding layers. Test structures specially designed to measure the crosstalk associated to charge injection were implemented in CPIXTEG3/3b. Measuremen...

  11. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    A high-speed pixel array detector for time-resolved X-ray imaging at synchrotrons has been developed. The ability to isolate single synchrotron bunches makes it ideal for time-resolved dynamical studies. A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8–12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10–100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  12. Track parameter resolution study of a pixel only detector for LHC geometry and future high rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blago, Michele Piero; Schoening, Andre [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Recent progress in pixel detector technology in general and in the HV-MAPS technology in particular make it feasible to construct an all-silicon pixel detector for large scale particle experiments like ATLAS or CMS. Previous studies have indicated that six to nine layers of pixel sensors, in comparison to the 14 detector layers planned for Inner Tracker ATLAS upgrade, are sufficient to reliably reconstruct particle trajectories. The performance of an all-pixel detector and the minimum number of required pixel layers is studied based on a full GEANT simulation for high luminosity conditions at the upgraded LHC. Furthermore, the ability of an all-pixel detector to form trigger decisions using a special triplet pixel layer design is studied. Such a design could be used to reconstruct all tracks originating from the proton-proton interaction at the first hardware level at 40 MHz collision frequency.

  13. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for LHC Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, Heinz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as we...

  14. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, Malte; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This includes the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanic...

  15. A new generation of small pixel pitch/SWaP cooled infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuno, L.; Pacaud, O.; Reibel, Y.; Rubaldo, L.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Dariel, A.; Roumegoux, J.; Brunner, A.; Kessler, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.

    2015-10-01

    Following clear technological trends, the cooled IR detectors market is now in demand for smaller, more efficient and higher performance products. This demand pushes products developments towards constant innovations on detectors, read-out circuits, proximity electronics boards, and coolers. Sofradir was first to show a 10μm focal plane array (FPA) at DSS 2012, and announced the DAPHNIS 10μm product line back in 2014. This pixel pitch is a key enabler for infrared detectors with increased resolution. Sofradir recently achieved outstanding products demonstrations at this pixel pitch, which clearly demonstrate the benefits of adopting 10μm pixel pitch focal plane array-based detectors. Both HD and XGA Daphnis 10μm products also benefit from a global video datapath efficiency improvement by transitioning to digital video interfaces. Moreover, innovative smart pixels functionalities drastically increase product versatility. In addition to this strong push towards a higher pixels density, Sofradir acknowledges the need for smaller and lower power cooled infrared detector. Together with straightforward system interfaces and better overall performances, latest technological advances on SWAP-C (Size, Weight, Power and Cost) Sofradir products enable the advent of a new generation of high performance portable and agile systems (handheld thermal imagers, unmanned aerial vehicles, light gimbals etc...). This paper focuses on those features and performances that can make an actual difference in the field.

  16. NIRSpec detectors: noise properties and the effect of signal dependent inter-pixel crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Giovanna; Sirianni, Marco; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Lindler, Don; Boeker, Torsten; Ferruit, Pierre; De Marchi, Guido; Stuhlinger, Martin; Jensen, Peter; Strada, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    NIRSpec (Near Infrared Spectrograph) is one of the four science instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and its focal plane consists of two HAWAII-2RG sensors operating in the wavelength range 0.6-5.0μm. As part of characterizing NIRSpec, we studied the noise properties of these detectors under dark and illuminated conditions. Under dark conditions, and as already known, 1/f noise in the detector system produces somewhat more noise than can be accounted for by a simple model that includes white read noise and shot noise on integrated charge. More surprisingly, at high flux, we observe significantly lower total noise levels than expected. We show this effect to be due to pixel-to-pixel correlations introduced by signal dependent inter-pixel crosstalk, with an inter-pixel coupling factor, α, that ranges from ~ 0.01 for zero signal to ~ 0.03 close to saturation.

  17. Development of DC-DC converters for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Around 2017, the pixel detector of the CMS experiment at LHC will be upgraded. The amount of current that has to be provided to the front-end electronics is expected to increase by a factor of two. Since the space available for cables is limited, this would imply unacceptable power losses in the available supply cables. Therefore it is foreseen to place DC-DC converters close to the front-end electronics, allowing to provide the power at higher voltages and thereby to facilitate the supply of the required currents with the present cable plant. The talk introduces the foreseen powering scheme of the pixel upgrade and summarizes the results of system test measurements with CMS pixel sensor modules, radiation tolerant DC-DC converters and the full power supply chain of the pixel detector. In addition, measurements of the converter efficiency and performance before, after and during thermal cycling are presented.

  18. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  19. The barrel sector assembly system of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antinori, F; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Fioretto, E; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector is the inner part of the ITS tracking system of the ALICE experiment at LHC. The 240 silicon modules, hosting almost 10 million pixel cells with dimension 50 . 425 mu m /sup 2/, have to be assembled on a carbon fiber support with micrometric precision. To reach this result, a dedicated high- precision computer-controlled tooling system has been developed at the INFN Padova. The assembly system and the mounting procedures are presented. (10 refs).

  20. Studies for the detector control system of the ATLAS pixel at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC upgrade to the HL-LHC the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced completely. As part of this redesign there will also be a new pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a control system which meets the strict space requirements for electronics in the ATLAS experiment. To accomplish this goal we propose a DCS (Detector Control System) network with the smallest form factor currently available. This network consists of a DCS chip located in close proximity to the interaction point and a DCS controller located in the outer regions of the ATLAS detector. These two types of chips form a star shaped network with several DCS chips being controlled by one DCS controller. Both chips are manufactured in deep sub-micron technology. We present prototypes with emphasis on studies concerning single event upsets.

  1. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes

  2. \\title{Low-Cost Bump-Bonding Processes for High Energy Physics Pixel Detectors}

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2015-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area at reasonable costs are required. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of the production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin ($15\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to $30\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$ without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bu...

  3. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, M.; Blank, T.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Husemann, U.; Kudella, S.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The short setup time for the bumping process makes gold-stud bump-bonding highly attractive (and affordable) for the flip-chipping of single prototype ICs, which is the main limitation of the current photolithography processes.

  4. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 (14C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon detector with 256 x 256 pixels of 55 μm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) x 10-3 cps mm-2 kBq-1 g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) x 10-5 cps mm-2, and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 μm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for 14C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  5. Novel module production methods for the CMS pixel detector, upgrade phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, T.; Caselle, M.; Weber, M.; Kudella, S.; Colombo, F.; Hansen, K.; Arab, S.

    2015-02-01

    For the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), phase I, the CMS pixel detector needs to be replaced. In order to improve the tracking resolution even at high luminosity the pixel detector is upgraded by a fourth barrel layer. This paper describes the production process and results for the fourth barrel layer for the CMS silicon pixel detector, upgrade phase I. The additional barrel layer will be produced by KIT and DESY. Both research centers have commonly developed and investigated new production processes, including SAC solder bump jetting, gold stud bumping and "Precoat by Powder Processes" (PPS) to bump the sensor tiles and prepare them for the flip-chip process. First bare modules have been produced with the new digital ROC.

  6. Performance of the Insertable B-Layer for the ATLAS Pixel Detector during Quality Assurance and a Novel Pixel Detector Readout Concept based on PCIe

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356268; Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-07-27

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC the Pixel detector has been upgraded with a new 4th innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL will increase the tracking performance and help with higher than nominal luminosity the LHC will produce. The IBL is made up of 14 staves and in total 20 staves have been produced for the IBL. This thesis presents the results of the final quality tests performed on these staves in an detector-like environment, in order to select the 14 best of the 20 staves for integration onto the detector. The test setup as well as the testing procedure is introduced and typical results of each testing stage are shown and discussed. The overall performance of all staves is presented in regards to: tuning performance, radioactive source measurements, and number of failing pixels. Other measurement, which did not directly impact the selection of staves, but will be important for the operation of the detector or production of a future detector, are included. Based on the experienc...

  7. Recent progress in the development of a B-factory monolithic active pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, S. [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia)]. E-mail: samo.stanic@p-ng.si; Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Barbero, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Bozek, A. [H. Niewoniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Browder, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Hazumi, M. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kennedy, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Kent, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Olsen, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Palka, H. [H. Niewoniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Rosen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Ruckman, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Trabelsi, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Tsuboyama, T. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Uchida, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Varner, G.; Yang, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States)

    2006-11-30

    Due to the need for precise vertexing at future higher luminosity B-factories with the expectedly increasing track densities and radiation exposures, upgrade of present silicon strip detectors with thin, radiation resistant pixel detectors is highly desired. Considerable progress in the technological development of thin CMOS based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in the last years makes them a realistic upgrade option and the feasibility studies of their application in Belle are actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their read-out speed. To address them, several prototypes denoted as Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25{mu}m process with a 5-deep sample pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors will be used to assess the performance of a full scale pixel read-out system running at realistic read-out speed. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented.

  8. Recent progress in the development of a B-factory monolithic active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, S.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Varner, G.; Yang, Q.

    2006-11-01

    Due to the need for precise vertexing at future higher luminosity B-factories with the expectedly increasing track densities and radiation exposures, upgrade of present silicon strip detectors with thin, radiation resistant pixel detectors is highly desired. Considerable progress in the technological development of thin CMOS based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in the last years makes them a realistic upgrade option and the feasibility studies of their application in Belle are actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their read-out speed. To address them, several prototypes denoted as Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25 μm process with a 5-deep sample pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors will be used to assess the performance of a full scale pixel read-out system running at realistic read-out speed. The results and plans for the next stages of R&D towards a full Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented.

  9. Status and Plan for The Upgrade of The CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Rong-Shyang

    2014-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system and plays a crucial role in the all-silicon CMS tracker. While the current pixel tracker is designed for and performing well at an instantaneous luminosity of up to $\\rm 1\\times 10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, it can no longer be operated efficiently at significantly higher values. Based on the strong performance of the LHC accelerator, it is anticipated that peak luminosities of two times the design luminosity are likely to be reached before 2018 and perhaps significantly exceeded in the running period until 2022, referred to as LHC Run 3. Therefore, an upgraded pixel detector, referred to as the phase 1 upgrade, is planned for the year-end technical stop in 2016. With a new pixel readout chip (ROC), an additional fourth layer, two additional endcap disks, and a significantly reduced material budget the upgraded pixel detector will be able to sustain the efficiency of the pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high lumin...

  10. Accumulated-carrier screening effect based investigation for pixellated CdZnTe radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the pixellated CdZnTe detector,the radiation imaging experiment for the Rh target X-ray source was accomplished. The experimental results indicate that the response signals of the anode pixels, which distribute over the center irradiated area,are completely shut-off when the tube Jantage is 45 kV and the tube current increases to 20 μA. Moreover, the non-response pixel area expands with the increase of the tube current, and the total event count of the CdZnTe detector reduces obviously. Furthermore, the inner electric potential and electric field distributions of the pixellated CdZnTe detector were simulated based on the Poisson equation. The simulation results reveal that the accumulation of the hole carriers, which results from the extremely low drift ability of the hole carrier, leads to a relatively high space-charge-density area in the CdZnTe bulk when the irradiated photon flux increases to 5 x 105 mm-2·s-1. And thus, the induced signal screen effect of the anode pixels in the center irradiated area is mainly attributed to the distorted electric field which makes electron carriers drift toward the high potential area in the CdZnTe crystal instead of the pixel anodes. (authors)

  11. Performance and applications of a high rate imaging pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, N. A.; Besch, H. J.; Menk, R.; Sarvestani, A.; Sauer, N.; Stiehler, R.; Walenta, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    In the past years a large variety of gas filled micro pattern detectors have been developed for applications in high energy physics as well as for X-ray imaging in synchrotron light experiments. Here, we present the most recent developments on the MicroCAT detector with resistive position encodeing readout, which has been demonstrated to meet even the strong requirements in high resolution protein crystallography and time resolved small angle scattering at synchrotron light sources of the third generation. Recent test measurements with the prototype under the working conditions of a synchrotron light source as well as high time resolved measurements in the laboratory are presented.

  12. Performance and applications of a high rate imaging pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, N.A. E-mail: pavel@alwa02.physik.uni-siegen.de; Besch, H.J.; Menk, R.; Sarvestani, A.; Sauer, N.; Stiehler, R.; Walenta, A.H

    2002-01-21

    In the past years a large variety of gas filled micro pattern detectors have been developed for applications in high energy physics as well as for X-ray imaging in synchrotron light experiments. Here, we present the most recent developments on the MicroCAT detector with resistive position encodeing readout, which has been demonstrated to meet even the strong requirements in high resolution protein crystallography and time resolved small angle scattering at synchrotron light sources of the third generation. Recent test measurements with the prototype under the working conditions of a synchrotron light source as well as high time resolved measurements in the laboratory are presented.

  13. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for the Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO$_2$ based cooling system have been adopted. The IBL construction and installation in the ATLAS Experiment has been completed very successfu...

  14. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  15. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Oide, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  16. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb−1 of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation

  17. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mullier, Geoffrey Andre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. A new readout chip has been developed within CMOS 130nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical performan...

  18. Geneva University: Pixel Detectors – trends and options for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Geneva University

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Wednesday 25 April 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30 Pixel Detectors – trends and options for the future Prof. Norbert Wermes - University of Bonn  Pixel detectors have been invented in the early 90s with the advancement of micro technologies. With the advent of the LHC, big vertex detectors have demonstrated that the pixel detector type is holding many of the promises it had made before. Meanwhile new, different or just improved variants of the pixel technology are being studied for their suitability for future experiments or experiment upgrades. The talk will address the various pro's and con's comparing hybrid and monolithic pixel technologies and their su...

  19. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Oide, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is the fourth layer of the Run 2 Pixel Detector, and it was installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and the new smaller-radius beam pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project...

  20. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, I.

    2015-10-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb{sup −1} of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation.

  1. The ONSEN Data Reduction System for the Belle II Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Geßler, Thomas; Lange, Jens Sören; Liu, Zhen'An; Münchow, David; Spruck, Björn; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2015-01-01

    We present an FPGA-based online data reduction system for the pixel detector of the future Belle II experiment. The occupancy of the pixel detector is estimated at 3 %. This corresponds to a data output rate of more than 20 GB/s after zero suppression, dominated by background. The Online Selection Nodes (ONSEN) system aims at reducing the background data by a factor of 30. It consists of 33 MicroTCA cards, each equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA and 4 GiB DDR2 RAM. These cards are hosted by 9 AdvancedTCA carrier boards. The ONSEN system buffers the entire output data from the pixel detector for up to 5 seconds. During this time, the Belle II high-level trigger PC farm performs an online event reconstruction, using data from the other Belle II subdetectors. It extrapolates reconstructed tracks to the layers of the pixel detector and defines regions of interest around the intercepts. Based on this information, the ONSEN system discards all pixels not inside a region of interest before sending the remaining hi...

  2. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: ~96 % of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit ...

  3. Compressive spectral polarization imaging by a pixelized polarizer and colored patterned detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chen; Arguello, Henry; Sadler, Brian M; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-11-01

    A compressive spectral and polarization imager based on a pixelized polarizer and colored patterned detector is presented. The proposed imager captures several dispersed compressive projections with spectral and polarization coding. Stokes parameter images at several wavelengths are reconstructed directly from 2D projections. Employing a pixelized polarizer and colored patterned detector enables compressive sensing over spatial, spectral, and polarization domains, reducing the total number of measurements. Compressive sensing codes are specially designed to enhance the peak signal-to-noise ratio in the reconstructed images. Experiments validate the architecture and reconstruction algorithms.

  4. Effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of CdZnTe pixel detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.;

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of high-resistivity CdZnTe (CZT) pixel detectors with Pt contacts. We emphasize the difference in mechanisms of the bulk and surface conductivity as indicated by their different temperature behaviors. In addition......-collection efficiency in detectors with multicontact geometry; some fraction of the electric field lines that originated on the cathode intersects the surface areas between the pixel contacts where the charge produced by an ionizing particle gets trapped. To overcome this effect, we place a grid of thin electrodes...

  5. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  6. Gamma spectroscopic measurements using the PID350 pixelated CdTe radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Karafasoulis, K; Seferlis, S; Papadakis, I; Loukas, D; Lambropoulos, C; Potiriadis, C

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements are presented using the PID350 pixelated gamma radiation detectors. A high-speed data acquisition system has been developed in order to reduce the data loss during the data reading in case of a high flux of photons. A data analysis framework has been developed in order to improve the resolution of the acquired energy spectra, using specific calibration parameters for each PID350's pixel. Three PID350 detectors have been used to construct a stacked prototype system and spectroscopic measurements have been performed in order to test the ability of the prototype to localize radioactive sources.

  7. Simulation of active-edge pixelated CdTe radiation detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, DD; Lipp, JD; Schneider, A.; Seller, P; Veale, MC; Wilson, MD; Baker, MA; Sellin, PJ

    2016-01-01

    The edge surfaces of single crystal CdTe play an important role in the electronic properties and performance of this material as an X-ray and γ-ray radiation detector. Edge effects have previously been reported to reduce the spectroscopic performance of the edge pixels in pixelated CdTe radiation detectors without guard bands. A novel Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) model based on experimental data has been developed to investigate these effects. The results presented in this paper sh...

  8. A history of hybrid pixel detectors, from high energy physics to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of hybrid pixel detectors from the origin to the application on medical imaging. We are going to recall the need for fast 2D detectors in the high energy physics experiments and to follow the different pixel electronic circuits created to satisfy this demand. The adaptation of these circuits for X-rays will be presented as well as their industrialization. Today, a number of applications are open for these cameras, particularly for biomedical imaging applications. Some developments for clinical CT will also be shown.

  9. Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ballabriga, R; Wong, W; Heijne, E; Campbell, M; Llopart, X

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is a 256 x 256 channel hybrid pixel detector readout chip working in a single photon counting mode with a new inter-pixel architecture, which aims to improve the energy resolution in pixelated detectors by mitigating the effects of charge sharing between channels. Charges are summed in all 2 x 2 pixel clusters on the chip and a given hit is allocated locally to the pixel summing circuit with the biggest total charge on an event-by-event basis. Each pixel contains also two 12-bit binary counters with programmable depth and overflow control. The chip is configurable such that either the dimensions of each detector pixel match those of one readout pixel or detector pixels are four times greater in area than the readout pixels. In the latter case, event-by-event summing is still possible between the larger pixels. Each pixel has around 1600 transistors and the analog static power consumption is below 15 mu W in the charge summing mode and 9 mu W in the single pixel mode. The chip has been built in an 8-m...

