WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d zernike descriptors

  1. Protein-protein docking using region-based 3D Zernike descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sael Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are a pivotal component of many biological processes and mediate a variety of functions. Knowing the tertiary structure of a protein complex is therefore essential for understanding the interaction mechanism. However, experimental techniques to solve the structure of the complex are often found to be difficult. To this end, computational protein-protein docking approaches can provide a useful alternative to address this issue. Prediction of docking conformations relies on methods that effectively capture shape features of the participating proteins while giving due consideration to conformational changes that may occur. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm based on the use of 3D Zernike descriptors as regional features of molecular shape. The key motivation of using these descriptors is their invariance to transformation, in addition to a compact representation of local surface shape characteristics. Docking decoys are generated using geometric hashing, which are then ranked by a scoring function that incorporates a buried surface area and a novel geometric complementarity term based on normals associated with the 3D Zernike shape description. Our docking algorithm was tested on both bound and unbound cases in the ZDOCK benchmark 2.0 dataset. In 74% of the bound docking predictions, our method was able to find a near-native solution (interface C-αRMSD ≤ 2.5 Å within the top 1000 ranks. For unbound docking, among the 60 complexes for which our algorithm returned at least one hit, 60% of the cases were ranked within the top 2000. Comparison with existing shape-based docking algorithms shows that our method has a better performance than the others in unbound docking while remaining competitive for bound docking cases. Conclusion We show for the first time that the 3D Zernike descriptors are adept in capturing shape complementarity at the protein-protein interface and useful for

  2. Application of 3D Zernike descriptors to shape-based ligand similarity searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Vishwesh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of promising drug leads from a large database of compounds is an important step in the preliminary stages of drug design. Although shape is known to play a key role in the molecular recognition process, its application to virtual screening poses significant hurdles both in terms of the encoding scheme and speed. Results In this study, we have examined the efficacy of the alignment independent three-dimensional Zernike descriptor (3DZD for fast shape based similarity searching. Performance of this approach was compared with several other methods including the statistical moments based ultrafast shape recognition scheme (USR and SIMCOMP, a graph matching algorithm that compares atom environments. Three benchmark datasets are used to thoroughly test the methods in terms of their ability for molecular classification, retrieval rate, and performance under the situation that simulates actual virtual screening tasks over a large pharmaceutical database. The 3DZD performed better than or comparable to the other methods examined, depending on the datasets and evaluation metrics used. Reasons for the success and the failure of the shape based methods for specific cases are investigated. Based on the results for the three datasets, general conclusions are drawn with regard to their efficiency and applicability. Conclusion The 3DZD has unique ability for fast comparison of three-dimensional shape of compounds. Examples analyzed illustrate the advantages and the room for improvements for the 3DZD.

  3. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  4. Mode shape description of an aero-engine casing structure using Zernike moment descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-chao; ZANG Chao-ping

    2011-01-01

    Vibration mode shape description of an aero-engine casing structure using Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD) was introduced in this paper. The mode shapes of the aero-engine casing structure can be decomposed as a linear combination of a series of Zernike polynomials, with the feature of each Zernike polynomial reflecting a part of characteristic of mode shapes, based on Zernike moment transformation. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of mode shapes with ZMD was explored and its ability to filtering the noise contaminated in the mode shapes was studied. Simulation of the aero-engine casing structure indicated the advantage of this method to depict the mode shapes of a symmetric structure. Results demonstrate that the Zernike moment description of the mode shapes can effectively describe the double modes in the symmetric structure and also has the ability to remove or significantly reduce the influence of noise in the mode shapes. Such feature shows great practical value for further research on the correlation, model updating and model validation of the symmetric structure's finite element model.

  5. Effect of coordinate rotation on 3D molecular descriptors computed by DragonX

    CERN Document Server

    Hechinger, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative structure-property relations (QSPR) employing descriptors derived from the 3D molecular structure are frequently applied for property prediction in various fields of research. In particular, DragonX is one of the most widely used software packages for descriptor calculation. The reliability of 3D molecular descriptors computed by DragonX has lately been investigated, thereby focusing on the effect of computational methods used for molecular structure optimization on the accuracy of the resulting molecular descriptors. The present contribution extends the analysis to a more intrinsic problem of DragonX descriptor evaluation resulting from the sensitivity of the computed 3D descriptors on the coordinate system used for molecule description. Evaluating several 3D descriptors for converged molecular structures rotated around all 3 spatial axes (affine coordinate transformations) yields systematically varying descriptor values. Since this unphysical behavior severely affects the descriptor reliability...

  6. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y and z) of the 3D facial surfaces of identical twins respectively. A group of facial normal descriptors are thus achieved, including Normal Local Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LBPs), Normal Gabor Filters descriptor (N-GFs) and Normal Local Gabor Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LGBPs). All these normal encoding based descriptors are further fed into sparse representation classifier (SRC) for identification. Experimental results on the 3D TEC database demonstrate that these proposed normal encoding based descriptors are very discriminative and efficient, achieving comparable performance to the best of state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. 3D Shape Modeling Using High Level Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana

    The goal of this Ph.D. project is to investigate and improve the methods for describing the surface of 3D objects, with focus on modeling geometric texture on surfaces. Surface modeling being a large field of research, the work done during this project concentrated around a few smaller areas...

  8. 3D face recognition based on multiple keypoint descriptors and sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC. We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/3dmkdsrcface/3dmkdsrc.htm.

  9. Comparison of 3D interest point detectors and descriptors for point cloud fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hänsch, R.; T Weber; O. Hellwich

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and description of keypoints as salient image parts has a long tradition within processing and analysis of 2D images. Nowadays, 3D data gains more and more importance. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of keypoints for the task of fusing multiple 3D point clouds. For this goal, several combinations of 3D keypoint detectors and descriptors are tested. The experiments are based on 3D scenes with varying properties, including 3D scanner data as well as Kin...

  10. BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Butkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78. Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891.

  11. 3D facial expression recognition using SIFT descriptors of automatically detected keypoints

    OpenAIRE

    Berretti, Stefano; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Daoudi, Mohamed; Del Bimbo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Methods to recognize humans' facial expressions have been proposed mainly focusing on 2D still images and videos. In this paper, the problem of person-independent facial expression recognition is addressed using the 3D geometry information extracted from the 3D shape of the face. To this end, a completely automatic approach is proposed that relies on identifying a set of facial keypoints, computing SIFT feature descriptors of depth images of the face around sample poin...

  12. Analyzing the relevance of shape descriptors in automated recognition of facial gestures in 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez A., Julian S.; Prieto, Flavio

    2013-03-01

    The present document shows and explains the results from analyzing shape descriptors (DESIRE and Spherical Spin Image) for facial recognition of 3D images. DESIRE is a descriptor made of depth images, silhouettes and rays extended from a polygonal mesh; whereas the Spherical Spin Image (SSI) associated to a polygonal mesh point, is a 2D histogram built from neighboring points by using the position information that captures features of the local shape. The database used contains images of facial expressions which in average were recognized 88.16% using a neuronal network and 91.11% with a Bayesian classifier in the case of the first descriptor; in contrast, the second descriptor only recognizes in average 32% and 23,6% using the same mentioned classifiers respectively.

  13. Comparison of 3D interest point detectors and descriptors for point cloud fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, R.; Weber, T.; Hellwich, O.

    2014-08-01

    The extraction and description of keypoints as salient image parts has a long tradition within processing and analysis of 2D images. Nowadays, 3D data gains more and more importance. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of keypoints for the task of fusing multiple 3D point clouds. For this goal, several combinations of 3D keypoint detectors and descriptors are tested. The experiments are based on 3D scenes with varying properties, including 3D scanner data as well as Kinect point clouds. The obtained results indicate that the specific method to extract and describe keypoints in 3D data has to be carefully chosen. In many cases the accuracy suffers from a too strong reduction of the available points to keypoints.

  14. A 3D Feature Descriptor Recovered from a Single 2D Palmprint Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qian; Kumar, Ajay; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Design and development of efficient and accurate feature descriptors is critical for the success of many computer vision applications. This paper proposes a new feature descriptor, referred to as DoN, for the 2D palmprint matching. The descriptor is extracted for each point on the palmprint. It is based on the ordinal measure which partially describes the difference of the neighboring points' normal vectors. DoN has at least two advantages: 1) it describes the 3D information, which is expected to be highly stable under commonly occurring illumination variations during contactless imaging; 2) the size of DoN for each point is only one bit, which is computationally simple to extract, easy to match, and efficient to storage. We show that such 3D information can be extracted from a single 2D palmprint image. The analysis for the effectiveness of ordinal measure for palmprint matching is also provided. Four publicly available 2D palmprint databases are used to evaluate the effectiveness of DoN, both for identification and the verification. Our method on all these databases achieves the state-of-the-art performance. PMID:27164564

  15. Towards 3D Face Recognition in the Real: A Registration-Free Approach Using Fine-Grained Matching of 3D Keypoint Descriptors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-11-12

    Registration algorithms performed on point clouds or range images of face scans have been successfully used for automatic 3D face recognition under expression variations, but have rarely been investigated to solve pose changes and occlusions mainly since that the basic landmarks to initialize coarse alignment are not always available. Recently, local feature-based SIFT-like matching proves competent to handle all such variations without registration. In this paper, towards 3D face recognition for real-life biometric applications, we significantly extend the SIFT-like matching framework to mesh data and propose a novel approach using fine-grained matching of 3D keypoint descriptors. First, two principal curvature-based 3D keypoint detectors are provided, which can repeatedly identify complementary locations on a face scan where local curvatures are high. Then, a robust 3D local coordinate system is built at each keypoint, which allows extraction of pose-invariant features. Three keypoint descriptors, corresponding to three surface differential quantities, are designed, and their feature-level fusion is employed to comprehensively describe local shapes of detected keypoints. Finally, we propose a multi-task sparse representation based fine-grained matching algorithm, which accounts for the average reconstruction error of probe face descriptors sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors in identification. Our approach is evaluated on the Bosphorus database and achieves rank-one recognition rates of 96.56, 98.82, 91.14, and 99.21 % on the entire database, and the expression, pose, and occlusion subsets, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these are the best results reported so far on this database. Additionally, good generalization ability is also exhibited by the experiments on the FRGC v2.0 database.

  16. QSAR modeling of toxicity of diverse organic chemicals to Daphnia magna using 2D and 3D descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Supratik [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, Kunal, E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2010-05-15

    One of the major economic alternatives to experimental toxicity testing is the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) which are used in formulating regulatory decisions of environmental protection agencies. In this background, we have modeled a large diverse group of 297 chemicals for their toxicity to Daphnia magna using mechanistically interpretable descriptors. Three-dimensional (3D) (electronic and spatial) and two-dimensional (2D) (topological and information content indices) descriptors along with physicochemical parameter log K{sub o/w} (n-octanol/water partition coefficient) and structural descriptors were used as predictor variables. The QSAR models were developed by stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS), genetic function approximation (GFA), and genetic PLS (G/PLS). All the models were validated internally and externally. Among several models developed using different chemometric tools, the best model based on both internal and external validation characteristics was a PLS equation with 7 descriptors and three latent variables explaining 67.8% leave-one-out predicted variance and 74.1% external predicted variance. The PLS model suggests that higher lipophilicity and electrophilicity, less negative charge surface area and presence of ether linkage, hydrogen bond donor groups and acetylenic carbons are responsible for greater toxicity of chemicals. The developed model may be used for prediction of toxicity, safety and risk assessment of chemicals to achieve better ecotoxicological management and prevent adverse health consequences.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Antioxidant Coumarin Derivatives Using Multiple Approaches: Descriptor-Based QSAR, 3D-Pharmacophore Mapping, and HQSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani MITRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inability of the systemic antioxidants to alleviate the exacerbation of free radical formation from metabolic outputs and environmental pollutants claims an urgent demand for the identification and design of new chemical entities with potent antioxidant activity. In the present work, different QSAR approaches have been utilized for identifying the essential structural attributes imparting a potential antioxidant activity profile of the coumarin derivatives. The descriptor-based QSAR model provides a quantitative outline regarding the structural prerequisites of the molecules, while 3D pharmacophore and HQSAR models emphasize the favourable spatial arrangement of the various chemical features and the crucial molecular fragments, respectively. All the models infer that the fused benzene ring and the oxygen atom of the pyran ring constituting the parent coumarin nucleus capture the prime pharmacophoric features, imparting superior antioxidant activity to the molecules. The developed models may serve as indispensable query tools for screening untested molecules belonging to the class of coumarin derivatives.

  18. Segmentation of Brain MRI Using SOM-FCM-Based Method and 3D Statistical Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current medical imaging systems provide excellent spatial resolution, high tissue contrast, and up to 65535 intensity levels. Thus, image processing techniques which aim to exploit the information contained in the images are necessary for using these images in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems. Image segmentation may be defined as the process of parcelling the image to delimit different neuroanatomical tissues present on the brain. In this paper we propose a segmentation technique using 3D statistical features extracted from the volume image. In addition, the presented method is based on unsupervised vector quantization and fuzzy clustering techniques and does not use any a priori information. The resulting fuzzy segmentation method addresses the problem of partial volume effect (PVE and has been assessed using real brain images from the Internet Brain Image Repository (IBSR.

  19. Computational study on 3D structure of L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid: molecular descriptors and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniu Amalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive and complex analysis of molecular descriptors and properties of two similar amino acids, L-Aspartic acid and L-Glutamic acid, using a software tool for calculations and properties predictions. As amino acids are model compounds for predicting the physical-chemical properties and behavior of biological, larger molecules as peptides or proteins, researches were focused on providing accurate mechanical calculations using: molecular/mechanical methods. Our study aims to initiate a linear scaling approach, by dividing a large system into small subsystems and performing the calculations for each, individually, then, embedding and correcting the information globally. The calculations were performed on the 3D structure of the studied amino acids that were first generated, as CPK model, and optimized by energy minimization. A comparative assay on their topological, molecular descriptors and properties was conducted, in vacuum and in water, using the Hartree-Fock model and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory MP2 for predicting structure, energy and property calculations with Spartan’14 software. Values of molecular properties such as area, volume, polar surface area, polarizability, ovality, logP, dipole moment, HOMO-LUMO gap, distances and angles between atoms, were obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of electronic effects of side chain groups, molecular deformability, steric factors and reactivity. This approach can be extended to other amino acids in order to predict protein-ligand interactions, important aspects in drug design studies and protein engineering.

  20. Zernike moments features for shape-based gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanfeng; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jun; Chao, Jiang

    2011-12-01

    The paper proposes a new spatio-temporal gait representation, called cycles gait Zernike moments (CGZM), to characterize human walking properties for individual recognition. Firstly, Zernike moments as shape descriptors are used to characterize gait silhouette shape. Secondly, we generate CGZM from Zernike moments of silhouette sequences. Finally, the phase and magnitude coefficientsof CGZM are utilized to perform classification by the modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed approach have an encouraging recognition performance.

  1. Zernike polynomials for photometric characterization of LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method based on Zernike polynomials to characterize photometric quantities and descriptors of light emitting diodes (LEDs) from measurements of the angular distribution of the luminous intensity, such as total luminous flux, BA, inhomogeneity, anisotropy, direction of the optical axis and Lambertianity of the source. The performance of this method was experimentally tested for 18 high-power LEDs from different manufacturers and with different photometric characteristics. A small set of Zernike coefficients can be used to calculate all the mentioned photometric quantities and descriptors. For applications not requiring a great accuracy such as those of lighting design, the angular distribution of the luminous intensity of most of the studied LEDs can be interpolated with only two Zernike polynomials. (paper)

  2. SPEECH CLASSIFICATION USING ZERNIKE MOMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pacharne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Speech recognition is very popular field of research and speech classification improves the performance for speech recognition. Different patterns are identified using various characteristics or features of speech to do there classification. Typical speech features set consist of many parameters like standard deviation, magnitude, zero crossing representing speech signal. By considering all these parameters, system computation load and time will increase a lot, so there is need to minimize these parameters by selecting important features. Feature selection aims to get an optimal subset of features from given space, leading to high classification performance. Thus feature selection methods should derive features that should reduce the amount of data used for classification. High recognition accuracy is in demand for speech recognition system. In this paper Zernike moments of speech signal are extracted and used as features of speech signal. Zernike moments are the shape descriptor generally used to describe the shape of region. To extract Zernike moments, one dimensional audio signal is converted into two dimensional image file. Then various feature selection and ranking algorithms like t-Test, Chi Square, Fisher Score, ReliefF, Gini Index and Information Gain are used to select important feature of speech signal. Performances of the algorithms are evaluated using accuracy of classifier. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as the learning algorithm of classifier and it is observed that accuracy is improved a lot after removing unwanted features.

  3. Benchmarking of HPCC: A novel 3D molecular representation combining shape and pharmacophoric descriptors for efficient molecular similarity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaboga, Arnaud S; Petronin, Florent; Marchetti, Gino; Souchet, Michel; Maigret, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Since 3D molecular shape is an important determinant of biological activity, designing accurate 3D molecular representations is still of high interest. Several chemoinformatic approaches have been developed to try to describe accurate molecular shapes. Here, we present a novel 3D molecular description, namely harmonic pharma chemistry coefficient (HPCC), combining a ligand-centric pharmacophoric description projected onto a spherical harmonic based shape of a ligand. The performance of HPCC was evaluated by comparison to the standard ROCS software in a ligand-based virtual screening (VS) approach using the publicly available directory of useful decoys (DUD) data set comprising over 100,000 compounds distributed across 40 protein targets. Our results were analyzed using commonly reported statistics such as the area under the curve (AUC) and normalized sum of logarithms of ranks (NSLR) metrics. Overall, our HPCC 3D method is globally as efficient as the state-of-the-art ROCS software in terms of enrichment and slightly better for more than half of the DUD targets. Since it is largely admitted that VS results depend strongly on the nature of the protein families, we believe that the present HPCC solution is of interest over the current ligand-based VS methods. PMID:23467019

  4. ¹³C NMR-distance matrix descriptors: optimal abstract 3D space granularity for predicting estrogen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Svetoslav H; Geesaman, Elizabeth L; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Beger, Richard D

    2012-07-23

    An improved three-dimensional quantitative spectral data-activity relationship (3D-QSDAR) methodology was used to build and validate models relating the activity of 130 estrogen receptor binders to specific structural features. In 3D-QSDAR, each compound is represented by a unique fingerprint constructed from (13)C chemical shift pairs and associated interatomic distances. Grids of different granularity can be used to partition the abstract fingerprint space into congruent "bins" for which the optimal size was previously unexplored. For this purpose, the endocrine disruptor knowledge base data were used to generate 50 3D-QSDAR models with bins ranging in size from 2 ppm × 2 ppm × 0.5 Å to 20 ppm × 20 ppm × 2.5 Å, each of which was validated using 100 training/test set partitions. Best average predictivity in terms of R(2)test was achieved at 10 ppm ×10 ppm × Z Å (Z = 0.5, ..., 2.5 Å). It was hypothesized that this optimum depends on the chemical shifts' estimation error (±4.13 ppm) and the precision of the calculated interatomic distances. The highest ranked bins from partial least-squares weights were found to be associated with structural features known to be essential for binding to the estrogen receptor.