  10. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J; Cavallaro, E; Förster, F; Grinstein, S; Paz, I López; Manna, M; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Terzo, S; Furelos, D Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  11. Development of Micromegas-like gaseous detectors using a pixel readout chip as collecting anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports on the fabrication and test of a new gaseous detector with a very large number of readout channels. This detector is intended for measuring the tracks of charged particles with an unprecedented sensitivity to single electrons of almost 100 %. It combines a metal grid for signal amplification called the Micromegas with a pixel readout chip as signal collecting anode and is dubbed GridPix. GridPix is a potential candidate for a sub-detector at a future electron linear collider (ILC) foreseen to work in parallel with the LHC around 2020--2030. The tracking capability of GridPix is best exploited if the Micromegas is integrated on the pixel chip. This integrated grid is called InGrid and is precisely fabricated by wafer post-processing. The various steps of the fabrication process and the measurements of its gain, energy resolution and ion back-flow property are reported in this document. Studies of the response of the complete detector formed by an InGrid and a TimePix pixel chip to X-rays and cosmic particles are also presented. In particular, the efficiency for detecting single electrons and the point resolution in the pixel plane are measured. Implications for a GridPix detector at ILC are discussed. (author)

  12. Design Optimization of Pixel Structure for α-Si based Uncooled Infrared Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors present the design and simulation results achieved for pixel structure of amorphous Si (α-Si based bolometer array. Most uncooled IR detectors in the world are based on VOx material. But this is not a standard material in IC technology and has many inherent disadvantages. The α-Si, an alternative material with high TCR is becoming as popular. However, large TCR values, in this material are achieved only in films of high resistivity. To achieve TCR value more than 2.5%/K, α-Si film resistivity is ~ 80 ohms-cm. This gives rise to very large pixel resistance of the order of 100 Mega ohms depending upon the design of the leg structure. This high pixel resistance causes very large noise and hence lower sensitivity. If leg width or membrane thickness is increased in order to reduce the pixel resistance, then this results in higher thermal conductance which also decreases sensitivity. To overcome this problem, pixel structure is so designed that within a pixel, only part of the electrical conduction is through α-Si and rest is through metal. Simulation using Coventorware software has been done to optimize pixel resistance as well as thermal conductance through legs so that maximum sensitivity could be obtained. Optimization is also carried out in order to reduce sensitivity of pixel resistance to variation in material resistivity.

  13. Pixel detectors for use in retina neurophysiology studies

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, W; Chichilnisky, E J; Horn, M; Litke, A M; Mathieson, K; McEwan, F A; Melone, J; O'Shea, V; Rahman, M; Smith, K M

    2003-01-01

    One area of major inter-disciplinary co-operation is between the particle physics and bio-medical communities. The type of large detector arrays and fast electronics developed in laboratories like CERN are becoming used for a wide range of medical and biological experiments. In the present work fabrication technology developed for producing semiconductor radiation detectors has been applied to produce arrays which have been used in neuro-physiological experiments on retinal tissue. We have exploited UVIII, a low molecular weight resist, that has permitted large area electron beam lithography. This allows the resolution to go below that of conventional photolithography and hence the production of densely packed similar to 500 electrode arrays with feature sizes down to below 2 mum. The neural signals from significant areas of the retina may thus be captured.

  14. Studies for the detector control system of the ATLAS pixel at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Püllen, L; Boek, J; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Zeitnitz, C

    2012-01-01

    experiment will be replaced completely. As part of this redesign there will also be a new pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a control system which meets the strict space requirements for electronics in the ATLAS experiment. To accomplish this goal we propose a DCS (Detector Control System) network with the smallest form factor currently available. This network consists of a DCS chip located in close proximity to the interaction point and a DCS controller located in the outer regions of the ATLAS detector. These two types of chips form a star shaped network with several DCS chips being controlled by one DCS controller. Both chips are manufactured in deep sub-micron technology. We present prototypes with emphasis on studies concerning single event upsets.

  15. Test of a fine pitch SOI pixel detector with laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Ju, Xudong; Ouyang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    A fine pitch pixel detector, developed on SOI (Silicon on Insulator) technology, has been tested under the illumination of infrared laser pulses. As an alternative way beside particel beam test, the laser pulses are tuned to very short duration and small transverse profile to simulate tracks of MIPs (Minimum Ionization Particles) in silicon. Hit cluster size and substrate depletion characteristics of this SOI detector are obtained. When focused laser pulses propagate through SOI detector perpendicularly to its surface, the hit cluster is measured, and most of signal charges are collected directly by the seed pixel. The signal amplitude as a function of applied bias voltage has been measured on this SOI detector for the first time, which helps us better understand of depletion characteristics.

  16. Characterisation and compensation of magnetic distortions for the pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors of the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Forty, R; Gys, T; Patel, M; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at LHC, optimised for the study of CP violation, has two RICH detectors to provide particle identification in the momentum range 2–100 GeV=c. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are met by the custom-made pixel Hybrid Photon Detector. The photon detectors need to operate in the fringe field of the LHCb dipole magnet which will produce distortions of the image detected on the pixel chip which is encapsulated inside the HPD. This paper reports on the experimental characterisation of the image distortions caused by an external magnetic flux density. These measurements allow for the development of a parameterisation of the effects and a compensation algorithm, which are also presented.

  17. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  18. Radiation-Hard Opto-Link for the Atlas Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The on-detector optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector contains radiation-hard receiver chips to decode bi-phase marked signals received on PIN arrays and data transmitter chips to drive VCSEL arrays. The components are mounted on hybrid boards (opto-boards). We present results from the opto-boards and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 33 Mrad (1.2 x 10^15 p/cm^2).

  19. 3 mega-pixel InSb detector with 10μm pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, G.; Albo, A.; Eylon, M.; Cohen, O.; Calahorra, Z.; Brumer, M.; Nitzani, M.; Avnon, E.; Aghion, Y.; Kogan, I.; Ilan, E.; Shkedy, L.

    2013-06-01

    SCD has developed a new 1920x1536 / 10 μm digital Infrared detector for the MWIR window named Blackbird. The Blackbird detector features a Focal Plane Array (FPA) that incorporates two technological building blocks developed over the past few years. The first one is a 10 μm InSb pixel based on the matured planar technology. The second building block is an innovative 10 μm ReadOut Integrated Circuit (ROIC) pixel. The InSb and the ROIC arrays are connected using Flip-Chip technology by means of indium bumps. The digital ROIC consists a matrix of 1920x1536 pixels and has an analog to digital (A/D) converter per-channel (total of 1920x2 A/Ds). It allows for full frame readout at a high frame rate of up to 120 Hz. Such an on-chip A/D conversion eliminates the need for several A/D converters with fairly high power consumption at the system level. The ROIC power consumption at maximum bandwidth is less than 400 mW. It features a wide range of pixel-level functionality such as several conversion gain options and a 2x2 pixel binning. The ROIC design makes use of the advanced and matured CMOS technology, 0.18 μm, which allows for high functionality and relatively low power consumption. The FPA is mounted on a Cold-Finger by a specially designed ceramic substrate. The whole assembly is housed in a stiffened Dewar that withstands harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the environment heat load contribution to the heat load of the detector. The design enables a 3-megapixel detector with overall low size, weight, and power (SWaP) with respect to comparable large format detectors. In this work we present in detail the characteristic performance of the new Blackbird detector.

  20. Physical characterization and performance comparison of active- and passive-pixel CMOS detectors for mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakri, I A; McIntosh, B J; Rickey, D W

    2009-03-21

    We investigated the physical characteristics of two complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) mammography detectors. The detectors featured 14-bit image acquisition, 50 microm detector element (del) size and an active area of 5 cm x 5 cm. One detector was a passive-pixel sensor (PPS) with signal amplification performed by an array of amplifiers connected to dels via data lines. The other detector was an active-pixel sensor (APS) with signal amplification performed at each del. Passive-pixel designs have higher read noise due to data line capacitance, and the APS represents an attempt to improve the noise performance of this technology. We evaluated the detectors' resolution by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) using a tilted edge. We measured the noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) using mammographic beam conditions specified by the IEC 62220-1-2 standard. Our measurements showed the APS to have much higher gain, slightly higher MTF, and higher NPS. The MTF of both sensors approached 10% near the Nyquist limit. DQE values near dc frequency were in the range of 55-67%, with the APS sensor DQE lower than the PPS DQE for all frequencies. Our results show that lower read noise specifications in this case do not translate into gains in the imaging performance of the sensor. We postulate that the lower fill factor of the APS is a possible cause for this result. PMID:19242050

  1. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, JuanPablo

    Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

  2. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  3. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, D; Berthelot, A; Cuchet, R; Chantre, C; Campbell, M

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly [1]. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the a...

  4. Simulation of active-edge pixelated CdTe radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D. D.; Lipp, J. D.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Baker, M. A.; Sellin, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The edge surfaces of single crystal CdTe play an important role in the electronic properties and performance of this material as an X-ray and γ-ray radiation detector. Edge effects have previously been reported to reduce the spectroscopic performance of the edge pixels in pixelated CdTe radiation detectors without guard bands. A novel Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) model based on experimental data has been developed to investigate these effects. The results presented in this paper show how localized low resistivity surfaces modify the internal electric field of CdTe creating potential wells. These result in a reduction of charge collection efficiency of the edge pixels, which compares well with experimental data.

  5. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  6. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for the Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guescini, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar n-in-n and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump bonding to the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 ...

  7. Near video-rate linear Stokes imaging with single-pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we demonstrate a polarization sensitive computational imaging system based on a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and several single-pixel photodetectors. By taking advantage of computational imaging techniques, the light measured by each single-pixel detector can reconstruct a 2D image for a specific linear polarization state. Using the rapid 22 kHz frame-rate of the DMD to continuously project a series of spatially orthogonal illumination patterns, near video-rate reconstructions can be achieved. In addition we extend this approach to provide full-colour images through a process of sequential colour selection (RGB). Taking the difference between photodetector signals from orthogonal linear polarization states, we obtain images corresponding to the linear Stokes parameters. We apply this rapid polarization sensitive imaging system to inert and biological material. Since the spatial information in the images reconstructed by this approach are determined by the projection system, rather than the detectors, the approach provides perfect pixel registration between the various polarization selective images and associated Stokes parameters. Furthermore, the use of single-pixel detectors and the large operational bandwidth afforded by DMD's means that the approach can readily be extended for imaging at wavelengths where detector arrays are unavailable or limited. (paper)

  8. Design and TCAD simulation of double-sided pixelated low gain avalanche detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: gianfranco.dallabetta@unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pancheri, Lucio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Paternoster, Giovanni [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 2, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, Mara [Dipartimento di FIsica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Giovanni Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a double-sided variant of low gain avalanche detector, suitable for pixel arrays without dead-area in between the different read-out elements. TCAD simulations were used to validate the device concept and predict its performance. Different design options and selected simulation results are presented, along with the proposed fabrication process.

  9. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  10. MÖNCH, a small pitch, integrating hybrid pixel detector for X-ray applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinapoli, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Greiffenberg, D.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2014-05-01

    PSI is developing several new detector families based on charge integration and analog readout (CI) to respond to the needs of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), where a signal up to ~ 104 photons impinging simultaneously on a pixel make single photon counting detectors unusable. MÖNCH is a novel hybrid silicon pixel detector where CI is combined with a challengingly small pixel size of 25 × 25 μm2. CI enables the detector to process several incoming photon simultaneously in XFEL applications. Moreover, due to the small pixel size, the charge produced by an impinging photon is often shared. In low flux experiments the analog information provided by single photons can be used either to obtain spectral information or to improve the position resolution by interpolation. Possible applications are resonant and non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering or X-ray tomography with X-ray tubes. Two prototype ASICs were designed in UMC 110 nm technology. MÖNCH01 contains only some test cells used to assess technology performance and make basic design choices. MÖNCH02 is a fully functional, small scale prototype of 4 × 4 mm2, containing an array of 160 × 160 pixels. This array is subdivided in five blocks, each featuring a different pixel architecture. Two blocks have statically selectable preamplifier gains and target synchrotron applications. In low gain mode they should provide single photon sensitivity (at 6-12 keV) as well as a reasonable dynamic range for such a small area ( > 120 photons). In high gain they target high resolution, low flux experiments where charge sharing can be exploited to reach μm resolution. Three other architectures address possible uses at XFELs and implement automatic switching between two gains to increase the dynamic range, as well as input overvoltage control. The paper presents the MÖNCH project and first results obtained with the MÖNCH02 prototype.

  11. Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Matthew P; Gibson, Graham M; Bowman, Richard W; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Mitchell, Kevin J; Welsh, Stephen S; Padgett, Miles J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cameras rely upon a pixelated sensor to provide spatial resolution. An alternative approach replaces the sensor with a pixelated transmission mask encoded with a series of binary patterns. Combining knowledge of the series of patterns and the associated filtered intensities, measured by single-pixel detectors, allows an image to be deduced through data inversion. In this work we extend the concept of a 'single-pixel camera' to provide continuous real-time video at 10 Hz , simultaneously in the visible and short-wave infrared, using an efficient computer algorithm. We demonstrate our camera for imaging through smoke, through a tinted screen, whilst performing compressive sampling and recovering high-resolution detail by arbitrarily controlling the pixel-binning of the masks. We anticipate real-time single-pixel video cameras to have considerable importance where pixelated sensors are limited, allowing for low-cost, non-visible imaging systems in applications such as night-vision, gas sensing and medical diagnostics. PMID:26001092

  12. 640 x 480 pixel uncooled infrared FPA with SOI diode detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masashi; Kosasayama, Yasuhiro; Sugino, Takaki; Nakaki, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Yoshio; Inoue, Hiromoto; Kama, Keisuke; Seto, Toshiki; Takeda, Munehisa; Kimata, Masafumi

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the structure and performance of a 25-micron pitch 640 x 480 pixel uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) diode detectors. The uncooled IR FPA is a thermal type FPA that has a temperature sensor of single crystal PN junction diodes formed in an SOI layer. In the conventional pixel structure, the temperature sensor and two support legs for thermal isolation are made in the lower level of the pixel, and an IR absorbing structure is made in the upper pixel level to cover almost the entire pixel area. The IR absorption utilizes IR reflections from the lower level. Since the reflection from the support leg portions is not perfect due to the slits in the metal reflector, the reflection becomes smaller as the support leg section increases in reduced pixel pitches. In order to achieve high thermal isolation and high IR absorption simultaneously, we have developed a new pixel structure that has an independent IR reflector between the lower and upper levels. The structure assures perfect IR reflection and thus improves IR absorption. The FPA shows a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 40 mK (f/1.0) and a responsivity non-uniformity of less than 0.9%. The good uniformity is due to the high uniformity of the electrical characteristics of SOI diodes made of single crystal silicon (Si). We have confirmed that the SOI diodes architecture is suitable for large format uncooled IR FPAs.

  13. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e− and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e− rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  14. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: piotr.maj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y. [X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corporation, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96 Multiplication-Sign 192 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 {mu}W/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 {mu}V/e{sup -} and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e{sup -} rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  15. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  16. Uncooled infrared detector with 12μm pixel pitch video graphics array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Tsutomu; Tohyama, Shigeru; Yamazaki, Takao; Tanaka, Yutaka; Okuyama, Kuniyuki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Katoh, Kouji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Okuda, Yuuhi; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Ishizaki, Haruo; Nakajima, Tomohiko; Shinoda, Kentaro; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors with 12μm pixel pitch video graphics array (VGA) have been developed. To improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for 12μm pixel pitch, a highly sensitive bolometer material, an advanced pixel structure for thermal isolation and a newly designed read-out IC (ROIC) have been also developed. The bolometer material has been improved by using vanadium niobate. Over a wide range of temperature, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is achieved higher level than -3.6%/K, which is 2 times higher than that for the conventional bolometer material. For thermal isolation, thermal conductance (Gth) value for the new pixel structure, fabricated by using triple level sacrificial layer process, is estimated to be 5nW/K, which is 1/5 times lower than that for the conventional pixel structure. On the other hand, since the imaging area is reduced by the pixel pitch, the uniformity of pixel can be improved. This enables to remove the non-uniformity correction (NUC) circuit in the ROIC. Removal of this circuit is effective for low power and low noise. This 12μm pixel pitch VGA detector is packaged in a compact (24 × 24 × 6.5 mm) and lightweight (11g) ceramic package. In addition, it has been incorporated in a newly developed prototype miniature imager. The miniature imager has dimension of 25(H) ×25(W) ×28(L) mm and weight of 30g. This imager is compact and small enough to fit in your hand. Hereafter, this imager is greatly expected to be applied to mobile systems.

  17. Optimal fine ϕ-slicing for single-photon-counting pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine ϕ-slicing substantially improves scaling statistics and anomalous signal for diffraction data collection with hybrid pixel detectors. The data-collection parameters used in a macromolecular diffraction experiment have a strong impact on data quality. A careful choice of parameters leads to better data and can make the difference between success and failure in phasing attempts, and will also result in a more accurate atomic model. The selection of parameters has to account for the application of the data in various phasing methods or high-resolution refinement. Furthermore, experimental factors such as crystal characteristics, available experiment time and the properties of the X-ray source and detector have to be considered. For many years, CCD detectors have been the prevalent type of detectors used in macromolecular crystallography. Recently, hybrid pixel X-ray detectors that operate in single-photon-counting mode have become available. These detectors have fundamentally different characteristics compared with CCD detectors and different data-collection strategies should be applied. Fine ϕ-slicing is a strategy that is particularly well suited to hybrid pixel detectors because of the fast readout time and the absence of readout noise. A large number of data sets were systematically collected from crystals of four different proteins in order to investigate the benefit of fine ϕ-slicing on data quality with a noise-free detector. The results show that fine ϕ-slicing can substantially improve scaling statistics and anomalous signal provided that the rotation angle is comparable to half the crystal mosaicity

  18. Operational Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  19. Fixed pattern deviations in Si pixel detectors measured using the Medipix 1 readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L; Davidson, D; Heijne, Erik H M; Mikulec, B

    2003-01-01

    Dopant fluctuations and other defects in silicon wafers can lead to systematic errors in several parameters in particle or single-photon detection. In imaging applications non-uniformities in sensors or readout give rise to fixed pattern image noise and degradation of achievable spatial resolution for a given flux. High granularity pixel detectors offer the possibility to investigate local properties of the detector material on a microscopic scale. In this paper, we study fixed pattern detection fluctuations and detector inhomogeneities using the Medipix 1 readout chip. Low-frequency fixed pattern signal deviations due to dopant inhomogeneities can be separated from high-frequency deviations.

  20. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  1. TCAD simulations of High-Voltage-CMOS Pixel structures for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, Matthew Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for precision physics and the experimental conditions at CLIC result in stringent constraints for the vertex detector. Capacitively coupled active pixel sensors with 25 μm pitch implemented in a commercial 180 nm High-Voltage CMOS (HV-CMOS) process are currently under study as a candidate technology for the CLIC vertex detector. Laboratory calibration measurements and beam tests with prototypes are complemented by detailed TCAD and electronic circuit simulations, aiming for a comprehensive understanding of the signal formation in the HV-CMOS sensors and subsequent readout stages. In this note 2D and 3D TCAD simulation results of the prototype sensor, the Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detector version three (CCPDv3), will be presented. These include the electric field distribution, leakage current, well capacitance, transient response to minimum ionising particles and charge-collection.

  2. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  3. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, Laura; Desch, Klaus

    2013-11-11

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are dis...

  4. Analysis of Full Charge Reconstruction Algorithms for X-Ray Pixelated Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; /Fermilab; Carini, G.; /SLAC; Deptuch, G.; /Fermilab; Grybos, P.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Hoff, J.; /Fermilab; Siddons, P., Maj.; /Brookhaven; Szczygiel, R.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-21

    Existence of the natural diffusive spread of charge carriers on the course of their drift towards collecting electrodes in planar, segmented detectors results in a division of the original cloud of carriers between neighboring channels. This paper presents the analysis of algorithms, implementable with reasonable circuit resources, whose task is to prevent degradation of the detective quantum efficiency in highly granular, digital pixel detectors. The immediate motivation of the work is a photon science application requesting simultaneous timing spectroscopy and 2D position sensitivity. Leading edge discrimination, provided it can be freed from uncertainties associated with the charge sharing, is used for timing the events. Analyzed solutions can naturally be extended to the amplitude spectroscopy with pixel detectors.

  5. Analysis of full charge reconstruction algorithms for x-ray pixelated detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; /Fermilab; Carini, G.; /SLAC; Deptuch, G.; /Fermilab; Grybos, P.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Hoff, J.; /Fermilab; Siddons, P., Maj.; /Brookhaven; Szczygiel, R.; /AGH-UST, Cracow; Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Existence of the natural diffusive spread of charge carriers on the course of their drift towards collecting electrodes in planar, segmented detectors results in a division of the original cloud of carriers between neighboring channels. This paper presents the analysis of algorithms, implementable with reasonable circuit resources, whose task is to prevent degradation of the detective quantum efficiency in highly granular, digital pixel detectors. The immediate motivation of the work is a photon science application requesting simultaneous timing spectroscopy and 2D position sensitivity. Leading edge discrimination, provided it can be freed from uncertainties associated with the charge sharing, is used for timing the events. Analyzed solutions can naturally be extended to the amplitude spectroscopy with pixel detectors.

  6. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  7. Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann, J.; Maliakal, D.; Mezza, D.; Ruder, C.; Schaedler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2014-05-01

    The SwissFEL, a free electron laser (FEL) based next generation X-ray source, is being built at PSI. An XFEL poses several challenges to the detector development: in particular the single photon counting readout, a successful scheme in case of synchrotron sources, can not be used. At the same time the data quality of photon counting systems, i.e. the low noise and the high dynamic range, is essential from an experimental point of view. Detectors with these features are under development for the EU-XFEL in Hamburg, with the PSI SLS Detector group being involved in one of these efforts (AGIPD). The pulse train time structure of the EU-XFEL machine forces the need of in pixel image storage, resulting in pixel pitches in the 200 μm range. Since the SwissFEL is a 100 Hz repetition rate machine, this constrain is relaxed. For this reason, PSI is developing a 75 μm pitch pixel detector that, thanks to its automatic gain switching technique, will achieve single photon resolution and a high dynamic range. The detector is modular, with each module consisting of a 4 × 8 cm2 active sensor bump bonded to 8 readout ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit), connected to a single printed circuit readout board with 10GbE link capabilities for data download. We have designed and tested a 48 × 48 pixel prototype produced in UMC110 nm technology. In this paper we present the general detector and ASIC design as well as the results of the prototype characterization measurements.

  8. A CMOS pixel sensor prototype for the outer layers of linear collider vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) expresses a stringent requirement for high precision vertex detectors (VXD). CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have been considered as an option for the VXD of the International Large Detector (ILD), one of the detector concepts proposed for the ILC. MIMOSA-31 developed at IPHC-Strasbourg is the first CPS integrated with 4-bit column-level ADC for the outer layers of the VXD, adapted to an original concept minimizing the power consumption. It is composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation in order to reduce the temporal noise and fixed pattern noise (FPN). At the bottom of the pixel array, each column is terminated with a self-triggered analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC design was optimized for power saving at a sampling frequency of 6.25 MS/s. The prototype chip is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. This paper presents the details of the prototype chip and its test results

  9. A CMOS pixel sensor prototype for the outer layers of linear collider vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Himmi, A.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) expresses a stringent requirement for high precision vertex detectors (VXD). CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have been considered as an option for the VXD of the International Large Detector (ILD), one of the detector concepts proposed for the ILC. MIMOSA-31 developed at IPHC-Strasbourg is the first CPS integrated with 4-bit column-level ADC for the outer layers of the VXD, adapted to an original concept minimizing the power consumption. It is composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation in order to reduce the temporal noise and fixed pattern noise (FPN). At the bottom of the pixel array, each column is terminated with a self-triggered analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC design was optimized for power saving at a sampling frequency of 6.25 MS/s. The prototype chip is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. This paper presents the details of the prototype chip and its test results.

  10. 3D Particle Track Reconstrution in a Single Layer Cadmium-Telluride Hybrid Active Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Filipenko, Mykhaylo; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has driven many developements in all kind of detector technology. A new branch in this field are highly-pixelated semiconductor detectors - such as the CdTe-Timepix detectors. It compromises a cadmium-telluride sensor of 14 mm x 14 mm x 1 mm size with an ASIC which has 256 x 256 pixel of 55 \\textmu m pixel pitch and can be used to obtain either spectroscopic or timing information in every pixel. In regular operation it can provide a 2D projection of particle trajectories; however, three dimensional trajectories are desirable for neutrinoless double beta decay and other applications. In this paper we present a method to obtain such trajectories. The method was developed and tested with simulations that assume some minor modifications to the Timepix ASIC. Also, we were able to test the method experimentally and in the best case achieved a position resolution of about 90 \\textmu m with electrons of 4.4 GeV.

  11. Signal and noise of Diamond Pixel Detectors at High Radiation Fluences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Hügging, Fabian; Kagan, Harris; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$ cm$^{-2}$, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the chang...

  12. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371978; Gößling, Claus; Pernegger, Heinz

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ...

  13. Accessing photon bunching with a photon number resolving multi-pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, Dmitry A; Tan, Si Hui; Chekhova, Maria V; Krivitsky, Leonid A

    2011-05-01

    In quantum optics and its applications, there is an urgent demand for photon-number resolving detectors. Recently, there appeared multi-pixel counters (MPPC) that are able to distinguish between 1,2,..10 photons. At the same time, strong coupling between different pixels (crosstalk) hinders their photon-number resolution. In this work, we suggest a method for `filtering out' the crosstalk effect in the measurement of intensity correlation functions. The developed approach can be expanded to the analysis of higher-order intensity correlations by using just a single MPPC. PMID:21643191

  14. High Dynamic Range X-ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Joel T; Philipp, Hugh T; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-01-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front-ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for x-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sources and x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the Mixed Mode Pixel Array Detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 10$^{8}$ x-rays/pixel/second while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single x-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the front-end amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is thereby shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to t...

  15. Qualification measurements of the voltage supply system as well as conceptionation of a state machine for the detector control of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply system and the control system of the ATLAS pixel detector represent important building blocks of the pixel detector. Corresponding studies of the supply system, which were performed within a comprehensive test system, the so-called system test, with nearly all final components and the effects on the pixel detector are object of this thesis. A further point of this thesis is the coordination and further development of the detector-control-system software under regardment of the different partial systems. A main topic represents thereby the conceptionation of the required state machine as interface for the users and the connection to the data acquisition system

  16. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  17. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  18. Influence of electromagnetic interference on the analog part of hybrid Pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holik, M.; Kraus, V.; Granja, C.; Jakubek, J.; Georgiev, V.; Hromadka, M.; Skala, J.; Kubik, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The analog signal from the sensor of hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors is prone to electro-magnetic interference. The study and diagnosis of induced and common electro-magnetic coupling between the analog part and digital part of these devices is required. The influence of electro-magnetic interference was tested on the setup with a pixel detector Timepix or Medipix and a FITPix read-out interface. Measurements were carried out of external as well as internal interference. We evaluated the influence of both sources of electro-magnetic interference to the noise recorded by pixels. We measured the local spatial intensity distribution and frequency spectrum of the electro-magnetic field originating inside the readout chip during its own operation. In context of this test we exposed the detector chip to a locally generated artificial electro-magnetic field evaluating its sensitivity to induced interference. Consequently, the whole setup of the detector and read-out interface was exposed to a distant source of electro-magnetic radiation, during which we tested efficiency of the electro-magnetic shielding of various arrangements. Further, tests measured the coupling over power supply lines. In particular, the noise generated by the operation of the detector itself was determined. In addition, the detector sensitivity to deliberately induced noise was evaluated. By means of these tests weak points of the setup sensitive to the intrusion of electro-magnetic interference are revealed. When locations of susceptible places are identified proper methods can be applied to increase immunity of the detector setup against the electro-magnetic interference. Experiences gained are planned to be used in development of the EMI shielded version of the FITPIX interface shielded to electro-magnetic interference.

  19. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  20. Comparison of CCD, CMOS and Hybrid Pixel x-ray detectors: detection principle and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, P.; Wenger, E.; Dahaoui, S.; Schaniel, D.; Lecomte, C.

    2016-06-01

    We compare, from a crystallographic point of view, the data quality obtained using laboratory x-ray diffractometers equipped with a Molybdenum micro-source using different detector types: CCD, CMOS and XPAD hybrid pixel. First we give an overview of the working principle of these different detector types with a focus on their principal differences and their impact on the data quality. Then, using the example of an organic crystal, a comparison between the detector systems concerning the raw data statistics, the refinement agreement factors, the deformation electron density maps, and the residual density after multipolar refinement is presented. It is found that the data quality obtained with the XPAD detector is the best, even though the detection efficiency at the Mo energy (17.5 keV) is only 37% due to the Si-sensor layer thickness of 300 μm. Finally, we discuss the latest x-ray detector developments with an emphasis on the sensor material, where replacing Si by another material such as GaAs would yield detection efficiencies close to 100%, up to energies of 40 keV for hybrid pixel detectors.

  1. FPGA Based Data Read-Out System of the Belle 2 Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Levit, Dmytro; Greenwald, Daniel; Paul, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The upgrades of the Belle experiment and the KEKB accelerator aim to increase the data set of the experiment by the factor 50. This will be achieved by increasing the luminosity of the accelerator which requires a significant upgrade of the detector. A new pixel detector based on DEPFET technology will be installed to handle the increased reaction rate and provide better vertex resolution. One of the features of the DEPFET detector is a long integration time of 20 {\\mu}s, which increases detector occupancy up to 3 %. The detector will generate about 2 GB/s of data. An FPGA-based two-level read-out system, the Data Handling Hybrid, was developed for the Belle 2 pixel detector. The system consists of 40 read-out and 8 controller modules. All modules are built in {\\mu}TCA form factor using Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA and can utilize up to 4 GB DDR3 RAM. The system was successfully tested in the beam test at DESY in January 2014. The functionality and the architecture of the Belle 2 Data Handling Hybrid system as well a...

  2. Design optimization of Pixel Structure for α-Si based uncooled Infrared detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors present the design and simulation results achieved for pixel structure of amorphous Si (α-Si based bolometer array. Most uncooled IR detectors in the world are based on VOx material. But this is not a standard material in IC technology and has many inherent disadvantages. The α-Si, an alternative material with high TCR is becoming as popular. However, large TCR values, in this material are achieved only in films of high resistivity. To achieve TCR value more than 2.5%/K, α-Si film resistivity is ~ 80 ohms-cm. This gives rise to very large pixel resistance of the order of 100 Mega ohms depending upon the design of the leg structure. This high pixel resistance causes very large noise and hence lower sensitivity. If leg width or membrane thickness is increased in order to reduce the pixel resistance, then this results in higher thermal conductance which also decreases sensitivity. To overcome this problem, pixel structure is so designed that within a pixel, only part of the electrical conduction is through α-Si and rest is through metal. Simulation using Coventorware software has been done to optimize pixel resistance as well as thermal conductance through legs so that maximum sensitivity could be obtained. Optimization is also carried out in order to reduce sensitivity of pixel resistance to variation in material resistivity.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.581-588, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5758

  3. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  4. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  5. A CMOS analog front-end for silicon pixel detectors for γ imaging in medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent works we presented the γ0, a chip expressely designed for γ imaging in medical application. The chip was designed to be the anode of an Integrated Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA) tube. This chip consists of a matrix of 1024 pixels each 135u by 135u, each pixel comprises a CSA, designed to handle signals of few thousand electrons, a shaper, a discriminator and a 10 bit event buffer. The chip addresses many issues that are essential for the realization of cheap and fast detectors. Particularly it integrates a DAC controlled biasing network and an energy discrimination system. In this work, we present the test system and the first test results for the γ0

  6. Study of the internal mechanisms of Pixelized Photon Detectors operated in Geiger-mode

    CERN Document Server

    Otono, H; Yamashita, S; Yoshioka, T; Yamamoto, K; Yamamura, K; Sato, K

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, a novel semiconductor photon-sensor operated in Geiger-mode was invented in Russia (Silicon PhotoMultiplier), which consists of many tiny pixels and has a single photon level sensitivity. Since then, various types of the sensor with this scheme, Pixelized Photon Detectors (PPD), have been developed in many places in the world. For instance, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. in Japan produces the PPD as a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. While the internal mechanisms of the PPD have been intensively studied in recent years, the existing models do not succeeded to fully reproduce the output characteristic, such as waveforms at low temperature. We have developed a new model with the transient multiplication and quenching of the realistic avalanche process and have succeeded in reproducing the output waveform of the PPD at various temperature. In this paper, we discuss our improved model.

  7. Gas filled prototype of a CdZnTe pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, B.; Sharma, D.; Sipila, H.; Gostilo, V. E-mail: bsi@bsi.lv; Loupilov, A

    2001-06-01

    CdZnTe pixel structures are currently the most promising detectors for the focal planes of hard X-ray telescopes, for astronomical observation in the range 5-100 keV. In Sharma et al. (Proc. SPIE 3765 (1999) 822) and Ramsey et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 458 (2001) 55) we presented preliminary results on the development of prototype 4x4 CdZnTe imaging detectors operated under vacuum. These pixel detectors were installed inside vacuum chambers on three-stage Peltier coolers providing detector temperatures down to -40 deg. C. A miniature sputter ion pump inside each chamber maintained the necessary vacuum of 10{sup -5} Torr. At a temperature of -20 deg. C we achieved an FWHM energy resolution of between 2% and 3% at 60 keV and {approx}15% at 5.9 keV; however, the dependency on temperature was weak and at +20 deg. C the respective resolutions were 3% and 20%. As the detectors could be operated at room temperature without loss of their good characteristics it was possible to exclude the sputter ion pump and fill the chamber with dry nitrogen instead. We have tested a nitrogen-filled CdZnTe (5x5x1 mm{sup 3}) prototype having 0.65x0.65 mm{sup 2} readout pads on a 0.75 mm pitch. The interpixel resistance at an applied voltage of 10 V was higher than 50 G{omega} and the pixel leakage currents at room temperature with a bias of 200 V between each pad and the common electrode did not exceed 0.8 nA. The pixel detector inside the microassembly, which also contained the input stages of the preamplifiers, was installed on a Peltier cooler to maintain the detector temperature at +20 deg. C. To define real leakage currents of the pixels in their switched-on state we have checked the voltage on the preamplifiers feedback resistors. The resulting currents were 10-50 pA at a detector bias of 500 V. Under test, the typical energy resolution per pixel at +20 deg. C was {approx}3% at energy 59.6 keV and {approx}20% at energy 5.9 keV, which are similar to the values obtained in the

  8. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Huthwelker, T; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2016-03-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e(-) electronic noise charge (<100 eV) with no active cooling. The 48 × 48 pixels JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype can be combined with a charge-sharing suppression mask directly placed on the sensor, which keeps photons from hitting the charge-sharing regions of the pixels. The mask consists of a 150 µm tungsten sheet, in which 28 µm-diameter holes are laser-drilled. The mask is aligned with the pixels. The noise and gain characterization, and single-photon detection as low as 1.2 keV are shown. The performance of JUNGFRAU 0.4 without the mask and also in the charge-sharing suppression configuration (with the mask, with a `software mask' or a `cluster finding' algorithm) is tested, compared and evaluated, in particular with respect to the removal of the charge-sharing contribution in the spectra, the detection efficiency and the photon rate capability. Energy-dispersive and imaging experiments with fluorescence X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy

  9. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Pixel Detector Deficiencies for Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  10. Modeling and analysis of hybrid pixel detector deficiencies for scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  11. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is ∼ 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼ 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is ∼ 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 μsec

  12. Pixelized Gas Micro-well Detectors for Advanced Gamma-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F

    2004-01-01

    We describe possible applications of pixelized micro-well detectors (PMWDs) as three-dimensional charged particle trackers in advanced gamma-ray telescope concepts. A micro-well detector consists of an array of individual micro-patterned gas proportional counters opposite a planar drift electrode. When combined with pixelized thin film transistor (TFT) array readouts, large gas volumes may be imaged with very good spatial and energy resolution at reasonable cost. The third dimension is determined by timing the drift of the ionization electrons. The primary advantage of this technique is the very low scattering that the charged particles experience in a gas tracking volume, and the very accurate determination of the initial particle momenta that is thus achieved. We consider two applications of PMWDs to gamma-ray astronomy: 1) A tracker for an Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) in which the recoil electron from the initial Compton scatter may be accurately tracked, greatly reducing the telescope's point spread f...

  13. A DC-DC converter based powering scheme for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-11-01

    Around 2016, the pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be upgraded. The amount of current that has to be provided to the front-end electronics is expected to increase by a factor of two. Since the space available for cables is limited, this would imply unacceptable power losses in the currently installed supply cables. Therefore it is foreseen to place DC-DC converters close to the front-end electronics, allowing the provision of power at higher voltages, thereby facilitating the supply of the required currents with the present cable plant. This conference report introduces the foreseen powering scheme of the pixel upgrade. For the first time, system tests have been conducted with pixel barrel sensor modules, radiation tolerant DC-DC converters and the full power supply chain of the pixel detector. In addition, studies of the stability of different powering schemes under various conditions are summarized. In particular the impact of large and fast load variations, which are related to the bunch structure of the LHC beam, has been studied.

  14. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL's off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware, and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ test bench using a realistic front-end chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, test on the test bench and ROD prototypes, will be reported. Recent Pixel collaboration efforts focus on finalizing hardware and firmware tests for the IBL. The plan is to approach a complete IBL DAQ hardware-software installation by the end of 2014.

  15. Calibration of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Arfaoui, Samir; Benoit, Mathieu; Celeste, Damiano; Dannheim, Dominik; Pfleger, Florentina; Redford, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of vertex detector R&D for a future Compact Linear Collider, the charac- terisation of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies comprising 50 − 300 μm thick silicon sensors and Timepix readout ASICs is underway through beam tests at DESY and CERN. The work presented here supports the beam test data analysis by providing an energy calibra- tion of certain assemblies, so giving access to energy measurements in addition to recorded Time Over Threshold counts. Photons from a variety of radioactive sources and X-ray fluorescence are used to measure the response of the assemblies in the region of 3 − 60 keV. Threshold measurements are also performed. Global and pixel-by-pixel calibrations of the assemblies are parametrised and the uniformity of the response of the pixel matrices are discussed. Data samples recorded in beam tests are calibrated and the resulting energy spectra presented. For the first time calibration parameters are estimated for two 50 μm thick sensors which are forese...

  16. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experi- ment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution mea- surements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. After three years of operation the detector performance is excellent: 96% of the pixels are opera- tional, at 3500 e threshold noise occupancy and efficiency exceed the design specification. The effect of radiation on the silicon sensor is measured and compared with model of radiation damage.

  17. Neutron imaging detector based on the muPIC micro-pixel chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, J. D.; Hattori, K.; Fujioka, H.; Harada, M; Iwaki, S.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kurosawa, S.; Miuchi, K; Nagae, T.; Nishimura, H; Oku, T; SAWANO, T.; Shinohara, T

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a prototype time-resolved neutron imaging detector employing the micro-pixel chamber (muPIC), a micro-pattern gaseous detector, coupled with a field programmable gate array-based data acquisition system for applications in neutron radiography at high-intensity neutron sources. The prototype system, with an active area of 10cm x 10cm and operated at a gas pressure of 2 atm, measures both the energy deposition (via time-over-threshold) and 3-dimensional track of each neutron-i...