  5. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  6. 基于图像重建的Zernike矩形状特征评价%Image Zernike Moments Shape Feature Evaluation Based on Image Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘茂福; 何炎祥; 叶斌

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation approach to the accuracy of the image feature descriptors plays an important role in image feature extraction. We point out that the image shape feature can be described by the Zernike moments set while briefly introducing the basic concept of the Zernike moment. After talking about the image reconstruction technique based on the inverse transformation of Zernike moment, the evaluation approach to the accuracy of the Zernike moments shape feature via the dissimilarity degree and the reconstruction ratio between the original image and the reconstructed image is proposed. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of this evaluation approach to image Zernike moments shape feature.

  7. Frits Zernike and microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.

    2015-09-01

    Zernike polynomial surface and wavefront descriptions have been used in the manufacture of projection optics for microlithography since the 1970's. This is because the optical tolerances are so small that one cannot rely on trial-anderror to achieve diffraction-limited wavefront correction. No manufactured optical surface can be considered to be spherical or even rotationally symmetrical; they have to be measured and systematically compensated. Over the last few decades of Moore's Law there have been continuing decreases in wavefront tolerances and a consequent increase in sophistication of deterministic optical polishing and compensation strategies for residual surface and alignment errors. Optical designs have evolved from all-spherical to the inclusion of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces, more recently in the form of Forbes Q-type polynomials, to Zernike polynomials that include bilaterally symmetric terms. These historical trends and their application to EUV projection optics are reviewed and illustrated with two recent optical designs.

  8. Micro-expression capture and recognition based on 3D-gradient projection descriptor%基于3D 梯度投影描述的微表情捕捉与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 解仑; 王志良; 付冬梅

    2014-01-01

    A 3D‐gradient projection descriptor was proposed to capture the micro‐expression key frames in the video stream .The expression tendency was analyzed by the intuitive description of the projection gradient direction histogram for facial feature area ,and the micro‐expression key frames were found by the peak area of the histogram .Then ,the Gabor spectrum of the feature area was ex‐tracted via the multi‐scale and multi‐direction Gabor filter bank ,and the feature dimension w as re‐duced by local binary pattern .Finally ,the classification and recognition of micro‐expressions was real‐ized by the gradient magnitude weighted nearest neighbor algorithm .The experiment results show that this method gets rid of the frame by frame detection and recognition in the traditional expression analysis system to greatly improve the real‐time and accuracy .This system effectively achieves the purpose that the key frames capture and recognition in the facial image sequence ,and basically meets the requirements of micro‐expression for strong real‐time .%以3D梯度描述为依据,提出了一种基于3D梯度投影描述捕捉微表情关键帧的方法。首先,通过对视频流中面部特征区域的投影梯度方向直方图的直观描述来分析面部表情动作趋势,进而通过直方图的峰值区域捕捉微表情所在的关键帧;然后,运用多尺度多方向的Gabor滤波器组提取微表情特征区域的Gabor图谱,并引入局部二值模式进行特征降维;最后,通过基于梯度量级加权的最近邻算法进行微表情的识别与分类。实验结果表明:该方法摆脱了传统视频流表情分析系统对于动态图像序列进行逐帧检测识别的不足,较为有效地实现了图像序列中微表情关键帧的捕捉与识别,提高了系统的实时性与准确性,基本满足微表情对于系统强实时性的需求。

  9. 基于点上下文描述子的三维手势轨迹识别%3D gesture trajectory recognition based on point context descriptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛峡; 李辰; 吴星宇

    2016-01-01

    A method for 3D (three dimension) gesture trajectory recognition based on point context descriptor of curvature window was proposed .By using curvature window to choose the context points of a gesture trajectory ,the method can not only reduce the dimension of the descriptor but also raise the recognition rate of 3D gesture trajectory .Firstly ,the U‐chord curvature of all points on a 3D ges‐ture trajectory were calculated .Then ,points which have the maximum curvature value and separate to each other were chosen as the context points of a gesture trajectory .Lastly ,the Euclidean distances between every point on the trajectory and the context points were regarded as the feature vector of the point .The shape feature of a 3D gesture trajectory was extracted ,and the support vector machine (SVM ) was applied to classification and recognition .Experimental results show that the average rec‐ognition rate can reach 92 .83% w hen the method is applied to 8 kinds of 3D gesture trajectories cho‐sen randomly from the Australian sign language (ASL ) data set .Besides ,the recognition result is in‐variant to rotation ,scaling and translation (RST ) transformation .%提出了一种基于曲率窗的点上下文描述子的三维手势轨迹识别方法,该方法通过采用曲率窗选取手势轨迹的上下文点,既有效地降低了描述子的维度,又提高了对三维手势轨迹的识别率.首先,计算三维手势轨迹上所有点的U弦长曲率;然后,选取曲率最大且相互分离的点作为手势轨迹的上下文点;最后,将每个轨迹点与上下文点之间的欧氏距离作为该点的特征向量.采用上述方法提取三维手势轨迹的形状特征,支持向量机(SVM )用于分类识别.实验结果表明:该方法对澳大利亚手语数据库(ASL )中任意8类三维手势轨迹的平均识别率达到92.98%,并且识别结果具有旋转、尺度、平移(RS T )无关性.

  10. Performance of Object Classification Using Zernike Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariffuddin Joret; Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah; Muhammad Suhaimi Sulong; Asmarashid Ponniran; Siti Zuraidah Zainudin

    2014-01-01

    Moments have been used in all sorts of object classification systems based on image. There are lots of moments studied by many researchers in the area of object classification and one of the most preference moments is the Zernike moment. In this paper, the performance of object classification using the Zernike moment has been explored. The classifier based on neural networks has been used in this study. The results indicate the best performance in identifying the aggregate is at 91.4% with a ten orders of the Zernike moment. This encouraging result has shown that the Zernike moment is a suitable moment to be used as a feature of object classification systems.

  11. Practical Fast Computation of Zernike Moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Rawi Mohammed; 杨杰

    2002-01-01

    The fast computation of Zernike moments from normalized geometric moments has been developed in this paper. The computation is multiplication free and only additions are needed to generate Zernike moments. Geometric moments are generated using Hatamian's filter up to high orders by a very simple and straightforward computation scheme. Other kinds of moments (e.g., Legendre, pseudo Zernike) can be computed using the same algorithm after giving the proper transformations that state their relations to geometric moments. Proper normalizations of geometric moments are necessary so that the method can be used in the efficient computation of Zernike moments. To ensure fair comparisons, recursive algorithms are used to generate Zernike polynomials and other coefficients. The computational complexity model and test programs show that the speed-up factor of the proposed algorithm is superior with respect to other fast and/or direct computations. It perhaps is the first time that Zernike moments can be computed in real time rates, which encourages the use of Zernike momentfeatures in different image retrieval systems that support huge databases such as the XM experimental model stated for the MPEG-7 experimental core. It is concluded that choosing direct computation would be impractical.

  12. Invariant Image Watermarking Using Accurate Zernike Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available problem statement: Digital image watermarking is the most popular method for image authentication, copyright protection and content description. Zernike moments are the most widely used moments in image processing and pattern recognition. The magnitudes of Zernike moments are rotation invariant so they can be used just as a watermark signal or be further modified to carry embedded data. The computed Zernike moments in Cartesian coordinate are not accurate due to geometrical and numerical error. Approach: In this study, we employed a robust image-watermarking algorithm using accurate Zernike moments. These moments are computed in polar coordinate, where both approximation and geometric errors are removed. Accurate Zernike moments are used in image watermarking and proved to be robust against different kind of geometric attacks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using standard images. Results: Experimental results show that, accurate Zernike moments achieve higher degree of robustness than those approximated ones against rotation, scaling, flipping, shearing and affine transformation. Conclusion: By computing accurate Zernike moments, the embedded bits watermark can be extracted at low error rate.

  13. 3D Shape Indexing and Retrieval Using Characteristics level images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghni Lakehal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved version of the descriptor that we proposed before. The descriptor is based on a set of binary images extracted from the 3D model called level images noted LI. The set LI is often bulky, why we introduced the X-means technique to reduce its size instead of K-means used in the old version. A 2D binary image descriptor was introduced to extract the vectors descriptors of the 3D model. For a comparative study of two versions of the descriptor, we used the National Taiwan University (NTU database of 3D object.

  14. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  15. ZERNIKE,FRITS - LIFE AND ACHIEVEMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FERWERDA, HA

    1993-01-01

    We present a review of the life and work of Frits Zernike (1888-1966), professor of mathematical and technical physics and theoretical mechanics at Groningen University, The Netherlands, inventor of phase contrast microscopy.

  16. Multiway calibration in 3D QSAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, J; de Jong, Sietse; Smilde, A

    1997-01-01

    We have introduced multilinear PLS in 3D QSAR and applied it to GRID descriptors from a set of benzamides with affinity to the dopamine D-3 receptor subtype, synthesized as potential drugs against schizophrenia. The key issue in 3D QSAR modelling is to obtain a predictive model that is easy to inter

  17. A generalized operational formula based on total electronic densities to obtain 3D pictures of the dual descriptor to reveal nucleophilic and electrophilic sites accurately on closed-shell molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge I

    2016-09-30

    By means of the conceptual density functional theory, the so-called dual descriptor (DD) has been adapted to be used in any closed-shell molecule that presents degeneracy in its frontier molecular orbitals. The latter is of paramount importance because a correct description of local reactivity will allow to predict the most favorable sites on a molecule to undergo nucleophilic or electrophilic attacks; on the contrary, an incomplete description of local reactivity might have serio us consequences, particularly for those experimental chemists that have the need of getting an insight about reactivity of chemical reagents before using them in synthesis to obtain a new compound. In the present work, the old approach based only on electronic densities of frontier molecular orbitals is replaced by the most accurate procedure that implies the use of total electronic densities thus keeping consistency with the essential principle of the DFT in which the electronic density is the fundamental variable and not the molecular orbitals. As a result of the present work, the DD will be able to properly describe local reactivities only in terms of total electronic densities. To test the proposed operational formula, 12 very common molecules were selected as the original definition of the DD was not able to describe their local reactivities properly. The ethylene molecule was additionally used to test the capability of the proposed operational formula to reveal a correct local reactivity even in absence of degeneracy in frontier molecular orbitals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27443264

  18. 3D-SURFER 2.0: web platform for real-time search and characterization of protein surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of uncharacterized protein structures necessitates the development of computational approaches for function annotation using the protein tertiary structures. Protein structure database search is the basis of any structure-based functional elucidation of proteins. 3D-SURFER is a web platform for real-time protein surface comparison of a given protein structure against the entire PDB using 3D Zernike descriptors. It can smoothly navigate the protein structure space in real-time from one query structure to another. A major new feature of Release 2.0 is the ability to compare the protein surface of a single chain, a single domain, or a single complex against databases of protein chains, domains, complexes, or a combination of all three in the latest PDB. Additionally, two types of protein structures can now be compared: all-atom-surface and backbone-atom-surface. The server can also accept a batch job for a large number of database searches. Pockets in protein surfaces can be identified by VisGrid and LIGSITE (csc) . The server is available at http://kiharalab.org/3d-surfer/.

  19. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  20. 3D Shape Similarity Using Vectors of Locally Aggregated Tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Tabia, Hedi; Picard, David; Laga, Hamid; Gosselin, Philippe-Henri

    2013-01-01

    IEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2013 International audience In this paper, we present an efficient 3D object retrieval method invariant to scale, orientation and pose. Our approach is based on the dense extraction of discriminative local descriptors extracted from 2D views. We aggregate the descriptors into a single vector signature using tensor products. The similarity between 3D models can then be efficiently computed with a simple dot product. Experiments on the SHR...

  1. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  2. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  3. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  4. Solid works 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Yeong

    2004-02-15

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  5. Solid works 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  6. Analysis of principle deviation of subpixel Zernike moments operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In original Zernike moments subpixel edge operator, ideal step edge model is chosen for calculating four parameters of a pixel point, and therefore principle deviation is caused by edge model. In order to discuss the effect of principle deviation on edge location, sampled edge model is chosen for calculating edge parameters, principle deviation of edge translation l is derived based on Zernike moments edge detection theory, and modified formula of l is given for Zernike moments operator with masks of 5×5 size. Both theory analysis and testing result demonstrate that principle deviation is zero when edge translation l is limited in central pixel of a sampled window. In another case, the modification of l should be considered, which results in edge location accuracy of non-subpixel level for this subpixel edge operator.

  7. Feature Descriptors for Tracking by Detection: a Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Pieropan, Alessandro; Björkman, Mårten; Bergström, Niklas; Kragic, Danica

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an extensive evaluation of the performance of local descriptors for tracking applications. Many different descriptors have been proposed in the literature for a wide range of application in computer vision such as object recognition and 3D reconstruction. More recently, due to fast key-point detectors, local image features can be used in online tracking frameworks. However, while much effort has been spent on evaluating their performance in terms of distinctiveness a...

  8. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  9. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  10. Zernike expansion of derivatives and Laplacians of the Zernike circle polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A J E M

    2014-07-01

    The partial derivatives and Laplacians of the Zernike circle polynomials occur in various places in the literature on computational optics. In a number of cases, the expansion of these derivatives and Laplacians in the circle polynomials are required. For the first-order partial derivatives, analytic results are scattered in the literature. Results start as early as 1942 in Nijboer's thesis and continue until present day, with some emphasis on recursive computation schemes. A brief historic account of these results is given in the present paper. By choosing the unnormalized version of the circle polynomials, with exponential rather than trigonometric azimuthal dependence, and by a proper combination of the two partial derivatives, a concise form of the expressions emerges. This form is appropriate for the formulation and solution of a model wavefront sensing problem of reconstructing a wavefront on the level of its expansion coefficients from (measurements of the expansion coefficients of) the partial derivatives. It turns out that the least-squares estimation problem arising here decouples per azimuthal order m, and per m the generalized inverse solution assumes a concise analytic form so that singular value decompositions are avoided. The preferred version of the circle polynomials, with proper combination of the partial derivatives, also leads to a concise analytic result for the Zernike expansion of the Laplacian of the circle polynomials. From these expansions, the properties of the Laplacian as a mapping from the space of circle polynomials of maximal degree N, as required in the study of the Neumann problem associated with the transport-of-intensity equation, can be read off within a single glance. Furthermore, the inverse of the Laplacian on this space is shown to have a concise analytic form.

  11. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  12. Orthogonal systems of Zernike type in polygons and polygonal facets

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Chelo; Navarro, Rafael; Sinusia, Ester Perez

    2015-01-01

    Zernike polynomials are commonly used to represent the wavefront phase on circular optical apertures, since they form a complete and orthonormal basis on the unit disk. In [Diaz et all, 2014] we introduced a new Zernike basis for elliptic and annular optical apertures based on an appropriate diffeomorphism between the unit disk and the ellipse and the annulus. Here, we present a generalization of this Zernike basis for a variety of important optical apertures, paying special attention to polygons and the polygonal facets present in segmented mirror telescopes. On the contrary to ad hoc solutions, most of them based on the Gram-Smith orthonormalization method, here we consider a piece-wise diffeomorphism that transforms the unit disk into the polygon under consideration. We use this mapping to define a Zernike-like orthonormal system over the polygon. We also consider ensembles of polygonal facets that are essential in the design of segmented mirror telescopes. This generalization, based on in-plane warping of...

  13. Topological Substituent Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea V. DIUDEA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Substituted 1,3,5-triazines are known as useful herbicidal substances. In view of reducing the cost of biological screening, computational methods are carried out for evaluating the biological activity of organic compounds. Often a class of bioactives differs only in the substituent attached to a basic skeleton. In such cases substituent descriptors will give the same prospecting results as in case of using the whole molecule description, but with significantly reduced computational time. Such descriptors are useful in describing steric effects involved in chemical reactions. Method. Molecular topology is the method used for substituent description and multi linear regression analysis as a statistical tool. Results. Novel topological descriptors, XLDS and Ws, based on the layer matrix of distance sums and walks in molecular graphs, respectively, are proposed for describing the topology of substituents linked on a chemical skeleton. They are tested for modeling the esterification reaction in the class of benzoic acids and herbicidal activity of 2-difluoromethylthio-4,6-bis(monoalkylamino-1,3,5-triazines. Conclusions. Ws substituent descriptor, based on walks in graph, satisfactorily describes the steric effect of alkyl substituents behaving in esterification reaction, with good correlations to the Taft and Charton steric parameters, respectively. Modeling the herbicidal activity of the seo of 1,3,5-triazines exceeded the models reported in literature, so far.

  14. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  15. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  16. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  17. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  18. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  19. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-01-01

    In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot o...

  20. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  1. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  2. The FREPA Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Jaeger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses a set of tools that have been developed within the FREPA research project, supported since 2004 by the Council of Europe’s European Centre for Modern Languages. The Framework of Reference for Pluralistic Approaches to Languages and Cultures (FREPA) represents a complement......, attitudes and skills, (b) a database of teaching material and (c) a training kit for teachers. The paper presents the FREPA descriptors by comparing them to Byram’s definition of intercultural communicative competence and Deardorff’s intercultural competence model and emphasises that FREPA deepens...

  3. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  4. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  5. An Automatic Registration Algorithm for 3D Maxillofacial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng

    2016-09-01

    3D image registration aims at aligning two 3D data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in 3D registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for 3D maxillofacial models registration including facial surface model and skull model. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial model in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) 3D-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull models demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.

  6. Multi-level spherical moments based 3D model retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; HE Yuan-jun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel 3D model retrieval method that employs multi-level spherical moment analysis and relies on voxelization and spherical mapping of the 3D models is proposed. For a given polygon-soup 3D model, first a pose normalization step is done to align the model into a canonical coordinate frame so as to define the shape representation with respect to this orientation. Afterward we rasterize its exterior surface into cubical voxel grids, then a series of homocentric spheres with their center superposing the center of the voxel grids cut the voxel grids into several spherical images. Finally moments belonging to each sphere are computed and the moments of all spheres constitute the descriptor of the model. Experiments showed that Euclidean distance based on this kind of feature vector can distinguish different 3D models well and that the 3D model retrieval system based on this arithmetic yields satisfactory performance.

  7. 3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yinhang

    2015-05-01

    The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.

  8. Visual Vocabulary Learning and Its Application to 3D and Mobile Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liujuan

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we review related works and recent trends in visual vocabulary based web image search, object recognition, mobile visual search, and 3D object retrieval. Especial focuses would be also given for the recent trends in supervised/unsupervised vocabulary optimization, compact descriptor for visual search, as well as in multi-view based 3D object representation.

  9. The FREPA Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Jaeger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses a set of tools that have been developed within the FREPA research project, supported since 2004 by the Council of Europe’s European Centre for Modern Languages. The Framework of Reference for Pluralistic Approaches to Languages and Cultures (FREPA) represents a complement......, attitudes and skills, (b) a database of teaching material and (c) a training kit for teachers. The paper presents the FREPA descriptors by comparing them to Byram’s definition of intercultural communicative competence and Deardorff’s intercultural competence model and emphasises that FREPA deepens...... and complements Byram’s and Deardorff’s approaches through its distinction between competences and resources, the finely scaled catalogue of subdescriptors, the integration of plurilingual competences, and the establishment of learning to learn as a transversal dimension. Finally, the paper illustrates...