  18. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-03-20

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology.

  19. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology

  20. Development of Fast and High Precision CMOS Pixel Sensors for an ILC Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Hu-Guo, Christine; Collaboration, IPHC; Collaboration, IRFU

    2010-01-01

    The development of CMOS pixel sensors with column parallel read-out and integrated zero-suppression has resulted in a full size, nearly 1 Megapixel, prototype with ~100 \\mu s read-out time. Its performances are quite close to the ILD vertex detector specifications, showing that the sensor architecture can presumably be evolved to meet these specifications exactly. Starting from the existing architecture and achieved performances, the paper will expose the details of how the sensor will be evo...

  1. XNAP: a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond resolution for time resolved synchrotron radiation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, P.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Dautet, H.; Davies, M.; Fischer, P.; Göttlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Hervé, C.; Rüffer, R.; Thil, C.

    2013-03-01

    The XNAP collaboration is constructing a hybrid pixel X-ray detector based on a monolithic silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) sensor array aiming at applications in synchrotron radiation facilities. The 2D detector is capable of identifying which individual electron bunch produces each detected X-ray photon, even when the storage ring operates in multibunch filling modes. This instrument is intended to be used in X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Nuclear Resonance experiments and serve as a demonstrator for various kind of time resolved diffraction and scattering applications as well as a very high count rate device. The detector is a 1 kilopixel device with 280 μm pitch that implements both counting mode up to MHz frame rates and event-by-event readout with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The paper describes the detector design and some results obtained with small 4×4 pixel prototypes that have been built and measured to make and validate the most critical choices for the final detector.

  2. Active pixels of transverse field detector based on a charge preamplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, G.; Buffa, C.; Longoni, A. F.; Pelamatti, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Transverse Field Detector (TFD), a filter-less and tunable color sensitive pixel, is based on the generation of specific electric field configurations within a depleted Silicon volume. Each field configuration determines a set of three or more spectral responses that can be used for direct color acquisition at each pixel position. In order to avoid unpredictable changes of the electric field configuration during the single image capture, a specific active pixel (AP) has been designed. In this AP the dark- and photo-generated charge is not integrated directly on the junction capacitance, but, for each color, it is integrated on the feedback capacitance of a single-transistor charge pre-amplifier. The AP further includes a bias transistor, a reset transistor and a follower. In this work the design of such a pixel is discussed and the experimental results obtained on a 2x2 matrix of these active pixels are analyzed in terms of spectral response, linearity, noise, dynamic range and repeatability.

  3. Development of pixel detectors for the IBL and HL-LHC ATLAS experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Baselga Bacardit, Marta

    2016-03-18

    This thesis presents the development of advanced silicon technology detectors fabricated at CNM-Barcelona for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The pixel size of the tracking silicon detectors for the upgrade of the HL-LHC will have to decrease in size in order to enhance the resolution in position for the measurements and they need to have lower occupancy for the electronics. The future experiments at CERN will cope with fuences up to 2 x 10^^16 neq/cm2, and the smaller 3D silicon detectors will have less trapping of the electron-holes generated in the bulk leading to a better performance under high radiation environment. This thesis studies silicon detectors fabricated at CNM-Barcelona applied to HEP experiments with two different kinds of novel technologies: 3D and Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD). The 3D detectors make it possible to reduce the size of the depleted region inside the detector and to work at lower voltages, whereas the LGAD detectors have an intrinsic gain which increases the collec...

  4. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gabriella, Carini [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Enquist, Paul [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grybos, Pawel [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holm, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lipton, Ronald [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maj, Piotr [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patti, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Siddons, David Peter [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Szczygiel, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarema, Raymond [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  5. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  6. Development of a detector control system for the serially powered ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puellen, Lukas

    2015-02-10

    In the years around 2020 the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. In terms of this upgrade, the ATLAS detector will also be upgraded. This also includes the pixel detector, the innermost of the sub-detectors in ATLAS. Thereby the powering concept of the pixel detector will be changed to reduce the material budget of the detector. From individual powering of each detector module, the concept changes to serial powering, where all modules of a powering group are connected in series. This change makes the development of a new detector control system (DCS) mandatory. Therefore, a new concept for the ATLAS pixel DCS is being developed at the University of Wuppertal. This concept is split into three paths: a safety path, a control path, and a diagnostics path. The safety path is a hard wired interlock system. The concept of this system will not differ significantly, compared to the interlock system of the current detector. The diagnostics path is embedded into the optical data read-out of the detector and will be used for detector tuning with high precision and granularity. The control path supervises the detector and provides a user interface to the hardware components. A concept for this path, including a prototype and proof-of-principle studies, has been developed in terms of this thesis. The control path consists of the DCS network, a read-out and controlling topology created by two types of ASICs: the DCS controller and the DCS chip. These ASICs measure and control all values, necessary for a safe detector operation in situ. This reduces the number of required cables and hence the material budget of the system. For the communication between these ASICs, two very fault tolerant bus protocols have been chosen: CAN bus carries data from the DCS computers, outside of the detector, to the DCS controllers at the edge of the pixel detector. For the communication between the DCS controller and the DCS chip, which is located close to each detector module, an enhanced I2C

  7. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  8. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  9. High bandwidth pixel detector modules for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Malte

    2014-01-15

    The investigation of the nature of the recently discovered electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism of the standard model of particle physics as well as the search for physics beyond the standard model with the LHC require to collect even more data. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the LHC will be increased in two steps. The increased luminosity results in serious challenges for the inner tracking systems of the experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS pixel detector will also be upgraded in a two stage program. During the shutdown in 2013 and 2014 a fourth hybrid pixel detector layer, the socalled Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is inserted inside the existing pixel detector. This thesis focuses on the characterization, performance measurement, and production quality assurance of the central sensitive elements of the IBL, the modules. This includes a full characterization of the readout chip (FE-I4) and of the assembled modules. A completely new inner tracking system is mandatory in ATLAS after the second luminosity increase in the shutdown of 2022 and 2023. The final chapter of this thesis introduces a new module concept that uses an industrial high voltage CMOS technology as sensor layer, which is capacitively coupled to the FE-I4 readout chip.

  10. System test and noise performance studies at the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarten, J.

    2007-09-15

    The central component of the ATLAS Inner Tracker is the pixel detector. It consists of three barrel layers and three disk-layers in the end-caps in both forward directions. The innermost barrel layer is mounted at a distance of about 5 cm from the interaction region. With its very high granularity, truly two-dimensional hit information, and fast readout it is well suited to cope with the high densities of charged tracks, expected this close to the interaction region. The huge number of readout channels necessitates a very complex services infrastructure for powering, readout and safety. After a description of the pixel detector and its services infrastructure, key results from the system test at CERN are presented. Furthermore the noise performance of the pixel detector, crucial for high tracking and vertexing efficiencies, is studied. Measurements of the single-channel random noise are presented together with studies of common mode noise and measurements of the noise occupancy using a random trigger generator. (orig.)

  11. High bandwidth pixel detector modules for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Backhaus, Malte

    2014-02-19

    The investigation of the nature of the recently discovered electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism of the standard model of particle physics as well as the search for physics beyond the standard model with the LHC require to collect even more data. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the LHC will be increased in two steps. The increased luminosity results in serious challenges for the inner tracking systems of the experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS pixel detector will also be upgraded in a two stage program. During the shutdown in 2013 and 2014 a fourth hybrid pixel detector layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is inserted inside the existing pixel detector. This thesis focuses on the characterization, performance measurement, and production quality assurance of the central sensitive elements of the IBL, the modules. This includes a full characterization of the readout chip (FE-I4) and of the assembled modules. A completely new inner tracking system is mandatory in ATLAS after the second luminosi...

  12. System test and noise performance studies at the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central component of the ATLAS Inner Tracker is the pixel detector. It consists of three barrel layers and three disk-layers in the end-caps in both forward directions. The innermost barrel layer is mounted at a distance of about 5 cm from the interaction region. With its very high granularity, truly two-dimensional hit information, and fast readout it is well suited to cope with the high densities of charged tracks, expected this close to the interaction region. The huge number of readout channels necessitates a very complex services infrastructure for powering, readout and safety. After a description of the pixel detector and its services infrastructure, key results from the system test at CERN are presented. Furthermore the noise performance of the pixel detector, crucial for high tracking and vertexing efficiencies, is studied. Measurements of the single-channel random noise are presented together with studies of common mode noise and measurements of the noise occupancy using a random trigger generator. (orig.)

  13. Prototypes and system test stands for the Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, S.

    2016-09-01

    The CMS pixel phase-1 upgrade project replaces the current pixel detector with an upgraded system with faster readout electronics during the extended year-end technical stop of 2016/2017. New electronics prototypes for the system have been developed, and tests in a realistic environment for a comprehensive evaluation are needed. A full readout test stand with either the same hardware as used in the current CMS pixel detector or the latest prototypes of upgrade electronics has been built. The setup enables the observation and investigation of a jitter increase in the data line associated with trigger rate increases. This effect is due to the way in which the clock and trigger distribution is implemented in CMS. A new prototype of the electronics with a PLL based on a voltage controlled quartz crystal oscillator (QPLL), which works as jitter filter, in the clock distribution path was produced. With the test stand, it was confirmed that the jitter increase is not seen with the prototype, and also good performance was confirmed at the expected detector operation temperature (-20 °C).

  14. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  15. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J. E-mail: j.watt@physics.gla.ac.uk; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Mathieson, K.; Mikulec, B.; O' Shea, V.; Passmore, M-S.; Schwarz, C.; Smith, K.M.; Whitehill, C

    2001-03-11

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 {mu}m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64x64 array of 170 {mu}m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO{sub 3} have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the {omega}3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the {omega}3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and image processing are given, showing a marked reduction in patient dose and dead time compared with film.

  16. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Mathieson, K.; Mikulec, B.; O'Shea, V.; Passmore, M.-S.; Schwarz, C.; Smith, K. M.; Whitehill, C.; XIMAGE Project

    2001-03-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 μm thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64×64 array of 170 μm pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO 3 have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Ω3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Ω3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and image processing are given, showing a marked reduction in patient dose and dead time compared with film.

  17. High bandwidth pixel detector modules for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the nature of the recently discovered electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism of the standard model of particle physics as well as the search for physics beyond the standard model with the LHC require to collect even more data. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the LHC will be increased in two steps. The increased luminosity results in serious challenges for the inner tracking systems of the experiments at the LHC. The ATLAS pixel detector will also be upgraded in a two stage program. During the shutdown in 2013 and 2014 a fourth hybrid pixel detector layer, the socalled Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is inserted inside the existing pixel detector. This thesis focuses on the characterization, performance measurement, and production quality assurance of the central sensitive elements of the IBL, the modules. This includes a full characterization of the readout chip (FE-I4) and of the assembled modules. A completely new inner tracking system is mandatory in ATLAS after the second luminosity increase in the shutdown of 2022 and 2023. The final chapter of this thesis introduces a new module concept that uses an industrial high voltage CMOS technology as sensor layer, which is capacitively coupled to the FE-I4 readout chip.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) grown thin films for ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, J.; Ott, J.; Mäkelä, M.; Arsenovich, T.; Gädda, A.; Peltola, T.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Junkes, A.; Niinistö, J.; Ritala, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report we cover two special applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) thin films to solve these challenges of the very small size pixel detectors. First, we propose to passivate the p-type pixel detector with ALD grown Al2O3 field insulator with a negative oxide charge instead of using the commonly adopted p-stop or p-spray technologies with SiO2, and second, to use plasma-enhanced ALD grown titanium nitride (TiN) bias resistors instead of the punch through biasing structures. Surface passivation properties of Al2O3 field insulator was studied by Photoconductive Decay (PCD) method and our results indicate that after appropriate annealing Al2O3 provides equally low effective surface recombination velocity as thermally oxidized Si/SiO2 interface. Furthermore, with properly designed annealing steps, the TiN thin film resistors can be tuned to have up to several MΩ resistances with a few μm of physical size required in ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors.

  19. Modelling and simulation of pixelated photon counting X-ray detectors for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all the physics processes generating the energy deposition in the sensor volume are investigated. The spatial resolution limits of photon interactions and the range of secondary electrons are discussed. The signatures in the energy deposition spectrum in pixelated detectors with direct conversion layers are described. The energy deposition for single events can be generated by the Monte-Carlo-Simulation package ROSI. The basic interactions of photons with matter are evaluated, resulting in the ability to use ROSI as a basis for the simulation of photon counting pixel detectors with direct conversion. In the context of this thesis a detector class is developed to simulate the response of hybrid photon counting pixel detectors using high-Z sensor materials like Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in addition to silicon. To enable the realisation of such a simulation, the relevant physics processes and properties have to be implemented: processes in the sensor layer (provided by EGS4/LSCAT in ROSI), generation of charge carriers as electron hole pairs, diffusion and repulsion of charge carriers during drift and lifetime. Furthermore, several noise contributions of the electronics can be taken into account. The result is a detector class which allows the simulation of photon counting detectors. In this thesis the multiplicity framework is developed, including a formula to calculate or measure the zero frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE). To enable the measurement of the multiplicity of detected events a cluster analysis program was developed. Random and systematic errors introduced by the cluster analysis are discussed. It is also shown that the cluster analysis method can be used to determine the averaged multiplicity with high accuracy. The method is applied to experimental data. As an example using the implemented detector class, the discriminator threshold dependency of the DQE and modulation transfer function is investigated in

  20. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Schioppa

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray flu

  1. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  2. An investigation of performance characteristics of a pixellated room-temperature semiconductor detector for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, P; Santos, A [Centro de Investigacion Biomedica de Bioningenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CEEI-Modulo 3, C/ Maria de Luna, 11, 50018 Zaragoza (United States); Darambara, D G, E-mail: pguerra@ciber-bbn.e [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-07

    The operation of any semiconductor detector depends on the movement of the charge carriers, which are created within the material when radiation passes through, as a result of energy deposition. The carrier movement in the bulk semiconductor induces charges on the metal electrodes, and therefore a current on the electrodes and the external circuit. The induced charge strongly depends on the material transport parameters as well as the geometrical dimensions of a pixellated semiconductor detector. This work focuses on the performance optimization in terms of energy resolution, detection efficiency and intrinsic spatial resolution of a room-temperature semiconductor pixellated detector based on CdTe/CdZnTe. It analyses and inter-relates these performance figures for various dimensions of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors and for an energy range spanning from x-ray (25 keV) to PET (511 keV) imaging. Monte Carlo simulations, which integrate a detailed and accurate noise model, are carried out to investigate several CdTe/CdZnTe configurations and to determine possible design specifications. Under the considered conditions, the simulations demonstrate the superiority of the CdZnTe over the CdTe in terms of energy resolution and sensitivity in the photopeak. Further, according to the results, the spatial resolution is maximized at high energies and the energy resolution at low energies, while a reasonable detection efficiency is achieved at high energies, with a 1 x 1 x 6 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe pixellated detector.

  3. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  4. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan

    Infrared (IR) detectors are well established as a vital sensor technology for military, defense and commercial applications. Due to the expense and effort required to fabricate pixel arrays, it is imperative to develop numerical simulation models to perform predictive device simulations which assess device characteristics and design considerations. Towards this end, we have developed a robust three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model for IR detector pixel arrays. We used the finite-difference time-domain technique to compute the optical characteristics including the reflectance and the carrier generation rate in the device. Subsequently, we employ the finite element method to solve the drift-diffusion equations to compute the electrical characteristics including the I(V) characteristics, quantum efficiency, crosstalk and modulation transfer function. We use our 3D numerical model to study a new class of detector based on the nBn-architecture. This detector is a unipolar unity-gain barrier device consisting of a narrow-gap absorber layer, a wide-gap barrier layer, and a narrow-gap collector layer. We use our model to study the underlying physics of these devices and to explain the anomalously long lateral collection lengths for photocarriers measured experimentally. Next, we investigate the crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. The PT region drastically reduces the crosstalk; making the use of the PT structures not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk, especially in small pitch detector arrays. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn architecture is coupled with a PT structure to engineer spectrally filtering detectors. Last, we developed a technique to reduce the cost of large-format, high performance HgCdTe detectors by nondestructively screen-testing detector arrays prior

  5. Electrical-modelling, design and simulation of cumulative radiation effects in semiconductor pixels detectors: prospects and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T; Chipaux, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors have gained in popularity since silicon became a widely used micro/nanoelectronic semiconductor material. Silicon detectors are used in particle physics as well as imaging for pixel based detecting systems. Over the past twenty years a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on silicon pixels. Some of this research was done in the framework of high luminosity particle physics experiments, along with radiation hardness studies of basic semiconductors devices. In its simplest form the semiconductor pixel detectors reduce to a PIN or PN structure partially or totally depleted, or in some MOS and APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) structures. Bulk or surface defects affect considerably transport of free carriers. We propose guidelines for pixel design, which will be tested through a few pixel structures. This design method includes into the design the properties of defects. The electrical properties reduce to parameters, which can be introduced...

  6. ATLAS Pixel Detector ROD card from IBL towards Layers 2 and 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, G.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Lama, L.; Giangiacomi, N.; Travaglini, R.

    2016-01-01

    The incoming and future upgrades of LHC will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput due to the higher luminosity that is expected. For this reason, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been equipped with a fourth layer— the Insertable B-Layer or IBL—located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. To read out the new layer of pixels, with a smaller pixel size with respect to the other outer layers, a front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector read-out chain. The latter, accordingly to the structure of the other layers of pixels, is composed mainly of two 9U-VME read-out off-detector cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Another production of 15 ROD cards was done in Fall 2013, and commissioning was completed in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards were produced for a total initial batch of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to install the new DAQ chain for the layer 2, which is the outermost, and layer 1, which is external to the B-layer. This latter is the only layer that will not be upgraded to a higher readout speed. Rather, it will be switched off in the near future as it has too many damaged sensors that were not possible to rework. To do that, slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. Thus, this contribution reports also how the adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel

  7. Multiplexed Readout for 1000-pixel Arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    van Rantwijk, Joris; van Loon, Dennis; Yates, Stephen; Baryshev, Andrey; Baselmans, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are the most attractive radiation detectors for far-infrared and sub-mm astronomy: They combine ultimate sensitivity with the possibility to create very large detector arrays, in excess of 10 000 pixels. This is possible by reading-out the arrays using RF frequency division multiplexing, which allows multiplexing ratios in excess of 1000 pixels per readout line. We describe a novel readout system for large arrays of MKIDs, operating in a 2 GHz band in the 4-8 GHz range. The readout, which is a combination of a digital front- and back-end and an analog up- and down-converter system, can read out up to 4000 detectors simultaneously with 1 kHz datarate. The system achieves a readout noise power spectral density of -98 dBc/Hz while reading 1000 carriers simultaneously, which scales linear with the number of carriers. We demonstrate that 4000 state-of-the-art Aluminium-NbTiN MKIDs can be read out without deteriorating their intrinsic performance.

  8. LePix—A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 μm to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back-processing the chip and collecting the charge from the full substrate it is hence possible to efficiently detect soft X-rays up to 10 keV. Test results from first successfully processed detectors will be presented and discussed

  9. The CT-PPS tracking system with 3D pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ravera, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) detector will be installed in Roman pots (RP) positioned on either side of CMS, at about 200 m from the interaction point. This detector will measure forward leading protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive physics and central exclusive production in standard LHC running conditions. An essential component of the CT-PPS apparatus is the tracking system, which consists of two detector stations per arm equipped with six 3D silicon pixel-sensor modules, each read out by six PSI46dig chips. The front-end electronics has been designed to fulfill the mechanical constrains of the RP and to be compatible as much as possible with the readout chain of the CMS pixel detector. The tracking system is currently under construction and will be installed by the end of 2016. In this contribution the final design and the expected performance of the CT-PPS tracking system will be presented. A summary of the studies performed, before and after irradiation, on the 3D det...

  10. First neutron spectroscopy measurements with a pixelated diamond detector at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A.; Giacomelli, L.; Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Belli, F.; Calvani, P.; Figueiredo, J.; Girolami, M.; Gorini, G.; Grosso, G.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Trucchi, D. M.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-11-01

    A prototype Single crystal Diamond Detector (SDD) was installed at the Joint European Torus (JET) in 2013 along an oblique line of sight and demonstrated the possibility to carry out neutron spectroscopy measurements with good energy resolution and detector stability in discharges heated by neutral beam injection and radio-frequency waves. Starting from these positive results, within the Vertical Neutron Spectrometer project of the Joint European Torus, we have developed a pixelated instrument consisting of a matrix of 12 independent SDDs, called the Diamond Vertical Neutron Spectrometer (DVNS), which boosts the detection efficiency of a single SDD by an order of magnitude. In this paper we describe the main features of the DVNS, including the detector design, energy resolution, and data acquisition system for on-line processing. Preliminary spectroscopy measurements of 2.5 MeV neutrons from the present deuterium plasma at JET are finally presented.

  11. Neutron imaging detector based on the muPIC micro-pixel chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, J D; Fujioka, H; Harada, M; Iwaki, S; Kabuki, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kubo, H; Kurosawa, S; Miuchi, K; Nagae, T; Nishimura, H; Oku, T; Sawano, T; Shinohara, T; Suzuki, J; Takada, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, K

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a prototype time-resolved neutron imaging detector employing the micro-pixel chamber (muPIC), a micro-pattern gaseous detector, coupled with a field programmable gate array-based data acquisition system for applications in neutron radiography at high-intensity neutron sources. The prototype system, with an active area of 10cm x 10cm and operated at a gas pressure of 2 atm, measures both the energy deposition (via time-over-threshold) and 3-dimensional track of each neutron-induced event, allowing the reconstruction of the neutron interaction point with improved accuracy. Using a simple position reconstruction algorithm, a spatial resolution of 349 +/- 36 microns was achieved, with further improvement expected. The detailed tracking allows strong rejection of background gamma-rays, resulting in an effective gamma sensitivity of 10^-12 or less, coupled with stable, robust neutron identification. The detector also features a time resolution of 0.6 microseconds.

  12. New-type silicon bipolar-pixel detector with internal amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubenko, A. P.; Karmanov, D. E.; Legotin, S. A.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Murashev, V. N.

    2009-12-01

    New-type silicon detector of charged particles and photons with internal amplification is considered. Bipolar npn-transistor pixel placed on a high-purity n-type silicon substrate is the functional element of the detector. The range being sensitive to ionization is a low-doped ( N˜10 cm) n region of the collector with a thickness virtually coinciding with the substrate thickness. A thin base containing one or more n emitters is formed on the surface. The current-amplification gain factor of the emitterbase junction is about 30. Detector prototypes are manufactured in the form of transistor matrices of 3×3 mm and 6×6 mm dimensions with a interpixel spacing of 50 and 100 microns. Results of testing of matrices are presented. The work is supported by the International Science and Technology Center, Project # 3024.

  13. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  14. Beam Test Performance and Simulation of Prototypes for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, J; Antinori, F; Badalà, A; Barbera, R; Boccardi, A; Bruno, G E; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Chochula, P; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Fini, R A; Fioretto, E; Kapusta, S; Kluge, A; Krivda, M; Lenti, V; Librizzi, F; Lunardon, M; Manzari, V; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Nilsson, P; Noriega, M L; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Paticchio, V; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Sándor, L; Torcatode-Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G; Virgili, T

    2007-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed.

  15. Pixelated detectors and improved efficiency for magnetic imaging in STEM differential phase contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Matus; McGrouther, Damien; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Shea, Val O'; McVitie, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The application of differential phase contrast imaging to the study of polycrystalline magnetic thin films and nanostructures has been hampered by the strong diffraction contrast resulting from the granular structure of the materials. In this paper we demonstrate how a pixelated detector has been used to detect the bright field disk in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and subsequent processing of the acquired data allows efficient enhancement of the magnetic contrast in the resulting images. Initial results from a charged coupled device (CCD) camera demonstrate the highly efficient nature of this improvement over previous methods. Further hardware development with the use of a direct radiation detector, the Medipix3, also shows the possibilities where the reduction in collection time is more than an order of magnitude compared to the CCD. We show that this allows subpixel measurement of the beam deflection due to the magnetic induction. While the detection and processing is data intensive we have demonstrated highly efficient DPC imaging whereby pixel by pixel interpretation of the induction variation is realised with great potential for nanomagnetic imaging. PMID:27085170

  16. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Balbi, Gabriele; Bindi, Marcello; Chen, Shaw-pin; Falchieri, Davide; Flick, Tobias; Hauck, Scott Alan; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Kretz, Moritz; Kugel, Andreas; Lama, Luca; Travaglini, Riccardo; Wensing, Marius; ATLAS Pixel Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL’s off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ testbench using realistic frontend chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data pat...

  17. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    CERN Document Server

    Balbi, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gabrielli, A; Lama, L; Travaglini, R; Backhaus, M; Bindi, M; Chen, S-P; Flick, T; Kretz, M; Kugel, A; Wensing, M

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL’s off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBLROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the PixelROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBLDAQ testbench using realistic frontend chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBLROD data path im...

  18. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Paz, Ivan Lopez

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 $\\mu$m width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 $\\mu$m width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al ma...

  19. Biological Tissue Imaging with a Position and Time Sensitive Pixelated Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Julia H; MacAleese, Luke; Klinkert, Ivo; Visser, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the capabilities of a highly parallel, active pixel detector for large-area, mass spectrometric imaging of biological tissue sections. A bare Timepix assembly (512x512 pixels) is combined with chevron microchannel plates on an ion microscope matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI TOF-MS). The detector assembly registers position- and time-resolved images of multiple m/z species in every measurement frame. We prove the applicability of the detection system to bio-molecular mass spectrometry imaging on biologically relevant samples by mass-resolved images from Timepix measurements of a peptide-grid benchmark sample and mouse testis tissue slices. Mass-spectral and localization information of analytes at physiological concentrations are measured in MALDI-TOF-MS imaging experiments. We show a high spatial resolution (pixel size down to 740x740 nm2 on the sample surface) and a spatial resolving power of 6 {\\mu}m with a microscope mode laser field of view of 100-335 ...

  20. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  1. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M.; Märk, J.; Weiss, P.; Benoit, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Fougeron, D.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Karkar, S.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new beta+ radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm3 has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 μm thick pixels with an area of 200 μm×500 μm are optimized in terms of beta+sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  2. Evaluation of Irradiated Barrel Detector Modules for the Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sibille, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    Prototype detector modules comprising sensors and the new readout chips were assembled and irradiated with protons at the CERN PS, and readout chips without sensors have been irradiated with protons at the Karls...

  3. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  4. Development of an X-ray imaging system with SOI pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Hirano, Keiichi; Kishimoto, Shunji; Hashimoto, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    An X-ray imaging system employing pixel sensors in silicon-on-insulator technology is currently under development. The system consists of an SOI pixel detector (INTPIX4) and a DAQ system based on a multi-purpose readout board (SEABAS2). To correct a bottleneck in the total throughput of the DAQ of the first prototype, parallel processing of the data taking and storing processes and a FIFO buffer were implemented for the new DAQ release. Due to these upgrades, the DAQ throughput was improved from 6 Hz (41 Mbps) to 90 Hz (613 Mbps). The first X-ray imaging system with the new DAQ software release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays for three-dimensional computerized tomography. The results of these tests are presented.

  5. Prototypes for components of a control system for the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boek, J; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Püllen, L; Zeitnitz, C

    2013-01-01

    inner detector of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced entirely including the pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a specific control system which complies with the strict requirements in terms of radiation hardness, material budget and space for the electronics in the ATLAS experiment. The University ofWuppertal is developing a concept for a DCS (Detector Control System) network consisting of two kinds of ASICs. The first ASIC is the DCS Chip which is located on the pixel detector, very close to the interaction point. The second ASIC is the DCS Controller which is controlling 4x4 DCS Chips from the outer regions of ATLAS via differential data lines. Both ASICs are manufactured in 130 nm deep sub micron technology. We present results from measurements from new prototypes of components for the DCS network.

  6. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  7. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  8. Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have deve...

  9. Evaluation of Compton gamma camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Y; Chmeissani, M; Kolstein, M; De Lorenzo, G

    2014-06-01

    A proposed Compton camera prototype based on pixelated CdTe is simulated and evaluated in order to establish its feasibility and expected performance in real laboratory tests. The system is based on module units containing a 2×4 array of square CdTe detectors of 10×10 mm(2) area and 2 mm thickness. The detectors are pixelated and stacked forming a 3D detector with voxel sizes of 2 × 1 × 2 mm(3). The camera performance is simulated with Geant4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations(GAMOS) and the Origin Ensemble(OE) algorithm is used for the image reconstruction. The simulation shows that the camera can operate with up to 10(4) Bq source activities with equal efficiency and is completely saturated at 10(9) Bq. The efficiency of the system is evaluated using a simulated (18) F point source phantom in the center of the Field-of-View (FOV) achieving an intrinsic efficiency of 0.4 counts per second per kilobecquerel. The spatial resolution measured from the point spread function (PSF) shows a FWHM of 1.5 mm along the direction perpendicular to the scatterer, making it possible to distinguish two points at 3 mm separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8. PMID:24932209

  10. Studies of the possibility to use Gas Pixel Detector as a fast trigger tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinev, N.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Korotkova, N.; Romaniouk, A.; Tikhomirov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) technology offers new possibilities, which make them very attractive for application in existing and future accelerator experiments and beyond. GPDs combine advantages of silicon and gaseous detectors. They can be produced radiation hard and with low power consumption using relatively cheap technology. Low capacitance of the individual pixel channel allows us to obtain a large signal to noise ratio. Using a time projection method for GPD readout one obtains 3D track image with precise coordinate (31 µm) and angular information (0.40°). This feature would allow us to achieve performance of one GPD layer equal to a few layers of silicon detectors. Implementation of a fast readout and data processing at the front-end level allows one to reconstruct a track segment in less than 1 μs, and to use this information for the first level trigger generation. The relevant algorithms of data acquisition and analysis are described and the results of simulations are presented in this paper.

  11. PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hybrid pixel technology combines silicon sensors with CMOS-processing chips by a 2D micro bump-bonding interconnection technology developed at Paul Scherrer Institute [C. Broennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, A. Wagner. J. Synchrotron Rad. 13 (2005) 120 ; T. Rohe, C. Broennimann, F. Glaus, J. Gobrecht, S. Heising, M. Horisberger, R. Horisberger, H.C. Kaestl, J. Lehmann, S. Streuli, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 565 (2006) 303 ]. PILATUS hybrid pixel detectors like other instruments [X. Llopart, M. Campell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49 (2002) 2279 ; N. Boudet, J.-F. Berar, L. Blanquart, P. Breugon, B. Caillot, J.-C. Clemens, I. Koudobine, P. Delpierre, C. Mouget, R. Potheau, I. Valin, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 510 (2003) 41 ] are operating in the so-called 'single photon counting mode': Every X-ray quantum is directly converted into an electrical signal and counted by the detector system. Several prototype detectors in various geometries were produced, tested and established at different synchrotron beamlines worldwide. We explain the technology and present some recent highlights from various fields of applications.

  12. PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrich, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.henrich@psi.ch; Bergamaschi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Broennimann, C. [DECTRIS AG, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinapoli, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Eikenberry, E.F. [DECTRIS AG, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Johnson, I. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kobas, M. [DECTRIS AG, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kraft, P.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2009-08-01

    The hybrid pixel technology combines silicon sensors with CMOS-processing chips by a 2D micro bump-bonding interconnection technology developed at Paul Scherrer Institute [C. Broennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, G. Huelsen, E. Pohl, B. Schmitt, C. Schulze-Briese, M. Suzuki, T. Tomizaki, H. Toyokawa, A. Wagner. J. Synchrotron Rad. 13 (2005) 120 ; T. Rohe, C. Broennimann, F. Glaus, J. Gobrecht, S. Heising, M. Horisberger, R. Horisberger, H.C. Kaestl, J. Lehmann, S. Streuli, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 565 (2006) 303 ]. PILATUS hybrid pixel detectors like other instruments [X. Llopart, M. Campell, R. Dinapoli, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49 (2002) 2279 ; N. Boudet, J.-F. Berar, L. Blanquart, P. Breugon, B. Caillot, J.-C. Clemens, I. Koudobine, P. Delpierre, C. Mouget, R. Potheau, I. Valin, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. A 510 (2003) 41 ] are operating in the so-called 'single photon counting mode': Every X-ray quantum is directly converted into an electrical signal and counted by the detector system. Several prototype detectors in various geometries were produced, tested and established at different synchrotron beamlines worldwide. We explain the technology and present some recent highlights from various fields of applications.

  13. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  14. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-01-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to dig...

  15. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for the Run2 at the Large Hadron Collider -- Plot Approval (Pixel, IBL) : This is a submission of plot approval request for Pixel+IBL, facing on a talk at ICHEP 2014 conference

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and will be installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. IBL construction is now completed. An overview of the IBL project as well as the ...

  16. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100μm, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R and D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006

  17. Studies and development of a readout ASIC for pixelated CdTe detectors for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this thesis is part of a project where a new instrument is developed: a camera for hard X-rays imaging spectroscopy. It is dedicated to fundamental research for observations in astrophysics, at wavelengths which can only be observed using space-borne instruments. In this domain the spectroscopic accuracy as well as the imaging details are of high importance. This work has been realized at CEA/IRFU (Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), which has a long-standing and successful experience in instruments for high energy physics and space physics instrumentation. The objective of this thesis is the design of the readout electronics for a pixelated CdTe detector, suitable for a stacked assembly. The principal parameters of this integrated circuit are a very low noise for reaching a good accuracy in X-ray energy measurement, very low power consumption, a critical parameter in space-borne applications, and a small dead area for the full system combining the detector and the readout electronics. In this work I have studied the limits of these three parameters in order to optimize the circuit. In terms of the spectral resolution, two categories of noise had to be distinguished to determine the final performance. The first is the Fano noise limit, related to detector interaction statistics, which cannot be eliminated. The second is the electronic noise, also unavoidable; however it can be minimized through optimization of the detection chain. Within the detector, establishing a small pixel pitch of 300 μm reduces the input capacitance and the dark current. This limits the effects of the electronic noise. Also in order to limit the input capacitance the future camera is designed as a stacked assembly of the detector with the readout ASIC. This allows to reach extremely good input parameters seen by the readout electronics: a capacitance in range of 0.3 pF-1 pF and a dark current below 5 pA. In the frame of this thesis I have

  18. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors fully adapted to the ILD Vertex Detector Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Dorokhov, Andrei; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Morel, Frederic; Valin, Isabelle; Voutsinas, Georgios; Zhang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are making steady progress towards the specifications of the ILD vertex detector. Recent developments are summarised, which show that these devices are close to comply with all major requirements, in particular the read-out speed needed to cope with the beam related background. This achievement is grounded on the double- sided ladder concept, which allows combining signals generated by a single particle in two different sensors, one devoted to spatial resolution and the other to time stamp, both assembled on the same mechanical support. The status of the development is overviewed as well as the plans to finalise it using an advanced CMOS process.

  19. Beam Test Characterization of CMS Silicon Pixel Detectors for the Phase-1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, Ievgen

    2015-01-01

    a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution.\\\\ Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking effici...

  20. Development of ultra-light pixelated ladders for an ILC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chon-Sen, N; Claus, G; De Masi, R; Deveaux, M; Dulinski, W; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Gregor, I -M; Imhoff, Ch Hu-Guo M; Müntz, C; Nomerotski, A; Santos, C; Schrader, C; Specht, M; Stroth, J; Winter, M

    2010-01-01

    The development of ultra-light pixelated ladders is motivated by the requirements of the ILD vertex detector at ILC. This paper summarizes three projects related to system integration. The PLUME project tackles the issue of assembling double-sided ladders. The SERWIETE project deals with a more innovative concept and consists in making single-sided unsupported ladders embedded in an extra thin plastic enveloppe. AIDA, the last project, aims at building a framework reproducing the experimental running conditions where sets of ladders could be tested.

  1. Electrical characterization of irradiated medium resistivity n sup + /n/p sup + pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W; Dezillie, B; Eremin, V; Li, Z; Menichelli, D; Xie, X

    1999-01-01

    Several n sup + /n/p sup + pixel detectors with medium resistivity (rho=1.9 k OMEGA cm) and reduced thickness (200 mu m) have been characterized after irradiation up to 5x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 , as an extension of measurements carried out in as-processed devices in the past. Results are really satisfactory: the leakage bulk current is quite low, and no breakdown is observed up to 300 V, which is the design bias in irradiated devices. Moreover, the use of medium resistivity material gives slightly higher radiation tolerance as compared with high resistivity case.

  2. Electrical characterization of irradiated medium resistivity n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Chien, C.Y.; Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, Z. E-mail: zhengl@bnl.gov; Menichelli, D.; Xie, X

    1999-04-21

    Several n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} pixel detectors with medium resistivity ({rho}=1.9 k{omega} cm) and reduced thickness (200 {mu}m) have been characterized after irradiation up to 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, as an extension of measurements carried out in as-processed devices in the past. Results are really satisfactory: the leakage bulk current is quite low, and no breakdown is observed up to 300 V, which is the design bias in irradiated devices. Moreover, the use of medium resistivity material gives slightly higher radiation tolerance as compared with high resistivity case.

  3. Performance of Multi-Pixel Photon Counters for the T2K near detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, M; Gomi, S; Ieki, K; Nagai, N; Nakaya, T; Nitta, K; Orme, D; Otani, M; Murakami, T; Nakadaira, T; Tanaka, M

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) for the neutrino detectors of T2K experiment. About 64,000 MPPCs have been produced and tested in about a year. In order to characterize a large number of MPPCs, we have developed a system that simultaneously measures 64 MPPCs with various bias voltage and temperature. The performance of MPPCs are found to satisfy the requirement of T2K experiment. In this paper, we present the performance of 17,686 MPPCs measured at Kyoto University.

  4. Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kass, R; Gan, K K; Johnson, M; Kagan, H; Rush, C J; Rahimi, A; Smith, S; Ter-Antonian, R; Zoeller, M M; Ciliox, A; Holder, M; Nderitu, S; Ziolkowski, M

    2003-01-01

    We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC at CERN: a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector, and a Bi-Phase Mark decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in 0.25 um CMOS technology using enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for increased radiation hardness. We present results from prototype circuits and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 57 Mrad (1.9 x 10e15 p/cm2).