  10. Separability of local reactivity descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh Tanwar; Sourav Pal

    2005-09-01

    The size-dependence of different local reactivity descriptors of dimer A2 and AB type of systems is discussed. We derive analytic results of these descriptors calculated using finite difference approximation. In particular, we studied Fukui functions, relative electrophilicity and relative nucleophilicity, local softness and local philicity. The results are explained using the example of the dimer of BH3NH3.

  11. Fragment Descriptors in Virtual Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of fragment descriptors at different stages of virtual screening: filtering, similarity search, and direct activity assessment using QSAR/QSPR models. Several case studies are considered. It is demonstrated that the power of fragment descriptors stems from their universality, very high computational efficiency, simplicity of interpretation and versatility.

  12. 2D-Zernike Polynomials and Coherent State Quantization of the Unit Disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Concordia University, Department of Comuter Science and Software Engineering (Canada); Saad, Nasser, E-mail: nsaad@upei.ca [University of Prince Edward Island, Department of mathematics and Statistics (Canada); Honnouvo, G., E-mail: g-honnouvo@yahoo.fr [McGill University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Using the orthonormality of the 2D-Zernike polynomials, reproducing kernels, reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, and ensuring coherent states attained. With the aid of the so-obtained coherent states, the complex unit disc is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols and related generalized Berezin transforms also obtained. A number of necessary summation formulas for the 2D-Zernike polynomials proved.

  13. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463

  14. Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andringa, Roel; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered `massive 3D gravity'. Another is a `new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  15. Massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A; De Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: O.Hohm@rug.n, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.ed, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-21

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered 'massive 3D gravity'. Another is a 'new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  16. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    ABSTRACT: Lack of productivity in construction is a well known issue. Despite the fact that causes hereof are multiple, the introduction of information technology is a frequently observed response to almost any challenge. ICT in construction is a thoroughly researched matter, however, the current...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  17. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  18. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  19. ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

  20. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  1. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. 3D monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Szkandera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací systému, který umožní obraz scény zobrazovaný na ploše vnímat prostorově. Prostorové vnímání 2D obrazové informace je umožněno jednak stereopromítáním a jednak tím, že se obraz mění v závislosti na poloze pozorovatele. Tato práce se zabývá hlavně druhým z těchto problémů. This Bachelor's thesis goal is to design and realize system, which allows user to perceive 2D visual information as three-dimensional. 3D visual preception of 2D image i...

  3. Elemental x-ray imaging using Zernike phase contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi-Gang; Chen, Jian; Wali, Faiz; Bao, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Tian, Yang-Chao; Gao, Kun

    2016-10-01

    We develop an element-specific x-ray microscopy method by using Zernike phase contrast imaging near absorption edges, where a real part of refractive index changes abruptly. In this method two phase contrast images are subtracted to obtain the target element: one is at the absorption edge of the target element and the other is near the absorption edge. The x-ray exposure required by this method is expected to be significantly lower than that of conventional absorption-based x-ray elemental imaging methods. Numerical calculations confirm the advantages of this highly efficient imaging method. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825801) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11505188, and 11305173).

  4. Image adaptive RST invariant watermark using pseudo-Zernike moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leida LI; Baolong GUO

    2008-01-01

    Rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks can desynchronize watermark detection, which causes failure in many watermarking systems. In this paper, an image adaptive RST invariant watermark (AWPZM) is proposed by using the rotation invariant property of pseudo-Zernike moments (PZM) and odd-even quantization. PZM of the original image is computed first, and then those suitable for watermark generation are selected. Then, magnitudes of them are odd-even quantized to generate the watermark. In detection, a normalized hamming function is employed to determine the similarity of the watermark. Experimental results show its robustness to rotation and scaling. For traditional attacks, such as JPEG compression, added noise and filtering, the similarities are all above 0.95.

  5. FEATURE DESCRIPTOR BY CONVOLUTION AND POOLING AUTOENCODERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present several descriptors for feature-based matching based on autoencoders, and we evaluate the performance of these descriptors. In a training phase, we learn autoencoders from image patches extracted in local windows surrounding key points determined by the Difference of Gaussian extractor. In the matching phase, we construct key point descriptors based on the learned autoencoders, and we use these descriptors as the basis for local keypoint descriptor matching. Three types of descriptors based on autoencoders are presented. To evaluate the performance of these descriptors, recall and 1-precision curves are generated for different kinds of transformations, e.g. zoom and rotation, viewpoint change, using a standard benchmark data set. We compare the performance of these descriptors with the one achieved for SIFT. Early results presented in this paper show that, whereas SIFT in general performs better than the new descriptors, the descriptors based on autoencoders show some potential for feature based matching.

  6. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  7. X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Leonard; Brutzman, Don

    2007-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.905889 Extensible 3D (X3D) is the open standard for Web-delivered three-dimensional (3D) graphics. It specifies a declarative geometry definition language, a run-time engine, and an application program interface (API) that provide an interactive, animated, real-time environment for 3D graphics. The X3D specification documents are freely available, the standard can be used without paying any royalties,...

  8. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  9. 3D modelling and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  10. Ant colony optimization as a descriptor selection in QSPR modeling for prediction of λmax of azo dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Atabati; Farzaneh Khandani

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was suggested for the prediction of λmax of azo dyes.After optimization of 3D geometry of structures,different descriptors were calculated by the HyperChem and Dragon softwares.A major problem of QSPR is the high dimensionality of the descriptor space; therefore,descriptor selection is the most important step for these studies.In this paper,an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm was proposed to select the best descriptors.

  11. Effects of Different Zernike Terms on Optical Quality and Vision of Human Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; LI Jing; DAI Yun; YU Xiang; ZHANG Yu-Dong; JIANG Wen-Han

    2009-01-01

    The visual quality of human eyes is much restricted by high-order aberrations as well as low-order aberrations (defocus and astigmatism), but each term of high-order aberrations contributes differently. The visual acuity and contrast of the image on the retina can be gained by inducing aberrations to each term of high orders. Based on an adaptive optics system, the visual acuity of four subjects is tested by inducing aberrations to each Zernike term after correcting all the aberrations of the subjects. Zernike terms near the center of the Zernike tree affect visual quality more than those near the edge both theoretically and experimentally, and 0.1-μm aberration of these terms can clearly degrade the optical quality and vision. The results suggest that correcting the terms near the center of Zernike tree can improve the visual quality effectively in practice.

  12. Gaussian-Based Hue Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Funt, Brian

    2015-12-01

    A robust and accurate hue descriptor that is useful in modeling human color perception and for computer vision applications is explored. The hue descriptor is based on the peak wavelength of a Gaussian-like function (called a wraparound Gaussian) and is shown to correlate as well as CIECAM02 hue to the hue designators of papers from the Munsell and Natural Color System color atlases and to the hue names found in Moroney's Color Thesaurus. The new hue descriptor is also shown to be significantly more stable under a variety of illuminants than CIECAM02. The use of wraparound Gaussians as a hue model is similar in spirit to the use of subtractive Gaussians proposed by Mizokami et al., but overcomes many of their limitations. PMID:26539849

  13. Jet-Based Local Image Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg;

    2012-01-01

    We present a general novel image descriptor based on higherorder differential geometry and investigate the effect of common descriptor choices. Our investigation is twofold in that we develop a jet-based descriptor and perform a comparative evaluation with current state-of-the-art descriptors...... on the recently released DTU Robot dataset. We demonstrate how the use of higher-order image structures enables us to reduce the descriptor dimensionality while still achieving very good performance. The descriptors are tested in a variety of scenarios including large changes in scale, viewing angle and lighting...

  14. 3D-skannaukseen perehtyminen

    OpenAIRE

    Santaluoto, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä tarkastellaan erilaisia 3D-skannaustekniikoita ja menetelmiä. Työssä myös kerrotaan esimerkkien avulla eri 3D-skannaustekniikoiden käyttökohteista. 3D-skannaus on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, siksi eri tekniikat ja käyttömahdollisuudet ovat monille tuntemattomia. 3D-skanneri on laite, jolla tutkitaan reaalimaailman esineitä tai ympäristöä keräämällä dataa kohteen muodoista. 3D-skannerit ovat hyvin paljon vastaavia tavallisen kameran kanssa. Kuten kameroilla, 3D...

  15. 3D Printing Functional Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yew Juan

    2016-01-01

    3D printing presents the ability of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing. Techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition molding (FDM) have been developed and utilized since the inception of 3D printing. In such techniques, polymers represent the most commonly used material for 3D printing due to material properties such as thermo plasticity as well as its ability to be polymerized from monomers. Polymer nanocomposites are polymers with nanomaterials composited into the ...

  16. An Efficient Multimodal 2D + 3D Feature-based Approach to Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2015-07-29

    We present a fully automatic multimodal 2D + 3D feature-based facial expression recognition approach and demonstrate its performance on the BU-3DFE database. Our approach combines multi-order gradient-based local texture and shape descriptors in order to achieve efficiency and robustness. First, a large set of fiducial facial landmarks of 2D face images along with their 3D face scans are localized using a novel algorithm namely incremental Parallel Cascade of Linear Regression (iPar-CLR). Then, a novel Histogram of Second Order Gradients (HSOG) based local image descriptor in conjunction with the widely used first-order gradient based SIFT descriptor are used to describe the local texture around each 2D landmark. Similarly, the local geometry around each 3D landmark is described by two novel local shape descriptors constructed using the first-order and the second-order surface differential geometry quantities, i.e., Histogram of mesh Gradients (meshHOG) and Histogram of mesh Shape index (curvature quantization, meshHOS). Finally, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based recognition results of all 2D and 3D descriptors are fused at both feature-level and score-level to further improve the accuracy. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that there exist impressive complementary characteristics between the 2D and 3D descriptors. We use the BU-3DFE benchmark to compare our approach to the state-of-the-art ones. Our multimodal feature-based approach outperforms the others by achieving an average recognition accuracy of 86.32%. Moreover, a good generalization ability is shown on the Bosphorus database.

  17. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  18. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  19. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  20. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  1. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  2. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  3. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen;

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  4. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  5. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  6. Indoor objects and outdoor urban scenes recognition by 3D visual primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Junsheng; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian; Buch, Anders Glent;

    2014-01-01

    Object detection, recognition and pose estimation in 3D images have gained momentum due to availability of 3D sensors (RGB-D) and increase of large scale 3D data, such as city maps. The most popular approach is to extract and match 3D shape descriptors that encode local scene structure, but omits......, we propose an alternative appearance-driven approach which rst extracts 2D primitives justi ed by Marr's primal sketch, which are \\accumulated" over multiple views and the most stable ones are \\promoted" to 3D visual primitives. The 3D promoted primitives represent both structure and appearance....... For recognition, we propose a fast and eective correspondence matching using random sampling. For quantitative evaluation we construct a semi-synthetic benchmark dataset using a public 3D model dataset of 119 kitchen objects and another benchmark of challenging street-view images from 4 dierent cities...

  7. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bultinck; Ramon carbó-dorca

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape function (r), the Fukui functions +(r) and -(r) and local softness +(r) and -(r). Correlations are investigated between similarity indices for each couple of descriptors used and compared to assess whether these different descriptors sample different information and to investigate what information is revealed by each descriptor.

  8. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  9. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  10. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  11. 3-D Video Processing for 3-D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kwanghoon; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Yongtae

    One of the most desirable ways of realizing high quality information and telecommunication services has been called "The Sensation of Reality," which can be achieved by visual communication based on 3-D (Three-dimensional) images. These kinds of 3-D imaging systems have revealed potential applications in the fields of education, entertainment, medical surgery, video conferencing, etc. Especially, three-dimensional television (3-D TV) is believed to be the next generation of TV technology. Figure 13.1 shows how TV's display technologies have evolved , and Fig. 13.2 details the evolution of TV broadcasting as forecasted by the ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute). It is clear that 3-D TV broadcasting will be the next development in this field, and realistic broadcasting will soon follow.

  12. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  13. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  14. Artifact characterization and reduction in scanning X-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Holzner, Christian; Mohacsi, Istvan; Karvinen, Petri; Diaz, Ana; Pigino, Gaia; David, Christian

    2015-05-18

    Zernike phase contrast microscopy is a well-established method for imaging specimens with low absorption contrast. It has been successfully implemented in full-field microscopy using visible light and X-rays. In microscopy Cowley's reciprocity principle connects scanning and full-field imaging. Even though the reciprocity in Zernike phase contrast has been discussed by several authors over the past thirty years, only recently it was experimentally verified using scanning X-ray microscopy. In this paper, we investigate the image and contrast formation in scanning Zernike phase contrast microscopy with a particular and detailed focus on the origin of imaging artifacts that are typically associated with Zernike phase contrast. We demonstrate experimentally with X-rays the effect of the phase mask design on the contrast and halo artifacts and present an optimized design of the phase mask with respect to photon efficiency and artifact reduction. Similarly, due to the principle of reciprocity the observations and conclusions of this work have direct applicability to Zernike phase contrast in full-field microscopy as well. PMID:26074579

  15. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  16. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  17. 3D on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Puntar, Matej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of already established and new technologies of displaying 3D content in a web browser. The thesis begins with a short presentation of the history of 3D content available on the internet and its development together with advantages and disadvantages of individual technologies. The latter two are described in detail as well is their use and the differences among them. Special emphasis has been given to WebGL, the newest technology of 3D conte...

  18. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  19. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  20. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    traditionel keramisk produktionssammenhæng. Problemstillingen opmuntrede endvidere til i et samarbejde med en programmør at udvikle et 3d digitalt redskab, der er blevet kaldt et digitalt interaktivt formgivningsredskab (DIF). Eksperimentet undersøger interaktive 3d digitale dynamiske systemer, der...... samarbejder med designere fra fagområder som interaktionsdesign og programmering. Afhandlingen peger på et fremtidigt forskningsfelt indenfor generative og responderende digitale systemer til 3d formgivning, der ligeledes inkluderer følesansen. Endvidere er det relevant at forske i, hvordan de RP teknikker...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...

  1. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  2. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  3. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  4. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  5. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  6. MDF - A New QSPR/QSAR Molecular Descriptors Family

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntschi, Lorentz

    2004-01-01

    MotivationIn the present are many QSAR/QSPR models, based on varied considerations, from mathematical through topological and geometrical to 3D molecular geometry approaches.IdeaThe idea is to create a unitary approach, based on a minimal set of well-known truths, capable to generate an efficient model of property behavior depending on molecular structure.MethodFirst step in order to reach the proposed goal is to create a huge family of molecular descriptors starting from molecular structure ...

  7. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  8. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  9. Study on the design and Zernike aberrations of a segmented mirror telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhen-Yu; Li Lin; Huang Yi-Fan

    2009-01-01

    The segmented mirror telescope is widely used. The aberrations of segmented mirror systems are different from single mirror systems. This paper uses the Fourier optics theory to analyse the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems. It concludes that the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems obey the linearity theorem. The design of a segmented space telescope and segmented schemes are discussed, and its optical model is constructed. The computer simulation experiment is performed with this optical model to verify the suppositions. The experimental results confirm the correctness of the model.

  10. Geometrically robust image watermarking using scale-invariant feature transform and Zernike moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leida Li; Baolong Guo; Kai Shao

    2007-01-01

    In order to resist geometric attacks, a robust image watermarking algorithm is proposed using scaleinvariant feature transform (SIFT) and Zernike moments. As SIFT features are invariant to rotation and scaling, we employ SIFT to extract feature points. Then circular patches are generated using the most robust points. An invariant watermark is generated from each circular patch based on Zernike moments.The watermark is embedded into multiple patches for resisting locally cropping attacks. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust to both geometric attacks and signal processing attacks.

  11. Halo suppression in full-field x-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Mokso, Rajmund; Stampanoni, Marco; David, Christian

    2014-03-15

    Visible light Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) microscopy is a well established method for imaging weakly absorbing samples. The method is also used with hard x-ray photon energies for structural evaluation of material science and biological applications. However, the method suffers from artifacts that are inherent for the Zernike image formation. In this Letter, we investigate their origin and experimentally show how to suppress them in x-ray full-field ZPC microscopy based on diffractive x-ray optics. PMID:24690848

  12. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  13. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  14. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  15. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  16. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  17. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  18. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich;

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  19. Crowded Field 3D Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, T; Roth, M M; Becker, Thomas; Fabrika, Sergei; Roth, Martin M.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative spectroscopy of stellar objects in complex environments is mainly limited by the ability of separating the object from the background. Standard slit spectroscopy, restricting the field of view to one dimension, is obviously not the proper technique in general. The emerging Integral Field (3D) technique with spatially resolved spectra of a two-dimensional field of view provides a great potential for applying advanced subtraction methods. In this paper an image reconstruction algorithm to separate point sources and a smooth background is applied to 3D data. Several performance tests demonstrate the photometric quality of the method. The algorithm is applied to real 3D observations of a sample Planetary Nebula in M31, whose spectrum is contaminated by the bright and complex galaxy background. The ability of separating sources is also studied in a crowded stellar field in M33.

  20. 3D-grafiikkamoottori mobiililaitteille

    OpenAIRE

    Vahlman, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä käydään läpi mobiililaitteille suunnatun yksinkertaisen 3D-grafiikkamoottorin suunnittelu ja toteutus käyttäen OpenGL ES -rajapintaa. Työssä esitellään grafiikkamoottorin toteutuksessa käytettyjä tekniikoita sekä tutustutaan moottorin rakenteeseen ja toteutuksellisiin yksityiskohtiin. Työn alkupuolella tutustutaan myös modernin 3D-grafiikan yleisiin periaatteisiin ja toimintaan sekä käydään läpi 3D-grafiikkaan liittyviä suorituskykyongelmia. Työn loppupuolella esitel...

  1. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  2. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  3. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CHARACTERISTIC VIEWS FOR 2D/3D INDEXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El far,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The tridimensional models are increasingly used in applications that require visualizing realistic objects (CAD/CAO, medical simulations, games, virtual reality, etc.. Therefore, the management of collecting 3D data of big size is becoming a significant field.For example, the indexation of these data allows a designer to easily retrieve the data that are visually and semantically similar to a featured query object. To that effect, two main approaches exist: searching by using a 3D model directly and searching by using a 2D view of the 3D query object. In our case/study, we are interested by this last approach and we emphasize on the extraction of haracteristic views of 3D models using the Datamining Algorithms “Apriori and extraction of association rules” from a description ofcharacteristic views based on the moments of Zernike. Moreover, the featured system relies on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. We present the obtained results in a set of 120 3D models of the rinceton benchmark. Then we compare them to results obtained using classical methods

  4. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  5. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... beamforming. This is achieved partly because synthetic aperture imaging removes the limitation of a fixed transmit focal depth and instead enables dynamic transmit focusing. Lately, the major ultrasound companies have produced ultrasound scanners using 2-D transducer arrays with enough transducer elements...

  6. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  7. Three-dimensional Content-Based Cardiac Image Retrieval using global and local descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Leila C C; Nunes, Fátima L S

    2015-01-01

    The increase in volume of medical images generated and stored has created difficulties in accurate image retrieval. An alternative is to generate three-dimensional (3D) models from such medical images and use them in the search. Some of the main cardiac illnesses, such as Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), have deformation in the heart's shape as one of the main symptoms, which can be identified faster in a 3D object than in slices. This article presents techniques developed to retrieve 3D cardiac models using global and local descriptors within a content-based image retrieval system. These techniques were applied in pre-classified 3D models with and without the CHF disease and they were evaluated by using Precision vs. Recall metric. We observed that local descriptors achieved better results than a global descriptor, reaching 85% of accuracy. The results confirmed the potential of using 3D models retrieval in the medical context to aid in the diagnosis. PMID:26958280

  8. Descriptors of server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2013-01-01

    China with the huge market potential it possesses is an important issue for subsidiaries of western multinational companies. The objective of this paper is therefore to strengthen researchers’ and practitioners’ perspectives on what are the descriptors of server capabilities. The descriptors...... are relevant to determine subsidiary roles and as an indication of the capabilities required. These descriptors are identified through extensive literature review and validated by case studies of two Danish multinational companies subsidiaries operating in China. They provided the empirical basis...