  5. Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Johnson, M; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rush, C; Smith, S; Ter-Antonian, R; Zoeller, M M; Ciliox, A; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2005-01-01

    We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC at CERN: a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector, and a Bi-Phase Mark decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in 0.25 mm CMOS technology using enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for increased radiation hardness. We present results from circuits of final design and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 62 Mrad (2.3 x 10^15 p/cm^2).

  6. Radiation-Hard ASICs for Optical Data Transmission in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Johnson, M; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rush, C; Smith, S; Ter-Antonian, R; Zöller, M; Ciliox, A; Holderb, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC at CERN: a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector, and a Bi-Phase Mark decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in 0.25 mm CMOS technology using enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for increased radiation hardness. We present results from circuits of final design and from irradiation studies with 24 GeV protons up to 80 Mrad (2.6 x 10^15 p/cm^2).

  7. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  8. Development of positron detector for {mu}SR based on multi-pixel photon counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Soshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: soshi@post.kek.jp; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Miyazaki, Masanori [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, Soh Y.; Yasu, Yoshiji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    In the pulsed muon facility (MUSE) being built as a part of J-PARC, muon beams with unprecedented intensity ({approx}10{sup 6} {mu}{sup +}/pulse) will be delivered at its full operation. Because of the extreme instantaneous {mu}-e decay positron rates ({approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} e{sup +}/pulse), development of a highly segmented positron detection system is crucial for practical application of {mu}SR. To this end, we have designed a new positron detector based on a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). The advantages of MPPC over conventional phototubes are its small size, low operation voltage, functionality under a high magnetic field, and low cost. The result of test experiment for the detector using a pulsed muon beam is reported.

  9. Deployment of the CMS Tracker AMC as Backend for the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector of the CMS experiment at CERN will be replaced with an upgraded version at the beginning of 2017 with the new detector featuring an additional barrel- and end-cap layer resulting in an increased number of fully digital read-out links running at 400Mb/s. New versions of the PSI46 Read-Out Chip and Token Bit Manager have been developed to operate at higher rates and reduce data loss. Front-End Controller and Front-End Driver boards, based on the {\\textmu}TCA compatible CMS Tracker AMC, a variant of the FC7 card, are being developed using different mezzanines to host the optical links for the digital read-out and control system. An overview of the system architecture is presented, with details on the implementation, and first results obtained from test systems.

  10. Deployment of the CMS Tracker AMC as backend for the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzinger, G.

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector of the CMS experiment at CERN will be replaced with an upgraded version at the beginning of 2017 with the new detector featuring an additional barrel- and end-cap layer resulting in an increased number of fully digital read-out links running at 400 Mbps. New versions of the PSI46 Read-Out Chip and Token Bit Manager have been developed to operate at higher rates and reduce data loss. Front-End Controller and Front-End Driver boards, based on the μTCA compatible CMS Tracker AMC, a variant of the FC7 card, are being developed using different mezzanines to host the optical links for the digital read-out and control system. An overview of the system architecture is presented, with details on the implementation, and first results obtained from test systems.

  11. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  12. Novel Multi-pixel Silicon Photon Detectors and Applications in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP), medical imaging devices, portable radiation detectors etc., require a robust, miniature, reliable and readily available photon detector that is stable in a variety of environments, such as the presence of strong magnetic fields. The recently available $\\sim$1mm$^{\\textrm{2}}$ active area Multi-pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) sensors, produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, have been found to be reliable and an attractive choice for the HEP applications. The following sensor characteristics have been thoroughly tested by T2K collaboration: gain, dark noise, detection efficiency, reliability. These appear to be stable; in addition, the characteristic spread between numerous devices was assessed. Sensors with larger area are being developed for imaging and direct-to-scintillator coupling purposes.

  13. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Zheng, Y.; Anaxagoras, T.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm-1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (~1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  14. Radiation tolerance of prototype BTeV pixel detector readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2002-07-12

    High energy and nuclear physics experiments need tracking devices with increasing spatial precision and readout speed in the face of ever-higher track densities and increased radiation environments. The new generation of hybrid pixel detectors (arrays of silicon diodes bump bonded to arrays of front-end electronic cells) is the state of the art technology able to meet these challenges. We report on irradiation studies performed on BTeV pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Prototype pixel readout chip preFPIX2 has been developed at Fermilab for collider experiments and implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose up to 87 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been extensively measured.

  15. Characterization of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel detectors implemented with a high-resistive CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishishita, T.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present the recent development of DMAPS (Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), implemented with a Toshiba 130 nm CMOS process. Unlike in the case of standard MAPS technologies which are based on an epi-layer, this process provides a high-resistive substrate that enables larger signal and faster charge collection by drift in a 50 - 300 μm thick depleted layer. Since this process also enables the use of deep n-wells to isolate the collection electrodes from the thin active device layer, NMOS and PMOS transistors are available for the readout electronics in each pixel cell. In order to characterize the technology, we implemented a simple three transistor readout with a variety of pixel pitches and input FET sizes. This layout variety gives us a clue on sensor characteristics for future optimization, such as the input detector capacitance or leakage current. In the initial measurement, the radiation spectra were obtained from 55Fe with an energy resolution of 770 eV (FWHM) and 90Sr with the MVP of 4165 e-.

  16. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  17. A support note for the use of pixel hybrid photon detectors in the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This document is a proposal for the use of a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The document starts with the general specification of the baseline option, followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. A future R&D programme and its related time table is also presented. The document concludes with the description of a photon detector production scheme and time schedule.

  18. Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostilo, V.; Ivanov, V.; Kostenko, S.; Lisjutin, I.; Loupilov, A.; Nenonen, S.; Sipila, H.; Valpas, K

    2001-03-11

    Current and spectrometrical characteristics, stability in time and reliability of pixel and strip detectors depend on initial material properties, crystal processing quality and contacts manufacture technology. The work presents analysis of current-voltage and spectrometrical characteristics for initial CdTe and CdZnTe crystals applied for pixel and strip detectors manufacture. The crystal surface preparation before contacts manufacture comprises a modified technology. The contacts were made by photolithography with the surface protected by photoresist with further windows lift-off and crystal surface metallization in lifted-off windows. Metal pads were made by gold deposition from chloroauric acid. Thermocompression, ultrasonic and pulse wirebonding, as well as traditional contacts glueing method for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors have been tested for contacts wiring. The pulse wirebonding has revealed the best results. Wiring is made of gold wire with a diameter of 30 {mu}m and is good enough for pixel and strip wirebonding, providing rather low labour-intensiveness for their assembly by standard equipment. The possibility of fabrication of pressing contacts to strip and pixel detectors by Zebra elastomeric connectors has been investigated. The pressing contacts have provided qualitative and reliable electrical contact and signal layout from pixels and strips to readout electronics. Developed technologies were applied in the manufacture of the following CdTe and CdZnTe detectors: 4x4 pixels detector with rectangular pixels 0.65x0.65 mm and pitch 0.75 mm; 4x4 pixels ring miltiple-electrode detector with anode diameter 0.32 mm and pitch 0.75 mm; strip detector with 100 {mu}m width strip and 125 {mu}m pitch. The 4x4 pixels CdZnTe detector has provided at optimal temperature energy resolutions of 808 eV and 1.19 keV at energies of 5.9 and 59.6 keV, respectively. Interstrip resistance between two strips with a distance of 25 {mu}m on detector was 2-8 G{omega}.

  19. Technological aspects of development of pixel and strip detectors based on CdTe and CdZnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and spectrometrical characteristics, stability in time and reliability of pixel and strip detectors depend on initial material properties, crystal processing quality and contacts manufacture technology. The work presents analysis of current-voltage and spectrometrical characteristics for initial CdTe and CdZnTe crystals applied for pixel and strip detectors manufacture. The crystal surface preparation before contacts manufacture comprises a modified technology. The contacts were made by photolithography with the surface protected by photoresist with further windows lift-off and crystal surface metallization in lifted-off windows. Metal pads were made by gold deposition from chloroauric acid. Thermocompression, ultrasonic and pulse wirebonding, as well as traditional contacts glueing method for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors have been tested for contacts wiring. The pulse wirebonding has revealed the best results. Wiring is made of gold wire with a diameter of 30 μm and is good enough for pixel and strip wirebonding, providing rather low labour-intensiveness for their assembly by standard equipment. The possibility of fabrication of pressing contacts to strip and pixel detectors by Zebra elastomeric connectors has been investigated. The pressing contacts have provided qualitative and reliable electrical contact and signal layout from pixels and strips to readout electronics. Developed technologies were applied in the manufacture of the following CdTe and CdZnTe detectors: 4x4 pixels detector with rectangular pixels 0.65x0.65 mm and pitch 0.75 mm; 4x4 pixels ring miltiple-electrode detector with anode diameter 0.32 mm and pitch 0.75 mm; strip detector with 100 μm width strip and 125 μm pitch. The 4x4 pixels CdZnTe detector has provided at optimal temperature energy resolutions of 808 eV and 1.19 keV at energies of 5.9 and 59.6 keV, respectively. Interstrip resistance between two strips with a distance of 25 μm on detector was 2-8 GΩ

  20. Development of Fast and High Precision CMOS Pixel Sensors for an ILC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu-Guo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The development of CMOS pixel sensors with column parallel read-out and integrated zero-suppression has resulted in a full size, nearly 1 Megapixel, prototype with ~100 \\mu s read-out time. Its performances are quite close to the ILD vertex detector specifications, showing that the sensor architecture can presumably be evolved to meet these specifications exactly. Starting from the existing architecture and achieved performances, the paper will expose the details of how the sensor will be evolved in the coming 2-3 years in perspective of the ILD Detector Baseline Document, to be delivered in 2012. Two different devices are foreseen for this objective, one being optimized for the inner layers and their fast read-out requirement, while the other exploits the dimmed background in the outer layers to reduce the power consumption. The sensor evolution relies on a high resistivity epitaxial layer, on the use of an advanced CMOS process and on the combination of column-level ADCs with a pixel array. The paper will p...

  1. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  2. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced edge or ''edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  3. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2–3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100–200 μm width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 μm width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 1015 neq/cm2 with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al masks. The efficiency in the irradiated region is found to be similar to the one in the non-irradiated region and exceeds 97% in case of favourable chip-parameter settings. Only in a narrow transition area at the edge of the hole in the Al mask, a significantly lower efficiency is seen. A follow-up study of this effect using arrays of small pad diodes for position-resolved dosimetry via the leakage current is carried out

  4. Thermal mock-up studies of the DEPFET pixel vertex detector for Belle II

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, H; Stever, R; Gadow, K; Camien, C

    2016-01-01

    The Belle II experiment currently under construction at the $e^+e^-$-collider SuperKEKB in Japan is designed to explore new physics beyond the standard model with an approximately 50 times larger data sample compared to its predecessor. The vertex detector (VXD), comprising a two layer DEPFET pixel detector (PXD) surrounded by four layers of double sided silicon strip detector (SVD), is indispensable for the accurate determination of the decay point of $B$ or $D$ mesons as well as track reconstruction of low momentum particles. In order to guarantee acceptable operation conditions for the VXD and the surrounding Belle II drift-chamber (CDC) the cooling system must be capable of removing a total heat load from the very confined VXD volume of about 1~kW plus some heat intake arising from the SuperKEKB beam pipe. Evaporative two-phase CO$_2$ cooling in combination with forced air flow has been chosen as technology for the VXD cooling system. To verify and optimize the vertex detector cooling concept, a full-size...

  5. Assembly and Test of the Gas Pixel Detector for X-ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H; Muleri, F; Bellazzini, R; Minuti, M; Soffitta, P; Brez, A; Spandre, G; Pinchera, M; Sgro, C; Baldini, L; She, R; Costa, E

    2015-01-01

    The gas pixel detector (GPD) dedicated for photoelectric X-ray polarimetry is selected as the focal plane detector for the ESA medium-class mission concept X-ray Imaging and Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE). Here we show the design, assembly, and preliminary test results of a small GPD for the purpose of gas mixture optimization needed for the phase A study of XIPE. The detector is assembled in house at Tsinghua University following a design by the INFN-Pisa group. The improved detector design results in a good uniformity for the electric field. Filled with pure dimethyl ether (DME) at 0.8 atm, the measured energy resolution is 18% at 6 keV and inversely scales with the square root of the X-ray energy. The measured modulation factor is well consistent with that from simulation, up to ~0.6 above 6 keV. The residual modulation is found to be 0.30% +/- 0.15% at 6 keV for the whole sensitive area, which can be translated into a systematic error of less than 1% for polarization measurement at a confidence level of 99%....

  6. A new design of the gaseous imaging detector: Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, A; Koishi, S; Tanimori, T; Nagae, T; Nakamura, M

    2001-01-01

    The novel gaseous detector 'Micro Pixel Chamber (Micro PIC)' has been developed for X-ray, gamma-ray and charged particle imaging. This detector consists of double sided printing circuit board (PCB). The stable operation of Micro PIC is realized by thick substrate and wide anode strips. One of the most outstanding feature is the process of production and the cost. The base technology of producing Micro PIC is same as producing PCB, then detector with large detection area (more than 10 cmx10 cm) can be made by present technology. Our first tests were performed using a 3 cmx3 cm detection area with a readout of 0.4 mm pitch. The gas gain and stability were measured in these tests. The gas gain of 10 sup 4 was obtained using argon ethane (8:2) gas mixture. Also, there was no discharge between anodes and cathodes in the gain of 10 sup 3 during two days of continuous operation. Although some discharges occurred in the higher gain (approximately 10 sup 4), no critical damage on the detector was found.

  7. Simulation studies and spectroscopic measurements of a position sensitive detector based on pixelated CdTe crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Karafasoulis, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Seferlis, S.; Kaissas, I.; Lambropoulos, C.; Loukas, D; Potiriadis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Simulation studies and spectroscopic measurements are presented regarding the development of a pixel multilayer CdTe detector under development in the context of the COCAE project. The instrument will be used for the localization and identification of radioactive sources and radioactively contaminated spots. For the localization task the Compton effect is exploited. The detector response under different radiation fields as well as the overall efficiency of the detector has been evaluated. Spe...

  8. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchut, C.; Visschers, J. L.; Fornaini, A.; Graafsma, H.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Calvet, D.

    2002-05-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64×64 independent photon-counting cells of 170×170 μm 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7×10 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individual pixels. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors and particularly of the Medipix-1 chip for a wide range of X-ray imaging applications, including those using synchrotron X-ray beams.

  9. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  10. Front-end intelligence for triggering and local track measurement in gaseous pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, V.; Hessey, N.; Vermeulen, J.

    2012-11-01

    A number of applications in high-energy physics and medicine requires three-dimensional reconstruction of the particle trajectories: for example, high momentum particles in accelerator-based experiments can be identified on the basis of the properties of their tracks, while in proton computed tomography accurate knowledge of the incoming and outgoing beam trajectory is crucial in reconstructing the most probable path of the proton traversing the patient. In this work we investigate the potential of Gaseous Pixel (GridPix) detectors for fast and efficient recognition of tracks and determination of their properties. This includes selection, without external trigger, of tracks with desired angles, for example tracks with small tilt angles corresponding to high momentum particles in a magnetic field. Being able to select these fast and without external input is of interest for the future upgrades of the LHC detectors. In this paper we present a track selection algorithm, and its physical implementation in 130 nm CMOS technology with estimates of power consumption, data rates, latency, and chip area. The Timepix3 chip, currently being designed for a wide range of applications, will also be suitable for readout of GridPix detectors. Both arrival time information (accuracy 1.6 ns) and charge deposit information will be delivered for each hit together with the coordinates of the active pixel. A short overview is presented of its architecture, which allows continuous self-triggered readout of sparsely distributed data with a rate up to 20 × 106 hits cm-2sec-1. The addition of fast track pattern recognition logic to TimePix3 in a successor chip is currently being investigated.

  11. Spectral response of a silicon detector with 220 {mu}m pixel size bonded to MEDIPIX2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Erik, E-mail: erik.frojdh@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Froejdh, Anna; Norlin, Boerje; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated radiation detectors with single photon processing can be used for spectral X-ray imaging. A problem using such detectors with small pixels is that the spectral information is distorted by charge sharing. In order to get images with good spectral resolution a number of silicon sensors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m were fabricated and bonded to a MEDIPIX2 readout chip using only a limited number of pixels on the readout chip. The device was then used in an X-ray microscopy setup to obtain good spatial resolution as well. It is shown that spectral imaging can provide good contrast images of embedded structures by selecting an appropriate energy window.

  12. Beam Test Studies of 3D Pixel Sensors Irradiated Non-Uniformly for the ATLAS Forward Physics Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; Boscardin, M; Christophersen, M; Da Via, C; Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Fadeyev, V; Fleta, C; Gemme, C; Grenier, P; Jimenez, A; Lopez, I; Micelli, A; Nelist, C; Parker, S; Pellegrini, G; Phlips, B; Pohl, D L; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sicho, P; Tsiskaridze, S

    2013-01-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  13. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, S., E-mail: sgrinstein@ifae.es [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Baselga, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Christophersen, M. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park (United States); Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A. [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Nelist, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Parker, S. [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Phlips, B. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Pohl, D.-L. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Sadrozinski, H.F.-W. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  14. Serial powering Proof of principle demonstration of a scheme for the operation of a large pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ta, D B; Hugging, F; Fischer, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, N

    2006-01-01

    Large detectors in high-energy physics experiments are mostly built from many identical individual building blocks, called modules, which possess individual parts of the services. The modules are usually also powered by parallel power lines such that they can be individually operated. The main disadvantage of such a parallel powering scheme is the vast amount of necessary power cables which constitutes also a large amount of material in the path of the particles to be detected. For the LHC experiments already now this is a major problem for the optimal performance of the detectors and it has become evident, that for an upgrade programme alternative powering schemes must be investigated. We prove and demonstrate here for the example of the large scale pixel detector of ATLAS that Serial Powering of pixel modules is a viable alternative. A powering scheme using dedicated voltage regulators and modified flex hybrid circuits has been devised and implemented for ATLAS pixel modules. The modules have been intensive...

  15. Radiation tolerance of the readout chip for the Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector a new digital readout chip (ROC) has been developed. An important part of the design verification are irradiation studies to ensure sufficient radiation tolerance. The paper summarizes results of the irradiation studies on the final ROC design for the detector layers 2 – 4. Samples have been irradiated with 23 MeV protons to accumulate the expected lifetime dose of 0.5 MGy and up to 1.1 MGy to project the performance of the ROC for layer 1 of the detector. It could be shown that the design is sufficiently radiation tolerant and that all performance parameters stay within their specifications. Additionally, very high doses of up to 4.2 MGy have been tested to explore the limits of the current chip design on 250 nm CMOS technology. The study confirmed that samples irradiated up to the highest dose could be successfully operated with test pulses

  16. Radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ziolkowski, M; Buchholz, P; Ciliox, A; Gan, K K; Holder, M; Johnson, M; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Nderitu, S; Rahimi, A; Rush, C J; Smith, S; Ter-Antonian, R; Zoeller, M M

    2004-01-01

    We have developed two radiation-hard ASICs for optical data transmission in the ATLAS pixel detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The first circuit is a driver chip for a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode to be used for 80 Mbit/s data transmission from the detector. The second circuit is a Bi-Phase Mark, decoder chip to recover the control data and 40 MHz clock received optically by a PIN diode on the detector side. During ten years of operation at the LHC, the ATLAS optical link circuitry will be exposed to a maximum total fluence of 10/sup 15/ 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm/sup 2/. We have successfully implemented both ASICs in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMOS technology using standard layout techniques to enhance the radiation tolerance. Both chips are four- channel devices compatible with common cathode PIN and VCSEL arrays. We present results from final prototype circuits and from irradiation studies of both circuits with 24 GeV protons up to a total dose of 57 Mrad. (3 refs).