  9. Using three-dimensional discrete spherical Fourier descriptors based on surface curvature voxels for pollen particle recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Yong-Hua; Michael OhEigeartaigh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for extract three-dimensional (3D) discrete spherical Fourier descriptors based on surface curvature voxeis for pollen particle recognition.In order to reduce the high amount of pollen information and noise disturbance,the geometric normalized curvature voxels with the principal curvedness are first extracted to represent the intrinsic pollen volumetric data.Then the curvature voxels are decomposed into radial and angular components with spherical harmonic transform in spherical coordinates.Finally the 3D discrete Fourier transform is applied to the decomposed curvature voxels to obtain the 3D spherical Fourier descriptors for pollen recognition.Experimental results show that the presented descriptors are invariant to different pollen particle geometric transformations,such as pose change and spatial rotation,and can obtain high recognition accuracy and speed simultaneously.

  10. Superquadric Similarity Measure with Spherical Harmonics in 3D Object Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINGWeiwei; LIUWeibin; YUANBaozong

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for superquadric similarity measure in 3D object recognition. The 3D objects are represented by a composite volumetric representation of Superquadric (SQ)-based geons, which are the new and powerful volumetric models adequate for 3D recognition. The proposed approach is processed through three stages: first, a novel sampling algorithm is designed for searching Chebyshev nodes on superquadric surface to construct the discrete spherical function representing superquadric 3D shape; secondly, the fast Spherical Harmonic Transform is performed on the discrete spherical function to obtain the rotation invariant descriptor of superquadric; thirdly, the similarity of superquadrics is measured by computing the L2 difference between two obtained descriptors. In addition, an integrated processing framework is presented for 3D object recognition with SQ-based geons from the real 3D data, which implements the approach proposed in this paper for shape similarity measure between SQ-based geons. Evaluation experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach is very efficient and robust for similarity measure of superquadric models. The research lays a foundation for developing SQ-based 3D object recognition systems.

  11. 3D Face Apperance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations

  12. 3D Face Appearance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  14. When Art Meets 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  15. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu;

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  16. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  17. Viewing galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krajnović, Davor

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to a technique that reveals galaxies in 3D, astronomers can now show that many galaxies have been wrongly classified. Davor Krajnovi\\'c argues that the classification scheme proposed 85 years ago by Edwin Hubble now needs to be revised.

  18. Object Descriptor Combining Color and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Object descriptor has become one of the key factors for a robust and accurate tracker. In this paper, we propose an object descriptor combining color information and motion detection. A tracked object can be described by its hue histogram excluding the background pixels around the tracked object for restraining the disturbing of complex background environments. During the tracking process, we model the object descriptor by Gaussian Mixture Model for adapting the appearance variation of the tracked object. Tracking experiments in the frame of particle filter show that our proposed object descriptor can effectively improve the robustness and accuracy of object tracking under the situations of complex environments and appearance variations.

  19. Image segmentation of nanoscale Zernike phase contrast X-ray computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zernike phase contrast is a useful technique for nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of materials with a low X-ray absorption coefficient. It enhances the image contrast by phase shifting X-ray waves to create changes in amplitude. However, it creates artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. We propose an image restoration method that models the X-ray phase contrast optics and the three-dimensional image reconstruction method. We generate artifact-free images through an optimization problem that inverts this model. Though similar approaches have been used for Zernike phase contrast in visible light microscopy, this optimization employs an effective edge detection method tailored to handle Zernike phase contrast artifacts. We characterize this optics-based restoration method by removing the artifacts in and thresholding multiple Zernike phase contrast X-ray CT images to produce segmented results that are consistent with the physical specimens. We quantitatively evaluate and compare our method to other segmentation techniques to demonstrate its high accuracy

  20. Real-time self-induced nonlinear optical Zernike-type filter in a bacteriorhodopsin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe Castillo, David; Sanchez-de-la-Llave, David; Garcia, Ruben R.; Olivos-Perez, L. I.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Rodriguez-Ortiz, M.

    2001-11-01

    We propose the use of a nonlinear bacteriorhodopsin film to self-induce a Zernike-type filter in robust optical phase-contrast systems. The device requires relatively low light intensity levels (as low as 200 nW/cm2) at wavelengths around 633 nm and can contrast dynamical phase distributions.

  1. Systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for annular wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.N.; Aftab, M.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of wavefront analysis of a noncircular wavefront is given and applied for a systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for the analysis of an annular wavefront. It is shown that, unlike the annular coefficients, the circle coefficients generally change as t

  2. Magnetic imaging with a Zernike-type phase plate in a transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollard, Shawn; Malac, Marek; Beleggia, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a hole-free phase plate (HFPP) for magnetic imaging in transmission electron microscopy by mapping the domain structure in PrDyFeB samples. The HFPP, a Zernike-like imaging method, allows for detecting magnetic signals in-focus to correlate the sample crystal structure...

  3. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk

    OpenAIRE

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  4. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  5. 3D Cameras: 3D Computer Vision of Wide Scope

    OpenAIRE

    May, Stefan; Pervoelz, Kai; Surmann, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    First of all, a short comparison of range sensors and their underlying principles was given. The chapter further focused on 3D cameras. The latest innovations have given a significant improvement for the measurement accuracy, wherefore this technology has attracted attention in the robotics community. This was also the motivation for the examination in this chapter. On this account, several applications were presented, which represents common problems in the domain of autonomous robotics. For...

  6. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  7. Neural networks and statistical analysis for classification of corneal videokeratography maps based on Zernike coefficients: a quantitative comparison Redes neurais e análise estatística para classificação de mapas topográficos da córnea baseados em coeficientes de Zernike: uma comparação quantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Vieira de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The main goal of this study was to develop and compare two different techniques for classification of specific types of corneal shapes when Zernike coefficients are used as inputs. A feed-forward artificial Neural Network (NN and discriminant analysis (DA techniques were used. METHODS: The inputs both for the NN and DA were the first 15 standard Zernike coefficients for 80 previously classified corneal elevation data files from an Eyesys System 2000 Videokeratograph (VK, installed at the Departamento de Oftalmologia of the Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo. The NN had 5 output neurons which were associated with 5 typical corneal shapes: keratoconus, with-the-rule astigmatism, against-the-rule astigmatism, "regular" or "normal" shape and post-PRK. RESULTS: The NN and DA responses were statistically analyzed in terms of precision ([true positive+true negative]/total number of cases. Mean overall results for all cases for the NN and DA techniques were, respectively, 94% and 84.8%. CONCLUSION: Although we used a relatively small database, results obtained in the present study indicate that Zernike polynomials as descriptors of corneal shape may be a reliable parameter as input data for diagnostic automation of VK maps, using either NN or DA.OBJETIVOS: Nosso principal objetivo neste trabalho foi de desenvolver e comparar duas técnicas diferentes para classificação de superfícies corneanas. Uma rede neural artificial alimentada adiante e análise descriminante foram as técnicas de classificação comparadas neste trabalho. MÉTODOS: As entradas para ambos os métodos de classificação foram os primeiros 15 coeficientes de Zernike para 80 córneas mensuradas anteriormente em um topógrafo Eyesys instalado no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP. A rede neural tem 5 saídas que foram associados aos cinco casos típicos contidos na base de dados: ceratocone, astigmatismo a favor da regra, astigmatismo

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  9. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  10. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  11. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  13. Video summarization using motion descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Peker, Kadir A.; Sun, Huifang

    2001-01-01

    We describe a technique for video summarization that uses motion descriptors computed in the compressed domain to speed up conventional color based video summarization technique. The basic hypothesis of the work is that the intensity of motion activity of a video segment is a direct indication of its 'summarizability.' We present experimental verification of this hypothesis. We are thus able to quickly identify easy to summarize segments of a video sequence since they have a low intensity of motion activity. Moreover, the compressed domain extraction of motion activity intensity is much simpler than the color-based calculations. We are able to easily summarize these segments by simply choosing a key-frame at random from each low- activity segment. We can then apply conventional color-based summarization techniques to the remaining segments. We are thus able to speed up color-based summarization techniques by reducing the number of segments on which computationally more expensive color-based computation is needed.

  14. THESAURUS OF ERIC DESCRIPTORS (INTERIM) JANUARY 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967

    THE "THESAURUS OF ERIC DESCRIPTORS (INTERIM)" SUPERSEDES, AND REPRESENTS A REFINEMENT OF, THE "THESAURUS OF ERIC DESCRIPTORS." THE INTERIM ISSUE IS A PRELIMINARY ERIC SYSTEM TOOL AND IS NOT TO BE CONSIDERED A COMPLETE REPRESENTATION OF THE FINAL PRODUCT. THIS REFINEMENT IS THE RESULT OF TWO MAJOR PROJECTS--(1) THE INCORPORATION OF SUGGESTIONS…

  15. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  16. INGRID, 3-D Mesh Generator for Program DYNA3D and NIKE3D and FACET and TOPAZ3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D (NESC 9909), NIKE3D (NESC 9725), FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The most important new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition. 2 - Method of solution: Geometries are described primarily using the index space notation of the INGEN program (NESC 975) with an additional type of notation, index progression. Index progressions provide a concise and simple method for describing complex structures; the concept was developed to facilitate defining multiple regions in index space. Rather than specifying the minimum and maximum indices for a region, one specifies the progression of indices along the I, J and K directions, respectively. The index progression method allows the analyst to describe most geometries including nodes and elements with roughly the same amount of input as a solids modeler

  17. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  18. Tehokas 3D-animaatiotuotanto

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Manu

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin tehokasta tapaa toteuttaa minuutin mittainen animaatio Scene.org Awards -tapahtuman avajaisseremoniaan. Kyseinen video toteutettiin osana opinnäytetyötä. Työhön osallistui tekijän lisäksi 3D-mallintaja sekä muusikko. Työkaluina käytettiin pääasiassa Autodesk 3ds Max-, sekä Adobe After Effects- ja Adobe Photoshop -ohjelmia. Opinnäytetyö koostuu animaatioprojektin tuotantoputken ja tiedostonhallintamallin perinpohjaisesta läpikäymisestä sekä sen asian tutkimisesta...

  19. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  1. How 3-D Movies Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铁雄

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  2. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  3. Zernike polynomials as a basis for modal fitting in lateral shearing interferometry: a discrete domain matrix transformation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fengzhao; Zheng, Yazhong; Bu, Yang; Wang, Xiangzhao

    2016-08-01

    A Zernike-polynomials-based wavefront reconstruction method for lateral shearing interferometry is proposed. Shear matrices are calculated using matrix transformation instead of mathematical derivation. Simulation results show that the shear matrices calculated using the proposed method are the same as those obtained from mathematical derivation. The advantage of the proposed method is that high order shear matrices can be obtained easily; thus, wavefront reconstruction can be extended to higher order Zernike terms, and reconstruction accuracy can be improved. PMID:27505367

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  7. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  8. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  9. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  10. Compact Vectors of Locally Aggregated Tensors for 3D shape retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Tabia, Hedi; Picard, David; Laga, Hamid; Gosselin, Philippe-Henri

    2013-01-01

    International audience During the last decade, a significant attention has been paid, by the computer vision and the computer graphics communities, to three dimensional (3D) object retrieval. Shape retrieval methods can be divided into three main steps: the shape descriptors extraction, the shape signatures and their associated similarity measures, and the machine learning relevance functions. While the first and the last points have vastly been addressed in recent years, in this paper, we...

  11. Efficient source mask optimization with Zernike polynomial functions for source representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y

    2014-02-24

    In 22nm optical lithography and beyond, source mask optimization (SMO) becomes vital for the continuation of advanced ArF technology node development. The pixel-based method permits a large solution space, but involves a time-consuming optimization procedure because of the large number of pixel variables. In this paper, we introduce the Zernike polynomials as basis functions to represent the source patterns, and propose an improved SMO algorithm with this representation. The source patterns are decomposed into the weighted superposition of some well-chosen Zernike polynomial functions, and the number of variables decreases significantly. We compare the computation efficiency and optimization performance between the proposed method and the conventional pixel-based algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the former can obtain substantial speedup of source optimization while improving the pattern fidelity at the same time.

  12. A Collaborative Nonlocal-Means Super-resolution Algorithm Using Zernike Monments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Guo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution (SR with probabilistic motion estimation is a successful algorithm to circumvent the limitation of motion estimation upon conventional super-resolution methods. However, the algorithm can’t match similar patches with rotation or scale. This paper presents an efficient improved algorithm by introducing Zernike moments as representation of image invariant features into similarity measure. A collaborative strategy is proposed combining the moment based proximity and the bilateral proximity of nonlocal means (NL-means algorithm for joint determination of weights. For the invariant property of Zernike moments, structure-similar pixels with rotation or scale can also be matched for computation of weights. Furthermore, the collaborative mechanism ensures higher accuracy of weights for a better estimation for each pixel of SR images. Experimental results indicate the proposed method is able to handle general video sequences with superior performance in SR reconstruction.

  13. Wavefront aberration function in terms of R. V. Shack's vector product and Zernike polynomial vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert W; Rolland, Jannick P

    2015-10-01

    Previous papers have shown how, for rotationally symmetric optical imaging systems, nodes in the field dependence of the wavefront aberration function develop when a rotationally symmetric optical surface within an imaging optical system is decentered and/or tilted. In this paper, we show how Shack's vector product (SVP) can be used to express the wavefront aberration function and to define vectors in terms of the Zernike polynomials. The wavefront aberration function is then expressed in terms of the Zernike vectors. It is further shown that SVP fits within the framework of two-dimensional geometric algebra (GA). Within the GA framework, an equation for the third-order node locations for the binodal astigmatism term that emerge in the presence of tilts and decenters is then demonstrated. A computer model of a three-mirror telescope system is used to demonstrate the validity of the mathematical development. PMID:26479937

  14. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  15. Photopolymers in 3D printing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology with applications in several areas. The flexibility of the 3D printing system to use variety of materials and create any object makes it an attractive technology. Photopolymers are one of the materials used in 3D printing with potential to make products with better properties. Due to numerous applications of photopolymers and 3D printing technologies, this thesis is written to provide information about the various 3D printing technologies with particul...

  16. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  17. Recognition of Isolated Words using Zernike and MFCC features for Audio Visual Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bordea, Prashant; Varpeb, Amarsinh; Manzac, Ramesh; Yannawara, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) by machine is an attractive research topic in signal processing domain and has attracted many researchers to contribute in this area. In recent year, there have been many advances in automatic speech reading system with the inclusion of audio and visual speech features to recognize words under noisy conditions. The objective of audio-visual speech recognition system is to improve recognition accuracy. In this paper we computed visual features using Zernike m...

  18. PIZZA: a phase-induced zonal Zernike apodization designed for stellar coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinache, Frantz

    2004-08-01

    I explore here the possibilities offered by the general formalism of coronagraphy for the very special case of phase contrast. This technique, invented by Zernike, is commonly used in microscopy, to see phase objects such as micro-organisms, and in strioscopy, to control the quality of optics polishing. It may find application in telescope pupil apodization with significant advantages over classical pupil apodization techniques, including high throughput and no off-axis resolution loss, which is essential for exoplanet imaging.

  19. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi;

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...... with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described...

  20. 3D Energy Harvester Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janicek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the characterization and evaluation of an MEMS based electrostatic generator, a part of the power supply unit of the self-powered microsystem[1,2,3]. The designed generator is based on electrostatic converter and uses the principle of conversion of non-electric energy into electrical energy by periodical modification of gap between electrodes of a capacitor [4]. The structure is designed and modeled as three-dimensional silicon based MEMS. Innovative approach involving the achievement of very low resonant frequency of the structure (about 100Hz by usage of modified long cantilever spring design, minimum area of the chip, 3D work mode, the ability to be tuned to reach desired parameters, proves promising directions of possible further development.

  1. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  2. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  3. Towards top-hat spatial shaping of ultrafast laser beam based on Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauclair, Cyril; Faure, Nicolas; Houzet, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond laser micro machining of surfaces knows a gain of interest as it demonstrates efficient and precise processing with reduced side effects around the irradiated zone, and also because of the remarkable costs reduction and reliability improvements of nowadays commercially available sources. Controlling the intensity distribution spatially can offer a supplementary degree of flexibility and precision in achieving user-defined ablation spatial profile, drilling, cutting of materials or in-volume laser-induced modifications. In this scope, the possibility to generate a top-hat intensity distribution by spatially shaping the beam wavefront is studied in this work. An optimization of Zernike polynomials coefficients is conducted to numerically determine an adequate phase mask that shapes the laser intensity distribution following a targeted top hat distribution in the processing plane, usually at the focal length of a converging lens. The efficiency of the method is numerically investigated in the optimization by evaluation of the root mean square error (RMS) between the top-hat target and the calculated laser distribution in the far field. We numerically verify that acceptable top-hat beam shaping of various size can be achieved with a sufficient number of Zernike polynomials, opening the way to phase mask calculations adapted to the wavefront modulator ability to reproduce Zernike polynomials.

  4. Generalization of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem: observers moving with respect to sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniel; Monjid, Younes; Rougé, Bernard; Kerr, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The use of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem for the formulation of the visibility function in satellite-based Earth observation with passive radiometers does not take into account the relative motion of the observer (the satellite antenna) with respect to sources of the electro-magnetic fields at the surface of the Earth. The motion of the observer leads on the one hand to a more complex signal due to a pixel-dependent Doppler shift that is neglected in the standard derivation of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, but on the other hand one may hope that it could be employed for a temporal aperture synthesis, where virtual baselines are created through the motion of the satellite. Here, we generalize the formulation of the aperture synthesis concept to the case of observers moving with respect to the sources, and to the correlation of fields measured at times that differ by the travel time of the observer along a virtual baseline. Our derivation is based on first principles, starting with the wave propagation in the Earth reference frame of electro-magnetic fields arising from incoherent current sources, and Lorentz transforming the fields into the reference frame of the satellite. Our detailed study leads to the remarkable conclusion that the delay time due to observer motion cancels exactly the Doppler effect. This justifies the neglect of the Doppler effect in existing imaging systems based on the standard Van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

  5. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Descriptor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices it is often the case that the system, which...... is needed to be controlled, is either in the descriptor form or can be represented in the descriptor form. Singular systems and the differential algebraic equation (DAE) systems are among these systems. Descriptor systems appear in the variety of fields to describe the practical processes ranging from power...... systems, hydraulic systems to heat transfer, and chemical processes. The focus of this paper is on the problem of control configuration selection for multivariable descriptor systems. A gramian-based interaction measure for control configuration selection of such processes is described in this paper...

  6. Multilayer descriptors for medical image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumini, Alessandra; Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for improving the performance of 2D descriptors by building an n-layer image using different preprocessing approaches from which multilayer descriptors are extracted and used as feature vectors for training a Support Vector Machine. The different preprocessing approaches are used to build different n-layer images (n=3, n=5, etc.). We test both color and gray-level images, two well-known texture descriptors (Local Phase Quantization and Local Binary Pattern), and three of their variants suited for n-layer images (Volume Local Phase Quantization, Local Phase Quantization Three-Orthogonal-Planes, and Volume Local Binary Patterns). Our results show that multilayers and texture descriptors can be combined to outperform the standard single-layer approaches. Experiments on 10 datasets demonstrate the generalizability of the proposed descriptors. Most of these datasets are medical, but in each case the images are very different. Two datasets are completely unrelated to medicine and are included to demonstrate the discriminative power of the proposed descriptors across very different image recognition tasks. A MATLAB version of the complete system developed in this paper will be made available at https://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357. PMID:26656952

  7. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  8. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  9. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  10. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  11. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  12. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°. (paper)

  13. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  14. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  15. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  16. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  17. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  18. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN)

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  19. Face Detection with a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu, Adrian; Lay, Nathan; Gramajo, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a part-based face detection approach where the spatial relationship between the face parts is represented by a hidden 3D model with six parameters. The computational complexity of the search in the six dimensional pose space is addressed by proposing meaningful 3D pose candidates by image-based regression from detected face keypoint locations. The 3D pose candidates are evaluated using a parameter sensitive classifier based on difference features relative to the 3D pose. A...

  20. 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium & Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu; Taylor, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The IMI /3M BIC 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium and Workshop was hosted by 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on March 17th 2015. The event was attended by the major players in precision engineering, 3D additive design and manufacturing: Representatives from EOS, Renishaw, HK 3D Printing IMI Plc Senior Management team, design engineers, programmers and academics from the University of Huddersfield School of Art Design & Architecture, 3M Buckley centre 3D printing management and designers shared...

  1. Forward ramp in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  3. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  4. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  5. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  6. Exploration of continuous variability in collections of 3D shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks

    2011-07-01

    As large public repositories of 3D shapes continue to grow, the amount of shape variability in such collections also increases, both in terms of the number of different classes of shapes, as well as the geometric variability of shapes within each class. While this gives users more choice for shape selection, it can be difficult to explore large collections and understand the range of variations amongst the shapes. Exploration is particularly challenging for public shape repositories, which are often only loosely tagged and contain neither point-based nor part-based correspondences. In this paper, we present a method for discovering and exploring continuous variability in a collection of 3D shapes without correspondences. Our method is based on a novel navigation interface that allows users to explore a collection of related shapes by deforming a base template shape through a set of intuitive deformation controls. We also help the user to select the most meaningful deformations using a novel technique for learning shape variability in terms of deformations of the template. Our technique assumes that the set of shapes lies near a low-dimensional manifold in a certain descriptor space, which allows us to avoid establishing correspondences between shapes, while being rotation and scaling invariant. We present results on several shape collections taken directly from public repositories. © 2011 ACM.

  7. Stargate GTM: Bridging Descriptor and Activity Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-11-23

    Predicting the activity profile of a molecule or discovering structures possessing a specific activity profile are two important goals in chemoinformatics, which could be achieved by bridging activity and molecular descriptor spaces. In this paper, we introduce the "Stargate" version of the Generative Topographic Mapping approach (S-GTM) in which two different multidimensional spaces (e.g., structural descriptor space and activity space) are linked through a common 2D latent space. In the S-GTM algorithm, the manifolds are trained simultaneously in two initial spaces using the probabilities in the 2D latent space calculated as a weighted geometric mean of probability distributions in both spaces. S-GTM has the following interesting features: (1) activities are involved during the training procedure; therefore, the method is supervised, unlike conventional GTM; (2) using molecular descriptors of a given compound as input, the model predicts a whole activity profile, and (3) using an activity profile as input, areas populated by relevant chemical structures can be detected. To assess the performance of S-GTM prediction models, a descriptor space (ISIDA descriptors) of a set of 1325 GPCR ligands was related to a B-dimensional (B = 1 or 8) activity space corresponding to pKi values for eight different targets. S-GTM outperforms conventional GTM for individual activities and performs similarly to the Lasso multitask learning algorithm, although it is still slightly less accurate than the Random Forest method.

  8. Rapid object indexing using locality sensitive hashing and joint 3D-signature space estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Bogdan; Shan, Ying; Sawhney, Harpreet S; Tan, Yi; Kumar, Rakesh; Huber, Daniel; Hebert, Martial

    2006-07-01

    We propose a new method for rapid 3D object indexing that combines feature-based methods with coarse alignment-based matching techniques. Our approach achieves a sublinear complexity on the number of models, maintaining at the same time a high degree of performance for real 3D sensed data that is acquired in largely uncontrolled settings. The key component of our method is to first index surface descriptors computed at salient locations from the scene into the whole model database using the Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), a probabilistic approximate nearest neighbor method. Progressively complex geometric constraints are subsequently enforced to further prune the initial candidates and eliminate false correspondences due to inaccuracies in the surface descriptors and the errors of the LSH algorithm. The indexed models are selected based on the MAP rule using posterior probability of the models estimated in the joint 3D-signature space. Experiments with real 3D data employing a large database of vehicles, most of them very similar in shape, containing 1,000,000 features from more than 365 models demonstrate a high degree of performance in the presence of occlusion and obscuration, unmodeled vehicle interiors and part articulations, with an average processing time between 50 and 100 seconds per query.

  9. Investigating Mobile Stereoscopic 3D Touchscreen Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Ashley; Hakkila, Jonna; SCHOENING, Johannes; Posti, Maaret

    2013-01-01

    3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in tou...

  10. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality......3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest...

  11. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  12. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  13. Esiselvitys elintarvikkeiden 3D-tulostamisesta

    OpenAIRE

    Teva, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia esiselvitys 3D-tulostamisesta elintarvikealalla. 3D-tulostaminen on uusi ja jatkuvasti kehittyvä ala, joka tulee vaikuttamaan myös elintarvikealan kehittymiseen. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää elintarvikenäkökulmasta 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Aiheen toimeksiantajana oli Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu ja kohderyhmänä elintarvikealan Pk-yritykset. Opinnäytetyössä esitellään yleisimpiä 3D-tulostusmenetelmiä ja selvitetään 3D-tulostamista tietokone...

  14. PRIPRAVA MODELOV ZA 3D - TISK

    OpenAIRE

    Črešnik, Igor

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu predstavljamo pripravo modela na 3D-tisk. V prvem delu smo preleteli zgodovino tiska. Predstavili smo tehnologijo 3D-tiska ter različne tehnike tiskanja, ki jih uporabljajo določeni tiskalniki. V nadaljevanju smo pregledali različne tipe 3D-tiskalnikov, ki se uporabljajo za domačo ali komercialno uporabo ter izpostavili njihove prednosti in slabosti. V zadnjem delu diplomskega dela smo na praktičnem primeru 3D-modela hiše prikazali proces priprave modela za 3D-tisk. Pri delu...

  15. 3D-tulostimien tutkiminen painotalolle

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli perehtyä 3D-tulostamiseen ja tutkia painotaloon sopivia 3D-tulostimia ja 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekniikoita. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös pohtia painotalolle mahdollisia 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tuotekonsepteja yrityksille ja yksityisille kuluttajille. Painoalan yrityksen tarkoituksena on sijoittaa lähitulevaisuudessa 3D-tulostimeen, joten opinnäytetyö oli ajankohtainen tutkimustyö yritykselle. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi painoalan yritys. ...

  16. BUILDING A HOMEMADE 3D PRINTER

    OpenAIRE

    Tunc, Baran

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been attracted much attention around the world due to its high potential of new application fields. In this respect, developing and inventing new filament materials for 3D printers or new techniques of 3D printing are the main interest of the many materials scientists. This paper reports a comprehensive overview of 3D printing followed by a summary of my ongoing study of building a composite homemade 3D printer. At this stage of this study, a CNC router was successfully conver...

  17. 3D Printing our future: Now

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver, Ertu

    2015-01-01

    This 3D Printing our Future:Now talk and visual presentation was given to delegates at the IMI 3D Workshop held at 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on 17th March 2015. The event was hosted by 3Mbuckley Innovation Centre for IMI plc a global engineering company, 3M, and leading 3D additive manufacturing technology providers: EOS, Renishaw and HK 3D printing to disseminate and share their experience on the latest 3D additive design and manufacturing technologies available to the engineering an...

  18. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  19. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  20. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  1. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  2. 3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan N. Khade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

  3. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Cernohous, Bob R.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  4. 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Andreas; Günther, Michael; Maten, E; Müller, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems held March 2013 in the Castle of Eringerfeld, Geseke in the neighborhood of Paderborn, Germany. It examines the wide range of current research topics in descriptor systems, including mathematical modeling, index analysis, wellposedness of problems, stiffness and different time-scales, cosimulation and splitting methods and convergence analysis. In addition, the book also presents applications from the automotive and circuit industries that show that descriptor systems provide challenging problems from the point of view of both theory and practice.   The book contains nine papers and is organized into three parts: control, simulation, and model order reduction. It will serve as an ideal resource for applied mathematicians and engineers, in particular those from mechanics and electromagnetics, who work with coupled differential equations.

  5. Calculation of the critical exponents by a renormalization of the Ornstein-Zernike equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Badiali, J. P.

    1991-09-01

    We calculate the critical exponents at the liquid-vapor critical point by using the classical ingredients of the liquid-state theory. Two coupling constants are defined at a microscopic level. The closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation is given by the Callan-Symanzik equation from which we determine the position of the fixed point. The role of the three-body direct-correlation function is emphasized. A comparison between this work and the standard theory of critical phenomena based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Hamiltonian is presented.

  6. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  7. Automatic 3D video format detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  8. 3D facial expression recognition based on histograms of surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-01-01

    3D face models accurately capture facial surfaces, making it possible for precise description of facial activities. In this paper, we present a novel mesh-based method for 3D facial expression recognition using two local shape descriptors. To characterize shape information of the local neighborhood of facial landmarks, we calculate the weighted statistical distributions of surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG) and histogram of shape index (HoS). Normal cycle theory based curvature estimation method is employed on 3D face models along with the common cubic fitting curvature estimation method for the purpose of comparison. Based on the basic fact that different expressions involve different local shape deformations, the SVM classifier with both linear and RBF kernels outperforms the state of the art results on the subset of the BU-3DFE database with the same experimental setting. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Analysis of activity space by fragment fingerprints, 2D descriptors, and multitarget dependent transformation of 2D descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givehchi, Alireza; Bender, Andreas; Glen, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    The effect of multitarget dependent descriptor transformation on classification performance is explored in this work. To this end decision trees as well as neural net QSAR in combination with PLS were applied to predict the activity class of 5HT3 ligands, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, platelet activating factor antagonists, and thromboxane A2 antagonists. Physicochemical descriptors calculated by MOE and fragment-based descriptors (MOLPRINT 2D) were employed to generate descriptor vectors. In a subsequent step the physicochemical descriptor vectors were transformed to a lower dimensional space using multitarget dependent descriptor transformation. Cross-validation of the original physicochemical descriptors in combination with decision trees and neural net QSAR as well as cross-validation of PLS multitarget transformed descriptors with neural net QSAR were performed. For comparison this was repeated using fragment-based descriptors in combination with decision trees.

  10. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  11. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (China); Liu Yijin [School of Physics (China); Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230029 (China); Wang Chunru, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10060 (China)

    2009-09-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 {mu}m thickness and 4 {mu}m width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  12. 3D-tulostus : case Printrbot

    OpenAIRE

    Arvekari, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää 3D-tulostustekniikan perusteita ja 3D-tulostuksen nykytilannetta. 3D-tulostukseen sopivien mallien luomista tutkitaan ja mallin tekemiseen on etsitty toimivia ohjesääntöjä. Tärkeä osa työtä on tutkia mitä vaiheita 3D-tulostimen hankinnassa kotikäyttöön tulee vastaan. Käytännön kokeita varten opinnäytetyössä on case Printrbot, jossa on tutustuttu edulliseen 3D-tulostuslaitteeseen kokoonpanosta lähtien. Työn kuluessa selvisi että edulliset 3D-tulos...

  13. Spatial data modelling for 3D GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Rahman, Alias

    2007-01-01

    This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of ""true"" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.

  14. Compression of 3D models with NURBS

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz Ducci, Diego; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-01-01

    With recent progress in computing, algorithmics and telecommunications, 3D models are increasingly used in various multimedia applications. Examples include visualization, gaming, entertainment and virtual reality. In the multimedia domain 3D models have been traditionally represented as polygonal meshes. This piecewise planar representation can be thought of as the analogy of bitmap images for 3D surfaces. As bitmap images, they enjoy great flexibility and are particularly well suited to des...

  15. Extraordinary 3D Surface Materials: A practice based exhibition of 3D learning artefacts and prototypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Harris, Joanne; Unver, Ertu; Lewis, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A collection of 3D prototyped research learning artefacts were exhibited at Surface Design Show 2011. The artefacts on display provided tacit evidence of the 3D concept modelling and reflective learning experiences of a final year BA (Hons) Surface Design for Fashion & Interiors student group using 3D polygon modelling software and additive prototyping technologies (3D Printing) for the first time. The student authored project blog http://extraordinary-3d-materials.blogspot.co.uk/ documen...

  16. Pose Estimation using a Hierarchical 3D Representation of Contours and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    We present a system for detecting the pose of rigid objects using texture and contour information. From a stereo image view of a scene, a sparse hierarchical scene representation is reconstructed using an early cognitive vision system. We define an object model in terms of a simple context...... descriptor of the contour and texture features to provide a sparse, yet descriptive object representation. Using our descriptors, we do a search in the correspondence space to perform outlier removal and compute the object pose. We perform an extensive evaluation of our approach with stereo images...... of a variety of real-world objects rendered in a controlled virtual environment. Our experiments show the complementary role of 3D texture and contour information allowing for pose estimation with high robustness and accuracy....

  17. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; P. J. M. Van Oosterom; T. C. Hua; Sharkawi, K.H.; E. E. Duncan; Azri, N.; Hassan, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D cadastre since more and more related agencies attempt to develop or embed 3D components into the MPC. We also intend to describe the initiative by Malaysian national mapping and cadastral agency (...

  18. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  19. Can 3D Printing change your business?

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is given to businesses / companies with an interest in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing in West Yorkshire, UK Organised by the Calderdale and Kirklees Manufacturing Alliance. http://www.ckma.co.uk/ by Dr Ertu Unver Senior Lecturer / Product Design / MA 3D Digital Design / University of Huddersfield Location : 3M BIC, Date : 11th April, Time : 5.30 – 8pm Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional (3D) objects from...

  20. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  1. Virtual Realization using 3D Password

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.Gadicha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed; however, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3D password. The 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3D password. The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space.

  2. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  3. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  4. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    OpenAIRE

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D mod...

  5. 3D-tulostuksen viipalointiohjelmien vertailu

    OpenAIRE

    Virolainen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selventää 3D-tulostamisen prosessia yksityisen käyttäjän näkökulmasta sekä luoda testitulostuksia, joiden perusteella pystytään vertailemaan prosessissa käytettävien viipalointiohjelmien toimintaa keskenään. Työssä perehdytään aluksi 3D-tulostuksen teoriataustaan, jonka jälkeen suoritetaan 3D-tulostimella testitulostukset käyttäen kolmea eri viipalointiohjelmaa. 3D-tulostamisella tarkoitetaan prosessia, jonka tarkoituksena on luoda kolmiulotteinen objekti käyt...

  6. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  7. BIM tietomalli ja 3D-tulostus

    OpenAIRE

    Myllykoski, Joonas; Palonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää miten Tekla Structures ohjelmalla luotu 3D-malli saadaan tulostettua koulun 3D-tulostimella sekä tutkittiin voidaanko Tekla Structuresin ominaisuuksia hyödyntää 3D-tulostamisessa ja miten tulostus onnistuu autocadilla. Selvitimme myös mahdollisia 3D-tulostusteknologian sovelluksia tulevaisuuden rakennustuotannossa ja sen näkymiä rakennusteollisuudessa sekä erilaisia tulostus menetelmiä joita voitaisiin mahdollisesti hyödyntää rakennusteollisuudess...

  8. Robustifying Descriptor Instability using Fisher Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Everts; J.C. van Gemert; T. Mensink; T. Gevers

    2014-01-01

    Many computer vision applications, including image classification, matching, and retrieval use global image representations, such as the Fisher vector, to encode a set of local image patches. To describe these patches, many local descriptors have been designed to be robust against lighting changes a

  9. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  10. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  11. Spatiotemporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Robust Optical Flow and Zernike Moment for Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyu Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the spatiotemporal resolution of the video sequences, a novel spatiotemporal super-resolution reconstruction model (STSR based on robust optical flow and Zernike moment is proposed in this paper, which integrates the spatial resolution reconstruction and temporal resolution reconstruction into a unified framework. The model does not rely on accurate estimation of subpixel motion and is robust to noise and rotation. Moreover, it can effectively overcome the problems of hole and block artifacts. First we propose an efficient robust optical flow motion estimation model based on motion details preserving, then we introduce the biweighted fusion strategy to implement the spatiotemporal motion compensation. Next, combining the self-adaptive region correlation judgment strategy, we construct a fast fuzzy registration scheme based on Zernike moment for better STSR with higher efficiency, and then the final video sequences with high spatiotemporal resolution can be obtained by fusion of the complementary and redundant information with nonlocal self-similarity between the adjacent video frames. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of both subjective visual and objective quantitative evaluations.

  12. Generalization of the Van Cittert--Zernike theorem: observers moving with respect to sources

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Daniel; Rougé, Bernard; Kerr, Yann

    2015-01-01

    The use of the Van Cittert--Zernike theorem for the formulation of the visibility function in satellite-based Earth observation with passive radiometers does not take into account the relative motion of the observer (the satellite antenna) with respect to sources of the electro-magnetic fields at the surface of the Earth. The motion of the observer leads on the one hand to a more complex signal due to a pixel-dependent Doppler shift that is neglected in the standard derivation of the Van Cittert--Zernike theorem, but on the other hand one may hope that it could be employed for a temporal aperture synthesis, where virtual baselines are created through the motion of the satellite. Here, we generalize the formulation of the aperture synthesis concept to the case of observers moving with respect to the sources, and to the correlation of fields measured at times that differ by the travel time of the observer along a virtual baseline. Our derivation is based on first principles, starting with the wave propagation i...

  13. Image-Based Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Encoding for 3d Building Model Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show a clear superiority

  14. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  15. A Comparison of 2-D Shape Retrieval Using Fourier Descriptors and Wavelet Descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQin; JonathanEdwards

    2005-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate image retrieval tool is the primary problem for a multimedia application such as digital image library and online image retrieval. Shape is often regarded as the most important image feature. Fourier descriptors (FDs) are widely used in shape recognition and retrieval. However, as global descriptors, they are often blamed for not being able to describe local shape features[1,2]. Wavelet descriptors (WDs) are proposed to overcome this drawback. Unfortunately, the extra information such as the multi-resolution scheme and local shape features cause much more complicate shape matching algorithms. The efficient or effective use of WD srequires more effort. Experiments are executed to evaluate the retrieval performance of this two descriptors. Some conclusions and suggestions are given according to the experimental results and the literature reviewed.