  17. Detailed Studies of Pixelated CZT Detectors Grown with the Modified Horizontal Bridgman Method

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, I; Bürger, A; Guo, M; Groza, M

    2007-01-01

    The detector material Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT), known for its high resolution over a broad energy range, is produced mainly by two methods: the Modified High-Pressure Bridgman (MHB) and the High-Pressure Bridgman (HPB) process. This study is based on MHB CZT substrates from the company Orbotech Medical Solutions Ltd. with a detector size of 2.0x2.0x0.5 cm^3, 8x8 pixels and a pitch of 2.46 mm. Former studies have emphasized only on the cathode material showing that high-work-function improve the energy resolution at lower energies. Therfore, we studied the influence of the anode material while keeping the cathode material constant. We used four different materials: Indium, Titanium, Chromium and Gold with work-functions between 4.1 eV and 5.1 eV. The low work-function materials Indium and Titanium achieved the best performance with energy resolutions: 2.0 keV (at 59 keV) and 1.9 keV (at 122 keV) for Titanium; 2.1 keV (at 59 keV) and 2.9 keV (at 122 keV) for Indium. These detectors are very competitive comp...

  18. Radiation Hard Hybrid Pixel Detectors, and a bbbar Cross Section Measurement at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sibille, Jennifer Ann; Rohe, Tilman Volker

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavor quark production at hadron colliders provide agood test of the perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) theory. Itis also essential to have a good understanding of the heavy quark productionin the search for new physics. Heavy quarks contribute to backgrounds andsignals in measurements of higher mass objects, such as the Higgs boson. Akey component to each of these measurements is good vertex resolution. Inorder to ensure reliable operation of the pixel detector, as well as confidencein the results of analyses utilizing it, it is important to study the effects ofthe radiation on the detector.In the first part of this dissertation, the design of the CMS silicon pixeldetector is described. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the high radiation environment on the detector operation. Measurements of the chargecollection efficiency, interpixel capacitance, and other properties of the pixelsensors as a function of the radiation damage are presented.In the second part, a measurem...

  19. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-II at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mullier, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the LHC. Taking advantage of the detector development period 2013 – 2014, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface to equip it with new service panels and to repair modules furthermore this helped with the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), fourth layer of pixel, installed in between the existing Pixel Detector and a new beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and increased pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been used. A new readout chip has been designed with CMOS 130nm technology with larger area, smaller pixel size and faster readout capability. Dedicated design features in combination with a new composite material were considered and used in order to reduce the material budget of the support structure while keeping the optimal thermo-mechanical perfor...

  20. Perspectives of the Pixel Detector Timepix for Needs of Ion Beam Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišíková, M.; Hartmann, B.; Jäkel, O.; Granja, C.; Jakubek, J.

    2012-08-01

    Radiation therapy with ion beams is a highly precise kind of cancer treatment. In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the increase of ionization density at the end of their path, the Bragg-peak, are exploited. Ions heavier than protons offer in addition increased biological effectiveness and decreased scattering. In this contribution we discuss the potential of a quantum counting and position sensitive semiconductor detector Timepix for its applications in ion beam therapy measurements. It provides high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (pixel pitch 55 μm). The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). An integrated USB-based readout interface together with the Pixelman software enable registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. The experiments were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), which is a modern ion beam therapy facility. Patient treatments are performed with proton and carbon ions, which are accelerated by a synchrotron. For dose delivery to the patient an active technique is used: narrow pencil-like beams are scanned over the target volume. The possibility to use the detector for two different applications was investigated: ion spectroscopy and beam delivery monitoring by measurement of secondary charged particles around the patient. During carbon ion therapy, a variety of ion species is created by nuclear fragmentation processes of the primary beam. Since they differ in their biological effectiveness, it is of large interest to measure the ion spectra created under different conditions and to visualize their spatial distribution. The possibility of measurements of ion energy loss in silicon makes Timepix a promising detector for ion-spectroscopic studies in patient-like phantoms. Unpredictable changes in the patient can alter the range of the ion beam in the body

  1. Improvement of the energy resolution of pixelated CdTe detectors for applications in 0νββ searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments trying to detect 0νββ are very challenging. Their requirements include a good energy resolution and a good detection efficiency. With current fine pixelated CdTe detectors there is a trade off between the energy resolution and the detection efficiency, which limits their performance. It will be shown with simulations that this problem can be mostly negated by analysing the cathode signal which increases the optimal sensor thickness. We will compare different types of fine pixelated CdTe detectors (Timepix, Dosepix, HEXITEC) from this point of view

  2. Full-Color Computational Imaging with Single-Pixel Detectors Based on a 2D Discrete Cosine Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bao-Lei; Wu, Ling-An

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a computational imaging technique that uses structured illumination based on a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform to perform imaging with a single-pixel detector. A scene is illuminated by a projector with two sets of orthogonal patterns, then by applying an inverse cosine transform to the spectra obtained from the single-pixel detector a full-color image is retrieved. This technique can retrieve an image from sub-Nyquist measurements, and the background noise is easily canceled to give excellent image quality. Moreover, the experimental setup is very simple.

  3. Improvement of the energy resolution of pixelated CdTe detectors for applications in 0νββ searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleixner, T.; Anton, G.; Filipenko, M.; Seller, P.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Zang, A.; Michel, T.

    2015-07-01

    Experiments trying to detect 0νββ are very challenging. Their requirements include a good energy resolution and a good detection efficiency. With current fine pixelated CdTe detectors there is a trade off between the energy resolution and the detection efficiency, which limits their performance. It will be shown with simulations that this problem can be mostly negated by analysing the cathode signal which increases the optimal sensor thickness. We will compare different types of fine pixelated CdTe detectors (Timepix, Dosepix, HEXITEC) from this point of view.

  4. Evaluation of Polarization Effects of e(-) Collection Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX Hybrid Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Astromskas, V.; Gimenez, EN; Lohstroh, A; Tartoni, N

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of operational conditions such as temperature, exposure time and flux on the polarization of a Schottky electron collection CdTe detector. A Schottky e- collection CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid pixel detector was developed as a part of the CALIPSO-HIZPAD2 EU project. The 128 ×128 pixel matrix and 0.75 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to Medipix3RX readout chips enabled the study of the polarization effects. Single and quad module Medipix3RX chips were used which ...

  5. Performance of the reconstruction algorithms of the FIRST experiment pixel sensors vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rescigno, R; Juliani, D; Spiriti, E; Baudot, J; Abou-Haidar, Z; Agodi, C; Alvarez, M A G; Aumann, T; Battistoni, G; Bocci, A; Böhlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cirrone, G A P; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Durante, M; Gallardo, M I; Golosio, B; Iarocci, E; Iazzi, F; Ickert, G; Introzzi, R; Krimmer, J; Kurz, N; Labalme, M; Leifels, Y; Le Fevre, A; Leray, S; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Morone, M C; Oliva, P; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pleskac, R; Quesada, J M; Randazzo, N; Romano, F; Rossi, D; Rousseau, M; Sacchi, R; Sala, P; Sarti, A; Scheidenberger, C; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Sfienti, C; Simon, H; Sipala, V; Tropea, S; Vanstalle, M; Younis, H

    2014-01-01

    Hadrontherapy treatments use charged particles (e.g. protons and carbon ions) to treat tumors. During a therapeutic treatment with carbon ions, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation processes giving rise to significant yields of secondary charged particles. An accurate prediction of these production rates is necessary to estimate precisely the dose deposited into the tumours and the surrounding healthy tissues. Nowadays, a limited set of double differential carbon fragmentation cross-section is available. Experimental data are necessary to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations for their use in hadrontherapy. The purpose of the FIRST experiment is to study nuclear fragmentation processes of ions with kinetic energy in the range from 100 to 1000 MeV/u. Tracks are reconstructed using information from a pixel silicon detector based on the CMOS technology. The performances achieved using this device for hadrontherapy purpose are discussed. For each reconstruction step (clustering, tracking and vertexing), different...

  6. GaAs pixel radiation detector as an autoradiography tool for genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an autoradiography tool to be used mainly for genetic studies. It performs a quantitative analysis of radioactivity and can follow a dynamic process. We designed several applications, in particular one aimed at detecting hybridization of radio-labeled DNA fragments with known DNA-probes deposited on a micro-array. The technique is based on GaAs pixel array detector and low threshold, large dynamic range and good sensitivity integrated electronics developed for medical applications, suitable to detect markers (gamma or beta) such as 14C, 35S, 33P, 32P, 125I, even at very low activities. A Monte Carlo simulation of β- detection in GaAs is presented here in order to study the spatial resolution characteristics of such a system. For several biological applications, the electronics is required to perform at high temperatures (from 37 deg. to 68 deg. ): we present here studies of noise and minimum threshold as a function of the temperature

  7. Visualisation of Radioactivity in Real-Time on a Tablet Measured by a Hybrid Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749233; Bantel, Michael; Grünhaupt, Ulrich

    This work explores a method to visualise and interact with radioactivity over time and space by means of augmented reality on a screen. A prototype, iPadPix, was built to demonstrate use as an intuitive new tool for educative and training purposes. Measured by a hybrid pixel detector, Timepix, traces of radioactive decays are displayed in real- time on a mobile device. Its detection principle and properties are detailed as well as the calibration of the sensor. An embedded board is used to process and forward the sensor data to a tablet over a wireless network connection. Software was developed to processes and overlay signatures of ionising radiation and particles on a live camera feed. It is described here and published as open source.

  8. First tests of a Medipix-1 pixel detector for X-ray dynamic defectoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vavrik, D; Visschers, J; Pospísil, S; Ponchut, C; Zemankova, J

    2002-01-01

    Recent theoretical damage material models describe the dynamic development of voids and microcracks in materials under plastic deformation. For these models, experimental verification is needed. We propose direct and non-destructive observation of the propagation of material damage by measuring changes in transmission of X-rays penetrating a stressed material, using a photon-counting X-ray imager. The present contribution aims to demonstrate the applicability of silicon and gallium-arsenide devices for X-ray transmission measurements with a specimen of high-ductile aluminium alloy under study. The first experiments to determine the resolution and the sensitivity of the proposed method with the Medipix-1 pixel detector are presented.

  9. A new technique for the reconstruction, validation, and simulation of hits in the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M; Giurgiu, G; Maksimovic, P; Chiochia, V

    2007-01-01

    This note describes new techniques for the reconstruction/validation and the simulation of pixel hits. The techniques are based upon the use of pre-computed projected cluster shapes or ``templates''. A detailed simulation called Pixelav that has successfully described the profiles of clusters measured in beam tests of radiation-damaged sensors is used to generate the templates. Although the reconstruction technique was originally developed to optimally estimate the coordinates of hits after the detector became radiation damaged, it also has superior performance before irradiation. The technique requires a priori knowledge of the track angle which makes it suitable for the second in a two-pass reconstruction algorithm. However, the same modest angle sensitivity allows the algorithm to determine if the sizes and shapes of the cluster projections are consistent with the input angles. This information may be useful in suppressing spurious hits caused by secondary particles and in validating seeds used in track fi...

  10. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  11. A 12-bit multichannel ADC for pixel detectors in particle physics and nuclear imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors in nuclear and particle physics experiments and also in nuclear imaging,starve for highly integrated application specified integrated circuit(ASIC),whereas in China the study of ASIC still stays far away from practical application.The lack of ASIC strictly limits the research and development of domestic high energy physics field.A 12-bit multichannel ADC designed for high density readout is introduced as a major candidate for solution.A precise model is discussed and the simulation fully agrees with the model,which indicates a key principle of design.Design is performed according to the given rule,and novel layout techniques are carried out.Measurement results in all aspects are also obtained,showing an excellent real performance,which satisfies the practical requirement.

  12. Development of an ultra-fast X-ray camera using hybrid pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project whose work described in this thesis is part, was to design a high-speed X-ray camera using hybrid pixels applied to biomedical imaging and for material science. As a matter of fact the hybrid pixel technology meets the requirements of these two research fields, particularly by providing energy selection and low dose imaging capabilities. In this thesis, high frame rate X-ray imaging based on the XPAD3-S photons counting chip is presented. Within a collaboration between CPPM, ESRF and SOLEIL, three XPAD3 cameras were built. Two of them are being operated at the beamline of the ESRF and SOLEIL synchrotron facilities and the third one is embedded in the PIXSCAN II irradiation setup of CPPM. The XPAD3 camera is a large surface X-ray detector composed of eight detection modules of seven XPAD3-S chips each with a high-speed data acquisition system. The readout architecture of the camera is based on the PCI Express interface and on programmable FPGA chips. The camera achieves a readout speed of 240 images/s, with maximum number of images limited by the RAM memory of the acquisition PC. The performance of the device was characterized by carrying out several high speed imaging experiments using the PIXSCAN II irradiation setup described in the last chapter of this thesis. (author)

  13. Pixelized M-pi-n CdTe detector coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Penttila, R; Andersson, H; Nenonen, S; Gadda, A; Pohjonen, H; Vanttajac, I; Laaksoc, P; Likonen, J

    2011-01-01

    We have realized a simple method for patterning an M-pi-n CdTe diode with a deeply diffused pn-junction, such as indium anode on CdTe. The method relies on removing the semiconductor material on the anode-side of the diode until the physical junction has been reached. The pixelization of the p-type CdTe diode with an indium anode has been demonstrated by patterning perpendicular trenches with a high precision diamond blade and pulsed laser. Pixelization or microstrip pattering can be done on both sides of the diode, also on the cathode-side to realize double sided detector configuration. The article compares the patterning quality of the diamond blade process, pulsed pico-second and femto-second lasers processes. Leakage currents and inter-strip resistance have been measured and are used as the basis of the comparison. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) characterization has been done for a diode to define the pn-junction depth and to see the effect of the thermal loads of the flip-chip bonding process. Th...

  14. Analysis of test-beam data with hybrid pixel detector prototypes for the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pequegnot, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is currently the most powerful accelerator in the world. This proton-proton collider is now stoppped to increase significantly its luminosity and energy, which would provide a larger discovery potential in 2014 and beyond. A high-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider, such as CLIC, is an option to complement and to extend the LHC physics programme. Indeed, a lepton collider gives access to additional physics processes, beyond those observable at the LHC, and therefore provides new discovery potential. It can also provide complementary and/or more precise information about new physics uncovered at the LHC. Many essential features of a detector are required to deliver the full physics potential of this CLIC machine. In this present report, I present my work on the vertex detector R\\&D for this future linear collider, which aims at developping highly granular and ultra-thin position sensitive detection devices with very low power consumption and fast time-stamping capability. We tested here thin silicon pixel...

  15. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Ball, K.; Casse, G.; Chmill, V.; Forshaw, D.; Hadfield, K.; Pritchard, A.; Pool, P.; Tsurin, I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their products meet all the stringent technical requirements. A semiconductor company with very widespread experience of producing science grade CCDs (including deep depletion devices) has adapted their CCD process to fabricate for the first time several wafers of pixel and micro-strip radiation hard sensors, suitable for future high energy physics experiments. The results of the pre-irradiation characterization of devices fabricated with different processing parameters and the measurements of charge collection properties after different hadron irradiation doses up to those anticipated for the (larger area) outer pixel layers at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are presented and compared with results from more established particle physics suppliers.

  16. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. Finally, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe. - Highlights: • Ptychographic high efficiency phase contrast imaging is demonstrated in STEM. • We rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations. • High efficiency is achieved by collecting all the relevant interference. • Use of a pixelated detector allows comparison of bright field modes post acquisition. • Ptychography provides the clearest images among the STEM bright field modes tested

  17. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Ponchut, C; Fornaini, A; Graafsma, H; Maiorino, M; Mettivier, G; Calvet, D

    2002-01-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64x64 independent photon-counting cells of 170x170 mu m sup 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7x10 sup 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows <2% crosstalk between neighboring pixels. Fine scanning of the detector surface with a 10 mu m beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individu...

  18. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, Timothy J., E-mail: tpennycook@gmail.com [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lupini, Andrew R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Yang, Hao [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Murfitt, Matthew F. [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Jones, Lewys [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D. [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    We demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. Finally, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe. - Highlights: • Ptychographic high efficiency phase contrast imaging is demonstrated in STEM. • We rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations. • High efficiency is achieved by collecting all the relevant interference. • Use of a pixelated detector allows comparison of bright field modes post acquisition. • Ptychography provides the clearest images among the STEM bright field modes tested.

  19. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm−1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm−1. In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (∼1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered. (paper)

  20. Simultaneous, coincident 2-D ACAR and DBAR using segmented HPGe detectors incorporating sub-pixel interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Adamson, Paul E.; Petrosky, James C.; Oxley, Mark E.

    2010-04-01

    A three-dimensional Positron Annihilation Spectrometry System (3D PASS) for determination of 3D electron-positron (e--e+) momentum densities by measuring coincident annihilation photons was designed, constructed and characterized. 3D PASS collects a single data set including correlated photon energies and coincident photon positions which are typically collected separately by two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincident Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) spectrometry. 3D PASS is composed of two position-sensitive, high-purity germanium (HPGe) double-sided strip detectors (DSSD(s)) linked together by a 32-channel, 50 MHz digital electronics suite. The DSSDs data were analyzed to determine location of photon detection events using an interpolation method to achieve a spatial resolution less than the 5-mm width of the DSSDs' charge collection strips. The interpolation method relies on measuring a figure-of-merit proportional to the area of the transient charges observed on both strips directly adjacent to the charge collection strip detecting the full charge deposited by the annihilation photon. This sub-pixel resolution, corresponding to the error associated with event location within a sub-pixel was measured for both DSSDs using the approach outlined in Williams et al [1] and was on the order of ± 0.20 mm (± one-standard deviation). As a result of the sub-pixel resolution, the distance between the DSSDs and material sample was reduced by a factor of five compared to what is typically required in 2D ACAR systems was necessary to achieve 0.5-mrad angular resolution. This reduction in the system's footprint decreases attenuation of the annihilation photons in the air between the material sample and the DSSDs and increases the solid angle between the sample and the DSSDs, ultimately resulting in higher system detection efficiency. 3D PASS was characterized in the same manner comparable to state

  1. Simultaneous, coincident 2-D ACAR and DBAR using segmented HPGe detectors incorporating sub-pixel interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional Positron Annihilation Spectrometry System (3D PASS) for determination of 3D electron-positron (e--e+) momentum densities by measuring coincident annihilation photons was designed, constructed and characterized. 3D PASS collects a single data set including correlated photon energies and coincident photon positions which are typically collected separately by two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincident Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) spectrometry. 3D PASS is composed of two position-sensitive, high-purity germanium (HPGe) double-sided strip detectors (DSSD(s)) linked together by a 32-channel, 50 MHz digital electronics suite. The DSSDs data were analyzed to determine location of photon detection events using an interpolation method to achieve a spatial resolution less than the 5-mm width of the DSSDs' charge collection strips. The interpolation method relies on measuring a figure-of-merit proportional to the area of the transient charges observed on both strips directly adjacent to the charge collection strip detecting the full charge deposited by the annihilation photon. This sub-pixel resolution, corresponding to the error associated with event location within a sub-pixel was measured for both DSSDs using the approach outlined in Williams et al [1] and was on the order of ± 0.20 mm (± one-standard deviation). As a result of the sub-pixel resolution, the distance between the DSSDs and material sample was reduced by a factor of five compared to what is typically required in 2D ACAR systems was necessary to achieve 0.5-mrad angular resolution. This reduction in the system's footprint decreases attenuation of the annihilation photons in the air between the material sample and the DSSDs and increases the solid angle between the sample and the DSSDs, ultimately resulting in higher system detection efficiency. 3D PASS was characterized in the same manner comparable to state

  2. Simultaneous, coincident 2-D ACAR and DBAR using segmented HPGe detectors incorporating sub-pixel interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher S; Burggraf, Larry W; Petrosky, James C; Oxley, Mark E [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Adamson, Paul E, E-mail: christopher.williams@afit.ed [High Power Microwave (HPM) Technologies Branch, HPM Division, Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    A three-dimensional Positron Annihilation Spectrometry System (3D PASS) for determination of 3D electron-positron (e{sup -}-e{sup +}) momentum densities by measuring coincident annihilation photons was designed, constructed and characterized. 3D PASS collects a single data set including correlated photon energies and coincident photon positions which are typically collected separately by two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincident Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) spectrometry. 3D PASS is composed of two position-sensitive, high-purity germanium (HPGe) double-sided strip detectors (DSSD(s)) linked together by a 32-channel, 50 MHz digital electronics suite. The DSSDs data were analyzed to determine location of photon detection events using an interpolation method to achieve a spatial resolution less than the 5-mm width of the DSSDs' charge collection strips. The interpolation method relies on measuring a figure-of-merit proportional to the area of the transient charges observed on both strips directly adjacent to the charge collection strip detecting the full charge deposited by the annihilation photon. This sub-pixel resolution, corresponding to the error associated with event location within a sub-pixel was measured for both DSSDs using the approach outlined in Williams et al [1] and was on the order of {+-} 0.20 mm ({+-} one-standard deviation). As a result of the sub-pixel resolution, the distance between the DSSDs and material sample was reduced by a factor of five compared to what is typically required in 2D ACAR systems was necessary to achieve 0.5-mrad angular resolution. This reduction in the system's footprint decreases attenuation of the annihilation photons in the air between the material sample and the DSSDs and increases the solid angle between the sample and the DSSDs, ultimately resulting in higher system detection efficiency. 3D PASS was characterized in the same

  3. Detection systems for mass spectrometry imaging: a perspective on novel developments with a focus on active pixel detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-15

    Instrumental developments for imaging and individual particle detection for biomolecular mass spectrometry (imaging) and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies are reviewed. Ion-counting detectors, array detection systems and high mass detectors for mass spectrometry (imaging) are treated. State-of-the-art detection systems for multi-dimensional ion, electron and photon detection are highlighted. Their application and performance in three different imaging modes--integrated, selected and spectral image detection--are described. Electro-optical and microchannel-plate-based systems are contrasted. The analytical capabilities of solid-state pixel detectors--both charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips--are introduced. The Medipix/Timepix detector family is described as an example of a CMOS hybrid active pixel sensor. Alternative imaging methods for particle detection and their potential for future applications are investigated. PMID:23239313

  4. Design, simulation, fabrication, and preliminary tests of 3D CMS pixel detectors for the super-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koybasi, Ozhan; /Purdue U.; Bortoletto, Daniela; /Purdue U.; Hansen, Thor-Erik; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kok, Angela; /SINTEF, Oslo; Hansen, Trond Andreas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Lietaer, Nicolas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Jensen, Geir Uri; /SINTEF, Oslo; Summanwar, Anand; /SINTEF, Oslo; Bolla, Gino; /Purdue U.; Kwan, Simon Wing Lok; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Super-LHC upgrade puts strong demands on the radiation hardness of the innermost tracking detectors of the CMS, which cannot be fulfilled with any conventional planar detector design. The so-called 3D detector architectures, which feature columnar electrodes passing through the substrate thickness, are under investigation as a potential solution for the closest operation points to the beams, where the radiation fluence is estimated to reach 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Two different 3D detector designs with CMS pixel readout electronics are being developed and evaluated for their advantages and drawbacks. The fabrication of full-3D active edge CMS pixel devices with p-type substrate has been successfully completed at SINTEF. In this paper, we study the expected post-irradiation behaviors of these devices with simulations and, after a brief description of their fabrication, we report the first leakage current measurement results as performed on wafer.

  5. Success and failure of dead-time models as applied to hybrid pixel detectors in high-flux applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobott, B. A., E-mail: sbryn@physics.unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Broennimann, Ch. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Trueb, P.; Schneebeli, M. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Lee, V.; Peake, D. J.; Elbracht-Leong, S.; Schubert, A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kirby, N.; Boland, M. J. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton (Australia); Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Rassool, R. P. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    Detector response functionals are found to have useful but also limited application to synchrotron studies where bunched fills are becoming common. By matching the detector response function to the source temporal structure, substantial improvements in efficiency, count rate and linearity are possible. The performance of a single-photon-counting hybrid pixel detector has been investigated at the Australian Synchrotron. Results are compared with the body of accepted analytical models previously validated with other detectors. Detector functionals are valuable for empirical calibration. It is shown that the matching of the detector dead-time with the temporal synchrotron source structure leads to substantial improvements in count rate and linearity of response. Standard implementations are linear up to ∼0.36 MHz pixel{sup −1}; the optimized linearity in this configuration has an extended range up to ∼0.71 MHz pixel{sup −1}; these are further correctable with a transfer function to ∼1.77 MHz pixel{sup −1}. This new approach has wide application both in high-accuracy fundamental experiments and in standard crystallographic X-ray fluorescence and other X-ray measurements. The explicit use of data variance (rather than N{sup 1/2} noise) and direct measures of goodness-of-fit (χ{sub r}{sup 2}) are introduced, raising issues not encountered in previous literature for any detector, and suggesting that these inadequacies of models may apply to most detector types. Specifically, parametrization of models with non-physical values can lead to remarkable agreement for a range of count-rate, pulse-frequency and temporal structure. However, especially when the dead-time is near resonant with the temporal structure, limitations of these classical models become apparent. Further, a lack of agreement at extreme count rates was evident.

  6. Test of electrical multi-chip module for Belle II pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer excellent signal to noise ratio, resolution and low power consumption with few material. They will be used at Belle II and are a candidate for an ILC vertex detector. The Electrical Multi-Chip Module (EMCM) has been designed to study the back end of line (BEOL) and the metal layer interconnectivity of the DEPFET matrix production for Belle II. The electrical characterization of the EMCM allows studying the signal and control line routings. Having verified the integrity of the electrical network three different types of ASICs are flip-chipped on the EMCM. The electrical characterization of the assembled module allows the analysis and optimization of the ASICs in terms of data integrity. The EMCM serves also as a mechanical test structure to exercise flip-chip and wire bonding. Finally a small DEPFET prototype matrix is mounted on the module which acts as silicon PCB. Consequently, the full study of the complete readout chain can be done. An overview of the EMCM concept and first characterization results with the latest ASIC generation are presented.

  7. Radiation-hard active CMOS pixel sensors for HL-LHC detector upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Malte

    2015-02-01

    The luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be increased during the Long Shutdown of 2022 and 2023 (LS3) in order to increase the sensitivity of its experiments. A completely new inner detector for the ATLAS experiment needs to be developed to withstand the extremely harsh environment of the upgraded, so-called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). High radiation hardness as well as granularity is mandatory to cope with the requirements in terms of radiation damage as well as particle occupancy. A new silicon detector concept that uses commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes as active sensor for pixel and/or strip layers has risen high attention, because it potentially provides high radiation hardness and granularity and at the same time reduced price due to the commercial processing and possibly relaxed requirements for the hybridization technique. Results on the first prototypes characterized in a variety of laboratory as well as test beam environments are presented.

  8. A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

  9. The magic cube and the pixel ionization chamber: detectors for monitor and dosimetry of radiotherapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerio, S.; Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Madon, E.; Marchetto, F.; Nastasi, U.; Peroni, C.; Sanz Freire, C. J.; Sardo, A.; Trevisiol, E.

    2003-09-01

    Tumor therapy takes advantage of the energy deposition of radiation to concentrate high doses in the target while sparing healthy tissue. Elective pathologies for highly conformal radiotherapies such as photon Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and radiotherapy with hadrons are head and neck, eye, prostate and in general all tumors that are either deep or located close to critical organs. In the world there are several centers that are using such techniques and a common problem that is being experienced is the verification of treatment plans and monitoring of the beam. We have designed and built two detectors that allow 2D and 3D measurements of dose and fluence of such beams. The detectors allow measurements on big surfaces, up to 25∗25 cm2. The active media are parallel plate, strip and pixel segmented ionization chambers with front-end Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) readout and PC based data acquistion. The description of dosimeter, chamber and electronics will be given with results from beam tests and therapy plan verification.

  10. Test of electrical multi-chip module for Belle II pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Felix [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer excellent signal to noise ratio, resolution and low power consumption with few material. They will be used at Belle II and are a candidate for an ILC vertex detector. The Electrical Multi-Chip Module (EMCM) has been designed to study the back end of line (BEOL) and the metal layer interconnectivity of the DEPFET matrix production for Belle II. The electrical characterization of the EMCM allows studying the signal and control line routings. Having verified the integrity of the electrical network three different types of ASICs are flip-chipped on the EMCM. The electrical characterization of the assembled module allows the analysis and optimization of the ASICs in terms of data integrity. The EMCM serves also as a mechanical test structure to exercise flip-chip and wire bonding. Finally a small DEPFET prototype matrix is mounted on the module which acts as silicon PCB. Consequently, the full study of the complete readout chain can be done. An overview of the EMCM concept and first characterization results with the latest ASIC generation are presented.

  11. Development of a novel high-rate gaseous pixel detector for time-resolved x-ray diffraction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvestani, Amir; Besch, Hans-Juergen; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Pavel, Nicolaie A.; Walenta, Albert H.

    1999-10-01

    Modern X-ray diffraction applications demand for imaging detectors with large pixel number, high intensity precision, high rate capability and dead time free operation. Detailed studies with a simulation program, which has been developed to investigate the performance of different detector types, show that a large area gaseous single photon counter is very well suited to meet the aforementioned requirements. The prototype detector, which has been built according to the specification profile from the simulations, belongs to a new generation of gaseous detectors using novel technologies for both gas amplification (using a MicroCAT) and position encoding (using 2D resistive charge division). This local interpolation method combines the advantages of a pure pixel read-out (high local and global rate capability) with those of a projecting read-out (small number of channels). The current prototype system has an active area of 28 X 28 mm2 with effectively 140 X 140 pixels. Various test measurements at synchrotron light sources with biological samples have been performed demonstrating the good spatial resolution (around 300 micrometers FWHM), the high intensity precision (only Poisson limited) and the high rate capability (exceeding 1 MHz spot rate). Moreover, time resolved measurements in the microsecond domain have been performed, and fine angular slicing has been applied to protein crystallography experiments. The detector has a high reliability and robustness, particularly when compared to conventional gaseous detectors, and the extension of the technology used to larger active areas is feasible.

  12. Experience with 3D integration technologies in the framework of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aruntinov, D; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Hügging, F; Krüger, H; Wermes, N; Breugnon, P; Chantepie, B; Clemens, J.C; Fei, R; Fougeron, D; Godiot, S; Pangaud, P; Rozanov, A; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Mekkaoui, A

    2013-01-01

    3D technologies are investigated for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC. R&D focuses on both, IC design in 3D, as well as on post-processing 3D technologies such as Through Silicon Via (TSV). The first one uses a so-called via first technology, featuring the insertion of small aspect ratio TSV at the pixel level. As discussed in the paper, this technology can still present technical challenges for the industrial partners. The second one consists of etching the TSV via last. This technology is investigated to enable 4-side abuttable module concepts, using today's pixel detector technology. Both approaches are presented in this paper and results from first available prototypes are discussed.

  13. Similarities and differences of recent hybrid pixel detectors for X-ray and high energy physics developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, G.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Horisberger, R.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are being developed for both photon science and high energy physics. The article will cover similarities and differences in pixel detectors for both applications using two of the pixel detectors developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) as examples: the EIGER photon counting detector and the psi46dig chip, which has been developed for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) tracking pixel detector upgrade. EIGER is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector for applications at synchrotron light sources in the energy range from a few to 25 keV. It is characterized by a small pixel size (75 × 75 μm2), high count rate capability (106 counts/pixel/s) and very high data rate, which reaches 6 Gb/s for a 256 × 256 pixel chip. The CMS pixel detector is designed to provide charge information from the pixels in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider. The short time between bunches of 25 ns and the high event rate at luminosity up to 2 × 1034cm-2s-1 require a detector with high hit efficiency, with good timing resolution and the ability to retain timestamp information for the hits. The readout architecture is based on the transfer of hits from the pixels to the periphery, where the trigger validation is performed before data transfer. The data rates of the digitized output reach 160 Mb/s for a 52×80 pixel chip.The specific timing and rate requirements for the detectors, the analog performances (minimum threshold and noise), the power consumption and the radiation hardness will be compared. An overview on future developments based on mutual learning and common solutions will be discussed.

  14. GEM400: A front-end chip based on capacitor-switch array for pixel-based GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrade of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) needs two-dimensional position-sensitive detection equipment to improve the experimental performance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector, in particular, pixel-based GEM detector has good application prospects in the domain of synchrotron radiation. The read-out of larger scale pixel-based GEM detector is difficult for the high density of the pixels (PAD for collecting electrons). In order to reduce the number of cables, this paper presents a read-out scheme for pixel-based GEM detector, which is based on System-in-Package technology and ASIC technology. We proposed a circuit structure based on capacitor switch array circuit, and design a chip GEM400, which is a 400 channels ASIC. The proposed circuit can achieve good stability and low power dissipation. The chip is implemented in a 0.35μm CMOS process. The basic functional circuitry in ths chip includes analog switch, analog buffer, voltage amplifier, bandgap and control logic block, and the layout of this chip takes 5mm × 5mm area. The simulation results show that the chip can allow the maximum amount of input charge 70pC on the condition of 100pF external integrator capacitor. Besides, the chip has good channel uniformity (INL is better than 0.1%) and lower power dissipation.

  15. The Dexela 2923 CMOS X-ray detector: A flat panel detector based on CMOS active pixel sensors for medical imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinidis, A. C.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Speller, R.D.; Olivo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work reports on the performance (in terms of signal and noise transfer) of an X-ray detector that uses a novel CMOS APS which was developed for medical X-ray imaging applications. For a full evaluation of the detector's performance, electro-optical and X-ray characterizations were carried out. The former included measuring read noise, full well capacit...

  16. Digital performance improvements of a CdTe pixel detector for high flux energy-resolved X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon counting detectors with energy resolving capabilities are desired for high flux X-ray imaging. In this work, we present the performance of a pixelated Schottky Al/p-CdTe/Pt detector (4×4) coupled to a custom-designed digital readout electronics for high flux measurements. The detector (4×4×2 mm3) has an anode layout based on an array of 16 pixels with a geometric pitch of 1 mm (pixel size of 0.6 mm). The 4-channel readout electronics is able to continuously digitize and process the signals from each pixel, performing multi-parameter analysis (event arrival time, pulse shape, pulse height, pulse time width, etc.) even at high fluxes and at different throughput and energy resolution conditions. The spectroscopic response of the system to monochromatic X-ray sources, at both low and high rates, is presented with particular attention to the mitigation of some typical spectral distortions (pile-up, baseline shifts and charge sharing). At a photon counting rate of 520 kcps/pixel, the system exhibits an energy resolution (FWHM at 59.5 keV) of 4.6%, 7.1% and 9% at throughputs of 0.9%, 16% and 82%, respectively. Measurements of Ag-target X-ray spectra also show the ability of the system to perform accurate estimation of the input counting rate up to 1.1 Mcps/pixel. The aim of this work is to point out, beside the appealing properties of CdTe detectors, the benefits of the digital approach in the development of high-performance energy resolved photon counting (ERPC) systems for high flux X-ray imaging

  17. Simulation studies and spectroscopic measurements of a position sensitive detector based on pixelated CdTe crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Karafasoulis, K; Seferlis, S; Kaissas, I; Lambropoulos, C; Loukas, D; Potiriadis, C

    2010-01-01

    Simulation studies and spectroscopic measurements are presented regarding the development of a pixel multilayer CdTe detector under development in the context of the COCAE project. The instrument will be used for the localization and identification of radioactive sources and radioactively contaminated spots. For the localization task the Compton effect is exploited. The detector response under different radiation fields as well as the overall efficiency of the detector has been evaluated. Spectroscopic measurements have been performed to evaluate the energy resolution of the detector. The efficiency of the event reconstruction has been studied in a wide range of initial photon energies by exploiting the detector's angular resolution measure distribution. Furthermore, the ability of the COCAE detector to localize radioactive sources has been investigated.

  18. Prototype of a gigabit data transmitter in 65 nm CMOS for DEPFET pixel detectors at Belle-II

    OpenAIRE

    Kishishita, T.; H. Krüger; Hemperek, T.; Lemarenko, M.; Koch, M.; M. Gronewald; N. Wermes

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of a gigabit data transmitter for the Belle-II pixel detector (PXD). The PXD is an innermost detector currently under development for the upgraded KEK-B factory in Japan. The PXD consists of two layers of DEPFET sensor modules located at 1.8 and 2.2 cm radii. Each module is equipped with three different ASIC types mounted on the detector substrate with a flip-chip technique: (a) SWITCHER for generating steering signals for the DEPFET sensors, (b) DC...

  19. Development of a Time-resolved Neutron Imaging Detector Based on the {\\mu}PIC Micro-Pixel Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Joseph D.; Harada, Masahide; Hattori, Kaori; Iwaki, Satoru; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Hironobu; Oku, Takayuki; Sawano, Tatsuya; Shinohara, Takenao

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a prototype time-resolved neutron imaging detector employing a micro-pattern gaseous detector known as the micro-pixel chamber ({\\mu}PIC) coupled with a field-programmable-gate-array-based data acquisition system. Our detector system combines 100{\\mu}m-level spatial and sub-{\\mu}s time resolutions with a low gamma sensitivity of less than 10^-12 and high data rates, making it well suited for applications in neutron radiography at high-intensity, pulsed neutron sources. In th...

  20. Prototypes for components of a control system for the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the years around 2020 an upgrade of the LHC to the HL-LHC is scheduled, which will increase the accelerator's instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 5 and the integrated luminosity by a factor of 10. In the context of this upgrade, the inner detector (including the pixel detector) of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced. This new pixel detector requires a specific control system which complies with strict requirements in terms of radiation hardness, material budget and space for the electronics in the ATLAS experiment. The University of Wuppertal is developing a concept for a DCS (Detector Control System) network consisting of two kinds of ASICs. The first ASIC is the DCS chip which is located on the pixel detector, very close to the interaction point. The second ASIC is the DCS Controller which is controlling 4×4 DCS chips from the outer regions of ATLAS via differential data lines. Both ASICs are manufactured in 130 nm deep sub-micron technology. We present results from reliability measurements under irradiation from new prototypes of components for the DCS network.