  16. Receptor-based 3D-QSAR in Drug Design: Methods and Applications in Kinase Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Xiao, Zhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-based 3D-QSAR strategy represents a superior integration of structure-based drug design (SBDD) and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analysis. It combines the accurate prediction of ligand poses by the SBDD approach with the good predictability and interpretability of statistical models derived from the 3D-QSAR approach. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of receptor-based 3D-QSAR methods and two alternative approaches have been exploited. One associates with computing the binding interactions between a receptor and a ligand to generate structure-based descriptors for QSAR analyses. The other concerns the application of various docking protocols to generate optimal ligand poses so as to provide reliable molecular alignments for the conventional 3D-QSAR operations. This review highlights new concepts and methodologies recently developed in the field of receptorbased 3D-QSAR, and in particular, covers its application in kinase studies.

  17. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  18. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  19. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  20. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyndrickx, I.; Kaptein, R.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads t

  1. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  2. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  3. 3D Cadastre modelling in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandysheva, N.; Tikhonov, V.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Stoter, J.E.; Ploeger, H.D.; Wouters, R.; Penkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the on-going project on 3D cadastre modelling in Russia. The aim of this project is to provide guidance in the development of a prototype and to create favourable legal and institutional conditions for the introduction of 3D cadastre modelling in Russia based on experience of the

  4. Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, G.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order

  5. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  6. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  7. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  8. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. 3D active surfaces for liver segmentation in multisequence MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereciartua, Arantza; Picon, Artzai; Galdran, Adrian; Iriondo, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Biopsies for diagnosis can sometimes be replaced by non-invasive techniques such as CT and MRI. Surgeons require accurate and efficient methods that allow proper segmentation of the organs in order to ensure the most reliable intervention planning. Automated liver segmentation is a difficult and open problem where CT has been more widely explored than MRI. MRI liver segmentation represents a challenge due to the presence of characteristic artifacts, such as partial volumes, noise and low contrast. In this paper, we present a novel method for multichannel MRI automatic liver segmentation. The proposed method consists of the minimization of a 3D active surface by means of the dual approach to the variational formulation of the underlying problem. This active surface evolves over a probability map that is based on a new compact descriptor comprising spatial and multisequence information which is further modeled by means of a liver statistical model. This proposed 3D active surface approach naturally integrates volumetric regularization in the statistical model. The advantages of the compact visual descriptor together with the proposed approach result in a fast and accurate 3D segmentation method. The method was tested on 18 healthy liver studies and results were compared to a gold standard made by expert radiologists. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art approaches are provided by means of nine well established quality metrics. The obtained results improve these methodologies, achieving a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 98.59. PMID:27282235

  11. Limited Feedback for 3D Massive MIMO under 3D-UMa and 3D-UMi Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For three-dimensional (3D massive MIMO utilizing the uniform rectangular array (URA in the base station (BS, we propose a limited feedback transmission scheme in which the channel state information (CSI feedback operations for horizontal domain and vertical domain are separate. Compared to the traditional feedback scheme, the scheme can reduce the feedback overhead, code word index search complexity, and storage requirement. Also, based on the zenith of departure angle (ZoD distribution in 3D-Urban Macro Cell (3D-UMa and 3D-Urban Micro Cell (3D-UMi scenarios, we propose the angle quantization codebook for vertical domain, while the codebook of long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced is still adopted in horizontal domain to preserve compatibility with the LTE-Advanced. Based on the angle quantization codebook, the subsampled 3-bit DFT codebook is designed for vertical domain. The system-level simulation results reveal that, to compromise the feedback overhead and system performance, 2-bit codebook for 3D-UMa scenario and 3-bit codebook for 3D-UMi scenario can meet requirements in vertical domain. The feedback period for vertical domain can also be extended appropriately to reduce the feedback overhead.

  12. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  13. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  14. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  15. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Herfray, Yannick; Scarinci, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern-Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any SU(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal SU(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  16. KW-SIFT descriptor for remote-sensing image registration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangzeng Liu; Zheng Tian; Weidong Yan; Xifa Duan

    2011-01-01

    A technique to construct an affine invariant descriptor for remote-sensing image registration based on the scale invariant features transform (SIFT) in a kernel space is proposed.Affine invariant SIFT descriptor is first developed in an elliptical region determined by the Hessian matrix of the feature points.Thereafter,the descriptor is mapped to a feature space induced by a kernel, and a new descriptor is constructed by whitening the mapped descriptor in the feature space, with the transform called KW-SIFT.In a final step, the new descriptor is used to register remote-sensing images.Experimental results for remote-sensing image registration indicate that the proposed method improves the registration performance as compared with other related methods.%@@ A technique to construct an affine invariant descriptor for remote-sensing image registration based on the scale invariant features transform (SIFT) in a kernel space is proposed.Affine invariant SIFT descriptor is first developed in an elliptical region determined by the Hessian matrix of the feature points.Thereafter,the descriptor is mapped to a feature space induced by a kernel, and a new descriptor is constructed by whitening the mapped descriptor in the feature space, with the transform called KW-SIFT.In a final step, the new descriptor is used to register remote-sensing images.Experimental results for remote-sensing image registration indicate that the proposed method improves the registration performance as compared with other related methods.

  17. A Polar Stroke Descriptor for Classification of Historical Documents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for extracting a local scale- and rotation-invariant descriptor called Polar Stroke Descriptor (PSD) from the strokes in handwritten documents. Our descriptor captures the stroke-length distribution on a reference point and results in a robust feature vector. Furthermore

  18. Object classification and detection with context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Context information is important in object representation. By embedding context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called Context Kernel Descriptors (CKD) for object classification and detection. The motivation of CKD is to use spatial co...... of CKD for object classification on the CIFAR-10 dataset, and for detection on a challenging chicken feet dataset....

  19. PubChem3D: Shape compatibility filtering using molecular shape quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem provides a 3-D neighboring relationship, which involves finding the maximal shape overlap between two static compound 3-D conformations, a computationally intensive step. It is highly desirable to avoid this overlap computation, especially if it can be determined with certainty that a conformer pair cannot meet the criteria to be a 3-D neighbor. As such, PubChem employs a series of pre-filters, based on the concept of volume, to remove approximately 65% of all conformer neighbor pairs prior to shape overlap optimization. Given that molecular volume, a somewhat vague concept, is rather effective, it leads one to wonder: can the existing PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship, which consists of billions of shape similar conformer pairs from tens of millions of unique small molecules, be used to identify additional shape descriptor relationships? Or, put more specifically, can one place an upper bound on shape similarity using other "fuzzy" shape-like concepts like length, width, and height? Results Using a basis set of 4.18 billion 3-D neighbor pairs identified from single conformer per compound neighboring of 17.1 million molecules, shape descriptors were computed for all conformers. These steric shape descriptors included several forms of molecular volume and shape quadrupoles, which essentially embody the length, width, and height of a conformer. For a given 3-D neighbor conformer pair, the volume and each quadrupole component (Qx, Qy, and Qz were binned and their frequency of occurrence was examined. Per molecular volume type, this effectively produced three different maps, one per quadrupole component (Qx, Qy, and Qz, of allowed values for the similarity metric, shape Tanimoto (ST ≥ 0.8. The efficiency of these relationships (in terms of true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative as a function of ST threshold was determined in a test run of 13.2 billion conformer pairs not previously considered

  20. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  1. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  2. MIND: modality independent neighbourhood descriptor for multi-modal deformable registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Mattias P; Jenkinson, Mark; Bhushan, Manav; Matin, Tahreema; Gleeson, Fergus V; Brady, Sir Michael; Schnabel, Julia A

    2012-10-01

    Deformable registration of images obtained from different modalities remains a challenging task in medical image analysis. This paper addresses this important problem and proposes a modality independent neighbourhood descriptor (MIND) for both linear and deformable multi-modal registration. Based on the similarity of small image patches within one image, it aims to extract the distinctive structure in a local neighbourhood, which is preserved across modalities. The descriptor is based on the concept of image self-similarity, which has been introduced for non-local means filtering for image denoising. It is able to distinguish between different types of features such as corners, edges and homogeneously textured regions. MIND is robust to the most considerable differences between modalities: non-functional intensity relations, image noise and non-uniform bias fields. The multi-dimensional descriptor can be efficiently computed in a dense fashion across the whole image and provides point-wise local similarity across modalities based on the absolute or squared difference between descriptors, making it applicable for a wide range of transformation models and optimisation algorithms. We use the sum of squared differences of the MIND representations of the images as a similarity metric within a symmetric non-parametric Gauss-Newton registration framework. In principle, MIND would be applicable to the registration of arbitrary modalities. In this work, we apply and validate it for the registration of clinical 3D thoracic CT scans between inhale and exhale as well as the alignment of 3D CT and MRI scans. Experimental results show the advantages of MIND over state-of-the-art techniques such as conditional mutual information and entropy images, with respect to clinically annotated landmark locations. PMID:22722056

  3. Semi- and virtual 3D dosimetry in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, 3D dosimetry is divided in three categories; "true" 3D, semi-3D and virtual 3D. Virtual 3D involves the use of measurement arrays either before or after beam entry in the patient/phantom, whereas semi-3D involves use of measurement arrays in phantoms mimicking the patient. True 3D...

  4. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  5. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  7. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah;

    2014-01-01

    objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA......) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, they extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested for single object, nearest neighbor and range search queries using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results...... are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a sub-interval of the ([0,1]) interval to the corresponding...

  8. Active Exploration of Large 3D Model Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-12-01

    With broader availability of large-scale 3D model repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing model retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire models or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended models. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate models are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database models but also the similarities among the database models themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each model and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K models. PMID:26529460

  9. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  10. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  11. Decoupled Wiener state fuser for descriptor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenjian RAN; Zili DENG

    2008-01-01

    By the modem time series analysis method,based on the autoregressive moving average(ARMA)innovation models and white noise estimation theory,using the optimal fusion rule weighted by diagonal matrices.a distributed descriptor Wiener state fuser IS presented by weighting the local Wiener state estimators for the linear discrete stochastic descriptor systems with multisensor.It realizes a decoupled fusion estimation for state components.In order to compute We optimal weights,the formulas of computing the cross-covariances among local estimation errors are presented based on cross-covariances among the local lnnovation processes,input wite noise,and measurement white noises.It can handle the fused filtering,smoothing,and prediction problems in a unifled framework.Its accuracy is higher than that of each local estimator.A Monte Carlo simulation example shows its effectiveness and correctness.

  12. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  13. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  14. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  15. Matching Feature Points in 3D World

    OpenAIRE

    Avdiu, Blerta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the most actual topic in Computer Vision field which is scene understanding and this using matching of 3D feature point images. The objective is to make use of Saab’s latest breakthrough in extraction of 3D feature points, to identify the best alignment of at least two 3D feature point images. The thesis gives a theoretical overview of the latest algorithms used for feature detection, description and matching. The work continues with a brief description of the simu...

  16. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  17. General Concept of 3D SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peter; Millos, Evangelous; Gu, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This chapter established an approach to solve the full 3D SLAM problem, applied to an underwater environment. First, a general approach to the 3D SLAM problem was presented, which included the models in 3D case, data association and estimation algorithm. For an underwater mobile robot, a new measurement system was designed for large area's globally-consistent SLAM: buoys for long-range estimation, and camera for short-range estimation and map building. Globally-consistent results could be obt...

  18. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, Soeren; Bilodid, Yuri; Fridman, Emil; Baier, Silvio; Grahn, Alexander; Gommlich, Andre; Nikitin, Evgeny; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  19. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  20. 3D tulostus - digitaalisesta mallista esineeksi

    OpenAIRE

    Muurinen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä esitellään 3D tulostuksen tekniikka ja materiaaleja, suunnitellaan ja tuotetaan esimerkkikappaleen digitaalinen malli, sekä tulostetaan muovinen esine digi-taalisen mallin pohjalta. Työn tavoitteena on perehdyttää lukija prosessiin, jossa itse tuotettu digitaalinen malli tulostetaan käyttäen harrastajakäyttöön tarkoitettua edullista 3D tulostinta. Esimerkkikappaleen eri osien mallinnusprosessi näytetään kokonaisuudessaan ja kerro-taan perusteita 3D mallinnuksesta...

  1. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  2. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  3. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. 3D grafika a hry

    OpenAIRE

    Vataščinová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis, I am going to introduce the topic of 3D graphics in the game environment. Firstly, I will provide a brief introduction of history of 3D graphics in general, but with the emphasis on history of game industry in particular. Next, I will present 3D graphics of RPG games in particular, and I will analyse the graphical side of digital work production. The main contribution of this thesis is provided in the practical part, which deals with creation of an environment for an an...

  9. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  10. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  11. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  12. 3D-hahmojen toteutus mobiilipeliin

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Mobiilipelien suosio on kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti viime vuosina älypuhelinten kehittymisen myötä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään kolmiulotteisen pelihahmon toteutusprosessi mobiilipeliin. Lisäksi pohditaan maksullisten ja ilmaisten ohjelmien eroja toteutuksessa. Pelihahmojen toteutus perustuu mobiilipeliprojektiin peliyrityksessä, jossa työskentelin graafikkona. Ohjelmien vertailussa on mukana 3D Studio Max, Blender 3D, Photoshop ja GIMP. Käytännön osuudessa käydään läpi 3D-pelihahmon...

  13. 3D-MR cholangio-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Shinichi [Isehara Kyohdoh Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kyoichi

    1995-04-01

    This report introduces a new 3D-MR cholangio-angiography technique using 3D Fast SE MR cholangiography and 3D phase contrast MR angiography for obstructive jaundice. In all eight cases, dilated biliary tracts as well as portal veins were clearly visualized in the same image. This new technique helped to determine the operability and surgical strategy for cases with obstructive jaundice. It also provided anatomical guidance for surgical procedures. This study suggests that this technique may replace the currently used modalities for obstructive jaundice. (author).

  14. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  15. The 3D Object Mediator : Handling 3D Models on Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.J.F.; Lawick van Pabst, J. van; Afsarmanesh, H.

    1997-01-01

    The 3D Object MEdiator (3DOME 3) offers two services for handling 3D models: a modelshop and a renderfarm. These services can be consulted through the Internet. The modelshop meets the demands for brokerage of geometric descriptions of 3D models. People who create geometric models of objects can sup

  16. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  17. 3D presentatie van geluid in de cockpit [3D sound presentation in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    A.W. Bronkhorst, 3D-presentatie van geluid in de cockpit 1 Using virtual acoustics, sound can be presented from virtual sources located in the 3D space around the listener. This 3D sound has interesting applications in the cockpit. Sounds can be used to convey directional information, and interferen

  18. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  19. Reactivity of Alkyldibenzothiophenes Using Theoretical Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of the reactivity of dibenzothiophene and its methyl, dimethyl, and trimethyl derivatives show that local reactivity descriptors reproduce their experimental desulfurization reactivity trend if the first desulfurization step involves directly the sulfur atom, which only occurs if the sulfur atom is blocked at most by one methyl group. In the series of molecules {4,7-dimethyldibenzothiophene, x,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene (x=1,2,3}, the most reactive molecule is 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene, and local descriptors show that the reactivity is linked to the activity of the sulfur atom, which is higher in 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene due to the position of the third methyl substitute, located in the para position with respect to the carbon bonded to the sulfur atom. The electrostatic potential of 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene shows one effective adsorption site, while 1,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene and 3,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene have more sites, contributing to the higher reactivity of 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene. The index of reactivity of other descriptors was evaluated and the effect of the position of the methyl substituents on adsorption parameters, as the dipole moment and the atomic charges were also studied.

  20. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul

    2016-07-11

    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  1. Using Geometry-Based Metrics as Part of Fitness-for-Purpose Evaluations of 3D City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Ellul, C.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional geospatial information is being increasingly used in a range of tasks beyond visualisation. 3D datasets, however, are often being produced without exact specifications and at mixed levels of geometric complexity. This leads to variations within the models' geometric and semantic complexity as well as the degree of deviation from the corresponding real world objects. Existing descriptors and measures of 3D data such as CityGML's level of detail are perhaps only partially sufficient in communicating data quality and fitness-for-purpose. This study investigates whether alternative, automated, geometry-based metrics describing the variation of complexity within 3D datasets could provide additional relevant information as part of a process of fitness-for-purpose evaluation. The metrics include: mean vertex/edge/face counts per building; vertex/face ratio; minimum 2D footprint area and; minimum feature length. Each metric was tested on six 3D city models from international locations. The results show that geometry-based metrics can provide additional information on 3D city models as part of fitness-for-purpose evaluations. The metrics, while they cannot be used in isolation, may provide a complement to enhance existing data descriptors if backed up with local knowledge, where possible.

  2. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, Luis M

    2016-03-01

    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing. PMID:26957169

  3. Self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation for molecules with soft cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, J S; Reiner, A

    2006-09-14

    The self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) is an accurate liquid state theory. So far it has been tied to interactions composed of hard core repulsion and long-range attraction, whereas real molecules have soft core repulsion at short distances. In the present work, this is taken into account through the introduction of an effective hard core with a diameter that depends upon temperature only. It is found that the contribution to the configurational internal energy due to the repulsive reference fluid is of prime importance and must be included in the thermodynamic self-consistency requirement on which SCOZA is based. An approximate but accurate evaluation of this contribution relies on the virial theorem to gauge the amplitude of the pair distribution function close to the molecular surface. Finally, the SCOZA equation is transformed by which the problem is reformulated in terms of the usual SCOZA with fixed hard core reference system and temperature-dependent interaction. PMID:16999537

  4. Self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation for molecules with soft cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, J S; Reiner, A

    2006-09-14

    The self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) is an accurate liquid state theory. So far it has been tied to interactions composed of hard core repulsion and long-range attraction, whereas real molecules have soft core repulsion at short distances. In the present work, this is taken into account through the introduction of an effective hard core with a diameter that depends upon temperature only. It is found that the contribution to the configurational internal energy due to the repulsive reference fluid is of prime importance and must be included in the thermodynamic self-consistency requirement on which SCOZA is based. An approximate but accurate evaluation of this contribution relies on the virial theorem to gauge the amplitude of the pair distribution function close to the molecular surface. Finally, the SCOZA equation is transformed by which the problem is reformulated in terms of the usual SCOZA with fixed hard core reference system and temperature-dependent interaction.

  5. Robust fitting of Zernike polynomials to noisy point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Diego Rodríguez; Gómez-Pedrero, José A; Alonso, Jose; Quiroga, Juan A

    2016-03-21

    A new method for fitting a series of Zernike polynomials to point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape defined within the unit circle is presented in this work. The method is based on the application of machine learning fitting techniques by constructing an extended training set in order to ensure the smooth variation of local curvature over the whole domain. Therefore this technique is best suited for fitting points corresponding to ophthalmic lenses surfaces, particularly progressive power ones, in non-regular domains. We have tested our method by fitting numerical and real surfaces reaching an accuracy of 1 micron in elevation and 0.1 D in local curvature in agreement with the customary tolerances in the ophthalmic manufacturing industry. PMID:27136788

  6. Courier Receipts Retrieval System Design Combining the Inverse Zernike Moments and the SIFT Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin Ni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In response to the demand of the logistics industry’s application, a retrieval algorithm for logistics bill is proposed which combines the local feature with the global feature of images, which solved the problem of rotation positioning and applied to a set of practical courier receipts retrieval system. By using the scale invariance principle of the local features combined with Zernike invariant moments of the global features, we can quickly calculate the image rotating angle and make the exact match. Experimental results show that this method not only keeps the well precision and recall ratio ability of SIFT features, but also reduces the counting times which are required by fine matching.

  7. Rotation, Scaling and Translation Invariant Blind Image Watermarking Scheme Utilizing Zernike Moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-zhen; XIE Jian-ying

    2005-01-01

    A novel adaptive blind image watermarking scheme resistant to Rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks is proposed in this paper. Based on fuzzy clustering theory and Human visual system (HVS) model, the spread spectrum watermark is adaptively embedded in Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. In order to register RST transform parameters, a hierarchical neural network is utilized to learn image geometric pattern represented by low order Zernike moments. Watermark extraction is carried out after watermarked image has been synchronized without original image. It only needs a trained neural network.Experiments show that it can embed more robust watermark under certain visual distance, effectively resist Joint photographic experts group (JPEG) compression, noise and RST attacks.

  8. Identifying signature Zernike modes for efficient light delivery through brain tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharmila; Lee, Woei Ming; Stricker, Christian; Bachor, Hans; Daria, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience to image and investigate brain function has been made possible by impressive developments in optogenetic and opto-molecular tools. Such research requires advances in optical techniques for the delivery of light through brain tissue with high spatial resolution. The tissue causes distortions of the wavefront of the incoming light which broadens the focus, thereby reducing the intensity and resolution especially in techniques requiring focal illumination. Adaptive wavefront correction has been demonstrated to compensate for these distortions. However, in many situations iterative derivation of the corrective wavefront introduces time constraints that limit its usefulness when used to probe living cells. Here we demonstrate a direct and fast technique by working with a small set of Zernike modes and demonstrate that corrections derived a priori can lead to significant improvement of the focus. We verify this idea by the electrical response of whole-cell patched neurons following t...

  9. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  10. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  11. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  12. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  13. Copper Electrodeposition for 3D Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Beica, Rozalia; Ritzdorf, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) integration has been the traditional approach for IC integration. Due to increasing demands for providing electronic devices with superior performance and functionality in more efficient and compact packages, has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Three-dimensional (3D) approaches address both miniaturization and integration required for advanced and portable electronic products. Vertical integration proved to be essential in achieving a greater integration flexibility of disparate technologies, reason for which a general trend of transition from 2D to 3D integration is currently being observed in the industry. 3D chip integration using through silicon via (TSV) copper is considered one of the most advanced technologies among all different types of 3D packaging technologies. Copper electrodeposition is one of technologies that enable the formation of TSV structures. Because of its well-known application for copper damascene, it was believed ...

  14. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  15. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  16. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  17. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  18. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  19. Cubical Cohomology Ring of 3D Photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio; Medrano, Belen; 10.1002/ima.20271

    2011-01-01

    Cohomology and cohomology ring of three-dimensional (3D) objects are topological invariants that characterize holes and their relations. Cohomology ring has been traditionally computed on simplicial complexes. Nevertheless, cubical complexes deal directly with the voxels in 3D images, no additional triangulation is necessary, facilitating efficient algorithms for the computation of topological invariants in the image context. In this paper, we present formulas to directly compute the cohomology ring of 3D cubical complexes without making use of any additional triangulation. Starting from a cubical complex $Q$ that represents a 3D binary-valued digital picture whose foreground has one connected component, we compute first the cohomological information on the boundary of the object, $\\partial Q$ by an incremental technique; then, using a face reduction algorithm, we compute it on the whole object; finally, applying the mentioned formulas, the cohomology ring is computed from such information.

  20. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  1. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...... shutter is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Camera delay is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. A 3-D image is constructed from a sequence of 50-100 2-D reflectivity images, where each frame integrates about 700 laser pulses on the CCD. In 50 Hz video mode...... we record a 2-D sequence in a second and process a 3-D image in few seconds. We compare 3-D images with a system performance model....

  2. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  3. Tvorba 3D modelů

    OpenAIRE

    Musálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Práce řeší 3D rekonstrukci objektu pomocí metody nasvícení vzorem. Projektor nasvěcuje měřený objekt definovaným vzorem a dvojice kamer z něj snímá body. Podstavec s objektem se otáčí, a během více měření je objekt sejmut z více úhlů. Body jsou identifikovány z naměřených snímků, transformovány na 3D pomocí stereovidění, spojeny do 3D modelu a zobrazeny. Thesis solves 3D reconstruction of an object by method of lighting by pattern. A projector lights the measured object by defined pattern ...

  4. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  5. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  6. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  7. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Morales, Jose A.

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  8. Transportstromen verschuiven door toepassing 3-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    3-D printing is aan een gestage opmars bezig.ln een paar jaar tijd is er een miljardenmarkt ontstaan die exponentieel groeit. TNO deed onderzoek naar de impact van deze ontwikkelingen op supply chains.

  9. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  10. Non-Iterative Rigid 2D/3D Point-Set Registration Using Semidefinite Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Yuehaw; Kapoor, Ankur

    2016-07-01

    We describe a convex programming framework for pose estimation in 2D/3D point-set registration with unknown point correspondences. We give two mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINP) formulations of the 2D/3D registration problem when there are multiple 2D images, and propose convex relaxations for both of the MINPs to semidefinite programs (SDP) that can be solved efficiently by interior point methods. Our approach to the 2D/3D registration problem is non-iterative in nature as we jointly solve for pose and correspondence. Furthermore, these convex programs can readily incorporate feature descriptors of points to enhance registration results. We prove that the convex programs exactly recover the solution to the original nonconvex 2D/3D registration problem under noiseless condition. We apply these formulations to the registration of 3D models of coronary vessels to their 2D projections obtained from multiple intra-operative fluoroscopic images. For this application, we experimentally corroborate the exact recovery property in the absence of noise and further demonstrate robustness of the convex programs in the presence of noise.

  11. Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rahman; T. C. Hua; P. J. M. Van Oosterom

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). Currently, many national mapping and cadastral agencies (NMCAs) and users deal with complex situations, and we believe that 3D could enhance the understanding of the situations better. This paper descr...

  12. Luovasta konseptisuunnittelusta 3D-mainoselokuvaan

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoite oli luoda 3D-mainoselokuva myynnin tueksi ja nostaa esiin IT-alan yrityksen ja sen yksikön tuottamien palveluiden laajuutta ja yrityksen tapaa tuottaa tulostuspalvelua. Toteutettu mainoselokuva on tarkoitettu julkaistavaksi verkossa yrityksen omalla Youtube-kanavalla ja verkkosivuilla. 3D-mainoselokuvan suunnittelussa käytettiin luovan konseptisuunnittelun keinoja jalostaa tarina kohderyhmälähtöiseksi. Aluksi selvitettiin asiakasrajapinnan haastattelujen avulla kohde...

  13. 3D printing: technology and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to improve the process of 3D printing on the laboratory machine. In the study processes of designing, printing and post-print-ing treatment were improved. The study was commissioned by Mikko Ruotsalainen, head of the laboratory. The data was collected during the test work. All the basic information about 3D printing was taken from the Internet or library. As the results of the project higher model accuracy, solutions for post-printing treatment, printin...

  14. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  15. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host ...

  16. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  17. Fast global interactive volume segmentation with regional supervoxel descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Imanol; Basham, Mark; French, Andrew P.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach towards fast multi-class volume segmentation that exploits supervoxels in order to reduce complexity, time and memory requirements. Current methods for biomedical image segmentation typically require either complex mathematical models with slow convergence, or expensive-to-calculate image features, which makes them non-feasible for large volumes with many objects (tens to hundreds) of different classes, as is typical in modern medical and biological datasets. Recently, graphical models such as Markov Random Fields (MRF) or Conditional Random Fields (CRF) are having a huge impact in different computer vision areas (e.g. image parsing, object detection, object recognition) as they provide global regularization for multiclass problems over an energy minimization framework. These models have yet to find impact in biomedical imaging due to complexities in training and slow inference in 3D images due to the very large number of voxels. Here, we define an interactive segmentation approach over a supervoxel space by first defining novel, robust and fast regional descriptors for supervoxels. Then, a hierarchical segmentation approach is adopted by training Contextual Extremely Random Forests in a user-defined label hierarchy where the classification output of the previous layer is used as additional features to train a new classifier to refine more detailed label information. This hierarchical model yields final class likelihoods for supervoxels which are finally refined by a MRF model for 3D segmentation. Results demonstrate the effectiveness on a challenging cryo-soft X-ray tomography dataset by segmenting cell areas with only a few user scribbles as the input for our algorithm. Further results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method to fully extract different organelles from the cell volume with another few seconds of user interaction.

  18. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    OpenAIRE

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-01-01

    LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic dataLandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model ca...

  19. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  20. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  1. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  2. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  3. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  4. Thin slice three dimentional (3D reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

  5. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  6. QSAR of Estrogen of Bisphenol A with 3D Vector of Atomic Property Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-Tao; ZHOU Peng; HE Liu; LI Zhi-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Considering atomic property vector and atomic correlative function, the 3-dimensional structural vector of atomic property correlation (3D-VAPC), a novel descriptor,is defined to characterize a 3-dimensional molecular structure by introducing self-adaptability regulation mechanism and the idea of orientating to customers. Characterizing the structures of 25 bisphenol A compounds by this vector, the QSAR models of three kinds of estrogen activities (ER affinities, gene induction and cell proliferation) have high multiple correlation coefficient (Rcum2=0.933, 0.813, 0.959) and cross verification coefficient (Qcum2=0.847, 0.953, 0.798) by support vector machine (SVM), which suits for nonlinear circumstances. The above results show that the models successfully express the correlation between structure and three kinds of estrogen activities. Therefore, 3D-VAPC exactly reflects the molecular structural information and SVM method correctly describes the correlation between information and property of the compounds.

  7. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  8. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  9. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies. (paper)

  10. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  11. Dominant color correlogram descriptor for content-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Radilla, Atoany; Perez-Daniel, Karina; Nakano-Miyatake, Mariko; Benois, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has become an interesting and urgent research topic due to the increase of necessity of indexing and classification of multimedia content in large databases. The low level visual descriptors, such as color-based, texture-based and shape-based descriptors, have been used for the CBIR task. In this paper we propose a color-based descriptor which describes well image contents, integrating both global feature provided by dominant color and local features provided by color correlogram. The performance of the proposed descriptor, called Dominant Color Correlogram descriptor (DCCD), is evaluated comparing with some MPEG-7 visual descriptors and other color-based descriptors reported in the literature, using two image datasets with different size and contents. The performance of the proposed descriptor is assessed using three different metrics commonly used in image retrieval task, which are ARP (Average Retrieval Precision), ARR (Average Retrieval Rate) and ANMRR (Average Normalized Modified Retrieval Rank). Also precision-recall curves are provided to show a better performance of the proposed descriptor compared with other color-based descriptors.

  12. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions

  13. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  14. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  15. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  16. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  17. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HAp, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and usnic acid (UA. The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  18. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  19. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  20. Numerical study of wall shear stress-based descriptors in the human left coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, S I S; Campos, J B L M

    2016-10-01

    The present work is about the application of wall shear stress descriptors - time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillating shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) - to the study of blood flow in the left coronary artery (LCA). These descriptors aid the prediction of disturbed flow conditions in the vessels and play a significant role in the detection of potential zones of atherosclerosis development. Hemodynamic descriptors data were obtained, numerically, through ANSYS® software, for the LCA of a patient-specific geometry and for a 3D idealized model. Comparing both cases, the results are coherent, in terms of location and magnitude. Low TAWSS, high OSI and high RRT values are observed in the bifurcation - potential zone of atherosclerosis appearance. The dissimilarities observed in the TAWSS values, considering blood as a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid, releases the importance of the correct blood rheologic caracterization. Moreover, for a higher Reynolds number, the TAWSS values decrease in the bifurcation and along the LAD branch, increasing the probability of plaques deposition. Furthermore, for a stenotic LCA model, very low TAWSS and high RRT values in front and behind the stenosis are observed, indicating the probable extension, in the flow direction, of the lesion. PMID:26883291

  1. A third level trigger programmable on FPGA for the gamma/hadron separation in a Cherenkov telescope using pseudo-Zernike moments and the SVM classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Frailis, Marco; Mansutti, Oriana; Boinee, Praveen; Cabras, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Alessandro; De Lotto, Barbara; Forti, Alberto; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Paoletti, Riccardo; Scribano, Angelo; Turini, Nicola; Mariotti, Mose'; Peruzzo, Luigi; Saggion, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    We studied the application of the Pseudo-Zernike features as image parameters (instead of the Hillas parameters) for the discrimination between the images produced by atmospheric electromagnetic showers caused by gamma-rays and the ones produced by atmospheric electromagnetic showers caused by hadrons in the MAGIC Experiment. We used a Support Vector Machine as classification algorithm with the computed Pseudo-Zernike features as classification parameters. We implemented on a FPGA board a ker...

  2. Development of Registration methodology to 3-D Point Clouds in Robot Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liang-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of multi-view 3-D point clouds registration is investigated and effectively resolved by the developed methodology. A registration method is proposed to register two series of scans into an object model by using the proposed oriented-bounding-box (OBB regional area-based descriptor. Robot 3-D scanning is often employed to generate set of point clouds of physical objects. The automated operation has to successively digitize view-dependent area-scanned point clouds from complex shaped objects by multi-view point clouds registration. To achieve this, the OBB regional area-based descriptor is employed to determine an initial transformation matrix and is then refined employing iterative closest point (ICP algorithm. The developed method can be used to resolve the commonly encountered difficulty in accurately merging two neighbouring area-scanned images when no coordinate reference exists. The developed method has been verified through some experimental tests for its registration accuracy. Experimental results have preliminarily demonstrated the feasibility of the developed method.

  3. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  4. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune;

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...... communication and visualisation media. It is largely experimental in nature and has a qualitative approach in analysing some of the actions and arguments which took place. These experiences and preliminary results form the basis for a discussion towards an understanding of virtual space and the varying...

  5. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  6. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  7. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  8. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application......Structural DNA nanotechnology has been heavily dependent on the development of dedicated software tools for the design of unique helical junctions, to define unique sticky-ends for tile assembly, and for predicting the products of the self-assembly reaction of multiple DNA strands [1-3]. Recently......, several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...

  9. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Freytag, B; Bonifacio, P

    2009-01-01

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  10. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toushmalani Reza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region

  11. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  12. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  13. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  14. Design and Implementation of 3D Model Database for General-Purpose 3D GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weiping; ZHU Qing; DU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Yeting

    2010-01-01

    To improve the reusability of three-dimensional (3D) models and simplify the complexity of natural scene reconstruction, this paper presents a 3D model database for universal 3D GIS. After the introduction of its extensible function architecture,accompanied by the conclusion of implicit spatial-temporal hierarchy of models in any reconstructed scene of 3D GIS for general purpose, several key issues are discussed in detail, such as the storage and management of 3D models and related retrieval and load method, as well as the interfaces for further on-demand development. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this model database are proved through its application in the development of 3D visualization system of railway operation.

  15. X3d2pov. Traductor of X3D to POV-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castellanos Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality and low-quality interactive graphics represent two different approaches to computer graphics’ 3D object representation. The former is mainly used to produce high computational cost movie animation. The latter is used for producing interactive scenes as part of virtual reality environments. Many file format specifications have appeared to satisfy underlying model needs; POV-ray (persistence of vision is an open source specification for rendering photorealistic images with the ray tracer algorithm and X3D (extendable 3D as the VRML successor standard for producing web virtual-reality environments written in XML. X3D2POV has been introduced to render high-quality images from an X3D scene specification; it is a grammar translator tool from X3D code to POV-ray code.

  16. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  17. 3D-skannauksen hyödyntäminen 3D-tulostuksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusteknologioihin. Työssä käytiin läpi erilaiset 3D-tulostusmenetelmät ja esiteltiin erilaisia 3D-skannausmenetelmiä. Lisäksi käytiin läpi 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusprosessi. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä oli tutkia, kuinka nämä kaksi teknologiaa toimivat yhdessä. Tarkoituksena oli käydä läpi prosessi, jossa fyysinen kappale skannattiin digitaaliseen muotoon, jonka jälkeen se voidaan tulostaa uudeksi fyysiseksi kappaleeksi. Lisäksi tarko...

  18. INVARIANT DESCRIPTOR LEARNING USING A SIAMESE CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe learning of a descriptor based on the Siamese Convolutional Neural Network (CNN architecture and evaluate our results on a standard patch comparison dataset. The descriptor learning architecture is composed of an input module, a Siamese CNN descriptor module and a cost computation module that is based on the L2 Norm. The cost function we use pulls the descriptors of matching patches close to each other in feature space while pushing the descriptors for non-matching pairs away from each other. Compared to related work, we optimize the training parameters by combining a moving average strategy for gradients and Nesterov's Accelerated Gradient. Experiments show that our learned descriptor reaches a good performance and achieves state-of-art results in terms of the false positive rate at a 95 % recall rate on standard benchmark datasets.

  19. Weighted measurement fusion Kalman estimator for multisensor descriptor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yinfeng; Ran, Chenjian; Gao, Yuan

    2016-08-01

    For the multisensor linear stochastic descriptor system with correlated measurement noises, the fused measurement can be obtained based on the weighted least square (WLS) method, and the reduced-order state components are obtained applying singular value decomposition method. Then, the multisensor descriptor system is transformed to a fused reduced-order non-descriptor system with correlated noise. And the weighted measurement fusion (WMF) Kalman estimator of this reduced-order subsystem is presented. According to the relationship of the presented non-descriptor system and the original descriptor system, the WMF Kalman estimator and its estimation error variance matrix of the original multisensor descriptor system are presented. The presented WMF Kalman estimator has global optimality, and can avoid computing these cross-variances of the local Kalman estimator, compared with the state fusion method. A simulation example about three-sensors stochastic dynamic input and output systems in economy verifies the effectiveness.

  20. Invariant Descriptor Learning Using a Siamese Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we describe learning of a descriptor based on the Siamese Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture and evaluate our results on a standard patch comparison dataset. The descriptor learning architecture is composed of an input module, a Siamese CNN descriptor module and a cost computation module that is based on the L2 Norm. The cost function we use pulls the descriptors of matching patches close to each other in feature space while pushing the descriptors for non-matching pairs away from each other. Compared to related work, we optimize the training parameters by combining a moving average strategy for gradients and Nesterov's Accelerated Gradient. Experiments show that our learned descriptor reaches a good performance and achieves state-of-art results in terms of the false positive rate at a 95 % recall rate on standard benchmark datasets.

  1. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  2. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  3. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development...... of 3D city models....

  4. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  5. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  6. Creating a 3D Game Character Model

    OpenAIRE

    Paasikivi, Joni

    2014-01-01

    This thesis goes through the process of modeling a low poly 3D model for a video game project from the perspective of a novice 3D artist. The goal was to prepare a stylized low polygon model of less than 6000 triangles, based on pre-made design and a living person. The program used in this project was 3Ds Max. The process starts with the creation of the reference images for the 3Ds Max and goes through the process of modeling the wireframe model, unwrapping the model for texturizing, and crea...

  7. EAFIT 3D móvil

    OpenAIRE

    Hincapié Casas, Miguel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Se desarrollo una aplicación para celulares que permite visualizar un mundo virtual en 3D del campus universitario -- El objetivo de este desarrollo fue tener a disposición una herramienta que prestara el mismo servicio prestado por un mapa impreso del campus universitario -- Adicionalmente la aplicación permite hacer uso del GPS integrado en algunos celulares -- La escena 3D fue creada en 3DS Max y enfocada a tener la menor cantidad de polígonos posibles dada las limitaciones de ...

  8. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  9. SURVEY AND ANALYSIS OF 3D STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K .LAKSHMI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, eg., images, audio, and video files. The remarkable growth in computational power, increase in current security approaches and techniques are often used together to ensures security of the secret message. Steganography’s ultimate objectives, which are capacity and invisibility, are the main factors that separate it from related techniques. In this paper we focus on 3D models of steganography and conclude with some review analysis of high capacity data hiding and low-distortion 3D models.

  10. The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

  11. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  12. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  13. AutoCAD Civil 3D - Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Luketić, Antonio; Padovan, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    AutoCAD Civil 3D je vrlo kompleksan i napredan program za geodeziju i građevinarstvo. Survey izbornik predstavlja mali dio tog softvera. U programu je sadržana mogućnost kreiranja vlastitih kodova kao i naredbi kojima možemo ubrzati vizualizaciju izmjerenih objekata. Njegovim korištenjem se znatno skraćuje vrijeme obrade podataka. Članak je napisan na temelju jednostavnog, ali korisnog primjera kojime smo željeli upoznati čitatelje s prilično nepoznatom aplikacijom koju nudi AutoCAD Civil 3D....

  14. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  15. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  16. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity Unitarity Redux

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Townsend, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    A geometrical analysis of the bulk and anti-de Sitter boundary unitarity conditions of 3D "Minimal Massive Gravity" (MMG) (which evades the "bulk/boundary clash" of Topologically Massive Gravity) is used to extend and simplify previous results, showing that unitarity selects, up to equivalence, a connected region in parameter space. We also initiate the study of flat-space holography for MMG. Its relevant flat space limit is a deformation of 3D conformal gravity; the deformation is both non-l...

  17. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  18. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  19. 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, N.H.

    Statens Forsknings- og Uddannelsesbygninger har på forskellige nybyggerier eksperimenteret med anvendelse af 3D-visualisering i tilknytning til bedømmelsen af arkitektkonkurrencer. Interview af dommerkomitéen på konkurrencerne på Muskikkens Hus i Nordjylland og nye bygninger til Roskilde...... Universitetscenter har givet input til forslag om den fremtidige udvikling. Forslagene retter sig både mod arkitekternes kompetence og udvalgte forretningsstrategier og mod den professionelle bygherres fremtidige krav til 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer. Et indbudt seminar om rapportens anbefalinger samler...

  20. 3D FDTD simulations of photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In our contribution we will present the recent results on 3D simulations of photonic devices. Particularly, quantum well infrared photodetectors with embedded photonic crystal are optimized to achieve optimal light coupling and quantum efficiency. Furthermore, we study schemes of light coupling into SOI waveguides. Both optical fibre-SOI waveguide and laser-SOI waveguide coupling schemes are investigated. The results of investigations regarding the influence of disorder on the reflection peak in opal 3D photonic crystal will be also presented. This work was supported by the Austrian Nanoinitiative RPC PLATON. (author)

  1. Fingerprint Identification Using SIFT-Based Minutia Descriptors and Improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuqiang Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1 the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2 high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM, is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements.

  2. Using 3D Scanning in 3D Character Modeling and Game Figure Production

    OpenAIRE

    guo, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this thesis was to discuss the theory of 3D scanning, focus on the flowchart of using 3D NextEngine Desktop Scanner hardware and software as well as the 3D game character exporting and importing in both 3ds Max and CryENGINE2 Sandbox2. The purpose of this final-year project was to scan models made of modeling paste using the 3D NextEngine ScanStudio. The models were developed and imported as raw files into 3dsMax. At the same step, the skeletons were adjusted an...

  3. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  4. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and its main competitor, the Israeli company Stratasys, held a combined market share of 37% split almost evenly and marketed products in all the same areas. However, a greater threat came from large mult...

  5. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  6. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Niccolini; Lorenzo Pollini; Mario Innocenti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the enti...

  7. Kalman filtering and Riccati equations for descriptor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoukhah, Ramine; Willsky, A.S.; Levy, Bernard C.

    1990-01-01

    Projet META2 The theory of Kalman filtering is extended to the case of systems with descriptor dynamics. Explicit expressions are obtained for this descriptor Kalman filter allowing for the possible singularity of the observation noise covariance. Asymptotic behavior of the filter in the time-invariant case is studied ; in particular, a method for constructing the solution of the algebraic descriptor Riccati equation is presented.

  8. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  9. Admissible consensus for heterogeneous descriptor multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Rong; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the admissible consensus problem for heterogeneous descriptor multi-agent systems. Based on algebra, graph and descriptor system theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions are proposed for heterogeneous descriptor multi-agent systems achieving admissible consensus. The provided conditions depend on not only the structure properties of each agent dynamics but also the topologies within the descriptor multi-agent systems. Moreover, an algorithm is given to design the novel consensus protocol. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.

  10. Dynamic Texture Feature Extraction Using Weber Local Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G.Agrawal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In numerous biometric applications, gender recognition from facial pictures plays a vital role. During this paper, we have a tendency to investigate Weber’s native Descriptor (WLD for gender recognition. WLD may be a texture descriptor that performs higher than alternative similar descriptors however it's holistic as a result of it’s terribly construction. We have a tendency to extend it by introducing native abstraction information; divide a picture into variety of blocks, calculate WLD descriptor for every block and concatenate them. The gender from face options are classified by the minimum distance measurement and neural network.

  11. Hierarchical and binary spatial descriptors for lung nodule image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gillian; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Zhou, Yun; Liu, Sidong; Feng, David Dagan

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing amount of image data available for cancer staging and diagnosis, it is clear that content-based image retrieval techniques are becoming more important to assist physicians in making diagnoses and tracking disease. Domain-specific feature descriptors have been previously shown to be effective in the retrieval of lung tumors. This work proposes a method to improve the rotation invariance of the hierarchical spatial descriptor, as well as presents a new binary descriptor for the retrieval of lung nodule images. The descriptors were evaluated on the ELCAP public access database, exhibiting good performance overall. PMID:25571476

  12. Correspondence dictionary from free English term to INIS descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dictionary is intended for the on-line users of INIS database who select controlled terms (INIS descriptors) starting from free terms. The purpose of terminology control is (1) to reduce the ambiguity of the term use among different subject fields, and (2) to improve the recall by coordinating the synonyms. The controlled terms are collected in the thesaurus, but it is not always easy to find suitable descriptors. This dictionary has been compiled by analyzing existing records, and provides the specialists' know-how of converting free terms to descriptors. Besides the compilation of this dictionary, the characteristics of the assigned descriptors were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  13. Heliconia phenotypic diversity based on qualitative descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, W N R; Martins, L S S; Castro, C E F; Carvalho Filho, J L S; Loges, V

    2014-04-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize Heliconia genotypes phenotypically using 26 qualitative descriptors. The evaluations were conducted in five flowering stems per clump in three replicates of 22 Heliconia genotypes. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, the Mahalanobis dissimilarity measure was estimated, and the dendrogram was generated using the nearest neighbor method. From the values generated by the dissimilarity matrix and the clusters formed among the Heliconia genotypes studied, the phenotypic characterizations that best differentiated the genotypes were: pseudostem and wax green tone (light or dark green), leaf-wax petiole, the petiole hair, cleft margin at the base of the petiole, midrib underside shade of green, wax midrib underside, color sheet (light or dark green), unequal lamina base, torn limb, inflorescence-wax, position of inflorescence, bract leaf in apex, twisting of the rachis, and type of bloom. These results will be applied in the preparation of a catalog for Heliconia descriptors, in the selection of different genotypes with most promising characteristics for crosses, and for the characterization of new genotypes to be introduced in germplasm collections.

  14. Heliconia phenotypic diversity based on qualitative descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, W N R; Martins, L S S; Castro, C E F; Carvalho Filho, J L S; Loges, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Heliconia genotypes phenotypically using 26 qualitative descriptors. The evaluations were conducted in five flowering stems per clump in three replicates of 22 Heliconia genotypes. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, the Mahalanobis dissimilarity measure was estimated, and the dendrogram was generated using the nearest neighbor method. From the values generated by the dissimilarity matrix and the clusters formed among the Heliconia genotypes studied, the phenotypic characterizations that best differentiated the genotypes were: pseudostem and wax green tone (light or dark green), leaf-wax petiole, the petiole hair, cleft margin at the base of the petiole, midrib underside shade of green, wax midrib underside, color sheet (light or dark green), unequal lamina base, torn limb, inflorescence-wax, position of inflorescence, bract leaf in apex, twisting of the rachis, and type of bloom. These results will be applied in the preparation of a catalog for Heliconia descriptors, in the selection of different genotypes with most promising characteristics for crosses, and for the characterization of new genotypes to be introduced in germplasm collections. PMID:24782170

  15. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  16. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  17. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involv...

  18. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: ohohm@mit.ed, E-mail: j.rosseel@rug.n, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-07

    We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N=4 supersymmetric 'general massive supergravity' and the maximally supersymmetric N=8 'new massive supergravity'. We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N=7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N=6 to be maximal at the nonlinear level.

  19. On Maximal Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric "general massive supergravity" and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 "new massive supergravity". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level.

  20. More on Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    Completing earlier work on three dimensional (3D) N=1 supergravity with curvature-squared terms, we construct the general supergravity extension of cosmological massive gravity theories. We expand about supersymmetric anti-de Sitter vacua, finding the conditions for bulk unitarity and the critical points in parameter space at which the spectrum changes. We discuss implications for the dual conformal field theory.

  1. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  2. Local orientation measurements in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    The 3 Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) method is presented and its potentials illustrated by examples. The 3DXRD method is based on diffraction of high energy X-rays and allows fast and nondestructive 3D characterization of the local distribution of crystallographic orientations in the bulk....

  3. Automated analysis of 3D echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stralen, Marijn van

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we aim at automating the analysis of 3D echocardiography, mainly targeting the functional analysis of the left ventricle. Manual analysis of these data is cumbersome, time-consuming and is associated with inter-observer and inter-institutional variability. Methods for reconstruction o

  4. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    Real-time ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in medical diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound systems offering real-time imaging in 3-D has emerged. However, the high complexity of the transducer probes and the considerable increase in data to be processed compared to conventional 2-D ultr...

  5. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing...

  6. MIM in 3D: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    Last decades great effort has been put in the development of 3D capacitors. These capacitors are used for RF decoupling and should therefore have a high capacitance density associated with a sufficient breakdown voltage. Increased capacitance densities have been achieved by exploring the use of the

  7. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  8. 3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, ...

  9. Invertible authentication for 3D meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Jana; Benedens, Oliver

    2003-06-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. Based on the introduced media independent protocol schemes for invertible data authentication in references 2, 4 and 5 we discuss the design of a new 3D invertible labeling technique to ensure and require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. Furthermore the protocol steps in the other papers to ensure that the original data can only be reproduced with a secret key is adopted for 3D meshes. The goal is to show how the existing protocol can be used for 3D meshes to provide solutions for authentication watermarking. In our design concept and evaluation we see that due to the nature of 3D meshes the invertible function are different from the image and audio concepts to achieve invertibility to guaranty reversibility of the original. Therefore we introduce a concept for distortion free invertibility and a concept for adjustable minimum distortion invertibility.

  10. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  11. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  12. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Jeffrey; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2016-01-01

    Planet migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep requirement in resolution. Using two different hydrodynamics code, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk-planet interaction for a 1 to 5 Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet's potential ($r_{\\rm s}$), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ($\\gamma$). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern...

  13. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  14. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  15. Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.

  16. 3D Wire 2015 Gamification Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias;

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha...

  17. 3D microstructuring of biodegradable polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagstrup, Johan; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Almdal, Kristoffer;

    2011-01-01

    Biopolymer films with a thickness of 100μm are prepared using spin coating technique with solutions consisting of 25wt.% polycaprolactone or poly-l-lactide in dichloromethane. SU-8 stamps are fabricated using three photolithography steps. The stamps are used to emboss 3D microstructures in the bi...

  18. 3D Video Compression and Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    In this short paper we provide a brief introduction to 3D and multi-view video technologies - like three-dimensional television and free-viewpoint video - focusing on the aspects related to data compression and transmission. Geometric information represented by depth maps is introduced as well...

  19. Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, A.A.; Hua, T.C.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). Curr

  20. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  1. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, M.M.; Bouakaz, A.; Krenning, B.J.; Lancée, C.; Cate, ten F.; Jong, de N.

    2004-01-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suit

  2. How to See Shadows in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  3. Holographic 3D tracking of microscopic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael;

    2015-01-01

    We originally proposed and experimentally demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) three years ago. As these WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through their integrated waveguide...

  4. Techniques and architectures for 3D interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial scientific datasets are all around us, and 3D visualization is a powerful tool to explore details and structures within them. When dealing with complex spatial structures, interactive Virtual Reality (VR) systems can potentially improve exploration over desktop-based systems. However, from p

  5. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  6. 3D Urban Visualization with LOD Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In 3D urban visualization, large data volumes related to buildings are a major factor that limits the delivery and browsing speed in a web-based computer system. This paper proposes a new approach based on the level of detail (LOD) technique advanced in 3D visualization in computer graphics. The key idea of LOD technique is to generalize details of object surfaces without losing details for delivery and displaying objects. This technique has been successfully used in visualizing one or a few multiple objects in films and other industries. However, applying the technique to 3D urban visualization requires an effective generalization method for urban buildings. Conventional two-dimensional (2D) generalization method at different scales provides a good generalization reference for 3D urban visualization. Yet, it is difficult to determine when and where to retrieve data for displaying buildings. To solve this problem, this paper defines an imaging scale point and image scale region for judging when and where to get the right data for visualization. The results show that the average response time of view transformations is much decreased.

  7. Estimation of the volume of distribution of some pharmacologically important compounds from their structural descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD H. FATEMI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR approaches were used to estimate the volume of distribution (Vd using an artificial neural network (ANN. The data set consisted of the volume of distribution of 129 pharmacologically important compounds, i.e., benzodiazepines, barbiturates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, tricyclic anti-depressants and some antibiotics, such as betalactams, tetracyclines and quinolones. The descriptors, which were selected by stepwise variable selection methods, were: the Moriguchi octanol–water partition coefficient; the 3D-MoRSE-signal 30, weighted by atomic van der Waals volumes; the fragment-based polar surface area; the d COMMA2 value, weighted by atomic masses; the Geary autocorrelation, weighted by the atomic Sanderson electronegativities; the 3D-MoRSE – signal 02, weighted by atomic masses, and the Geary autocorrelation – lag 5, weighted by the atomic van der Waals volumes. These descriptors were used as inputs for developing multiple linear regressions (MLR and artificial neural network models as linear and non-linear feature mapping techniques, respectively. The standard errors in the estimation of Vd by the MLR model were: 0.104, 0.103 and 0.076 and for the ANN model: 0.029, 0.087 and 0.082 for the training, internal and external validation test, respectively. The robustness of these models were also evaluated by the leave-5-out cross validation procedure, that gives the statistics Q2 = 0.72 for the MLR model and Q2 = 0.82 for the ANN model. Moreover, the results of the Y-randomization test revealed that there were no chance correlations among the data matrix. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the applicability of the estimation of the Vd value of drugs from their structural molecular descriptors. Furthermore, the statistics of the developed models indicate the superiority of the ANN over the MLR model.

  8. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  9. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  10. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  11. FIT3D Toolbox : multiple view geometry and 3D reconstruction for MATLAB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, I.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.

    2010-01-01

    FIT3D is a Toolbox built for Matlab that aims at unifying and distributing a set of tools that will allow the researcher to obtain a complete 3D model from a set of calibrated images. In this paper we motivate and present the structure of the toolbox in a tutorial and example based approach. Given i

  12. Geometry-based vs. intensity-based medical image registration: A comparative study on 3D CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Antonis D; Economopoulos, Theodore L; Matsopoulos, George K

    2016-02-01

    Spatial alignment of Computed Tomography (CT) data sets is often required in numerous medical applications and it is usually achieved by applying conventional exhaustive registration techniques, which are mainly based on the intensity of the subject data sets. Those techniques consider the full range of data points composing the data, thus negatively affecting the required processing time. Alternatively, alignment can be performed using the correspondence of extracted data points from both sets. Moreover, various geometrical characteristics of those data points can be used, instead of their chromatic properties, for uniquely characterizing each point, by forming a specific geometrical descriptor. This paper presents a comparative study reviewing variations of geometry-based, descriptor-oriented registration techniques, as well as conventional, exhaustive, intensity-based methods for aligning three-dimensional (3D) CT data pairs. In this context, three general image registration frameworks were examined: a geometry-based methodology featuring three distinct geometrical descriptors, an intensity-based methodology using three different similarity metrics, as well as the commonly used Iterative Closest Point algorithm. All techniques were applied on a total of thirty 3D CT data pairs with both known and unknown initial spatial differences. After an extensive qualitative and quantitative assessment, it was concluded that the proposed geometry-based registration framework performed similarly to the examined exhaustive registration techniques. In addition, geometry-based methods dramatically improved processing time over conventional exhaustive registration.

  13. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.;

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...... interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract...

  14. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  15. 3D Turtle Graphics” by using a 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi Kanada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When creating shapes by using a 3D printer, usually, a static (declarative model designed by using a 3D CAD system is translated to a CAM program and it is sent to the printer. However, widely-used FDM-type 3D printers input a dynamical (procedural program that describes control of motions of the print head and extrusion of the filament. If the program is expressed by using a programming language or a library in a straight manner, solids can be created by a method similar to turtle graphics. An open-source library that enables “turtle 3D printing” method was described by Python and tested. Although this method currently has a problem that it cannot print in the air; however, if this problem is solved by an appropriate method, shapes drawn by 3D turtle graphics freely can be embodied by this method.

  16. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  17. A hybrid framework of first principles molecular orbital calculations and a three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular liquids: Multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike self-consistent field approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, Kentaro, E-mail: kido.kentaro@jaea.go.jp [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kasahara, Kento [Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yokogawa, Daisuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8062 (Japan); Sato, Hirofumi [Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Elements Strategy Institute for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2015-07-07

    In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple S{sub N}2 reaction (Cl{sup −} + CH{sub 3}Cl → ClCH{sub 3} + Cl{sup −}) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF.

  18. Expression robust 3D face recognition via mesh-based histograms of multiple order surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a mesh-based approach for 3D face recognition using a novel local shape descriptor and a SIFT-like matching process. Both maximum and minimum curvatures estimated in the 3D Gaussian scale space are employed to detect salient points. To comprehensively characterize 3D facial surfaces and their variations, we calculate weighted statistical distributions of multiple order surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG), histogram of shape index (HoS) and histogram of gradient of shape index (HoGS) within a local neighborhood of each salient point. The subsequent matching step then robustly associates corresponding points of two facial surfaces, leading to much more matched points between different scans of a same person than the ones of different persons. Experimental results on the Bosphorus dataset highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method and its robustness to facial expression variations. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  20. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials