Sample records for 3d triangular lattice

  1. RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice

    Mayne Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficult problems in structural bioinformatics are often studied in simple exact models to gain insights and to derive general principles. Protein folding, for example, has long been studied in the lattice model. Recently, researchers have also begun to apply the lattice model to the study of RNA folding. Results We present a novel method for predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots: first simulate the folding dynamics of the RNA sequence on the 3D triangular lattice, next extract and select a set of disjoint base pairs from the best lattice conformation found by the folding simulation. Experiments on sequences from PseudoBase show that our prediction method outperforms the HotKnot algorithm of Ren, Rastegari, Condon and Hoos, a leading method for RNA pseudoknot prediction. Our method for RNA secondary structure prediction can be adapted into an efficient reconstruction method that, given an RNA sequence and an associated secondary structure, finds a conformation of the sequence on the 3D triangular lattice that realizes the base pairs in the secondary structure. We implemented a suite of computer programs for the simulation and visualization of RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice. These programs come with detailed documentation and are accessible from the companion website of this paper at Conclusion Folding simulation on the 3D triangular lattice is effective method for RNA secondary structure prediction and lattice conformation reconstruction. The visualization software for the lattice conformations of RNA structures is a valuable tool for the study of RNA folding and is a great pedagogic device.

  2. Bethe ansatz solution of triangular trimers on the triangular lattice

    Verberkmoes, A.; Nienhuis, B.


    Recently, a model consisting of triangular trimers covering the triangular lattice was introduced and its exact free energy given. In this paper we present the complete calculation leading to this exact result. The solution involves a coordinate Bethe ansatz with two kinds of particles. It is simila

  3. Pattern design on 3D triangular garment surfaces


    This paper focuses on a pattern design method for a 3D triangular garment surface. Firstly, some definitions of 3D style lines are proposed for designing the boundaries of patterns as drawing straight lines or splines on the triangular surface.Additionally some commonly used style lines are automatically generated to enhance design efficiency. Secondly, after style lines are preprocessed, a searching method is presented for quickly obtaining the boundaries and patches of a pattern on the 3D triangular surface. Finally a new pattern design reuse method is introduced by encoding/decoding the style line information. After style lines are encoded, the pattern design information can be saved in a pattern template and when decoding this template on a new garment surface, it automates the pattern generation for made-to-measure apparel products.

  4. Legendre transformations on the triangular lattice

    Adler, V E


    The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that condition of invariance with respect to the Legendre transformations allows effectively isolate the class of integrable difference equations on the triangular lattice, which can be considered as discrete analogues of relativistic Toda type lattices. Some of obtained equations are new, up to the author knowledge. As an example, one of them is studied in more details, in particular, its higher continuous symmetries and zero curvature representation are found.

  5. Hall effect on the triangular lattice

    Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Millis, A.


    We investigate the high frequency Hall effect on a two-dimensional triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping and a local Hubbard interaction. The complete temperature and doping dependencies of the high-frequency Hall coefficient $R_H$ are evaluated analytically and numerically for small, intermediate, and strong interactions using various approximation schemes. We find that $R_H$ follows the semiclassical $1/qn^*$ law near T=0, but exhibits a striking $T$-linear behavior with an inter...

  6. Ground-state phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model on triangular-to-kagome lattices

    Akagi, Yutaka; Motome, Yukitoshi


    We investigate the ground-state phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins on triangular-to-kagome lattices by using a variational calculation. We identify the parameter regions where a four-sublattice noncoplanar order is stable with a finite spin scalar chirality while changing the lattice structure from triangular to kagome continuously. Although the noncoplanar spin states appear in a wide range of parameters, the spin configurations on the kagome network beco...

  7. An integrable 3D lattice model with positive Boltzmann weights

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Sergeev, Sergey M


    In this paper we construct a three-dimensional (3D) solvable lattice model with non-negative Boltzmann weights. The spin variables in the model are assigned to edges of the 3D cubic lattice and run over an infinite number of discrete states. The Boltzmann weights satisfy the tetrahedron equation, which is a 3D generalisation of the Yang-Baxter equation. The weights depend on a free parameter 03D lattice model with non-negative Boltzmann weights.

  8. Generation and enumeration of compact conformations on the two-dimensional triangular and three-dimensional fcc lattices

    Peto, Myron; Sen, Taner Z.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej


    We enumerated all compact conformations within simple geometries on the two-dimensional (2D) triangular and three-dimensional (3D) face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. These compact conformations correspond mathematically to Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits and are frequently used as simple models of proteins. The shapes that were studied for the 2D triangular lattice included m ×n parallelograms, regular equilateral triangles, and various hexagons. On the 3D fcc lattice we generated conformations for a limited class of skewed parallelepipeds. Symmetries of the shape were exploited to reduce the number of conformations. We compared surface to volume ratios against protein length for compact conformations on the 3D cubic lattice and for a selected set of real proteins. We also show preliminary work in extending the transfer matrix method, previously developed by us for the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices, to the 2D triangular lattice. The transfer matrix method offers a superior way of generating all conformations within a given geometry on a lattice by completely avoiding attrition and reducing this highly complicated geometrical problem to a simple algebraic problem of matrix multiplication.

  9. Many body localization in two dimensional square and triangular lattices

    Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Paredes, R


    Ultracold interacting Bose atoms placed in disordered two dimensional optical lattices with square and triangular symmetries are found to be localized above a certain disorder strength amplitude. From a Gross-Pitaevskii mean analysis we determine the localization length as a function of the disorder strength and investigate the energy spectrum in terms of the disorder magnitude. We found that the localization length is observed to decrease faster in triangular geometries than in square ones. In the presence of a harmonic confinement localization is observed at the center of the trap. The analysis of the energy spectrum reveals that discrete energy levels acquire a finite width that is always smaller than the distance among energy levels.

  10. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  11. Lattice percolation approach to 3D modeling of tissue aging

    Gorshkov, Vyacheslav; Privman, Vladimir; Libert, Sergiy


    We describe a 3D percolation-type approach to modeling of the processes of aging and certain other properties of tissues analyzed as systems consisting of interacting cells. Lattice sites are designated as regular (healthy) cells, senescent cells, or vacancies left by dead (apoptotic) cells. The system is then studied dynamically with the ongoing processes including regular cell dividing to fill vacant sites, healthy cells becoming senescent or dying, and senescent cells dying. Statistical-mechanics description can provide patterns of time dependence and snapshots of morphological system properties. The developed theoretical modeling approach is found not only to corroborate recent experimental findings that inhibition of senescence can lead to extended lifespan, but also to confirm that, unlike 2D, in 3D senescent cells can contribute to tissue's connectivity/mechanical stability. The latter effect occurs by senescent cells forming the second infinite cluster in the regime when the regular (healthy) cell's infinite cluster still exists.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensation in a frustrated triangular optical lattice

    Janzen, Peter; Huang, Wen-Min; Mathey, L.


    The recent experimental condensation of ultracold atoms in a triangular optical lattice with a negative effective tunneling parameter paves the way for the study of frustrated systems in a controlled environment. Here, we explore the critical behavior of the chiral phase transition in such a frustrated lattice in three dimensions. We represent the low-energy action of the lattice system as a two-component Bose gas corresponding to the two minima of the dispersion. The contact repulsion between the bosons separates into intra- and intercomponent interactions, referred to as V0 and V12, respectively. We first employ a Huang-Yang-Luttinger approximation of the free energy. For V12/V0=2 , which corresponds to the bare interaction, this approach suggests a first-order phase transition, at which both the U (1 ) symmetry of condensation and the Z2 symmetry of the emergent chiral order are broken simultaneously. Furthermore, we perform a renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order. We demonstrate that the coupling regime 0 shares the critical behavior of the Heisenberg fixed point at V12/V0=1 . For V12/V0>1 we show that V0 flows to a negative value, while V12 increases and remains positive. This results in a breakdown of the effective quartic-field theory due to a cubic anisotropy and, again, suggests a discontinuous phase transition.

  13. The Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice

    PO de Wet


    Full Text Available The study of spanning trees and Steiner trees arises naturally in applications, such as in the design of integrated circuit boards, communication networks, power networks and pipelines of minimum cost. In such applications the Steiner ratio is an indication of how badly a minimum spanning tree performs compared to a Steiner minimal tree. In this paper a short proof is presented for the Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice in the Euclidean plane. A Steiner tree in two dimensions is "lifted" to become a rectilinear tree in three dimensions, where it is altered. The rectilinear tree is then projected back into the plane and the result readily follows. A short note at the end of the paper compares our three-dimensional rectilinear trees to "impossible objects" such as Escher's "Waterfall."

  14. Bilinear-biquadratic anisotropic Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice

    Pires, A.S.T., E-mail:


    Motivated by the fact that the study of disordered phases at zero temperature is of great interest, I study the spin-one quantum antiferromagnet with a next-nearest neighbor interaction on a triangular lattice with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and a single ion anisotropy, using a SU(3) Schwinger boson mean-field theory. I calculate the critical properties, at zero temperature, for values of the single ion anisotropy parameter D above a critical value D{sub C}, where a quantum phase transition takes place from a higher D disordered phase to a lower D ordered phase. - Highlights: • The quantum phase transition of the bilinear-biquadratic anisotropic antiferromagnet is studied. • The effect of competing interaction is analyzed. • The zero temperature phase diagram is obtained.

  15. Dimer site-bond percolation on a triangular lattice

    Ramirez, L. S.; De la Cruz Félix, N.; Centres, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.


    A generalization of the site-percolation problem, in which pairs of neighbor sites (site dimers) and bonds are independently and randomly occupied on a triangular lattice, has been studied by means of numerical simulations. Motivated by considerations of cluster connectivity, two distinct schemes (denoted as S{\\cap}B and S{\\cup}B ) have been considered. In S{\\cap}B (S{\\cup}B ), two points are said to be connected if a sequence of occupied sites and (or) bonds joins them. Numerical data, supplemented by analysis using finite-size scaling theory, were used to determine (i) the complete phase diagram of the system (phase boundary between the percolating and nonpercolating regions), and (ii) the values of the critical exponents (and universality) characterizing the phase transition occurring in the system.

  16. The 3D solitons and vortices in 3D discrete monatomic lattices with cubic and quartic nonlinearity

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang


    By virtue of the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach, we have discussed the nonlinear vibration equation of a 3D discrete monatomic lattice with its nearest-neighbours interaction. The 3D simple cubic lattices have the same localized modes as a ID discrete monatomic chain with cubic and quartic nonlinearity. The nonlinear vibration in the 3D simple cubic lattice has 3D distorted solitons and 3D envelop solitons in the direction of kx = ky = kz = k and k =±π/6a0 in the Brillouin zone, as well as has 3D vortices in the direction of kx = ky = kz = k and k =±π/a0 in the Brillouin zone.

  17. Design of Mott and topological phases on buckled 3d-oxide honeycomb lattices

    Pentcheva, Rossitza

    The honeycomb lattice, as realized e.g. in graphene, has rendered a robust platform for innovative science and potential applications. A much richer generalization of this lattice arises in (111)-oriented bilayers of perovskites, adding the complexity of the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition metal oxides. Based on first principles calculations with an on-site Coulomb repulsion, here we provide trends in the evolution of ground states versus band filling in (111)-oriented (La XO3)2 /(LaAlO3)4 superlattices, with X spanning the entire 3d transition metal series. The competition between local quasi-cubic and global triangular symmetry triggers unanticipated broken symmetry phases, with mechanisms ranging from Jahn-Teller distortion, to charge-, spin-, and orbital-ordering. LaMnO3 and LaCoO3 bilayers, where spin-orbit coupling opens a sizable gap in the Dirac-point Fermi surface, emerge as much desired oxide-based Chern insulators, the latter displaying a gap capable of supporting room-temperature applications Further realizations of the honeycomb lattice and geometry patterns beyond the perovskite structure will be addressed. Research supported by the DFG, SFB/TR80.

  18. Three-sublattice skyrmion crystal in the antiferromagnetic triangular lattice

    Rosales, H. D.; Cabra, D. C.; Pujol, Pierre


    The frustrated classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions on the triangular lattice is studied under a magnetic field by means of semiclassical calculations and large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. We show that even a small DM interaction induces the formation of an antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystal (AF-SkX) state. Unlike what is observed in ferromagnetic materials, we show that the AF-SkX state consists of three interpenetrating skyrmion crystals (one by sublattice), and most importantly, the AF-SkX state seems to survive in the limit of zero temperature. To characterize the phase diagram we compute the average of the topological order parameter which can be associated with the number of topological charges or skyrmions. As the magnetic field increases this parameter presents a clear jump, indicating a discontinuous transition from a spiral phase into the AF-SkX phase, where multiple Bragg peaks coexist in the spin structure factor. For higher fields, a second (probably continuous) transition occurs into a featureless paramagnetic phase.

  19. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup


    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  20. Tilted resonators in a triangular elastic lattice: chirality, Bloch waves and negative refraction

    Tallarico, Domenico; Movchan, Alexander B; Colquitt, Daniel J


    We consider a vibrating triangular mass-truss lattice whose unit cell contains a resonator of a triangular shape. The resonators are connected to the triangular lattice by trusses. Each resonator is tilted, i.e. it is rotated with respect to the triangular lattice's unit cell through an angle $\\vartheta_0$. This geometrical parameter is responsible for the emergence of a resonant mode in the Bloch spectrum for elastic waves and strongly affects the dispersive properties of the lattice. Additionally, the tilting angle $\\vartheta_0$ triggers the opening of a band gap at a Dirac-like point. We provide a physical interpretation of these phenomena and discuss the dynamical implications on elastic Bloch waves. The dispersion properties are used to design a structured interface containing tilted resonators which exhibit negative refraction and focussing, as in a "flat elastic lens".

  1. Differences of Band Gap Characteristics of Square and Triangular Lattice Photonic Crystals in Terahertz Range

    Jie Zha; Zhi-Yong Zhong; Huai-Wu Zhang; Qi-Ye Wen; Yuan-Xun Li


    Band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals in terahertz range with square lattice and triangular lattice of GaAs cylinders are comparatively studied by means of plane wave method (PWM). The influence of the radius on the band gap width is analyzed and the critical values where the band gap appears are put forward. The results show that themaximum band gap width of photonic crystal with triangular lattice of GaAs cylinders is much wider than that of photonic crystal with square lattice. The research provides a theoretic basis for the development of terahertz (THz) devices.

  2. Extended particle swarm optimisation method for folding protein on triangular lattice.

    Guo, Yuzhen; Wu, Zikai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yong


    In this study, the authors studied the protein structure prediction problem by the two-dimensional hydrophobic-polar model on triangular lattice. Particularly the non-compact conformation was modelled to fold the amino acid sequence into a relatively larger triangular lattice, which is more biologically realistic and significant than the compact conformation. Then protein structure prediction problem was abstracted to match amino acids to lattice points. Mathematically, the problem was formulated as an integer programming and they transformed the biological problem into an optimisation problem. To solve this problem, classical particle swarm optimisation algorithm was extended by the single point adjustment strategy. Compared with square lattice, conformations on triangular lattice are more flexible in several benchmark examples. They further compared the authors' algorithm with hybrid of hill climbing and genetic algorithm. The results showed that their method was more effective in finding solution with lower energy and less running time.


    Xinming Qiu; Lianghong He; Yueqiang Qian; Xiong Zhang


    The fracture investigations of the planar lattices made of ductile cell walls are cur-rently limited to bending-dominated hexagonal honeycomb. In this paper, the plastic zones of stretching-dominated lattices, including Kagome and triangular lattices, are estimated by ana-lyzing their effective yield loci. The normalized in-plane yield loci of these two lattices are almost identical convex curves enclosed by 4 straight lines, which is almost independent of the relative density but is highly sensitive to the principal stress directions. Therefore, the plastic zones around the crack tip of Kagome and triangular are estimated to be quite different to those of the con-tinuum solid and also hexagonal lattice. The plastic zones predictions by convex yield surfaces of both lattices are validated by FE calculations, although the shear lag region caused by non-local bending effect in the Kagome lattice enlarges the plastic zone in cases of small ratio of Tp/l.

  4. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model. II The triangular lattice

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.


    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a triangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  5. Heavy dense QCD from a 3d effective lattice theory

    Glesaaen, Jonas; Philipsen, Owe


    The cold and dense regime of the QCD phase diagram is to this day inaccessible to first principle lattice calculations owing to the sign problem. Here we present progress of an ongoing effort to probe this particularly difficult regime utilising a dimensionally reduced effective lattice theory with a significantly reduced sign problem. The effective theory is derived by combined character and hopping expansion and is valid for heavy quarks near the continuum. We show an extension of the effective theory to order $u^5\\kappa^8$ in the cold regime. A linked cluster expansion is applied to the effective theory resulting in a consistent mechanism for handling the effective theory fully analytically. The new results are consistent with the ones from simulations confirming the viability of analytic methods. Finally we resum the analytical result which doubles the convergence region of the expansion.

  6. Complex 3D Vortex Lattice Formation by Phase-Engineered Multiple Beam Interference

    Jolly Xavier


    Full Text Available We present the computational results on the formation of diverse complex 3D vortex lattices by a designed superposition of multiple plane waves. Special combinations of multiples of three noncoplanar plane waves with a designed relative phase shift between one another are perturbed by a nonsingular beam to generate various complex 3D vortex lattice structures. The formation of complex gyrating lattice structures carrying designed vortices by means of relatively phase-engineered plane waves is also computationally investigated. The generated structures are configured with both periodic as well as transversely quasicrystallographic basis, while these whirling complex lattices possess a long-range order of designed symmetry in a given plane. Various computational analytical tools are used to verify the presence of engineered geometry of vortices in these complex 3D vortex lattices.

  7. Multiple-q states and the Skyrmion lattice of the triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet under magnetic fields.

    Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Chung, Sungki; Kawamura, Hikaru


    Ordering of the frustrated classical Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with an incommensurate spiral structure is studied under magnetic fields by means of a mean-field analysis and a Monte Carlo simulation. Several types of multiple-q states including the Skyrmion-lattice state is observed in addition to the standard single-q state. In contrast to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction driven system, the present model allows both Skyrmions and anti-Skyrmions, together with a new thermodynamic phase where Skyrmion and anti-Skyrmion lattices form a domain state.

  8. Second-Order Nonlinearity in Triangular Lattice Perforated Gold Film due to Surface Plasmas Resonance

    Renlong Zhou


    Full Text Available We have studied the excitation second-order nonlinearity through a triangular lattice perforated gold film instead of square lattice in many papers. Under the excitation of surface plasmas resonance effect, the second order nonlinearity exists in the noncentrosymmetric split-ring resonators arrays. Reflection of fundamental frequency wave through a triangular lattice perforated gold film is obtained. We also described the second harmonic conversion efficiencies in the second order nonlinear optical process with the spectra. Moreover, the electric field distributions of fundamental frequency above the gold film region are calculated. The light propagation through the holes results in the enhancement of the second order nonlinearity including second harmonic generation as well as the sum (difference frequency generation.

  9. Fast Tree Search for A Triangular Lattice Model of Protein Folding

    Xiaomei Li; Nengchao Wang


    Using a triangular lattice model to study the designability of protein folding, we overcame the parity problem of previous cubic lattice model and enumerated all the sequences and compact structures on a simple two-dimensional triangular lattice model of size 4+5+6+5+4. We used two types of amino acids, hydrophobic and polar, to make up the sequences, and achieved 223+212 different sequences excluding the reverse symmetry sequences. The total string number of distinct compact structures was 219,093, excluding reflection symmetry in the self-avoiding path of length 24 triangular lattice model. Based on this model, we applied a fast search algorithm by constructing a cluster tree. The algorithm decreased the computation by computing the objective energy of non-leaf nodes. The parallel experiments proved that the fast tree search algorithm yielded an exponential speed-up in the model of size 4+5+6+5+4. Designability analysis was performed to understand the search result.

  10. Exact Duality of The Dissipative Hofstadter Model on a Triangular Lattice

    Lee, Taejin


    We study the dissipative Hofstadter model on a triangular lattice, making use of the $O(2,2;R)$ T-dual transformation of string theory. The $O(2,2;R)$ dual transformation transcribes the model in a commutative basis into the model in a non-commutative basis. In the zero temperature limit, the model exhibits an exact duality, which identifies equivalent points on the two dimensional parameter space of the model. The exact duality also defines magic circles on the parameter space, where the model can be mapped onto the boundary sine-Gordon on a triangular lattice. The model describes the junction of three quantum wires in a uniform magnetic field background. An explicit expression of the equivalence condition, which identifies the points on the two dimensional parameter space of the model by the exact duality, is obtained. It may help us to understand the structure of the phase diagram of the model.

  11. Low-frequency photonic band structures in graphene-like triangular metallic lattice

    Wang, Kang


    We study the low frequency photonic band structures in triangular metallic lattice, displaying Dirac points in the frequency spectrum, and constructed upon the lowest order regular polygonal tiles. We show that, in spite of the unfavourable geometrical conditions intrinsic to the structure symmetry, the lowest frequency photonic bands are formed by resonance modes sustained by local structure patterns, with the corresponding electric fields following a triangular distribution at low structure filling rate and a honeycomb distribution at high filling rate. For both cases, the lowest photonic bands, and thus the plasma gap, can be described in the framework of a tight binding model, and analysed in terms of local resonance modes and their mutual correlations. At high filling rate, the Dirac points and their movement following the structure deformation are described in the same framework, in relation with local structure patterns and their variations, as well as the particularity of the metallic lattice that enhances the topological anisotropy.

  12. LatticeLibrary and BccFccRaycaster: Software for processing and viewing 3D data on optimal sampling lattices

    Elisabeth Schold Linnér


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present LatticeLibrary, a C++ library for general processing of 2D and 3D images sampled on arbitrary lattices. The current implementation supports the Cartesian Cubic (CC, Body-Centered Cubic (BCC and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC lattices, and is designed to facilitate addition of other sampling lattices. We also introduce BccFccRaycaster, a plugin for the existing volume renderer Voreen, making it possible to view CC, BCC and FCC data, using different interpolation methods, with the same application. The plugin supports nearest neighbor and trilinear interpolation at interactive frame rates. These tools will enable further studies of the possible advantages of non-Cartesian lattices in a wide range of research areas.

  13. LatticeLibrary and BccFccRaycaster: Software for processing and viewing 3D data on optimal sampling lattices

    Linnér, Elisabeth Schold; Morén, Max; Smed, Karl-Oskar; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin

    In this paper, we present LatticeLibrary, a C++ library for general processing of 2D and 3D images sampled on arbitrary lattices. The current implementation supports the Cartesian Cubic (CC), Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) lattices, and is designed to facilitate addition of other sampling lattices. We also introduce BccFccRaycaster, a plugin for the existing volume renderer Voreen, making it possible to view CC, BCC and FCC data, using different interpolation methods, with the same application. The plugin supports nearest neighbor and trilinear interpolation at interactive frame rates. These tools will enable further studies of the possible advantages of non-Cartesian lattices in a wide range of research areas.

  14. Anisotropic Hubbard model on a triangular lattice - spin dynamics in HoMnO3

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Avinash Singh


    The recent neutron scattering data for spin-wave dispersion in HoMnO3 are well-described by an anisotropic Hubbard model on a triangular lattice with a planar (XY) spin anisotropy. Best fit indicates that magnetic excitations in HoMnO3 correspond to the strong-coupling limit / > ∼ 15, with planar exchange energy = 42/ ≃ 2.5 meV and planar anisotropy ≃ 0.35 meV.

  15. Monte Carlo Study of the Anisotropic Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Triangular Lattice

    Stephan, W.; Southern, B. W.


    We report a Monte Carlo study of the classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with easy axis anisotropy on the triangular lattice. Both the free energy cost for long wavelength spin waves as well as for the formation of free vortices are obtained from the spin stiffness and vorticity modulus respectively. Evidence for two distinct Kosterlitz-Thouless types of defect-mediated phase transitions at finite temperatures is presented.

  16. Controlling the focusing properties of a triangular-lattice metallic photonic-crystal slab

    Feng Shuai; Wang Yi-Quan; Li Zhi-Yuan; Cheng Bing-Ying; Zhang Dao-Zhong


    This paper studies the focusing properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) slab consisting of a triangular lattice of metallic cylinders immersed in a dielectric background. Through the analysis of the equifrequency-surface contours and the field patterns of a point source placed in the vicinity of the PC slab, it finds that both the image distance and image quality can be controlled by simply adjusting the refractive index of the background material.

  17. Spontaneous formation of kagome network and Dirac half-semimetal on a triangular lattice

    Akagi, Yutaka; Motome, Yukitoshi


    In spin-charge coupled systems, geometrical frustration of underlying lattice structures can give rise to nontrivial magnetic orders and electronic states. Here we explore such a possibility in the Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins on a triangular lattice by using a variational calculation and simulated annealing. We find that the system exhibits a four-sublattice collinear ferrimagnetic phase at 5/8 filling for a large Hund's-rule coupling. In this state, the system spontaneously differentiates into the up-spin kagome network and the isolated down-spin sites, which we call the kagome network formation. In the kagome network state, the system becomes Dirac half-semimetallic: The electronic structure shows a massless Dirac node at the Fermi level, and the Dirac electrons are almost fully spin polarized due to the large Hund's-rule coupling. We also study the effect of off-site Coulomb repulsion in the kagome network phase where the system is effectively regarded as a 1/3-filling spinless fermion system on the kagome lattice. We find that, at the level of the mean-field approximation, a √{3 }×√{3 } -type charge order occurs in the kagome network state, implying the possibility of fractional charge excitations in this triangular lattice system. Moreover, we demonstrate that the kagome network formation with fully polarized Dirac electrons are controllable by an external magnetic field.

  18. Absolute band gaps of a two-dimensional triangular-lattice dielectric photonic crystal with different shapes


    Absolute band gaps of a two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal are calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method in this paper.Through calculating the photonic band structures of the triangular-lattice photonic crystal consisting of Ge rods immersed in air with different shapes,it is found that a large absolute band gap of 0.098 (2c/a) can be obtained for the structures with hollow triangular Ge rods immersed in air,corresponding to 19.8% of the middle frequency.The influence of the different factors on the width of the absolute band gaps is also discussed.

  19. Loading mode dependent effective properties of octet-truss lattice structures using 3D-printing

    Challapalli, Adithya

    Cellular materials, often called lattice materials, are increasingly receiving attention for their ultralight structures with high specific strength, excellent impact absorption, acoustic insulation, heat dissipation media and compact heat exchangers. In alignment with emerging additive manufacturing (AM) technology, realization of the structural applications of the lattice materials appears to be becoming faster. Considering the direction dependent material properties of the products with AM, by directionally dependent printing resolution, effective moduli of lattice structures appear to be directionally dependent. In this paper, a constitutive model of a lattice structure, which is an octet-truss with a base material having an orthotropic material property considering AM is developed. In a case study, polyjet based 3D printing material having an orthotropic property with a 9% difference in the principal direction provides difference in the axial and shear moduli in the octet-truss by 2.3 and 4.6%. Experimental validation for the effective properties of a 3D printed octet-truss is done for uniaxial tension and compression test. The theoretical value based on the micro-buckling of truss member are used to estimate the failure strength. Modulus value appears a little overestimate compared with the experiment. Finite element (FE) simulations for uniaxial compression and tension of octettruss lattice materials are conducted. New effective properties for the octet-truss lattice structure are developed considering the observed behavior of the octet-truss structure under macroscopic compression and tension trough simulations.

  20. Simulations and measurements of adiabatic annular flows in triangular, tight lattice nuclear fuel bundle model

    Saxena, Abhishek, E-mail: [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nuclear Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Zboray, Robert [Laboratory for Thermal-hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Prasser, Horst-Michael [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nuclear Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Thermal-hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    High conversion light water reactors (HCLWR) having triangular, tight-lattice fuels bundles could enable improved fuel utilization compared to present day LWRs. However, the efficient cooling of a tight lattice bundle has to be still proven. Major concern is the avoidance of high-quality boiling crisis (film dry-out) by the use of efficient functional spacers. For this reason, we have carried out experiments on adiabatic, air-water annular two-phase flows in a tight-lattice, triangular fuel bundle model using generic spacers. A high-spatial-resolution, non-intrusive measurement technology, cold neutron tomography, has been utilized to resolve the distribution of the liquid film thickness on the virtual fuel pin surfaces. Unsteady CFD simulations have also been performed to replicate and compare with the experiments using the commercial code STAR-CCM+. Large eddies have been resolved on the grid level to capture the dominant unsteady flow features expected to drive the liquid film thickness distribution downstream of a spacer while the subgrid scales have been modeled using the Wall Adapting Local Eddy (WALE) subgrid model. A Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, which directly tracks the interface and does away with closure relationship models for interfacial exchange terms, has also been employed. The present paper shows first comparison of the measurement with the simulation results.

  1. The density of states for an antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice

    XIA Kai; YAO Xiao-yan; LIU Jun-ming


    The Wang-Landau algorithm is an efficient Monte Carlo approach to the density of states of a statistical mechanics system.The estimation of state density would allow the computation of thermodynamic properties of the system over the whole temperature range.We apply this sampling method to study the phase transitions in a triangular Ising model.The entropy of the lattice at zero temperature as well as other thermodynamic properties is computed.The calculated thermodynamic properties are explained in the context of the magnetic phase transition.

  2. Quantum State Transfer in a Two-dimensional Regular Spin Lattice of Triangular Shape

    Miki, Hiroshi; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei


    Quantum state transfer in a triangular domain of a two-dimensional, equally-spaced, spin lat- tice with non-homogeneous nearest-neighbor couplings is analyzed. An exact solution of the one- excitation dynamics is provided in terms of 2-variable Krawtchouk orthogonal polynomials that have been recently defined. The probability amplitude for an excitation to transit from one site to another is given. For some values of the parameters, perfect transfer is shown to take place from the apex of the lattice to the boundary hypotenuse.

  3. Enhanced hybrid search algorithm for protein structure prediction using the 3D-HP lattice model.

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaopeng


    The problem of protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model is the prediction of protein tertiary structure. This problem is usually referred to as the protein folding problem. This paper presents a method for the application of an enhanced hybrid search algorithm to the problem of protein folding prediction, using the three dimensional (3D) HP lattice model. The enhanced hybrid search algorithm is a combination of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Since the PSO algorithm entraps local minimum in later evolution extremely easily, we combined PSO with the TS algorithm, which has properties of global optimization. Since the technologies of crossover and mutation are applied many times to PSO and TS algorithms, so enhanced hybrid search algorithm is called the MCMPSO-TS (multiple crossover and mutation PSO-TS) algorithm. Experimental results show that the MCMPSO-TS algorithm can find the best solutions so far for the listed benchmarks, which will help comparison with any future paper approach. Moreover, real protein sequences and Fibonacci sequences are verified in the 3D HP lattice model for the first time. Compared with the previous evolutionary algorithms, the new hybrid search algorithm is novel, and can be used effectively to predict 3D protein folding structure. With continuous development and changes in amino acids sequences, the new algorithm will also make a contribution to the study of new protein sequences.

  4. Propagation of an optical vortex in fiber arrays with triangular lattices

    Mushref, Muhammad Abdulrahman Abdulghani

    The propagation of optical vortices (OVs) in linear and nonlinear media is an important field of research in science and engineering. The most important goal is to explore the properties of guiding dynamics for potential applications such as sensing, all-optical switching, frequency mixing and modulation. In this dissertation, we present analytical methods and numerical techniques to investigate the propagation of an optical vortex in fiber array waveguides. Analytically, we model wave propagation in a waveguide by coupled mode Equations as a simplified approximation. The beam propagation method (BPM) is also employed to numerically solve the paraxial wave Equation by finite difference (FD) techniques. We will investigate the propagation of fields in a 2D triangular lattice with different core arrangements in the optical waveguide. In order to eliminate wave reflections at the boundaries of the computational area, the transparent boundary condition (TBC) is applied. In our explorations for the propagation properties of an optical vortex in a linear and a non-linear triangular lattice medium, images are numerically generated for the field phase and intensity in addition to the interferogram of the vortex field with a reference plane or Gaussian field. The finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) with transparent boundary condition (TBC) is a robust approach to numerically deal with optical field propagations in waveguides. In a fiber array arranged in triangular lattices, new vortices vary with respect to the propagation distance and the number of cores in the fiber array for both linear and nonlinear regimes. With more cores and longer propagation distances, more vortices are created. However, they do not always survive and may disappear while other new vortices are formed at other points. In a linear triangular lattice, the results demonstrated that the number of vortices may increase or decrease with respect to the number of cores in the array lattice

  5. An improvement of the lattice theory of dislocation for a two-dimensional triangular crystal

    Wang Shao-Feng


    The structure of dislocation in a two-dimensional triangular crystal has been studied theoretically on the basis of atomic interaction and lattice statics. The theory presented in this paper is an improvement to that published previously.Within a reasonable interaction approximation, a new dislocation equation is obtained, which remedies a fault existing in the lattice theory of dislocation. A better simplification of non-diagonal terms of the kernel is given. The solution of the new dislocation equation asymptotically becomes the same as that obtained in the elastic theory, and agrees with experimental data. It is found that the solution is formally identical with that proposed phenomenologically by Foreman et al, where the parameter can be chosen freely, but cannot uniquely determined from theory. Indeed, if the parameter in the expression of the solution is selected suitably, the expression can be well applied to describe the fine structure of the dislocation.

  6. Evidence for a spinon Fermi surface in a triangular-lattice quantum-spin-liquid candidate.

    Shen, Yao; Li, Yao-Dong; Wo, Hongliang; Li, Yuesheng; Shen, Shoudong; Pan, Bingying; Wang, Qisi; Walker, H C; Steffens, P; Boehm, M; Hao, Yiqing; Quintero-Castro, D L; Harriger, L W; Frontzek, M D; Hao, Lijie; Meng, Siqin; Zhang, Qingming; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Jun


    A quantum spin liquid is an exotic quantum state of matter in which spins are highly entangled and remain disordered down to zero temperature. Such a state of matter is potentially relevant to high-temperature superconductivity and quantum-information applications, and experimental identification of a quantum spin liquid state is of fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum matter. Theoretical studies have proposed various quantum-spin-liquid ground states, most of which are characterized by exotic spin excitations with fractional quantum numbers (termed 'spinons'). Here we report neutron scattering measurements of the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4 that reveal broad spin excitations covering a wide region of the Brillouin zone. The observed diffusive spin excitation persists at the lowest measured energy and shows a clear upper excitation edge, consistent with the particle-hole excitation of a spinon Fermi surface. Our results therefore point to the existence of a quantum spin liquid state with a spinon Fermi surface in YbMgGaO4, which has a perfect spin-1/2 triangular lattice as in the original proposal of quantum spin liquids.

  7. Melting of Three-Sublattice Order in Easy-Axis Antiferromagnets on Triangular and Kagome Lattices.

    Damle, Kedar


    When the constituent spins have an energetic preference to lie along an easy axis, triangular and kagome lattice antiferromagnets often develop long-range order that distinguishes the three sublattices of the underlying triangular Bravais lattice. In zero magnetic field, this three-sublattice order melts either in a two-step manner, i.e., via an intermediate phase with power-law three-sublattice order controlled by a temperature-dependent exponent η(T)∈(1/9,1/4), or via a transition in the three-state Potts universality class. Here, I predict that the uniform susceptibility to a small easy-axis field B diverges as χ(B)∼|B|^{-[(4-18η)/(4-9η)]} in a large part of the intermediate power-law ordered phase [corresponding to η(T)∈(1/9,2/9)], providing an easy-to-measure thermodynamic signature of two-step melting. I also show that these two melting scenarios can be generically connected via an intervening multicritical point and obtain numerical estimates of multicritical exponents.

  8. A model for doping-dependent magnetic frustration and ordering in a triangular lattice

    Sheshadri, K.; Chainani, A.


    The family of cobaltates AxCoO2 (A = Na, Li, K), with a crystal structure consisting of a layered triangular lattice of Co ions, exhibits a fascinating range of coupled spin, charge and ion ordering phenomena as a function of electron doping content x. Based on these experimental observations, we investigate an extended Ising (J\\text{-}J') model for suppression of magnetic frustration caused by electron doping in a quasi-2-dimensional nearest-neighbour antiferromagnetic triangular lattice. As determined by geometry and bond-counting, it is found that magnetic frustration can be quantified by a frustration index fub and its magnitude is a non-monotonic function of x. A mean-field calculation is carried out to determine the temperature-dependent magnetization, spin-entropy and heat capacity for the obtained structures with the lowest energy (≡ lowest fub) for each x. The calculations reveal that the magnetic-ordering temperature TC exhibits an anti-correlation with fub as a function of x. In addition, as seen in thermopower experiments, an anomalous spin-entropy is obtained for the high-doping cases when J'>0.7J . The results indicate the importance of doping-dependent magnetic frustration in the layered cobaltates.

  9. Evidence for a spinon Fermi surface in a triangular-lattice quantum-spin-liquid candidate

    Shen, Yao; Li, Yao-Dong; Wo, Hongliang; Li, Yuesheng; Shen, Shoudong; Pan, Bingying; Wang, Qisi; Walker, H. C.; Steffens, P.; Boehm, M.; Hao, Yiqing; Quintero-Castro, D. L.; Harriger, L. W.; Frontzek, M. D.; Hao, Lijie; Meng, Siqin; Zhang, Qingming; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Jun


    A quantum spin liquid is an exotic quantum state of matter in which spins are highly entangled and remain disordered down to zero temperature. Such a state of matter is potentially relevant to high-temperature superconductivity and quantum-information applications, and experimental identification of a quantum spin liquid state is of fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum matter. Theoretical studies have proposed various quantum-spin-liquid ground states, most of which are characterized by exotic spin excitations with fractional quantum numbers (termed ‘spinons’). Here we report neutron scattering measurements of the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4 that reveal broad spin excitations covering a wide region of the Brillouin zone. The observed diffusive spin excitation persists at the lowest measured energy and shows a clear upper excitation edge, consistent with the particle-hole excitation of a spinon Fermi surface. Our results therefore point to the existence of a quantum spin liquid state with a spinon Fermi surface in YbMgGaO4, which has a perfect spin-1/2 triangular lattice as in the original proposal of quantum spin liquids.

  10. Continuous excitations of the triangular-lattice quantum spin liquid YbMgGaO4

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Daum, Marcus; Dun, Zhiling; Ehlers, Georg; Liu, Yaohua; Stone, Matthew B.; Zhou, Haidong; Mourigal, Martin


    A quantum spin liquid (QSL) is an exotic state of matter in which electrons’ spins are quantum entangled over long distances, but do not show magnetic order in the zero-temperature limit. The observation of QSL states is a central aim of experimental physics, because they host collective excitations that transcend our knowledge of quantum matter; however, examples in real materials are scarce. Here, we report neutron-scattering experiments on YbMgGaO4, a QSL candidate in which Yb3+ ions with effective spin-1/2 occupy a triangular lattice. Our measurements reveal a continuum of magnetic excitations--the essential experimental hallmark of a QSL--at very low temperature (0.06 K). The origin of this peculiar excitation spectrum is a crucial question, because isotropic nearest-neighbour interactions do not yield a QSL ground state on the triangular lattice. Using measurements in the field-polarized state, we identify antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbour interactions, spin-space anisotropies, and chemical disorder between the magnetic layers as key ingredients in YbMgGaO4.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation of 3-D Melting Using Double MRT Model with Interfacial Tracking Method

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yuwen


    Three-dimensional melting problems are investigated numerically with Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Regarding algorithm's accuracy and stability, Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) models are employed to simplify the collision term in LBM. Temperature and velocity fields are solved with double distribution functions, respectively. 3-D melting problems are solved with double MRT models for the first time in this article. The key point for the numerical simulation of a melting problem is the methods to obtain the location of the melting front and this article uses interfacial tracking method. The interfacial tracking method combines advantages of both deforming and fixed grid approaches. The location of the melting front was obtained by calculating the energy balance at the solid-liquid interface. Various 3-D conduction controlled melting problems are solved firstly to verify the numerical method. Liquid fraction tendency and temperature distribution obtained from numerical methods agree with the analytical result...

  12. Implementation of 3D Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation on a Cluster of Symmetric Multiprocessors

    雷咏梅; 蒋英; 等


    This paper presents a new approach to parallelize 3D lattice Monte Carlo algorithms used in the numerical simulation of polymer on ZiQiang 2000-a cluster of symmetric multiprocessors(SMPs).The combined load for cell and energy calculations over the time step is balanced together to form a single spatial decomposition.Basic aspects and strategies of running Monte Carlo calculations on parallel computers are studied.Different steps involved in porting the software on a parallel architecture based on ZiQiang 2000 running under Linux and MPI are described briefly.It is found that parallelization becomes more advantageous when either the lattice is very large or the model contains many cells and chains.

  13. A quantum fidelity study of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular lattice Heisenberg model.

    Thesberg, Mischa; Sørensen, Erik S


    Ground- and excited-state quantum fidelities in combination with generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilites, obtained from exact diagonalizations, are used to explore the phase diagram of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular Heisenberg model. Specifically, the J'-J2 plane of this model, which connects the J1-J2 chain and the anisotropic triangular lattice Heisenberg model, is explored using these quantities. Through the use of a quantum fidelity associated with the first excited-state, in addition to the conventional ground-state fidelity, the BKT-type transition and Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 chain (J'=0) are found to extend into the J'-J2 plane and connect with points on the J2=0 axis thereby forming bounded regions in the phase diagram. These bounded regions are then explored through the generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilities χρ, χ₁₂₀°, χD and χCAF which are associated with the spin stiffness, 120° spiral order parameter, dimer order parameter and collinear antiferromagnetic order parameter respectively. These quantities are believed to be extremely sensitive to the underlying phase and are thus well suited for finite-size studies. Analysis of the fidelity susceptibilities suggests that the J', J2≪J phase of the anisotropic triangular model is either a collinear antiferromagnet or possibly a gapless disordered phase that is directly connected to the Luttinger phase of the J1-J2 chain. Furthermore, the outer region is dominated by incommensurate spiral physics as well as dimer order.

  14. Variational Monte Carlo study of chiral spin liquid in quantum antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.


    By using Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with the first-neighbor (J1), second-neighbor (J2), and additional scalar chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) on the triangular lattice. In the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model with 0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.16 , recent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies [Zhu and White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105 and Hu, Gong, Zhu, and Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403] find a possible gapped spin liquid with the signal of a competition between a chiral and a Z2 spin liquid. Motivated by the DMRG results, we consider the chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) as a perturbation for this nonmagnetic phase. We find that with growing Jχ, the gapless U(1) Dirac spin liquid, which has the best variational energy for Jχ=0 , exhibits the energy instability towards a gapped spin liquid with nontrivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order. We calculate topological Chern number and ground-state degeneracy, both of which identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with fractionalized Chern number C =1 /2 and twofold topological degeneracy. Our results indicate a positive direction to stabilize a chiral spin liquid near the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model.

  15. Integrable Nonlinear Schrödinger System on a Triangular-Lattice Ribbon

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.


    An integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a triangular-lattice ribbon, whose geometric configuration is similar to that of (1,1) armchair boron nanotube, is studied in detail. The system Hamiltonian formulation is shown to underline an essentially nontrivial Poisson structure associated with four basic field variables appearing as nearly amplitudes of the probability to find the lattice sites being excited and with two concomitant field variables maintaining the finite background. The coupling parameters of the system are allowed to be complex-valued ones thus permitting to model external magnetic fluxes threading the elementary plackets of a lattice in terms of Peierls phases. An alternative version of zero-curvature representation given in terms of 2 × 2 auxiliary spectral and evolution matrices is proved to support the constructive integrability of the system by means of Darboux-Bäcklund dressing method. In the framework of Darboux approach the one-soliton solution is found explicitly and analyzed with special attention to the principal differences between the bare and physical soliton parameters.

  16. Magnetic properties of two dimensional silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes-based kagome lattices

    Li Xiaowei [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Zhou Jian [Peking University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Qian, E-mail: [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Physics (United States)


    Two-dimensional (2D) magnetic kagome lattices are constructed using silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes (SiC-TNFs). Two types of structures with alternating Si and C atoms are studied: the first one is constructed using the C-edged SiC-TNFs as the building blocks and C atoms as the linkers of kagome sites (TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N}) while the second one is composed of the Si-edged SiC-TNFs with Si atoms as linkers (TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N}). Using density functional theory-based calculations, we show that the fully relaxed TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N} retains the morphology of regular kagome lattice and is ferromagnetism. On the other hand, the TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure is deformed and antiferromagnetic. However, the ground state of TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure can be transformed from the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state by applying tensile strain. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the SiC-TNFs-based kagome lattices can be ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  17. GPU-Accelerated Population Annealing Algorithm: Frustrated Ising Antiferromagnet on the Stacked Triangular Lattice

    Borovský, Michal; Weigel, Martin; Barash, Lev Yu.; Žukovič, Milan


    The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = -1). The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.

  18. GPU-Accelerated Population Annealing Algorithm: Frustrated Ising Antiferromagnet on the Stacked Triangular Lattice

    Borovský Michal


    Full Text Available The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = −1. The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.

  19. Analysis of Photonic Band Gaps in a Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice with Superconducting Hollow Rods

    Diaz-Valencia, B. F.; Calero, J. M.


    In this work, we use the plane wave expansion method to calculate photonic band structures in two-dimensional photonic crystals which consist of high-temperature superconducting hollow rods arranged in a triangular lattice. The variation of the photonic band structure with respect to both, the inner radius and the system temperature, is studied, taking into account temperatures below the critical temperature of the superconductor in the low frequencies regime and assuming E polarization of the incident light. Permittivity contrast and nontrivial geometry of the hollow rods lead to the appearance of new band gaps as compared with the case of solid cylinders. Such band gaps can be modulated by means of the inner radius and system temperature.

  20. From Discreteness to Continuity: Dislocation Equation for Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice

    WANG Shao-Feng


    @@ A systematic method from the discreteness to the continuity is presented for the dislocation equation of the triangular lattice. A modification of the Peierls equation has been derived strictly. The modified equation includes the higher order corrections of the discrete effect which are important for the core structure of dislocation. It is observed that the modified equation possesses a universal form which is model-independent except the factors.The factors, which depend on the detail of the model, are related to the derivatives of the kernel at its zero point in the wave-vector space. The results open a way to deal with the complicated models because what one needs to do is to investigate the behaviour near the zero point of the kernel in the wave-vector space instead of calculating the kernel completely.

  1. Piecewise parabolic negative magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron gas with triangular antidot lattice

    Budantsev, M. V., E-mail:; Lavrov, R. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Pokhabov, D. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    Extraordinary piecewise parabolic behavior of the magnetoresistance has been experimentally detected in the two-dimensional electron gas with a dense triangular lattice of antidots, where commensurability magnetoresistance oscillations are suppressed. The magnetic field range of 0-0.6 T can be divided into three wide regions, in each of which the magnetoresistance is described by parabolic dependences with high accuracy (comparable to the experimental accuracy) and the transition regions between adjacent regions are much narrower than the regions themselves. In the region corresponding to the weakest magnetic fields, the parabolic behavior becomes almost linear. The observed behavior is reproducible as the electron gas density changes, which results in a change in the resistance by more than an order of magnitude. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior, including so-called 'memory effects,' are discussed.

  2. Hydration-induced spin-glass state in a frustrated Na-Mn-O triangular lattice

    Bakaimi, Ioanna; Brescia, Rosaria; Brown, Craig M.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Green, Mark A.; Lappas, Alexandros


    Birnessite compounds are stable across a wide range of compositions that produces a remarkable diversity in their physical, electrochemical, and functional properties. These are hydrated analogs of the magnetically frustrated, mixed-valent manganese oxide structures, with general formula, N axMn O2 . Here we demonstrate that the direct hydration of layered rock-salt type α-NaMn O2 , with the geometrically frustrated triangular lattice topology, yields the birnessite type oxide, N a0.36Mn O2.0.2 H2O , transforming its magnetic properties. This compound has a much-expanded interlayer spacing compared to its parent α-NaMn O2 compound. We show that while the parent α-NaMn O2 possesses a Néel temperature of 45 K as a result of broken symmetry in the M n3 + sublattice, the hydrated derivative undergoes collective spin freezing at 29 K within the M n3 +/M n4 + sublattice. Scaling-law analysis of the frequency dispersion of the ac susceptibility, as well as the temperature-dependent, low-field dc magnetization confirm a cooperative spin-glass state of strongly interacting spins. This is supported by complementary spectroscopic analysis [high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy] as well as by a structural investigation (high-resolution TEM, x-ray, and neutron powder diffraction) that yield insights into the chemical and atomic structure modifications. We conclude that the spin-glass state in birnessite is driven by the spin frustration imposed by the underlying triangular lattice topology that is further enhanced by the in-plane bond-disorder generated by the mixed-valent character of manganese in the layers.

  3. Coordinate Bethe ansatz computation for low temperature behavior of a triangular lattice of a spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Shuaibu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, P.M.B 2109, Kaduna (Nigeria); Rahman, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, P.M.B 2109, Kaduna (Nigeria)


    We study the low temperature behavior of a triangular lattice quantum spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single-site anisotropy by using coordinate Bethe ansatz method. We compute the standard two-particle Hermitian Hamiltonian, and obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalue of the system. The obtained results show a number of advantages in comparison with many results.

  4. 3D Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Nanoparticle Self-Assembly in Evaporating Droplets and Rivulets

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin


    In this work, a three-dimensional free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method-Lagrangian particle tracking hybrid model is presented to simulate nanoparticle-laden droplets and rivulets undergoing evaporation. The 3D model enables the development of the 3D flow structures in the evaporating droplets, as well as allows us to capture the axial flows in the evaporating rivulets. We first model non-evaporating droplets and rivulets loaded with nanoparticles and the effects of particle-fluid interaction parameters on particle dynamics are characterized. By implementing evaporation, we probe the self-assembly of nanoparticles inside the fluid mass or at the liquid-vapor interface. The 3D microstructure of nanoparticle assemblies is quantified through radial distribution functions and structure factors. In particular, the final deposit of evaporating rivulets with oscillatory axial flows is revealed, resembling the flow field in printed rivulets in experiments. Our findings offer a theoretical framework to explore the dynamics of nanoparticle self-assembly in evaporating fluid mass.

  5. Density-Matrix Renormalization Group Study of Kitaev-Heisenberg Model on a Triangular Lattice

    Shinjo, Kazuya; Sota, Shigetoshi; Yunoki, Seiji; Totsuka, Keisuke; Tohyama, Takami


    We study the Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice by using the two-dimensional density-matrix renormalization group method. Calculating the ground-state energy and spin structure factors, we obtain a ground-state phase diagram of the Kitaev-Heisenberg model. As suggested by previous studies, we find a 120° antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase, a Z2-vortex crystal phase, a nematic phase, a dual Z2-vortex crystal phase (the dual counterpart of the Z2-vortex crystal phase), a Z6 ferromagnetic phase, and a dual ferromagnetic phase (the dual counterpart of the Z6 ferromagnetic phase). Spin correlations discontinuously change at phase boundaries because of first-order phase transitions. We also study the relation among the von Neumann entanglement entropy, entanglement spectrum, and phase transitions of the model. We find that the Schmidt gap closes at phase boundaries and thus the entanglement entropy clearly changes as well. This is different from the Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice, where the Schmidt gap and entanglement entropy are not necessarily a good measure of phase transitions.

  6. Superglass Phase of Interaction-Blockaded Gases on a Triangular Lattice

    Angelone, Adriano; Mezzacapo, Fabio; Pupillo, Guido


    We investigate the quantum phases of monodispersed bosonic gases confined to a triangular lattice and interacting via a class of soft-shoulder potentials. The latter correspond to soft-core potentials with an additional hard-core onsite interaction. Using exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the low temperature phases for weak and strong interactions following a temperature quench are a homogeneous superfluid and a glass, respectively. The latter is an insulating phase characterized by inhomogeneity in the density distribution and structural disorder. Remarkably, we find that for intermediate interaction strengths a superglass occurs in an extended region of the phase diagram, where glassy behavior coexists with a sizable finite superfluid fraction. This glass phase is obtained in the absence of geometrical frustration or external disorder and is a result of the competition of quantum fluctuations and cluster formation in the corresponding classical ground state. For high enough temperature, the glass and superglass turn into a floating stripe solid and a supersolid, respectively. Given the simplicity and generality of the model, these phases should be directly relevant for state-of-the-art experiments with Rydberg-dressed atoms in optical lattices.

  7. Tricriticality of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in thin films of stacked triangular lattices

    El Hog, Sahbi; Diep, H. T.


    We study in this paper the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in a thin film of stacked triangular lattices. The model is described by three parameters: bilinear exchange interaction between spins J, quadratic exchange interaction K and single-ion anisotropy D. The spin Si at the lattice site i takes three values (-1, 0, +1). This model can describe the mixing phase of He-4 (Si = +1,-1) and He-3 (Si = 0) at low temperatures. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there exists a critical value of D below (above) which the transition is of second-(first-)order. In general, the temperature dependence of the concentrations of He-3 is different from layer by layer. At a finite temperature in the superfluid phase, the film surface shows a deficit of He-4 with respect to interior layers. However, effects of surface interaction parameters can reverse this situation. Effects of the film thickness on physical properties will be also shown as functions of temperature.

  8. Pair supersolid with atom-pair hopping on the state-dependent triangular lattice

    Zhang, Wanzhou; Yin, Ruoxi; Wang, Yancheng


    We systematically study an extended Bose-Hubbard model with atom hopping and atom-pair hopping in the presence of a three-body constraint on the triangular lattice. By means of large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, the ground-state phase diagram is studied. We find a first-order transition between the atomic superfluid phase and the pair superfluid phase when the ratio of the atomic hopping and the atom-pair hopping is adapted. The first-order transition remains unchanged under various conditions. We then focus on the interplay among the atom-pair hopping, the on-site repulsion, and the nearest-neighbor repulsion. With on-site repulsion present, we observe first-order transitions between the Mott insulators and pair superfluid driven by the pair hopping. With the nearest-neighbor repulsion turning on, three typical solid phases with 2/3, 1, and 4/3 filling emerge at small atom-pair hopping region. A stable pair supersolid phase is found at small on-site repulsion. This is due to the three-body constraint and the pair hopping, which essentially make the model a quasihardcore boson system. Thus the pair supersolid state emerges basing on the order-by-disorder mechanism, by which hardcore bosons avoid classical frustration on the triangular lattice. Without on-site repulsion, the transitions between the pair supersolid and the atom superfluid or pair superfluid are first order, except for the particle-hole symmetric point. With weak on-site repulsion and atom hopping turning on, the transition between the pair supersolid and pair superfluid phase becomes continuous. The transition between solid and pair supersolid is three-dimensional XY university, with dynamical exponent z=1 and correlation exponent ν=0.67155. The thermal melting of pair supersolid belongs to the two-dimensional Ising university. We check both energetic and mechanical balance of pair supersolid phase. Lowering the three-body constraint, no pair supersolid is found due to the absence of

  9. On entanglement entropy in non-Abelian lattice gauge theory and 3D quantum gravity

    Delcamp, Clement; Riello, Aldo


    Entanglement entropy is a valuable tool for characterizing the correlation structure of quantum field theories. When applied to gauge theories, subtleties arise which prevent the factorization of the Hilbert space underlying the notion of entanglement entropy. Borrowing techniques from extended topological field theories, we introduce a new definition of entanglement entropy for both Abelian and non--Abelian gauge theories. Being based on the notion of excitations, it provides a completely relational way of defining regions. Therefore, it naturally applies to background independent theories, e.g. gravity, by circumventing the difficulty of specifying the position of the entangling surface. We relate our construction to earlier proposals and argue that it brings these closer to each other. In particular, it yields the non--Abelian analogue of the `magnetic centre choice', as obtained through an extended--Hilbert--space method, but applied to the recently introduced fusion basis for 3D lattice gauge theories. W...


    Sandhir Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available The interest of researchers and engineers in several laboratories, since the1980s, has been attracted by the ability to structure materials on the scale of the optical wavelength, a fraction of micrometers or less, in order to develop new optical medium, known as photonic crystals . Photonic crystals rely on a regular morphological microstructure of air-holes, incorporated into the material, which radically alters its optical properties. In Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF it is possible to realize flat dispersion over a wide wavelength range that cannot be realized with a conventional single-mode fiber. In PCFs, the dispersion can be controlled and tailored with unprecedented freedom. In fact, due to the high refractive index difference between silica and air, and to the flexibility of changing air-hole sizes and patterns, the waveguide contribution to the dispersion parameter can be significantly changed, thus obtaining unusual position of the zero dispersion wavelength, as well as particular values of the dispersion curve slope. In particular, by manipulating the air- hole radius or the lattice period of the micro structured cladding, it is possible to control the zero-dispersion wavelength, which can be tuned over a very wide range, or the dispersion curves, which can be engineered to be ultra flattened. In this paper the geometric parameters of triangular PCF have been properly changed to optimize the dispersion compensation over a wide wavelength range.

  11. Quantum spin liquid ground states of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model on the triangular lattice

    Kos, Pavel; Punk, Matthias


    We study quantum disordered ground states of the two-dimensional Heisenberg-Kitaev model on the triangular lattice using a Schwinger boson approach. Our aim is to identify and characterize potential gapped quantum spin liquid phases that are stabilized by anisotropic Kitaev interactions. For antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and Kitaev couplings and sufficiently small spin S , we find three different symmetric Z2 spin liquid phases, separated by two continuous quantum phase transitions. Interestingly, the gap of elementary excitations remains finite throughout the transitions. The first spin liquid phase corresponds to the well-known zero-flux state in the Heisenberg limit, which is stable with respect to small Kitaev couplings and develops 120∘ order in the semiclassical limit at large S . In the opposite Kitaev limit, we find a different spin liquid ground state, which is a quantum disordered version of a magnetically ordered state with antiferromagnetic chains, in accordance with results in the classical limit. Finally, at intermediate couplings, we find a spin liquid state with unusual spin correlations. Upon spinon condensation, this state develops Bragg peaks at incommensurate momenta in close analogy to the magnetically ordered Z2 vortex crystal phase, which has been analyzed in recent theoretical works.

  12. Semiclassical theory of the magnetization process of the triangular lattice Heisenberg model

    Coletta, Tommaso; Tóth, Tamás A.; Penc, Karlo; Mila, Frédéric


    Motivated by the numerous examples of 1/3 magnetization plateaux in the triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with spins ranging from 1/2 to 5/2, we revisit the semiclassical calculation of the magnetization curve of that model, with the aim of coming up with a simple method that allows one to calculate the full magnetization curve and not just the critical fields of the 1/3 plateau. We show that it is actually possible to calculate the magnetization curve including the first quantum corrections and the appearance of the 1/3 plateau entirely within linear spin-wave theory, with predictions for the critical fields that agree to order 1 /S with those derived a long time ago on the basis of arguments that required going beyond linear spin-wave theory. This calculation relies on the central observation that there is a kink in the semiclassical energy at the field where the classical ground state is the collinear up-up-down structure and that this kink gives rise to a locally linear behavior of the energy with the field when all semiclassical ground states are compared to each other for all fields. The magnetization curves calculated in this way for spin 1/2, 1, and 5/2 are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data.

  13. Exact duality of the dissipative Hofstadter model on a triangular lattice: T-duality and noncommutative algebra

    Lee, Taejin


    We study the dissipative Hofstadter model on a triangular lattice, making use of the O(2, 2; R) T-dual transformation of string theory. The O(2, 2; R) dual transformation transcribes the model in a commutative basis into the model in a noncommutative basis. In the zero-temperature limit, the model exhibits an exact duality, which identifies equivalent points on the two-dimensional parameter space of the model. The exact duality also defines magic circles on the parameter space, where the model can be mapped onto the boundary sine-Gordon on a triangular lattice. The model describes the junction of three quantum wires in a uniform magnetic field background. An explicit expression of the equivalence relation, which identifies the points on the two-dimensional parameter space of the model by the exact duality, is obtained. It may help us to understand the structure of the phase diagram of the model.

  14. Critical frontier of the Potts and percolation models on triangular-type and kagome-type lattices. II. Numerical analysis.

    Ding, Chengxiang; Fu, Zhe; Guo, Wenan; Wu, F Y


    In the preceding paper, one of us (F. Y. Wu) considered the Potts model and bond and site percolation on two general classes of two-dimensional lattices, the triangular-type and kagome-type lattices, and obtained closed-form expressions for the critical frontier with applications to various lattice models. For the triangular-type lattices Wu's result is exact, and for the kagome-type lattices Wu's expression is under a homogeneity assumption. The purpose of the present paper is twofold: First, an essential step in Wu's analysis is the derivation of lattice-dependent constants A,B,C for various lattice models, a process which can be tedious. We present here a derivation of these constants for subnet networks using a computer algorithm. Second, by means of a finite-size scaling analysis based on numerical transfer matrix calculations, we deduce critical properties and critical thresholds of various models and assess the accuracy of the homogeneity assumption. Specifically, we analyze the q -state Potts model and the bond percolation on the 3-12 and kagome-type subnet lattices (n×n):(n×n) , n≤4 , for which the exact solution is not known. Our numerical determination of critical properties such as conformal anomaly and magnetic correlation length verifies that the universality principle holds. To calibrate the accuracy of the finite-size procedure, we apply the same numerical analysis to models for which the exact critical frontiers are known. The comparison of numerical and exact results shows that our numerical values are correct within errors of our finite-size analysis, which correspond to 7 or 8 significant digits. This in turn infers that the homogeneity assumption determines critical frontiers with an accuracy of 5 decimal places or higher. Finally, we also obtained the exact percolation thresholds for site percolation on kagome-type subnet lattices (1×1):(n×n) for 1≤n≤6 .

  15. Novel local symmetries and chiral-symmetry-broken phases in S = 1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg model

    Baskaran, G.


    Using a nonmean-field approach the triangular-lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor couplings is shown undergo an Ising-type phase transition into a chiral-symmetry-broken phase (Kalmeyer-Laughlin-like state) at small T. Removal of next-nearest-neighbor coupling introduces a local Z2 symmetry, thereby suppressing any finite-T chiral order.

  16. A topological semimetal model with f-wave symmetry in a non-Abelian triangular optical lattice

    Li, Ling; Bai, Zhiming [School of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Hao, Ningning [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Liu, Guocai, E-mail: [School of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China)


    We demonstrate that an chiral f-wave topological semimetal can be induced in a non-Abelian triangular optical lattice. We show that the f-wave symmetry topological semimetal is characterized by the topological invariant, i.e., the winding number W, with W=3 and is different from the semimetal with W=1 and 2 which have the p-wave and d-wave symmetry, respectively.

  17. Orbital magnetic field driven metal-insulator transition in spinless extended Falicov-Kimball model on a triangular lattice

    Yadav, Umesh K.


    Ground state properties of spinless, extended Falicov-Kimball model (FKM) on a finite size triangular lattice with orbital magnetic field normal to the lattice are studied using numerical diagonalization and Monte-Carlo simulation methods. We show that the ground state configurations of localized electrons strongly depend on the magnetic field. Magnetic field induces a metal to insulator transition accompanied by segregated phase to an ordered regular phase except at density nf = 1 / 2 of localized electrons. It is proposed that magnetic field can be used as a new tool to produce segregated phase which was otherwise accessible only either with correlated hopping or with large on-site interactions.

  18. Self-organization of topological defects for a triangular-lattice magnetic dots array subject to a perpendicular magnetic field

    R.S. Khymyn


    Full Text Available The regular array of magnetic particles (magnetic dots of the form of a two-dimensional triangular lattice in the presence of external magnetic field demonstrates complicated magnetic structures. The magnetic symmetry of the ground state for such a system is lower than that for the underlying lattice. Long range dipole-dipole interaction leads to a specific antiferromagnetic order in small fields, whereas a set of linear topological defects appears with the growth of the magnetic field. Self-organization of such defects determines the magnetization process for a system within a wide range of external magnetic fields.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.

    Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang


    This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required.

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem

    Aizat Abas


    Full Text Available This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT, multiple relaxation time (MRT, and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV- based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required.

  1. Ordered assemblies of triangular-shaped molecules with strongly interacting vertices: phase diagrams for honeycomb and zigzag structures on triangular lattice.

    Misiūnas, T; Tornau, E E


    The model for ordering of triangular-shaped molecules with strongly interacting vertices is proposed and solved by the Monte Carlo method. The model accounts for three main intermolecular interactions and three states (two main orientations and a vacancy state) of a molecule on triangular lattice, the situation which is encountered in self-assembly of TMA molecules characterized by strongly directional H-bonding. Distinguishing the main "tip-to-tip" interaction, we calculate the phase diagrams for the honeycomb and frustrated honeycomb structures and demonstrate how these structures shrink and vanish with gradual increase of two other ("side-to-side" and "tip-to-side") interactions. We study the effect of frustration on the phase diagram, since the frustrated phase is obtained at the Ising limit of the model. We also demonstrate how the inclusion of longer-range interactions leads to substitution of the frustrated phase by the zigzag structure. Finally, we obtain the phase diagram with two experimentally found TMA structures (honeycomb and zigzag) and discuss the conditions of their existence by comparison with the experimental results.

  2. Robust metastable skyrmions and their triangular-square lattice structural transition in a high-temperature chiral magnet

    Karube, K.; White, J. S.; Reynolds, N.; Gavilano, J. L.; Oike, H.; Kikkawa, A.; Kagawa, F.; Tokunaga, Y.; Rønnow, H. M.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.


    Skyrmions, topologically protected nanometric spin vortices, are being investigated extensively in various magnets. Among them, many structurally chiral cubic magnets host the triangular-lattice skyrmion crystal (SkX) as the thermodynamic equilibrium state. However, this state exists only in a narrow temperature and magnetic-field region just below the magnetic transition temperature Tc, while a helical or conical magnetic state prevails at lower temperatures. Here we describe that for a room-temperature skyrmion material, β-Mn-type Co 8Zn 8Mn 4, a field-cooling via the equilibrium SkX state can suppress the transition to the helical or conical state, instead realizing robust metastable SkX states that survive over a very wide temperature and magnetic-field region. Furthermore, the lattice form of the metastable SkX is found to undergo reversible transitions between a conventional triangular lattice and a novel square lattice upon varying the temperature and magnetic field. These findings exemplify the topological robustness of the once-created skyrmions, and establish metastable skyrmion phases as a fertile ground for technological applications.

  3. Interlayer-interaction dependence of latent heat in the Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice with competing interactions.

    Tamura, Ryo; Tanaka, Shu


    We study the phase transition behavior of a frustrated Heisenberg model on a stacked triangular lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. The model has three types of interactions: the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interaction J(1) and antiferromagnetic third nearest-neighbor interaction J(3) in each triangular layer and the ferromagnetic interlayer interaction J([perpendicular]). Frustration comes from the intralayer interactions J(1) and J(3). We focus on the case that the order parameter space is SO(3)×C(3). We find that the model exhibits a first-order phase transition with breaking of the SO(3) and C(3) symmetries at finite temperature. We also discover that the transition temperature increases but the latent heat decreases as J([perpendicular])/J(1) increases, which is opposite to the behavior observed in typical unfrustrated three-dimensional systems.

  4. Magnetic phases of the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 on a triangular lattice

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.


    We have carried out Cu,6563 NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 45 T on a single crystal of a multiferroic triangular antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The measurements were performed for magnetic fields aligned along the crystal c axis. Field and temperature evolution of the spectral shape demonstrates a number of phase transitions. It was found that the 3D magnetic ordering takes place in the low field range (H ≲15 T). At higher fields magnetic structures form within individual triangular planes whereas the spin directions of the magnetic ions from neighboring planes are not correlated. It is established that the 2D-3D transition is hysteretic in field and temperature. Line-shape analysis reveals several possible magnetic structures existing within individual planes for different phases of CuCrO2. Within certain regions on the magnetic H -T phase diagram of CuCrO2 a 3D magnetic ordering with tensor order parameter is expected.

  5. Coupling-governed metamorphoses of the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a triangular-lattice ribbon

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O., E-mail:


    Highlights: • The integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a triangular-lattice ribbon is inclined to metamorphoses. • The system under study is capable to incorporate the effect of external linear potential. • The system criticality against the background parameter reduces the number of independent field variables. • At critical point the system Poisson structure becomes degenerate. • The effect of criticality is elucidated by the system one-soliton solution. - Abstract: The variativity of governing coupling parameters in the integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a triangular-lattice ribbon is shown to ensure the important qualitative rearrangements in the system dynamics. There are at least the two types of system crucial modifications stipulated by the two types of governing parameters. Thus the longitudinal coupling parameters regulated mainly by the background values of concomitant field variables are responsible for the bifurcation of primary integrable nonlinear system into the integrable nonlinear system of Ablowitz–Ladik type. As a consequence in a critical point the number of independent field variables is reduced by a half and the system Poisson structure turns out to be degenerate. On the other hand the transverse coupling parameters regulated basically by the choice of their a priori arbitrary dependencies on time are capable to incorporate the effect of external linear potential. As a consequence the primary integrable nonlinear system with appropriately adjusted parametrical driving becomes isomorphic to the system modeling the Bloch oscillations of charged nonlinear carriers in an electrically biased ribbon of triangular lattice. The multi-component structure of basic integrable system alongside with the attractive character of system nonlinearities has predetermined the logic of whole consideration.

  6. Spin compensation temperature in the Monte Carlo study of a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on the decorated triangular lattice

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.


    Mixed-spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising model on the decorated triangular lattice is studied by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Within this approach, the results for the ground-state of the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic of decorated triangular lattice are obtained. The reduced transition temperature of each sublattice are obtained. The reduced temperature of compensation is also obtained. The thermal total ratio of magnetic susceptibilities of sublattices is given. The effect of crystal field and exchange interactions on the magnetization of the system are detailed. The magnetic hysteresis cycles are found for different values of exchanges interactions between the same lattice and the two sublattices different, for different crystal filed and temperatures. In addition, very weak exchange interactions and for a higher temperatures and a higher crystal filed values the decorated triangular lattice has been exhibited the superparamagnetic behavior.

  7. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen


    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir4+ in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir-Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  8. Tight-binding electrons on triangular and kagome lattices under staggered modulated magnetic fields: quantum Hall effects and Hofstadter butterflies

    Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde, E-mail: [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, and Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)


    We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength {phi}, and a staggered-flux part with strength {Delta}{phi}. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When {phi} is fixed, variation of {Delta}{phi} leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero {Delta}{phi}s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of {Delta}{phi} = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by {Delta}{phi}.

  9. Spin frustration and magnetic ordering in triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9

    Dai, Jia; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Peng-Shuai; Pang, Fei; Munsie, Tim J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yu, Wei-Qiang


    We synthesized a quasi-two-dimensional distorted triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2 at low temperatures, whose magnetic properties were studied by dc susceptibility and magnetization techniques. The x-ray diffraction confirms the quality of our powder samples. The large Weiss constant θCW˜ -55 K and the low Neel temperature TN˜ 1.45 K give a frustration factor f = | θCW/TN | ≈ 38, suggesting that Ca3CoNb2O9 resides in strong frustration regime. Slightly below TN, deviation between the susceptibility data under zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) is observed. A new magnetic state with 1/3 of the saturate magnetization Ms is suggested in the magnetization curve at 0.46 K. Our study indicates that Ca3CoNb2O9 is an interesting material to investigate magnetism in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with weak anisotropy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374364 and 11222433), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00112). Research at McMaster University supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Work at North China Electric Power University supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  10. On the implementation of fast marching methods for 3D lattices

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    This technical report discusses Sethian's Fast Marching Method and its higher accuracy variant. Both methods may be used to compute the arrival times at the points of a discrete lattice of a front which is monotonously expanding. Applications of the method include arrival time computation and the...

  11. Clar Sextet Analysis of Triangular, Rectangular, and Honeycomb Graphene Antidot Lattices

    Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    Pristine graphene is a semimetal and thus does not have a band gap. By making a nanometer. scale periodic array of holes In the graphene sheet a band gap may form; the size of the gap is controllable by adjusting the parameters Of the lattice. The,hole diameter, hole geometry, lattice geometry, a...

  12. A Chaos-based Image Encryption Scheme Using 3D Skew Tent Map and Coupled Map Lattice

    Ruisong Ye


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a chaos-based image encryption scheme where one 3D skew tent map with three control parameters is utilized to generate chaotic orbits applied to scramble the pixel positions while one coupled map lattice is employed to yield random gray value sequences to change the gray values so as to enhance the security. Experimental results have been carried out with detailed analysis to demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to resist brute-force attack and possesses good statistical properties to frustrate statistical analysis attacks. Experiments are also performed to illustrate the robustness against malicious attacks like cropping, noising, JPEG compression.

  13. Vacancies in a 3D-Kitaev model on hyper-honeycomb lattice

    Sreejith, G. J.; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, Roderich

    We study the properties of isolated single and pairs of vacancies in an exactly solvable Kitaev model on a three dimensional hyper-honeycomb lattice. We show that each vacancy in the lattice is associated with a low energy spin like degree of freedom, similar to the case of previously studied honeycomb model. We calculate the contribution from these vacancy spin-moments to the low field magnetization response to a z-directed field. Isolated vacancies in the gapped phase act as free spins. In the gapless phase, these spins interact with the surrounding spin-liquid suppressing the low-field magnetization to 1/√{ ln [ 1 /hz ] }. Pair of vacancies have a sublattice-dependent, anisotropic, spin-liquid mediated interaction with each other. In the gapless phase, interaction between vacancies in the same (opposite) sublattice enhances (suppresses) the low-field magnetization, indicating a ferromagnetic (anti-ferromagnetic) nature. We also show that, unlike vacancies in the honeycomb lattice, the vacancies here do not bind a flux at low-energies.

  14. Magnon breakdown in a two dimensional triangular lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet of multiferroic LuMnO3.

    Oh, Joosung; Le, Manh Duc; Jeong, Jaehong; Lee, Jung-hyun; Woo, Hyungje; Song, Wan-Young; Perring, T G; Buyers, W J L; Cheong, S-W; Park, Je-Geun


    The breakdown of magnons, the quasiparticles of magnetic systems, has rarely been seen. By using an inelastic neutron scattering technique, we report the observation of spontaneous magnon decay in multiferroic LuMnO3, a simple two dimensional Heisenberg triangular lattice antiferromagnet, with large spin S=2. The origin of this rare phenomenon lies in the nonvanishing cubic interaction between magnons in the spin Hamiltonian arising from the noncollinear 120° spin structure. We observed all three key features of the nonlinear effects as theoretically predicted: a rotonlike minimum, a flat mode, and a linewidth broadening, in our inelastic neutron scattering measurements of single crystal LuMnO3. Our results show that quasiparticles in a system hitherto thought of as "classical" can indeed break down.

  15. ASE suppression in Er3+ doped dual-core triangular lattice Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) for communication wavelength

    Maji, Partha Sona


    In this article, silica based triangular lattice PCF has been investigated towards both narrowband and broadband dispersion compensation for application in the communication wavelength. A dual core structure is obtained by introducing two different air-hole diameters in the cladding of the PCF. Dependence of individual structural parameters towards high negative dispersion (both narrowband and broadband) has been investigated in details with multipole mode based solver. The numerical investigation exhibits narrowband of very large negative dispersion of -37,300 ps/nm/km around the wavelength of 1550 nm. Present investigation also reports broadband dispersion values varying from -800 ps/nm/km to -2600 ps/nm/km over a 200 nm wavelength (1400 nm to 1600 nm) range, and kappa values near 300 nm, which matches well with standard single mode fiber. Using the principle of power transfer from the inner core to the outer core after the coupling wavelength, we have investigated possible design of ASE suppressed amplifie...

  16. Integer quantum Hall effect in a triangular-lattice: Disorder effect and scaling behavior of the insulator-plateau transition

    Yu, H. L.; Jiang, C.; Zhai, Z. Y.


    We investigate numerically the integer quantum Hall effect in a three-band triangular-lattice model. The three bands own the Chern number C=2,-1,-1, respectively. The lowest topological flat band carrying Chern number C=2, which leads to the Hall plateau σH = 2 (e2 / h) . This Hall plateau is sensitive to the disorder scattering and is rapidly destroyed by the weak disorder. Further increasing the strength of disorder, the gap of density of states always disappears before the vanishing of the corresponding Hall plateau. The scaling behavior of quantum phase transition between an insulator and a quantum Hall plateau is studied. We find that the insulator-plateau transition becomes sharper with increasing the size of system. Due to the different of edge states, the critical energy Ec1 gradually shifts to the center of Hall plateau while Ec2 is unaffected with increasing the disorder strength.

  17. Three-state Potts model on triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions

    Murtazaev, Akai K.; Babaev, Albert B.; Magomedov, Magomed A.; Kassan-Ogly, Felix A.; Proshkin, Alexey I.


    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated phase transitions and frustrations in the three-state Potts model on a triangular lattice with allowance for antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between nearest-neighbors J1 and next-nearest-neighbors J2. The ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor and nearest-neighbor exchange constants r=J2/J1 is chosen within the range of 0≤r≤2. Based on the analysis of the entropy, specific heat, system state density function, and fourth order Binder cumulants, the phase transitions in the Potts model with interactions J1<0 and J2<0 are shown to be found in value ranges of 0≤r<0.2 and 1.25≤r≤2.0. In an intermediate range of 0.2≤r≤1.0 the phase transition fails and the frustrations are revealed.

  18. The Critical Lines of the Yang-Lee Edge Singularities of the Anisotropic Ising Ferromagnets on Square, Triangular and Honeycomb Lattices

    WANG Xian-Zhi


    Using the numerical results and some results from the renormalization group theory, we extend our previous approach of determining the Yang-Lee edge singularities of Ising ferromagnets on square, triangular and honeycomb lattices (Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 413; Phys. Rev. E56 (1998) 2793; E57 (1998) 5013) and obtain accurate closed-form approximations of the critical lines of anisotropic Ising ferromagnets on these lattices.

  19. Coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 3D optical lattice

    Wang, Yang; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S


    We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a $5\\times 5\\times 5$ array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in non-targeted atoms is smaller than $3\\times 10^{-3}$ in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.

  20. 3-D lattice simulation of the electroweak phase transition at small Higgs mass

    Ilgenfritz, E M; Perlt, H; Schiller, A


    We study the electroweak phase transition by lattice simulations of an effective 3-dimensional theory, for a Higgs mass of about 35 GeV. In the broken symmetry phase our results on masses and the Higgs condensate are consistent with 2-loop perturbative results. However we find a non-perturbative lowering of the transition temperature, similar to the one previously found at m_H = 80 GeV. For the symmetric phase, bound state masses and the static force are determined and compared with results for pure SU(2) theory.

  1. Design of a Photonic-Crystal Channel-Drop Filter Based on the Two-Dimensional Triangular-Lattice Hole Structure

    Kyu; Hwan; Hwang; G.; Hugh; Song; Chanmook; Lim; Soan; Kim; Kyung-Won; Chun; Mahn; Yong; Park


    A channel-drop filter has been designed based on the two-dimensional triangular-lattice hole photonic-crystal structure, which consists of two line defects and two point defects, by a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation.

  2. Protein folding optimization based on 3D off-lattice model via an improved artificial bee colony algorithm.

    Li, Bai; Lin, Mu; Liu, Qiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Changjun


    Protein folding is a fundamental topic in molecular biology. Conventional experimental techniques for protein structure identification or protein folding recognition require strict laboratory requirements and heavy operating burdens, which have largely limited their applications. Alternatively, computer-aided techniques have been developed to optimize protein structures or to predict the protein folding process. In this paper, we utilize a 3D off-lattice model to describe the original protein folding scheme as a simplified energy-optimal numerical problem, where all types of amino acid residues are binarized into hydrophobic and hydrophilic ones. We apply a balance-evolution artificial bee colony (BE-ABC) algorithm as the minimization solver, which is featured by the adaptive adjustment of search intensity to cater for the varying needs during the entire optimization process. In this work, we establish a benchmark case set with 13 real protein sequences from the Protein Data Bank database and evaluate the convergence performance of BE-ABC algorithm through strict comparisons with several state-of-the-art ABC variants in short-term numerical experiments. Besides that, our obtained best-so-far protein structures are compared to the ones in comprehensive previous literature. This study also provides preliminary insights into how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to reveal the dynamics of protein folding. Graphical Abstract Protein folding optimization using 3D off-lattice model and advanced optimization techniques.

  3. Simulating Growth Kinetics in a Data-Parallel 3D Lattice Photobioreactor

    A. V. Husselmann


    Full Text Available Though there have been many attempts to address growth kinetics in algal photobioreactors, surprisingly little have attempted an agent-based modelling (ABM approach. ABM has been heralded as a method of practical scientific inquiry into systems of a complex nature and has been applied liberally in a range of disciplines including ecology, physics, social science, and microbiology with special emphasis on pathogenic bacterial growth. We bring together agent-based simulation with the Photosynthetic Factory (PSF model, as well as certain key bioreactor characteristics in a visual 3D, parallel computing fashion. Despite being at small scale, the simulation gives excellent visual cues on the dynamics of such a reactor, and we further investigate the model in a variety of ways. Our parallel implementation on graphical processing units of the simulation provides key advantages, which we also briefly discuss. We also provide some performance data, along with particular effort in visualisation, using volumetric and isosurface rendering.

  4. Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk

    Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.


    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Phase transitions in strongly coupled 3d Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature

    Borisenko, O; Cortese, G; Fiore, R; Gravina, M; Papa, A; Surzhikov, I


    We perform an analytical and numerical study of the phase transitions in three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature for N>4. In the strong coupling limit these models are equivalent to a generalized version of the vector Potts models in two dimensions, where Polyakov loops play the role of Z(N) spins. The effective couplings of these two-dimensional spin models are calculated explicitly. It is argued that the effective spin models have two phase transitions of BKT type. This is confirmed by large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. Using a cluster algorithm we locate the position of the critical points and study the critical behavior across both phase transitions in details. In particular, we determine various critical indices, compute the helicity modulus, the average action and the specific heat. A scaling formula for the critical points with N is proposed.

  6. The cone phase of liquid crystals: Triangular lattice of double-tilt cylinders

    Yashodhan Hatwalne; N V Madhusudana


    We predict the existence of a new defect-lattice phase near the nematic–smectic-C (NC) transition. This tilt-analogue of the blue phase is a lattice of double-tilt cylinders which are disclination lines in the smectic layer normal as well as the c-field. We discuss the structure and stability of the cone phase. We suggest that many ‘nematics’ exhibiting short range layering and tilt order may in fact be in the molten cone phase, which is a line liquid.

  7. Chiral Spin Liquids in Triangular-Lattice SU (N ) Fermionic Mott Insulators with Artificial Gauge Fields

    Nataf, Pierre; Lajkó, Miklós; Wietek, Alexander; Penc, Karlo; Mila, Frédéric; Läuchli, Andreas M.


    We show that, in the presence of a π /2 artificial gauge field per plaquette, Mott insulating phases of ultracold fermions with SU (N ) symmetry and one particle per site generically possess an extended chiral phase with intrinsic topological order characterized by an approximate ground space of N low-lying singlets for periodic boundary conditions, and by chiral edge states described by the SU(N ) 1 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory for open boundary conditions. This has been achieved by extensive exact diagonalizations for N between 3 and 9, and by a parton construction based on a set of N Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions with flux π /N per triangular plaquette. Experimental implications are briefly discussed.

  8. Variational wave functions for the S =1/2 Heisenberg model on the anisotropic triangular lattice: Spin liquids and spiral orders

    Ghorbani, Elaheh; Tocchio, Luca F.; Becca, Federico


    By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we investigate the complete phase diagram of the Heisenberg model on the anisotropic triangular lattice, where two out of three bonds have superexchange couplings J and the third one has instead J'. This model interpolates between the square lattice and the isotropic triangular one, for J'/J ≤1 , and between the isotropic triangular lattice and a set of decoupled chains, for J /J'≤1 . We consider all the fully symmetric spin liquids that can be constructed with the fermionic projective-symmetry group classification (Zhou and Wen, arXiv:cond-mat/0210662) and we compare them with the spiral magnetic orders that can be accommodated on finite clusters. Our results show that, for J'/J ≤1 , the phase diagram is dominated by magnetic orderings, even though a spin-liquid state may be possible in a small parameter window, i.e., 0.7 ≲J'/J ≲0.8 . In contrast, for J /J'≤1 , a large spin-liquid region appears close to the limit of decoupled chains, i.e., for J /J'≲0.6 , while magnetically ordered phases with spiral order are stabilized close to the isotropic point.

  9. Influence of surface roughness on nonlinear flow behaviors in 3D self-affine rough fractures: Lattice Boltzmann simulations

    Wang, Min; Chen, Yi-Feng; Ma, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Chuang-Bing


    This study investigates the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear fluid flow through three-dimensional (3D) self-affine rock fractures, whose original surface roughness is decomposed into primary roughness (i.e. the large-scale waviness of the fracture morphology) and secondary roughness (i.e. the small-scale unevenness) with a wavelet analysis technique. A 3D Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is adopted to predict the flow physics in rock fractures numerically created with and without consideration of the secondary roughness, respectively. The simulation results show that the primary roughness mostly controls the pressure distribution and fracture flow paths at a large scale, whereas the secondary roughness determines the nonlinear properties of the fluid flow at a local scale. As the pressure gradient increases, the secondary roughness enhances the local complexity of velocity distribution by generating and expanding the eddy flow and back flow regions in the vicinity of asperities. It was found that the Forchheimer's law characterizes well the nonlinear flow behavior in fractures of varying roughness. The inertial effects induced by the primary roughness differ only marginally in fractures with the roughness exponent varying from 0.5 to 0.8, and it is the secondary roughness that significantly enhances the nonlinear flow and leads to earlier onset of nonlinearity. Further examined were the effects of surface roughness on the transmissivity, hydraulic aperture and the tortuosity of flow paths, demonstrating again the dominant role of the secondary roughness, especially for the apparent transmissivity and the equivalent hydraulic aperture at high pressure gradient or high Reynolds number. The results may enhance our understanding of the role of surface roughness in the nonlinear flow behaviors in natural rock fractures.

  10. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng


    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  11. Connecting phase transitions between the 3-d O(4) Heisenberg model and 4-d SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    Grady, Michael


    SU(2) lattice gauge theory is extended to a larger coupling space where the coupling parameter for horizontal (spacelike) plaquettes, $\\beta_H$, differs from that for vertical (Euclidean timelike) plaquettes, $\\beta_V$. When $\\beta_H \\rightarrow \\infty$ the system, when in Coulomb Gauge, splits into multiple independent 3-d O(4) Heisenberg models on spacelike hyperlayers. Through consideration of the robustness of the Heisenberg model phase transition to small perturbations, and illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the ferromagnetic phase transition in this model persists for $\\beta_H < \\infty$. Once it has entered the phase-plane it must continue to another edge due to its symmetry-breaking nature, and therefore must necessarily cross the $\\beta_V = \\beta_H$ line at a finite value. Indeed, a higher-order SU(2) phase transition is found at $\\beta = 3.18 \\pm 0.08$, from a finite-size scaling analysis of the Coulomb gauge magnetization from Monte Carlo simulations, which also yields criti...

  12. Exact diagonalization study of the spin-1 two-dimensional J{sub 1}–J{sub 3} Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice

    Rubin, P., E-mail:; Sherman, A.


    The spin-1 Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice with the ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic third-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, J{sub 1}=−(1−p)J and J{sub 2}=pJ, J>0(0≤p≤1), is studied with the use of the SPINPACK code. This model is applicable for the description of the magnetic properties of NiGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The ground, low-lying excited state energies and spin-spin correlation functions have been found for lattices with N=16 and N=20 sites with the periodic boundary conditions. These results are in qualitative agreement with earlier authors' results obtained with Mori's projection operator technique. - Highlights: • The S=1J{sub 1}–J{sub 3} Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice is studied. • The ferromagnetic nearest and AF 3rd-nearest-neighbor couplings are considered. • The exact diagonalization study of finite lattices was done. • The SPINPACK code using Lanczos' method is used for calculations. • The obtained results are in agreement with those obtained by Mori's approach.

  13. SU(N) Schwinger bosons and nematic phases in the bilinear-biquadratic S=1 triangular lattice antiferromagnet with third-nearest neighbor interactions

    Pires, A. S. T.


    I present in details the SU(N) Schwinger boson formalism, also known as flavor wave theory, that has been used several times in the literature. I use the method to study the ferroquadrupolar phase of a quantum biquadratic Heisenberg model with spin S=1 on the triangular lattice with third-nearest-neighbor interactions. Results for the phase diagram at zero temperature and the static and dynamical quadrupolar structure factors are presented. In principle, the results could be applied to NiGa2S4.

  14. GPU Accelerated Monte Carlo Algorithm of Ising Model on Triangular Lattice%三角晶格Ising模型Monte Carlo模拟的GPU加速算法

    陆星; 蔡静; 张伟


    In the statistical model, the efficiency of most Monte Carlo algorithm reduces quickly near the critical point. In the analysis of traditional local algorithms, a GPU-based parallel simulation algorithm on the triangular lattice Ising model, which greatly improves the efficiency of the Monte Carlo simulation, is raised. For the model with the size of 1 024 X 1 024, a speedup of 69 is achieved. Besides, the critical behavior is analyzed, a high-precision critical point (/Jc = 0.274 66( 1) ) and critical exponents (y, = 1.01(2), yh= 1. 875 6(3) ) of triangular lattice Ising model are obtained, which implies the effectiveness of the GPU algorithm.%在分析传统Monte Carlo算法的基础上,针对三角晶格Ising模型提出了一种基于GPU的并行模拟方法,大大提高了算法的效率.对1 024×1 024的模型,实现了69倍的加速比.通过该算法所得数据分析模型的临界行为,获得了高精度的临界点βc=0.27466(1)和临界指数y1=1.01(2),yh=1.875 6(3).

  15. On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals


    We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections. Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.

  16. On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals

    DONG AiJu


    We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections.Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.

  17. Static and dynamical spin correlations of the S =1/2 random-bond antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular and kagome lattices

    Shimokawa, Tokuro; Watanabe, Ken; Kawamura, Hikaru


    Inspired by the recent theoretical suggestion that the random-bond S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular and the kagome lattices might exhibit a randomness-induced quantum spin liquid (QSL) behavior when the strength of the randomness exceeds a critical value, and that this "random-singlet state" might be relevant to the QSL behaviors experimentally observed in triangular organic salts κ -(ET) 2Cu2(CN) 3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd(dmit)2] 2 and in kagome herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 , we further investigate the nature of the static and the dynamical spin correlations of these models. We compute the static and the dynamical spin structure factors, S (q ) and S (q ,ω ) , by means of an exact diagonalization method. In both triangular and kagome models, the computed S (q ,ω ) in the random-singlet state depends on the wave vector q only weakly, robustly exhibiting gapless behaviors accompanied by the broad distribution extending to higher energy ω . Especially in the strongly random kagome model, S (q ,ω ) hardly depends on q , and exhibits an almost flat distribution for a wide range of ω , together with a ω =0 peak. These features agree semiquantitatively with the recent neutron-scattering data on a single-crystal herbertsmithite. Furthermore, the computed magnetization curve agrees almost quantitatively with the experimental one recently measured on a single-crystal herbertsmithite. These results suggest that the QSL state observed in herbertsmithite might indeed be the randomness-induced QSL state, i.e., the random-singlet state.

  18. Corner free energies and boundary effects for Ising, Potts and fully-packed loop models on the square and triangular lattices

    Vernier, Eric


    We obtain long series expansions for the bulk, surface and corner free energies for several two-dimensional statistical models, by combining Enting's finite lattice method (FLM) with exact transfer matrix enumerations. The models encompass all integrable curves of the Q-state Potts model on the square and triangular lattices, including the antiferromagnetic transition curves and the Ising model (Q=2) at temperature T, as well as a fully-packed O(n) type loop model on the square lattice. The expansions are around the trivial fixed points at infinite Q, n or 1/T. By using a carefully chosen expansion parameter, q << 1, all expansions turn out to be of the form \\prod_{k=1}^\\infty (1-q^k)^{\\alpha_k + k \\beta_k}, where the coefficients \\alpha_k and \\beta_k are periodic functions of k. Thanks to this periodicity property we can conjecture the form of the expansions to all orders (except in a few cases where the periodicity is too large). These expressions are then valid for all 0 <= q < 1. We analyse in...

  19. Magnetization process and collective excitations in the S=1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9.

    Susuki, Takuya; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Takuya; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu


    We have performed high-field magnetization and electronic spin resonance (ESR) measurements on Ba3CoSb2O9 single crystals, which approximates the two-dimensional (2D) S=1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet. For an applied magnetic field H parallel to the ab plane, the entire magnetization curve including the plateau at one-third of the saturation magnetization (Ms) is in excellent agreement with the results of theoretical calculations except a small step anomaly near (3/5)Ms, indicative of a theoretically undiscovered quantum phase transition. However, for H∥c, the magnetization curve exhibits a cusp near Ms/3 owing to the weak easy-plane anisotropy and the 2D quantum fluctuation. From a detailed analysis of the collective ESR modes observed in the ordered state, combined with the magnetization process, we have determined all the magnetic parameters including the interlayer and anisotropic exchange interactions.

  20. Pressure-Tuned Exchange Coupling of a Quantum Spin Liquid in the Molecular Triangular Lattice κ -(ET )2Ag2 (CN )3

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hiramatsu, Takaaki; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Ono, Akihiro; Itoh, Masayuki; Yoshida, Makoto; Takigawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Saito, Gunzi


    The effects of pressure on a quantum spin liquid are investigated in an organic Mott insulator κ -(ET )2Ag2 (CN )3 with a spin-1 /2 triangular lattice. The application of negative chemical pressure to κ -(ET )2Cu2 (CN )3 , which is a well-known sister Mott insulator, allows for extensive tuning of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, with J /kB=175 - 310 K , under hydrostatic pressure. Based on 13C nuclear magnetic resonance measurements under pressure, we uncover universal scaling in the static and dynamic spin susceptibilities down to low temperatures ˜0.1 kBT /J . The persistent fluctuations and residual specific heat coefficient are consistent with the presence of gapless low-lying excitations. Our results thus demonstrate the fundamental finite-temperature properties of a quantum spin liquid in a wide parameter range.

  1. Spin-frustration in a new spin-1/2 oxyfluoride system (Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4) constructed by alternatively distorted kagome-like and triangular lattices.

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Su-Yun; Guo, Wen-Bin; Tang, Ying-Ying; He, Zhang-Zhen


    A novel copper compound, Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4, featuring two types of two-dimensional extended kagome-like and triangular lattices, exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at ∼3 K, a strong spin-frustration effect with f = 21 and a spin-flop transition at 5 T.

  2. Competing anisotropies on 3d sub-lattice of YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B compounds

    Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Costa Soares, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); IF Sudeste MG Campus de Juiz de Fora-Núcleo de Física, 36080-001 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Caldeira, L. [IF Sudeste MG Campus de Juiz de Fora-Núcleo de Física, 36080-001 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Coelho, A. A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-Unicamp, Caixa postal 6165, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d sub-lattices has an important rule on the overall magnetic properties of hard magnets. Intermetallics alloys with boron (R-Co/Ni-B, for instance) belong to those hard magnets family and are useful objects to help to understand the magnetic behavior of 3d sub-lattice, specially when the rare earth ions R do not have magnetic nature, like YCo{sub 4}B ferromagnetic material. Interestingly, YNi{sub 4}B is a paramagnetic material and Ni ions do not contribute to the magnetic anisotropy. We focused therefore our attention to YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B series, with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic anisotropy of these compounds is deeper described using statistical and preferential models of Co occupation among the possible Wyckoff positions into the CeCo{sub 4}B type hexagonal structure. We found that the preferential model is the most suitable to explain the magnetization experimental data.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations on magnetic behavior of a spin-chain system in triangular lattice doped with antiferromagnetic bonds

    YAO Xiao-yan; LI Peng-lei; DONG Shuai; LIU Jun-ming


    A three-dimensional Ising-like model doped with anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) bonds is proposed to investigate the magnetic properties of a doped triangular spin-chain system by using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The simulated results indicate that a steplike magnetization behavior is very sensitive to the concentration of AFM bonds. A low concentration of AFM bonds can suppress the stepwise behavior considerably, in accordance with doping experiments on Ca3Co206. The analysis of spin snapshots demonstrates that the AFM bond doping not only breaks the ferromagnetic ordered linear spin chains along the hexagonal c-axis but also has a great influence upon the spin configuration in the ab-plane.

  4. A simulation study of microwave field effects on a 3D orthorhombic lattice of rotating dipoles: short-range potential energy variation

    Kapranov, Sergey V.; Kouzaev, Guennadi A.


    Variation of the short-range potential energy of interaction of nearest dipoles in a three-dimensional (3D) orthorhombic lattice exposed to microwave electric fields is studied by means of the Langevin dynamics simulations. The global increase of the mean potential energy is typical for all the frequencies and intensities at lower temperatures, whereas separate potential energy peaks or peak chains are observed at intermediate temperatures. A simple statistical model proposed to account for the temperature dependence of the field intensity for potential energy peaks suggests the concerted collective rotation of the dipoles. The temperature dependence of the peak frequency is explained using a combination of the one-dimensional Kramers and the resonant activation theories applied to the field-driven collective rotation, with the nearly degenerate angular coordinates of the dipoles being used as a single effective coordinate.

  5. Spin dynamics and spin freezing in the triangular lattice antiferromagnets FeGa2S4 and NiGa2S4

    Zhao, Songrui; Dalmas de Réotier, P.; Yaouanc, A.; MacLaughlin, D. E.; Mackie, J. M.; Bernal, O. O.; Nambu, Y.; Higo, T.; Nakatsuji, S.


    Magnetic susceptibility and muon spin relaxation (μSR) experiments have been carried out on the quasi-2D triangular-lattice spin S=2 antiferromagnet FeGa2S4. The μSR data indicate a sharp onset of a frozen or nearly frozen spin state at T*=31(2) K, twice the spin-glass-like freezing temperature Tf=16(1) K. The susceptibility becomes field dependent below T*, but no sharp anomaly is observed in any bulk property. A similar transition is observed in μSR data from the spin-1 isomorph NiGa2S4. In both compounds the dynamic muon spin relaxation rate λd(T) above T* agrees well with a calculation of spin-lattice relaxation by Chubukov, Sachdev, and Senthil in the renormalized classical regime of a 2D frustrated quantum antiferromagnet. There is no firm evidence for other mechanisms. At low temperatures, λd(T) becomes temperature independent in both compounds, indicating persistence of spin dynamics. Scaling of λd(T) between the two compounds is observed from ˜Tf to ˜1.5T*. Although the μSR data by themselves cannot exclude a truly static spin component below T*, together with the susceptibility data they are consistent with a slowly fluctuating “spin gel” regime between Tf and T*. Such a regime and the absence of a divergence in λd(T) at T* are features of two unconventional mechanisms: (1) binding/unbinding of Z2 vortex excitations, and (2) impurity spins in a nonmagnetic spin-nematic ground state. The absence of a sharp anomaly or history dependence at T* in the susceptibility of FeGa2S4, and the weakness of such phenomena in NiGa2S4, strongly suggest transitions to low-temperature phases with unconventional dynamics.

  6. Modeling of mass and charge transport in a solid oxide fuel cell anode structure by a 3D lattice Boltzmann approach

    Paradis, Hedvig; Andersson, Martin; Sundén, Bengt


    A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H2 using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to improve the performance of the SOFC anode. It was found that increasing the porosity from 30 to 50 % decreased the ionic current density due to a reduction in the number of reaction sites. Also the consumption of H2 decreased with increasing porosity. When the percentage of active reaction sites was increased while the porosity was kept constant, the ionic current density increased. However, the H2 concentration was slightly reduced when the percentage of active reaction sites was increased. The gas flow tortuosity decreased with increasing porosity.

  7. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh


    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  8. Parameterization for fitting triangular mesh

    LIN Hongwei; WANG Guojin; LIU Ligang; BAO Hujun


    In recent years, with the development of 3D data acquisition equipments, the study on reverse engineering has become more and more important. However, the existing methods for parameterization can hardly ensure that the parametric domain is rectangular, and the parametric curve grid is regular. In order to overcome these limitations, we present a novel method for parameterization of triangular meshes in this paper. The basic idea is twofold: first, because the isotherms in the steady temperature do not intersect with each other, and are distributed uniformly, no singularity (fold-over) exists in the parameterization; second, a 3D harmonic equation is solved by the finite element method to obtain the steady temperature field on a 2D triangular mesh surface with four boundaries. Therefore, our proposed method avoids the embarrassment that it is impossible to solve the 2D quasi-harmonic equation on the 2D triangular mesh without the parametric values at mesh vertices. Furthermore, the isotherms on the temperature field are taken as a set of iso-parametric curves on the triangular mesh surface. The other set of iso-parametric curves can be obtained by connecting the points with the same chord-length on the isotherms sequentially. The obtained parametric curve grid is regular, and distributed uniformly, and can map the triangular mesh surface to the unit square domain with boundaries of mesh surface to boundaries of parametric domain, which ensures that the triangular mesh surface or point cloud can be fitted with the NURBS surface.

  9. Insertion of a single-molecule magnet inside a ferromagnetic lattice based on a 3D bimetallic oxalate network: towards molecular analogues of permanent magnets.

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Gómez-García, Carlos J; López-Jordà, Maurici; Camón, Agustín; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando


    The insertion of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2(2+) (salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis-(salicylideneiminate)) into a ferromagnetic bimetallic oxalate network affords the hybrid compound [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (1). This cationic Mn2 cluster templates the growth of crystals formed by an unusual achiral 3D oxalate network. The magnetic properties of this hybrid magnet are compared with those of the analogous compounds [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Zn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (2) and [In(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]⋅(H2O)0.25⋅(CH3OH)0.25⋅(CH3CN)0.25 (3), which are used as reference compounds. In 2 it has been shown that the magnetic isolation of the Mn2 clusters provided by their insertion into a paramagnetic oxalate network of Cr(III) affords a SMM behavior, albeit with blocking temperatures well below 500 mK even for frequencies as high as 160 kHz. In 3 the onset of ferromagnetism in the bimetallic Mn(II) Cr(III) network is observed at Tc = 5 K. Finally, in the hybrid compound 1 the interaction between the two magnetic networks leads to the antiparallel arrangement of their respective magnetizations, that is, to a ferrimagnetic phase. This coupling induces also important changes on the magnetic properties of 1 with respect to those of the reference compounds 2 and 3. In particular, compound 1 shows a large magnetization hysteresis below 1 K, which is in sharp contrast with the near-reversible magnetizations that the SMMs and the oxalate ferromagnetic lattice show under the same conditions.

  10. Soliton assisted control of source to drain electron transport along natural channels - crystallographic axes - in two-dimensional triangular crystal lattices

    Chetverikov, A. P.; Ebeling, W.; Velarde, M. G.


    We present computational evidence of the possibility of fast, supersonic or subsonic, nearly loss-free ballistic-like transport of electrons bound to lattice solitons (a form of electron surfing on acoustic waves) along crystallographic axes in two-dimensional anharmonic crystal lattices. First we study the structural changes a soliton creates in the lattice and the time lapse of recovery of the lattice. Then we study the behavior of one electron in the polarization field of one and two solitons with crossing pathways with suitably monitored delay. We show how an electron surfing on a lattice soliton may switch to surf on the second soliton and hence changing accordingly the direction of its path. Finally we discuss the possibility to control the way an excess electron proceeds from a source at a border of the lattice to a selected drain at another border by following appropriate straight pathways on crystallographic axes.

  11. Ba8CoNb6O24 : A spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the two-dimensional limit

    Rawl, R.; Ge, L.; Agrawal, H.; Kamiya, Y.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Butch, N. P.; Sun, X. F.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Oitmaa, J.; Batista, C. D.; Mourigal, M.; Zhou, H. D.; Ma, J.


    The perovskite Ba8CoNb6O24 comprises equilateral effective spin-1/2 Co2 + triangular layers separated by six nonmagnetic layers. Susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements combined with high-temperature series expansions and spin-wave calculations confirm that Ba8CoNb6O24 is basically a two-dimensional magnet with no detectable spin anisotropy and no long-range magnetic ordering down to 0.06 K. In other words, Ba8CoNb6O24 is very close to be a realization of the paradigmatic spin-1/2 triangular Heisenberg model, which is not expected to exhibit symmetry breaking at finite temperatures according to the Mermin and Wagner theorem.

  12. Design Of 8*8*8 3D LED Lattice Based On AVR Microcontroller%基于AVR单片机的8*8*8三维LED点阵设计

    李行杰; 李克俭; 肖英


    In connection with the 8*8*8 3D LED lattice display module control problems, put forward a design scheme of 8*8*8 3D LED lattice based on AVR microcontroller. Introduction to 3D LED lattice display module and the composition of the control system, according to the 3D LED lattice display module carries on the text or pattern according to the functional requirements, choose the drive circuit, classified ATMEGA328P - PU algorithm based on the internal control, and use the ATMEGA328P - PU inside special function, add external extension interface, combined with the upper machine communication, achieve a relatively perfect comprehensive information platform. This light cube provides a good user's visual and entertainment experience, made for further research of 3D display and control to provide certain reference.%  针对8*8*8三维LED点阵显示模块控制问题,提出一种基于AVR单片机的8*8*8三维LED点阵设计方案。介绍三维LED点阵显示模块和控制系统的构成,根据三维LED点阵显示模块进行文字或图案显示的功能需求,合理选择驱动电路,划分ATMEGA328P-PU内部算法进行控制,并利用ATMEGA328P-PU内部特殊功能,添加外部扩展接口,结合上位机通讯,实现一个较为完善的综合信息显示平台。光立方提供了良好的用户视觉与娱乐体验,为进一步研究三维显示器的制作及控制提供一定的参考。

  13. Long-time tails of the velocity autocorrelation function in 2D and 3D lattice gas cellular automata: a test of mode-coupling theory

    Hoef, M.A. van der; Frenkel, D.


    We report simulations of the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) of a tagged particle in two- and three-dimensional lattice-gas cellular automata, using a new technique that is about a million times more efficient than the conventional techniques. The simulations clearly show the algebraic t-D/

  14. The disordered magnetic structure in the triangular-lattice XY-antiferromagnet CsMnBr{sub 3} derived from the zero-field spectrum of Br nuclear magnetic resonance

    Xu, Xun; Okada, Kunihide; Fujii, Muneaki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860 (Japan); Kubo, Takeji [Department of Physics, Nara Education University, Takabatake, Nara 613 (Japan); Ajiro, Yoshitami [Department of Applied Physics, Fukui University, Bunkyo 3-9-1, Fukui 910 (Japan)


    The Br NMR in the triangular-lattice antiferromagnetic CsMnBr{sub 3} is investigated in the ordered state at low temperatures. Two distinct peaks of the Br NMR spin-echo spectrum were observed at 36.0 {+-} 0.5 MHz and 43.0 {+-} 0.5 MHz accompanied by a broad signal ranging from 34 to 55 MHz in zero field. The peak frequencies are independent of temperature and the ratio of the frequencies is the same as that of the quadrupole moments of {sup 81}Br and {sup 79}Br. This suggests that the quadrupole resonance of Br is perturbed by the distribution of the internal magnetic field. Theoretical results obtained under the assumption that the Mn spins have disordered structure in the c-plane due to the frustration effect agree with the experimental data. (author)

  15. Implementation of 3D Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation on a Cluster of Symmetric Multiprocessors%基于集群系统的3D格点Monte Carlo算法并行实现

    雷咏梅; 蒋英; 冯捷


    This paper presents a new approach to parallelize 3D lattice Monte Carlo algorithms used in the numerical simulation of polymer on ZiQiang 2000-a cluster of symmetric multiprocessors (SMPs). The combined load for cell and energy calculations over the time step is balanced together to form a single spatial decomposition. Basic aspects and strategies of running Monte Carlo calculations on parallel computers are studied. Different steps involved in porting the software on a parallel architecture based on ZiQiang 2000 running under Linux and MPI are described briefly. It is found that parallelization becomes more advantageous when either the lattice is very large or the model contains many cells and chains.

  16. Simultaneous triangularization

    Radjavi, Heydar


    A collection of matrices is said to be triangularizable if there is an invertible matrix S such that S1 AS is upper triangular for every A in the collection. This generalization of commutativity is the subject of many classical theorems due to Engel, Kolchin, Kaplansky, McCoy and others. The concept has been extended to collections of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces: such a collection is defined to be triangularizable if there is a maximal chain of subspaces of the Banach space, each of which is invariant under every member of the collection. Most of the classical results have been generalized to compact operators, and there are also recent theorems in the finite-dimensional case. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of triangularizability in both the finite and infinite-dimensional cases. It contains numerous very recent results and new proofs of many of the classical theorems. It provides a thorough background for research in both the linear-algebraic and operator-theoretic aspects of tr...

  17. 3D Framework DNA Origami with Layered Crossovers.

    Hong, Fan; Jiang, Shuoxing; Wang, Tong; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao


    Designer DNA architectures with nanoscale geometric controls provide a programmable molecular toolbox for engineering complex nanodevices. Scaffolded DNA origami has dramatically improved our ability to design and construct DNA nanostructures with finite size and spatial addressability. Here we report a novel design strategy to engineer multilayered wireframe DNA structures by introducing crossover pairs that connect neighboring layers of DNA double helices. These layered crossovers (LX) allow the scaffold or helper strands to travel through different layers and can control the relative orientation of DNA helices in neighboring layers. Using this design strategy, we successfully constructed four versions of two-layer parallelogram structures with well-defined interlayer angles, a three-layer structure with triangular cavities, and a 9- and 15-layer square lattices. This strategy provides a general route to engineer 3D framework DNA nanostructures with controlled cavities and opportunities to design host-guest networks analogs to those produced with metal organic frameworks.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of 3D crystal growth: Numerical schemes for a phase-field model with anti-trapping current

    Cartalade, Alain; Plapp, Mathis


    A lattice-Boltzmann (LB) scheme, based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision rules is developed for a phase-field model of alloy solidification in order to simulate the growth of dendrites. The solidification of a binary alloy is considered, taking into account diffusive transport of heat and solute, as well as the anisotropy of the solid-liquid interfacial free energy. The anisotropic terms in the phase-field evolution equation, the phenomenological anti-trapping current (introduced in the solute evolution equation to avoid spurious solute trapping), and the variation of the solute diffusion coefficient between phases, make it necessary to modify the equilibrium distribution functions of the LB scheme with respect to the one used in the standard method for the solution of advection-diffusion equations. The effects of grid anisotropy are removed by using the lattices D3Q15 and D3Q19 instead of D3Q7. The method is validated by direct comparison of the simulation results with a numerical code that uses t...

  19. Phase transitions and critical properties of the frustrated Heisenberg model on a layer triangular lattice with next-to-nearest-neighbor interactions

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K., E-mail:; Badiev, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)


    The critical behavior of the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with nearest-neighbor (J) and next-to-nearest-neighbor (J{sub 1}) interactions is studied by the replica Monte Carlo method. The first-order phase transition and pseudouniversal critical behavior of this model are established for a small lattice in the interval R = vertical bar J{sub 1}/J vertical bar = 0-0.115. A complete set of the main static magnetic and chiral critical indices is calculated in this interval using the finite-dimensional scaling theory.

  20. Spatial quantum search in a triangular network

    Abal, G; Forets, M; Portugal, R


    The spatial search problem consists in minimizing the number of steps required to find a given site in a network, under the restriction that only oracle queries or translations to neighboring sites are allowed. We propose a quantum algorithm for the spatial search problem on a triangular lattice with N sites and torus-like boundary conditions. The proposed algortithm is a special case of the general framework for abstract search proposed by Ambainis, Kempe and Rivosh [AKR05] (AKR) and Tulsi [Tulsi08], applied to a triangular network. The AKR-Tulsi formalism was employed to show that the time complexity of the quantum search on the triangular lattice is O(sqrt(N logN)).

  1. Magnetic properties of a doped quasi-triangular lattice material, Cu2(1-x)Zn2x(OH)3NO3/(C7H15COO)

    Wu, Jian; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Solin, S. A.


    Cu2(OH)3NO3,is a geometrically frustrated layered compound in which spin S=1/2 Cu^2+ ions are arranged on a slightly distorted triangular lattice. The magnetic properties of the pure compound and of the compound intercalated with alkanecarboxylate have been extensively studied.[1] However, the effects of intralayer doping remain unexplored. The substitution of non-magnetic ions such as Zn^2+ for Cu^2+ will ultimately drive the ordering temperature toward zero [2] which may provide a candidate system possessing an exotic spin-liquid ground state. We have prepared powder samples of the Cu2(1-x)Zn2x(OH)3NO3 family and systematically investigated them by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The ordering temperature decreases from 11K to 5.6K while the C-W temperature increases from -5.1K to +2.8K as the Zn concentration increases from 0 to 65%. To enhance the 2-dimensional characteristic and reduce the interlayer interaction, we introduce an alkanecarboxylate C7H15COO into the interlayer space. The experimental results we have obtained indicate that this new class of materials have much higher frustration levels |θcw /Tc|˜ 20 and order at a lower temperature than the doped parent compounds.[1] M. A. Girtu et al, Phys Rev B 61,4117(2000).[2] M. Mekata et al, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 4544(1987).

  2. Study the two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal band gap and coupling characters%二维三角形光子晶体带隙与耦合特性研究

    李未; 陈小玲


    利用二维三角晶格介质柱光子晶体TE偏振的禁带与介质柱半径的变化关系,分析了二维光子晶体的带隙分布及斜边耦合特性.结果表明,光子禁带的大小受到构成光子晶体的介电材料的空间排列分布以及介质柱半径大小的影响;束缚在光子晶体中的光波可以在波导和谐振腔中进行传输,达到选择输出光波的目的.%The paper study the relation between two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal band gap for TE polarizationand dielectric cylinder radius, and study distribution of two dimensional photonic crystal defect state. Results show, the photonic crystal band gaps were distributed by dielectric material space distribution and medium size of the radius; Tied in the photon crystals of light waves can transmission in waveguides and resonator cavity to select the output of light waves.

  3. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy


    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  4. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline


    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  5. 旋转方形散射体对三角晶格磁振子晶体带结构的优化∗%Spin-wave band gaps created by rotating square ro ds in triangular lattice magnonic crystals

    胡晓颖; 郭晓霞; 胡文弢; 呼和满都拉; 郑晓霞; 荆丽丽


    =0.6 we calculated the first normalized gap width ∆Ω/Ωg. when f =0.6 andθ=0◦, the first gap width∆Ω=0.812(µ0ω/g) and the normalized gap width∆Ω/Ωg=0.9187. The results show that from the first normalized gap widths the largest one can be found when f = 0.6 and θ = 5◦, the first gap width∆Ω = 0.937 ( µ0ω/g) and the normalized gap width ∆Ω/Ωg = 0.9591. The results show that the numerical, rotating square rods can make the low frequency band gap widen in the triangular lattice of two-dimensional magnonic crystal.

  6. Research on 3D Solid Modeling Technology of Complex Mined-out Area Based on Like-Repulsion Boolean Operation to Triangular Pyramid%基于三棱锥同斥布尔运算的复杂空区实体建模研究

    李发本; 卢才武; 麦尚德


    Underground mined-out area is a great threat to the safety of upper opencast mining,so the 3D solid modeling of mined-out area is very important for making production plans and ensuring the safety in production.TIN model was used to create 3D envelope-wire-frame modeling of mined-out area,then,triangular pyramid was used as the basic body to three-dimensional solid model of mined-out area.To counter the phenomenon of convexification occurring in decomposing envelope-wire-frame model,the principle of like repulsion was used in basic body merging to build three-dimensional solid model.Finally,the improved boolean operation was implemented on vs2005 development platform,and combining with the case of Sandaozhuang surface mining,the feasibility of the method was verified.The results showed that the method can effectively realize the modeling of complex mined-out area in mine,providing a technical support for the design of mined-out area treatment.%地下采空区的存在对上部露天开采安全生产构成了巨大威胁,构建空区三维实体模型对制定生产计划和保障生产安全具有重要意义。在利用TIN模型建立空区三维包络线框模型基础之上,采用三棱锥体作为基本体元构建空区三维实体模型。针对建模过程中,包络线框模型分解凸化现象,将同性相斥原理运用到体元合并中,构建空区的三维实体模型。最后,在vs2005开发平台上实现算法并结合三道庄露天矿进行可行性验证。结果表明,该方法能够完成矿山复杂空区实体建模任务,为空区处理设计提供了技术支撑。




    Full Text Available In various applications of computer graphics, 3D polygonal modeling is used, which consists millions of triangular polygon. In this polygon attributes – vertices, edges and faces’ details are to be stored. In order to control the processing time, storing space, and transfer speed, it is often required to reduce the information ofthese polygonal 3D models. In this paper an effort is made to reduce the number of edges. There are various methods to reduce faces and edges of these 3D models. A C++ dynamic link library as Maya Plugin has been created to remove number of edges of 3D triangular polygon model using the Quadric Error Metrics (QEM in MAYA v2010 x64 API. QEM allows fast and accurate geometric simplification of 3D models.


    Brdnik, Lovro


    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  9. Coordination field analysis of rare earth complexes with triangular symmetry

    范英芳; 潘大丰; 杨频


    The calculation of the complex matrixes in odd triangular symmetry was accomplished.The configurations of the coordination unit with various triangular symmetries and different ligand numbers were discussed.On the basis of the double-sphere coordination point-charge (DSCPCF) model,the detailed forms of the DSCPCF parameters Bmk and the expressions of the perturbation matrix elements in triangular field (D3,D3h,D3d) were derived.Thereby,the calculation scheme of coordination field perturbation energy of the rare earth complexes with triangular symmetry was constructed After the calculation scheme was programmed,the Stark energies of the crystalline TbAl3(BO3)4 were calculated The results were considerably close to the experimental values

  10. 3D and Education

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile


    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?


    Kolar, Nataša


    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  12. 3D virtuel udstilling

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne


    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  13. Streaming Surface Reconstruction from Real Time 3D Measurements

    Bodenmüller, Tim


    In this thesis, a robust method for fast surface reconstruction from real time 3D point streams is presented. It is designed for the integration in a fast visual feedback system that supports a user while manually 3D scanning objects. The method iteratively generates a dense and homogeneous triangular mesh by inserting sample points from the real time data stream and refining the surface model locally. A spatial data structure ensures a fast access to growing point sets and continuously updat...

  14. S =1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnets Ba3CoSb2O9 and CsCuCl3: Role of spin-orbit coupling, crystalline electric field effect, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Sera, A.; Kousaka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.; Sera, M.; Kawamata, T.; Koike, Y.; Inoue, K.


    We have performed the detailed investigations of the magnetization of the S =1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnets Ba3CoSb2O9 and CsCuCl3 with a 120∘ spin structure in the a b plane. In Ba3CoSb2O9 , the magnetic susceptibility (χ ) exhibits a broad maximum above the Néel temperature (TN) as is expected in the low-dimensional antiferromagnet (AFM). In CsCuCl3, χ exhibits a continuous increase down to TN as if it is the three-dimensional AFM. This is induced by the strong ferromagnetic (FM) interaction along the c axis. The magnetic phase diagrams are also very different. Although the transition field from the umbrella to the 2-1-coplanar phase (Hu -c) for H ∥c is almost independent of temperature in Ba3CoSb2O9 , it shows a considerable decrease with increasing temperature in CsCuCl3. The temperature independent Hu -c in Ba3CoSb2O9 originates from the magnetic anisotropy from the van Vleck contribution, which does not depend so much on the temperature. The temperature dependent Hu -c in CsCuCl3 originates from the magnetic anisotropy from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, which decreases with increasing temperature. For H ∥a b , the clear transition from the Y-coplanar to the up-up-down (u u d ) phase was observed in Ba3CoSb2O9 but not in CsCuCl3. While the reentrant behavior of TN originating from the thermal and quantum spin fluctuations is observed in both compounds, it is pronounced in Ba3CoSb2O9 but small in CsCuCl3. These differences originate from the existence or nonexistence of the DM interaction. The DM interaction in CsCuCl3 suppresses those fluctuations in the a b plane, leading to the less pronounced reentrant behavior of TN and the broad crossover in place of the phase transition. We analyzed the anisotropic magnetization of Ba3CoSb2O9 in the paramagnetic region by the mean field calculation. The spin-orbit (SO) coupling, the uniaxial crystalline electric field, and the isotropic exchange interaction were taken into account. We

  15. Blender 3D cookbook

    Valenza, Enrico


    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  16. 3D Digital Modelling

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  17. Professional Papervision3D

    Lively, Michael


    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  18. AE3D


    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  19. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin


    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  20. Development of a version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D applicable for High Temperature Reactors; Entwicklung einer Version des Reaktordynamikcodes DYN3D fuer Hochtemperaturreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Rohde, Ulrich; Apanasevich, Pavel; Baier, Silvio; Duerigen, Susan; Fridman, Emil; Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Soeren; Merk, Bruno


    Based on the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for the simulation of transient processes in Light Water Reactors, a code version DYN3D-HTR for application to graphitemoderated, gas-cooled block-type high temperature reactors has been developed. This development comprises: - the methodical improvement of the 3D steady-state neutron flux calculation for the hexagonal geometry of the HTR fuel element blocks - the development of methods for the generation of homogenised cross section data taking into account the double heterogeneity of the fuel element block structure - the implementation of a 3D model for heat conduction and heat transport in the graphite matrix. The nodal method for neutron flux calculation based on SP3 transport approximation was extended to hexagonal fuel element geometry, where the hexagons are subdivided into triangles, thus the method had finally to be derived for triangular geometry. In triangular geometry, a subsequent subdivision of the hexagonal elements can be considered, and therefore, the effect of systematic mesh refinement can be studied. The algorithm was verified by comparison with Monte Carlo reference solutions, on the node-wise level, as well as also on the pin-wise level. New procedures were developed for the homogenization of the double-heterogeneous fuel element structures. One the one hand, the so-called Reactivity equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT), the two-step homogenization method based on 2D deterministic lattice calculations, was extended to cells with different temperatures of the materials. On the other hand, the progress in development of Monte Carlo methods for spectral calculations, in particular the development of the code SERPENT, opened a new, fully consistent 3D approach, where all details of the structures on fuel particle, fuel compact and fuel block level can be taken into account within one step. Moreover, a 3D heat conduction and heat transport model was integrated into DYN3D to be able to simulate radial

  1. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Oldham, Mark


    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  2. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    Bershady, Matthew A


    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  3. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle


    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  4. Interaktiv 3D design

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude


    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  5. Synthesized Optimization of Triangular Mesh

    HU Wenqiang; YANG Wenyu


    Triangular mesh is often used to describe geometric object as computed model in digital manufacture, thus the mesh model with both uniform triangular shape and excellent geometric shape is expected. But in fact, the optimization of triangular shape often is contrary with that of geometric shape. In this paper, one synthesized optimizing algorithm is presented through subdividing triangles to achieve the trade-off solution between the geometric and triangular shape optimization of mesh model. The result mesh with uniform triangular shape and excellent topology are obtained.

  6. Tangible 3D Modelling

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis


    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...

  7. Shaping 3-D boxes

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.


    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  8. 3D Wire 2015

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  9. Upper Triangular Matrix of Lie Algebra and a New Discrete Integrable Coupling System

    YU Fa-Jun; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    The upper triangular matrix of Lie algebra is used to construct integrable couplings of discrete solition equations.Correspondingly,a feasible way to construct integrable couplings is presented.A nonlinear lattice soliton equation spectral problem is obtained and leads to a novel hierarchy of the nonlinear lattice equation hierarchy.It indicates that the study of integrable couplings using upper triangular matrix of Lie algebra is an important step towards constructing integrable systems.

  10. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.


    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  11. Spectral element method for band-structure calculations of 3D phononic crystals

    Shi, Linlin; Liu, Na; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jiamin; Huo Liu, Qing


    The spectral element method (SEM) is a special kind of high-order finite element method (FEM) which combines the flexibility of a finite element method with the accuracy of a spectral method. In contrast to the traditional FEM, the SEM exhibits advantages in the high-order accuracy as the error decreases exponentially with the increase of interpolation degree by employing the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) polynomials as basis functions. In this study, the spectral element method is developed for the first time for the determination of band structures of 3D isotropic/anisotropic phononic crystals (PCs). Based on the Bloch theorem, we present a novel, intuitive discretization formulation for Navier equation in the SEM scheme for periodic media. By virtue of using the orthogonal Legendre polynomials, the generalized eigenvalue problem is converted to a regular one in our SEM implementation to improve the efficiency. Besides, according to the specific geometry structure, 8-node and 27-node hexahedral elements as well as an analytic mesh have been used to accurately capture curved PC models in our SEM scheme. To verify its accuracy and efficiency, this study analyses the phononic-crystal plates with square and triangular lattice arrangements, and the 3D cubic phononic crystals consisting of simple cubic (SC), bulk central cubic (BCC) and faced central cubic (FCC) lattices with isotropic or anisotropic scatters. All the numerical results considered demonstrate that SEM is superior to the conventional FEM and can be an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of 3D phononic crystals.

  12. On the peculiar properties of triangular-chain EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} antiferromagnet

    Gondek, Ł., E-mail: [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Szytuła, A. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Przewoźnik, J.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Prokhorov, A.; Chernush, L.; Zubov, E. [A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, NANU, 83114 Donetsk, R. Luxembourg str. 72 (Ukraine); Dyakonov, V. [A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, NANU, 83114 Donetsk, R. Luxembourg str. 72 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, PAS, 02-668 Warsaw, Al. Lotników 32/46 (Poland); Duraj, R. [Institute of Physics Technical University of Cracow, Podchorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Tyvanchuk, Yu. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mephodiya 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)


    In this paper we report studies on EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} compound, that is a member of newly discovered family of huntite-related specimens for non-linear optics. For the first time, the uncommon temperature dependence of the EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} lattice parameters is reported. Additionally, the magnetism of this compound is extremely interesting. Namely, a possible interplay in between potentially magnetic rare-earth ions and 3d metal stacked within quasi-1D chain that can lead to a great variety of magnetic behaviour. Indeed, in our studies we have found 3D-long range ordering with metamagnetic behaviour, while at higher temperature the magnetic chains become uncoupled. - Graphical abstract: Torsion-like vibrations are the key to understand negative thermal expansion along the a-axis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} is a peculiar triangular-chain antiferromagnet. • Rare earth sublattice is non-magnetic with Eu{sup 3+} configuration. • Cr{sup 3+} magnetic moments show 1-D behaviour along with spin fluctuations. • Torsion vibrations of Cr triangular tubes lead to anomalous expansion of unit cell.

  13. Hash functions and triangular mesh reconstruction*1

    Hrádek, Jan; Kuchař, Martin; Skala, Václav


    Some applications use data formats (e.g. STL file format), where a set of triangles is used to represent the surface of a 3D object and it is necessary to reconstruct the triangular mesh with adjacency information. It is a lengthy process for large data sets as the time complexity of this process is O( N log N), where N is number of triangles. Triangular mesh reconstruction is a general problem and relevant algorithms can be used in GIS and DTM systems as well as in CAD/CAM systems. Many algorithms rely on space subdivision techniques while hash functions offer a more effective solution to the reconstruction problem. Hash data structures are widely used throughout the field of computer science. The hash table can be used to speed up the process of triangular mesh reconstruction but the speed strongly depends on hash function properties. Nevertheless the design or selection of the hash function for data sets with unknown properties is a serious problem. This paper describes a new hash function, presents the properties obtained for large data sets, and discusses validity of the reconstructed surface. Experimental results proved theoretical considerations and advantages of hash function use for mesh reconstruction.

  14. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya


    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+ TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+ TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+ TFT admits a topological bou...

  15. When fast atom diffraction turns 3D

    Zugarramurdi, Asier; Borisov, Andrei G., E-mail:


    Fast atom diffraction at surfaces (FAD) in grazing incidence geometry is characterized by the slow motion in the direction perpendicular to the surface and fast motion parallel to the surface plane along a low index direction. It is established experimentally that for the typical surfaces the FAD reveals the 2D diffraction patterns associated with exchange of the reciprocal lattice vector perpendicular to the direction of fast motion. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion is negligible. The usual approximation made in the description of the experimental data is then to assume that the effective potential leading to the diffraction results from the averaging of the 3D surface potential along the atomic strings forming the axial channel. In this work we use full quantum wave packet propagation calculations to study theoretically the possibility to observe the 3D diffraction in FAD experiments. We show that for the surfaces with large unit cell, such as can be the case for reconstructed or vicinal surfaces, the 3D diffraction can be observed. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion leads to several Laue circles in the diffraction pattern.

  16. 3D and beyond

    Fung, Y. C.


    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  17. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L


    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  18. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael


    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308


    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge


    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  20. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    LI Ming


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  1. 3D String Theory and Umbral Moonshine

    Kachru, Shamit; Volpato, Roberto


    The simplest string theory compactifications to 3D with 16 supercharges -- the heterotic string on $T^7$, and type II strings on $K3 \\times T^3$ -- are related by U-duality, and share a moduli space of vacua parametrized by $O(8,24; \\mathbb{Z}) \\backslash O(8,24) / (O(8) \\times O(24))$. One can think of this as the moduli space of even, self-dual 32-dimensional lattices with signature (8,24). At 24 special points in moduli space, the lattice splits as $\\Gamma^{8,0} \\oplus \\Gamma^{0,24}$. $\\Gamma^{0,24}$ can be the Leech lattice or any of 23 Niemeier lattices, while $\\Gamma^{8,0}$ is the $E_8$ root lattice. We show that starting from this observation, one can find a precise connection between the Umbral groups and type IIA string theory on $K3$. This provides a natural physical starting point for understanding Mathieu and Umbral moonshine. The maximal unbroken subgroups of Umbral groups in 6D (or any other limit) are those obtained by starting at the associated Niemeier point and moving in moduli space while p...

  2. 3D printing for dummies

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk


    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  3. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther


    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  4. Martian terrain - 3D


    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    Aboufadel, Edward F.


    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  6. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    Godil, Afzal


    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  7. Triangular bubble spline surfaces.

    Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert


    We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness.

  8. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.


    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  9. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.


    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  10. Progress in sorting individual atoms in 3D

    Wu, Tsung-Yao; Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Weiss, David


    An exactly unity filled optical lattice is a desirable initial state for a neutral atom quantum computer. We have previously proposed an efficient way to compact a partially filled lattice into a perfectly filled one, by combining site-resolved imaging, site-selective qubit rotations and state-selective motion steps. We have previously demonstrated site-resolved imaging and site-selective rotations in our system of cesium atoms in a 40% filled 5x5x5 3D lattice. We have now demonstrated the final element, state-selective motion steps in 3D produced by rotating the polarizations of one of the lattice beams in each pair. We will present our progress in putting all the elements together to reach perfect unity filling. Supported by NSF.

  11. Disorder solutions of lattice spin models

    Batchelor, M. T.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.


    It is shown that disorder solutions, which have been obtained by different methods, follow from a simple decimation method. The method is put in general form and new disorder solutions are constructed for the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on a triangular lattice and for Potts and Ising models on square and fcc lattices.

  12. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco


    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  13. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.


    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at

  14. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van


    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  15. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  16. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    Cellary, Wojciech


    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  17. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    Larsen, Rasmus


    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  18. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus


    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  19. 3-D printers for libraries

    Griffey, Jason


    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  20. 3D for Graphic Designers

    Connell, Ellery


    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  1. Influence of asperities on fluid and thermal flow in a fracture: a coupled Lattice Boltzmann study

    Neuville, Amélie; Toussaint, Renaud


    The characteristics of the hydro-thermal flow which occurs when a cold fluid is injected into a hot fractured bedrock depend on the morphology of the fracture. We consider a sharp triangular asperity, invariant in one direction, perturbing an otherwise flat fracture. We investigate its influence on the macroscopic hydraulic transmissivity and heat transfer efficiency, at fixed low Reynolds number. In this study, numerical simulations are done with a coupled lattice Boltzmann method that solves both the complete Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion equations in three dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained under lubrication approximations which rely on many hypotheses and neglect the three-dimensional (3D) effects. The lubrication results are obtained by analytically solving the Stokes equation and a two-dimensional (integrated over the thickness) advection-diffusion equation. We use a lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution (for mass and energy transport) on hypercubic and cubic ...

  2. Spherical 3D Isotropic Wavelets

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L


    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the Fourier-Bessel decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. 2006. We also present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large...

  3. Improvement of 3D Scanner


    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  4. 3D Printing for Bricks

    ECT Team, Purdue


    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  5. 3D vision system assessment

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad


    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  6. PLOT3D user's manual

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.


    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  7. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A


    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  8. Using 3D in Visualization

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen


    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  9. A topological framework for interactive queries on 3D models in the Web.

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina


    Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes) for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications.

  10. Reconstruction of 3-D digital cores using a hybrid method

    Liu Xuefeng; Sun Jianmeng; Wang Haitao


    A 3-D digital core describes the pore space microstructure of rocks. An X-ray micro CT scan is the most accurate and direct but costly method to obtain a 3-D digital core. In this study, we propose a hybrid method which combines sedimentation simulation and simulated annealing (SA) method to generate 3-D digital cores based on 2-D images of rocks. The method starts with the sedimentation simulation to build a 3-D digital core, which is the initial configuration for the SA method. We update the initial digital core using the SA method to match the auto-correlation function of the 2-D rock image and eventually build the final 3-D digital core. Compared with the typical SA method, the hybrid method has significantly reduced the computation time. Local porosity theory is applied to quantitatively compare the reconstructed 3-D digital cores with the X-ray micro CT 3-D images. The results indicate that the 3-D digital cores reconstructed by the hybrid method have homogeneity and geometric connectivity similar to those of the X-ray micro CT image. The formation factors and permeabilities of the reconstructed 3-D digital cores are estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), respectively. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Comparison of the simulation results suggests that the digital cores reconstructed by the hybrid method more closely reflect the true transport properties than the typical SA method alone.

  11. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Jaime Lazcano Bello


    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  12. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.


    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  13. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S


    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  14. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee


    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  15. 3D animation of facial plastic surgery based on computer graphics

    Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan


    More and more people, especial women, are getting desired to be more beautiful than ever. To some extent, it becomes true because the plastic surgery of face was capable in the early 20th and even earlier as doctors just dealing with war injures of face. However, the effect of post-operation is not always satisfying since no animation could be seen by the patients beforehand. In this paper, by combining plastic surgery of face and computer graphics, a novel method of simulated appearance of post-operation will be given to demonstrate the modified face from different viewpoints. The 3D human face data are obtained by using 3D fringe pattern imaging systems and CT imaging systems and then converted into STL (STereo Lithography) file format. STL file is made up of small 3D triangular primitives. The triangular mesh can be reconstructed by using hash function. Top triangular meshes in depth out of numbers of triangles must be picked up by ray-casting technique. Mesh deformation is based on the front triangular mesh in the process of simulation, which deforms interest area instead of control points. Experiments on face model show that the proposed 3D animation facial plastic surgery can effectively demonstrate the simulated appearance of post-operation.

  16. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    Pihlajamäki, Janne


    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  17. Handbook of 3D integration

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter


    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  18. Color 3D Reverse Engineering


    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  19. Exploration of 3D Printing

    Lin, Zeyu


    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  20. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Britton, Ronald


    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  1. Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation...


    LuFangyan; IuShijie


    Abstract, In this paper, a necessary condition for a maximal triangular algebra to be closed is given, A necessary and sufficient condition for a maxima] triangular algebra to he strongly reducible is obtained,

  3. Accepting the T3D

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.


    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  4. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  5. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi


    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  6. 3D Face Apperance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K


    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  7. 3D Face Appearance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle


    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...


    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  9. 3D measurement system based on computer-generated gratings

    Zhu, Yongjian; Pan, Weiqing; Luo, Yanliang


    A new kind of 3D measurement system has been developed to achieve the 3D profile of complex object. The principle of measurement system is based on the triangular measurement of digital fringe projection, and the fringes are fully generated from computer. Thus the computer-generated four fringes form the data source of phase-shifting 3D profilometry. The hardware of system includes the computer, video camera, projector, image grabber, and VGA board with two ports (one port links to the screen, another to the projector). The software of system consists of grating projection module, image grabbing module, phase reconstructing module and 3D display module. A software-based synchronizing method between grating projection and image capture is proposed. As for the nonlinear error of captured fringes, a compensating method is introduced based on the pixel-to-pixel gray correction. At the same time, a least square phase unwrapping is used to solve the problem of phase reconstruction by using the combination of Log Modulation Amplitude and Phase Derivative Variance (LMAPDV) as weight. The system adopts an algorithm from Matlab Tool Box for camera calibration. The 3D measurement system has an accuracy of 0.05mm. The execution time of system is 3~5s for one-time measurement.

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Tight Lattice Bundle

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Akiba, Miyuki; Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Abe, Nobuaki

    Recently, the reduced moderation spectrum BWR has been studied. The fast neutron spectrum is obtained through triangular tight lattice fuel. However, there are few thermal hydraulic test data and thermal hydraulic correlation applicable to critical power prediction in such a tight lattice bundle. This study aims to enhance the database of the thermal hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle whose rod gap is about 1mm. Therefore, thermal hydraulic performance measurement tests of tight lattice bundles for the critical power, the pressure drop and the counter current flow limiting were performed. Moreover, the correlations to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle were developed.

  11. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru


    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  12. Finite layer and triangular prism element method to subsidence prediction and stress analysis in underground mining

    LIU Li-min(刘立民); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); LIAN Chuan-jie(连传杰)


    The application of the finite layer & triangular prism element method to the 3D ground subsidence and stress analysis caused by mining is presented. The layer elements and the triangular prism elements have been alternatively used in the numerical simulation system, the displacement pattern, strain matrix, elastic matrix, stiffness matrix, load matrix and the stress matrix of the layer element and triangular prism element have been presented. By means of the Fortran90 programming language, a numerical simulation system based on finite layer & triangular prism element have been built up, and this system is suitable for subsidence prediction and stress analysis of all mining condition and mining methods. Comparing with the infinite element method, this approach dramatically reduces the size of the set of equations that need to be solved, and greatly reduces the amount of data preparation required. It not only saves the internal storage, and the computation time, but also decreases the cost.

  13. From 3D view to 3D print

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.


    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  14. 3D-mallinnus ja 3D-animaatiot biovoimalaitoksesta

    Hiltula, Tytti


    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin biovoimalaitoksen piirustuksista 3D-mallinnus ja animaatiot. Työn tarkoituksena oli saada valmiiksi Recwell Oy:lle markkinointiin tarkoitetut kuva- ja videomateriaalit. Työssä perehdyttiin 3D-mallintamisen perustietoihin ja lähtökohtiin sekä animaation laatimiseen. Työ laadittiin kokonaisuudessaan AutoCAD-ohjelmalla, ja työn aikana tutustuttiin huolellisesti myös ohjelman käyttöohjeisiin. Piirustusten mitoituksessa huomattiin jo alkuvaiheessa suuria puutteita, ...

  15. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic


    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  16. 3D future internet media

    Dagiuklas, Tasos


    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet ( The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  17. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede


    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  18. Novel 3D media technologies

    Dagiuklas, Tasos


    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  19. Speaking Volumes About 3-D


    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  20. A numerically accurate and robust expression for bistatic scattering from a plane triangular facet

    Wendelboe, Gorm; Jacobsen, Finn; Bell, Judith


    This work is related to modeling of synthetic sonar images of naval mines or other objects. Considered here is the computation of high frequency scattering from the surface of a rigid 3D-object numerically represented by plane triangular facets. The far field scattered pressure from each facet...

  1. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    Halamíček, Lukáš


    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  2. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito


    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2, 0) theory of type A N -1 on a 3-manifold M . The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,C) ) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T N [ M ]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T [SU( N )], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N > 2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2 T N [ M ] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper [1], which summarizes our main results.

  3. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  4. 3D vector flow imaging

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  5. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich


    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  6. Neutron-scattering cross section of the S=1/2 Heisenberg triangular antiferromagnet

    Lefmann, K.; Hedegård, P.


    In this paper we use a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach to calculate the neutron-scattering cross section from the S = 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest-neighbor isotropic Heisenberg interaction on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We investigate two solutions for T = 0: (i) a state with long...

  7. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C


    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  8. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar


    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  9. On Skew Triangular Matrix Rings

    Wang Wei-liang; Wang Yao; Ren Yan-li


    Letαbe a nonzero endomorphism of a ring R, n be a positive integer and Tn(R,α) be the skew triangular matrix ring. We show that some properties related to nilpotent elements of R are inherited by Tn(R,α). Meanwhile, we determine the strongly prime radical, generalized prime radical and Behrens radical of the ring R[x;α]/(xn), where R[x;α] is the skew polynomial ring.

  10. Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex MR Imaging

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi


    Full Text Available Interpretation of MR imaging of the wrist may be difficult because of the small size of this joint, its complex anatomy, and its sometimes poorly unders-tood pathologic lesions. A recent study revealed that MR imaging of the wrist influences clinicians' diagnoses and management plans in most patients. "nWhich structures make up the triangular fibrocarti-lage complex (TFCC are not universally agreed upon. In most descriptions, however, the TFCC is composed of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC, the meniscus homolog, the ulnar collateral ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments and the sheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments may also be considered as part of the TFCC. These structures are a complex unit that function as a stabilizing element in the pivot movement of the radius and ulna and limit the lateral deviation of the carpus. The distal radioulnar joint is primarily stabilized by the TFCC. The TFC functions as a cushion between the ulnar head and carpal bones. Many of the structures that make up the complex are connected by fibrous bands. "nThis presentation summarizes the current diagnostic criteria that can be useful in interpreting abnormalities of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC of the wrist in this difficult topic in joint MR imaging

  11. Fabrication of Nanostructured Poly-ε-caprolactone 3D Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture Technology

    Schipani, Rossana


    Tissue engineering is receiving tremendous attention due to the necessity to overcome the limitations related to injured or diseased tissues or organs. It is the perfect combination of cells and biomimetic-engineered materials. With the appropriate biochemical factors, it is possible to develop new effective bio-devices that are capable to improve or replace biological functions. Latest developments in microfabrication methods, employing mostly synthetic biomaterials, allow the production of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are able to direct cell-to-cell interactions and specific cellular functions in order to drive tissue regeneration or cell transplantation. The presented work offers a rapid and efficient method of 3D scaffolds fabrication by using optical lithography and micro-molding techniques. Bioresorbable polymer poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) was the material used thanks to its high biocompatibility and ability to naturally degrade in tissues. 3D PCL substrates show a particular combination in the designed length scale: cylindrical shaped pillars with 10μm diameter, 10μm height, arranged in a hexagonal lattice with spacing of 20μm were obtained. The sidewalls of the pillars were nanostructured by attributing a 3D architecture to the scaffold. The suitability of these devices as cell culture technology supports was evaluated by plating NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human Neural Stem Cells (hNSC) on them. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis was carried out in order to examine the micro- and nano-patterns on the surface of the supports. In addition, after seeding of cells, SEM and immunofluorescence characterization of the fabricated systems were performed to check adhesion, growth and proliferation. It was observed that cells grow and develop healthy on the bio-polymeric devices by giving rise to well-interconnected networks. 3D PCL nano-patterned pillared scaffold therefore may have considerable potential as effective tool for

  12. Photonic Crystal Waveguides in Triangular Lattice of Nanopillars

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    fields are confined within the nanopillars arrays and guided by reflection. Interaction of 1-row nanopillars waveguides gives origin to the coupling phenomena followed by the splitting of modes, anticrossing effect, folding of modes at the edge of the Brillouin zone and mini stopband formation...

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Manos, Harry


    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  14. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu


    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  15. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim


    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  16. When Art Meets 3D


    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  17. 3D fold growth in transpression

    Frehner, Marcel


    Geological folds in transpression are inherently 3D structures; hence their growth and rotation behavior is studied using 3D numerical finite-element simulations. Upright single-layer buckle folds in Newtonian materials are considered, which grow from an initial point-like perturbation due to a combination of in-plane shortening and shearing (i.e., transpression). The resulting fold growth exhibits three components: (1) fold amplification (vertical), (2) fold elongation (parallel to fold axis), and (3) sequential fold growth (perpendicular to axial plane) of new anti- and synforms adjacent to the initial fold. Generally, the fold growth rates are smaller for shearing-dominated than for shortening-dominated transpression. In spite of the growth rate, the folding behavior is very similar for the different convergence angles. The two lateral directions always exhibit similar growth rates implying that the bulk fold structure occupies an increasing roughly circular area. Fold axes are always parallel to the major horizontal principal strain axis (λ→max, i.e., long axis of the horizontal finite strain ellipse), which is initially also parallel to the major horizontal instantaneous stretching axis (ISA→max). After initiation, the fold axes rotate together with λ→max. Sequential folds appearing later do not initiate parallel to ISA→max, but parallel to λ→max, i.e. parallel to the already existing folds, and also rotate with λ→max. Therefore, fold axes do not correspond to passive material lines and hinge migration takes place as a consequence. The fold axis orientation parallel to λ→max is independent of convergence angle and viscosity ratio. Therefore, a triangular relationship between convergence angle, amount of shortening, and fold axis orientation exists. If two of these values are known, the third can be determined. This relationship is applied to the Zagros fold-and-thrust-belt to estimate the degree of strain partitioning between the Simply

  18. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk


    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  19. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing


    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  20. Sculptured 3D twister superlattices embedded with tunable vortex spirals.

    Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Denz, Cornelia; Joseph, Joby


    We present diverse reconfigurable complex 3D twister vortex superlattice structures in a large area embedded with tunable vortex spirals as well as dark rings, threaded by vortex helices. We demonstrate these tunable complex chiral vortex superlattices by the superposition of relatively phase engineered plane waves. The generated complex 3D twister lattice vortex structures are computationally as well as experimentally analyzed using various tools to verify the presence of phase singularities. Our observation indicates the application-specific flexibility of our approach to tailor the transverse superlattice spatial irradiance profile of these longitudinally whirling vortex-cluster units and dark rings.

  1. 3D shaping of electron beams using amplitude masks

    Shiloh, Roy


    Shaping the electron wavefunction in three dimensions may prove to be an indispensable tool for research involving atomic-sized particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. We utilize computer-generated holograms to sculpt electron wavefunctions in a standard transmission electron microscope in 3D, and demonstrate the formation of electron beams exhibiting high intensity along specific trajectories as well as shaping the beam into a 3D lattice of hot-spots. The concepts presented here are similar to those used in light optics for trapping and tweezing of particles, but at atomic scale resolutions.

  2. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko


    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  3. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction



    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  4. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.


    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  5. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong


    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  6. Tomographic particle image velocimetry over a triangular prism in unidirectional flows

    Sou, In Mei; Calantoni, Joseph


    Using tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV), the full three-dimensional-three-component (3D-3C) flow structure and turbulence characteristics over a triangular prism in a recirculating water tunnel were investigated. Here we present preliminary results from a new Tomo-PIV system for subcritical Froude number flows. Large-scale vortex shedding from the tip of the triangular prism is observed. Results of coherent structure organization analyzed by 3D vorticity calculation will be presented. Using the full 3D-3C instantaneous velocity field, turbulent kinetic energy is directly evaluated without any of the assumptions often needed for 2D PIV measurements. Details of the experimental setup including a unique device designed to perform our Tomo-PIV volume calibration will be discussed. We perform an in-depth turbulent kinetic energy budget and explore the feasibility of extending the measurement technique to other complex flows.

  7. Medical 3D thermography system



    Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is an imaging technology which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These propertiesmake IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various industrial applications to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. This paper presents a conceptual model of Medical 3D Thermo...

  8. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail:; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)


    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  9. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    Yong He; FeiFei Yang; HaiMing Zhao; Qing Gao; Bing Xia; JianZhong Fu


    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films ...

  10. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng


    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  11. Magnetic phase diagram of the coupled triangular spin tubes for CsCrF4

    Seki, Kouichi; Okunishi, Kouichi


    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we explore the magnetic phase diagram of triangular spin tubes coupled with a ferromagnetic intertube interaction for CsCrF4. The planar structure of the coupled tubes is topologically equivalent to the kagome-triangular lattice, which induces nontrivial frustration effects in the system. We particularly find that, depending on the intertube coupling, various ordered phases are actually realized, such as incommensurate order, ferromagnetic order, and cuboc order, which is characterized by the noncoplanar spin structure of the 12 sublattices accompanying the spin chirality breaking. We also discuss the relevance of the results to recent experiments on CsCrF4.

  12. A Lattice Spanning-Tree Entropy Function

    Glasser, ML; Lamb, George


    The function $$W(aq,b)=\\int\\int_0^{2\\pi}\\ln[1-a\\cos x-b\\cos y-(1-a-b)\\cos(x+y)]dxdy$$ which expresses the spanning-tree entropy for various two dimensional lattices, for example, is evaluated directly in terms of standard functions. It is applied to derive several limiting values of the triangular lattice Green function.

  13. Manipulation and control of a bichromatic lattice

    Thomas, Claire; Barter, Thomas; Daiss, Severin; Leung, Zephy; Stamper-Kurn, Dan


    Recent experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices have had great success emulating the simple models of condensed matter systems. These experiments are typically performed with a single site per unit cell. We realize a lattice with up to four sites per unit cell by overlaying an attractive triangular lattice with a repulsive one at twice the wavelength. The relative displacement of the two lattices determines the particular structure. One available configuration is the kagome lattice, which has a flat energy band. In the flat band all kinetic energy states are degenerate, so we have the opportunity to explore a regime where interactions dominate. This bichromatic lattice requires careful stabilization, but offers an opportunity to manipulate the unit cell and band structure by perturbing the lattices relative to one another. I will discuss recent progress.

  14. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer



    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  15. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Powell, Mark W.


    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  16. How 3-D Movies Work



    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  17. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Martin Paul Evison


    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  18. Robust Reconstruction and Generalized Dual Hahn Moments Invariants Extraction for 3D Images

    Mesbah, Abderrahim; Zouhri, Amal; El Mallahi, Mostafa; Zenkouar, Khalid; Qjidaa, Hassan


    In this paper, we introduce a new set of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments which are orthogonal on a non-uniform lattice and their polynomials are numerically stable to scale, consequent, producing a set of weighted orthonormal polynomials. The dual Hahn is the general case of Tchebichef and Krawtchouk, and the orthogonality of dual Hahn moments eliminates the numerical approximations. The computational aspects and symmetry property of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments are discussed in details. To solve their inability to invariability of large 3D images, which cause to overflow issues, a generalized version of these moments noted 3D generalized weighed dual Hahn moment invariants are presented where whose as linear combination of regular geometric moments. For 3D pattern recognition, a generalized expression of 3D weighted dual Hahn moment invariants, under translation, scaling and rotation transformations, have been proposed where a new set of 3D-GWDHMIs have been provided. In experimental studies, the local and global capability of free and noisy 3D image reconstruction of the 3D-WDHMs has been compared with other orthogonal moments such as 3D Tchebichef and 3D Krawtchouk moments using Princeton Shape Benchmark database. On pattern recognition using the 3D-GWDHMIs like 3D object descriptors, the experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is more robust than other orthogonal moments for pattern classification of 3D images with and without noise.

  19. Two-Dimensional Lattice Gravity as a Spin System

    Beirl, W; Riedler, J


    Quantum gravity is studied in the path integral formulation applying the Regge calculus. Restricting the quadratic link lengths of the originally triangular lattice the path integral can be transformed to the partition function of a spin system with higher couplings on a Kagome lattice. Various measures acting as external field are considered. Extensions to matter fields and higher dimensions are discussed.

  20. Island Shape-Induced Transition from 2D to 3D Growth for Pt/Pt(111)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per


    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the growth of Pt on Pt(111) capable of describing the experimentally observed temperature dependence of the island shapes and the growth mode. We show that the transition from a 2D growth mode at low temperatures to a 3D mode at higher temperatures...... is closely related to the disappearance of kink sites and the appearance of the triangular islands observed in the 3D growth regime....

  1. Structure and magnetic exchange in heterometallic 3d-3d transition metal triethanolamine clusters.

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S


    Synthetic methods are described that have resulted in the formation of seven heterometallic complexes, all of which contain partially deprotonated forms of the ligand triethanolamine (teaH(3)). These compounds are [Mn(III)(4)Co(III)(2)Co(II)(2)O(2)(teaH(2))(2)(teaH)(0.82)(dea)(3.18)(O(2)CMe)(2)(OMe)(2)](BF(4))(2)(O(2)CMe)(2)·3.18MeOH·H(2)O (1), [Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(2)Co(III)(2)(teaH)(4)(OMe)(2)(acac)(4)](NO(3))(2)·2MeOH (2), [Mn(III)(2)Ni(II)(4)(teaH)(4)(O(2)CMe)(6)]·2MeCN (3), [Mn(III)(2)Co(II)(2)(teaH)(2)(sal)(2)(acac)(2)(MeOH)(2)]·2MeOH (4), [Mn(II)(2)Fe(III)(2)(teaH)(2)(paa)(4)](NO(3))(2)·2MeOH·CH(2)Cl(2) (5), [Mn(II)Mn(III)(2)Co(III)(2)O(teaH)(2)(dea)(Iso)(OMe)(F)(2)(Phen)(2)](BF(4))(NO(3))·3MeOH (6) and [Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)Co(III)(2)(OH)(teaH)(3)(teaH(2))(acac)(3)](NO(3))(2)·3CH(2)Cl(2) (7). All of the compounds contain manganese, combined with 3d transition metal ions such as Fe, Co and Ni. The crystal structures are described and examples of 'rods', tetranuclear 'butterfly' and 'triangular' Mn(3) cluster motifs, flanked in some cases by diamagnetic cobalt(III) centres, are presented. Detailed DC and AC magnetic susceptibility and magnetization studies, combined with spin Hamiltonian analysis, have yielded J values and identified the spin ground states. In most cases, the energies of the low-lying excited states have also been obtained. The features of note include the 'inverse butterfly' spin arrangement in 2, 4 and 5. A S = 5/2 ground state occurs, for the first time, in the Mn(III)(2)Mn(II) triangular moiety within 6, the many other reported [Mn(3)O](6+) examples having S = ½ or 3/2 ground states. Compound 7 provides the first example of a Mn(II)(2)Mn(III) triangle, here within a pentanuclear Mn(3)Co(2) cluster.

  2. Antiferromagnetic Ising model on the swedenborgite lattice

    Buhrandt, Stefan; Fritz, Lars


    Geometrical frustration in spin systems often results in a large number of degenerate ground states. In this work, we study the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the three-dimensional swedenborgite lattice, which is a specific stacking of kagome and triangular layers. The model contains two exchange

  3. 3D medical thermography device

    Moghadam, Peyman


    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong


    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C


    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.


    宋晓秋; 潘志


    Triangular norm is a powerful tool in the theory research and application development of fuzzy sets. In this paper, using the triangular norm, we introduce some concepts such as fuzzy algebra, fuzzy o algebra and fuzzy monotone class, and discuss the relations among them, obtaining the following main conclusions.

  7. Spectral properties of random triangular matrices

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra


    We provide a relatively elementary proof of the existence of the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of symmetric triangular patterned matrices and also show their joint convergence. We also derive the expressions for the moments of the LSD of the symmetric triangular Wigner matrix using properties of Catalan words.

  8. Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras

    董浙; 鲁世杰


    In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.

  9. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    Zhang, David


    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of 3D porous architectures

    XIAO Wanyan; GU Xiaojun; XUE Dongfeng


    A novel porous lanthanide-organic coordination polymer, [Nd(H2O)(HnicO)(TP)]·2H2O (1) (H2nicO=2-hydroxynieotinic acid, TP= terephthalate), was prepared under hydrothermai condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetrie analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound 1 exhibited a flexible coordination geometry of lanthanide ions, which possessed a three-dimensional (3D) open framework with one-dimensional (1D) channels containing lattice water molecules. This framework structure exhibited a high stability up to 330 ℃ after removing free water molecules. A homometallic supramolecular framework (Zn(HnicO)2(H2O)2 (2)) was obtained due to the competitive reaction between organic ligands, Nd3+ and Zn2+ ions. The results showed that on the basis of the soft-hard/acid-base principle the coordination selection between metal ions and organic ligands played an essential role in the smart construc-tion of lanthanide architectures.

  11. Constructing parametric triangular patches with boundary conditions

    Hui Liu; Jun Ma; Fuhua Cheng


    The problem of constructing a parametric triangular patch to smoothly connect three surface patches is studied. Usually, these surface patches are defined on different parameter spaces. Therefore, it is necessary to define interpolation conditions, with values from the given surface patches, on the boundary of the triangular patch that can ensure smooth transition between different parameter spaces. In this paper we present a new method to define boundary conditions. Boundary conditions defined by the new method have the same parameter space if the three given surface patches can be converted into the same form through affine transformation. Consequently, any of the classic methods for constructing functional triangular patches can be used directly to construct a parametric triangular patch to connect given surface patches with G continuity. The resulting parametric triangular patch preserves precision of the applied classic method.

  12. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong


    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  13. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Jenny Emnéus


    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  14. A new 3D reconstruction method of small solar system bodies

    Capanna, C.; Jorda, L.; Lamy, P.; Gesquiere, G.


    The 3D reconstruction of small solar system bodies consitutes an essential step toward understanding and interpreting their physical and geological properties. We propose a new reconstruction method by photoclinometry based on the minimization of the chisquare difference between observed and synthetic images by deformation of a 3D triangular mesh. This method has been tested on images of the two asteroids (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia observed during ESA's ROSETTA mission, and it will be applied to elaborate digital terrain models from images of the asteroid (4) Vesta, the target of NASA's DAWN spacecraft.

  15. 3D-printed patient-specific applications in orthopedics

    Wong KC


    required for 3D printing, 2 reviews the current applications of 3D printing in patient-specific orthopedic procedures, 3 discusses the potential advantages and limitations of 3D-printed custom orthopedic implants, and 4 suggests the directions for future development. The 3D printing technology has been reported to be beneficial in patient-specific orthopedics, such as in the creation of anatomic models for surgical planning, education and surgical training, patient-specific instruments, and 3D-printed custom implants. Besides being anatomically conformed to a patient’s surgical requirement, 3D-printed implants can be fabricated with scaffold lattices that may facilitate osteointegration and reduce implant stiffness. However, limitations including high cost of the implants, the lead time in manufacturing, and lack of intraoperative flexibility need to be addressed. New biomimetic materials have been investigated for use in 3D printing. To increase utilization of 3D printing technology in orthopedics, an all-in-one computer platform should be developed for easy planning and seamless communications among different care providers. Further studies are needed to investigate the real clinical efficacy of 3D printings in orthopedic applications. Keywords: 3D printing, patient-specific orthopedics, custom implants, patient-specific instrument, image processing

  16. Supernova Remnant in 3-D


    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  17. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    Tsap Leonid V


    Full Text Available The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell, and its state. Analysis of chromosome structure is significant in the detection of diseases, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, study of DNA structural conformation, in-depth study of chromosomal surface morphology, observation of in vivo behavior of the chromosomes over time, and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The methodology incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  18. Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on arrays of gold quasi-3D nanoholes

    Yue, Weisheng


    Arrays of gold quasi-3D nanoholes were proposed and fabricated as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). By detecting rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, the gold quasi-3D nanoholes demonstrated an SERS intensity that was 25-62 times higher than that of two-dimensional nanoholes with the same geometrical shapes and periodicities. The larger SERS enhancement of the quasi-3D nanoholes is attributed to the enhanced electromagnetic field on the top-layer nanohole, the bottom nanodiscs and the field coupling between the two layers. In addition, the investigation of the shape dependence of the SERS on the quasi-3D nanoholes demonstrated that the quadratic, circular, triangular and rhombic holes exhibited different SERS properties. Numerical simulations of the electromagnetic properties on the nanostructures were performed with CST Microwave Studio, and the results agree with the experimental observations. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    Babu, S; Liao, P; Shin, M C; Tsap, L V


    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell and its state. Chromosome analysis is significant in the detection of deceases and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The algorithm incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  20. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming


    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann methods for complex micro-flows: applicability and limitations for practical applications

    Suga, K.


    The extensive evaluation studies of the lattice Boltzmann method for micro-scale flows (μ-flow LBM) by the author's group are summarized. For the two-dimensional test cases, force-driven Poiseuille flows, Couette flows, a combined nanochannel flow, and flows in a nanochannel with a square- or triangular cylinder are discussed. The three-dimensional (3D) test cases are nano-mesh flows and a flow between 3D bumpy walls. The reference data for the complex test flow geometries are from the molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid by the author's group. The focused flows are mainly in the slip and a part of the transitional flow regimes at Kn flow LBMs are the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook and the multiple-relaxation time LBMs with several boundary conditions and discrete velocity models. The effects of the discrete velocity models, the wall boundary conditions, the near-wall correction models of the molecular mean free path and the regularization process are discussed to confirm the applicability and the limitations of the μ-flow LBMs for complex flow geometries.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann methods for complex micro-flows: applicability and limitations for practical applications

    Suga, K, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)


    The extensive evaluation studies of the lattice Boltzmann method for micro-scale flows ({mu}-flow LBM) by the author's group are summarized. For the two-dimensional test cases, force-driven Poiseuille flows, Couette flows, a combined nanochannel flow, and flows in a nanochannel with a square- or triangular cylinder are discussed. The three-dimensional (3D) test cases are nano-mesh flows and a flow between 3D bumpy walls. The reference data for the complex test flow geometries are from the molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid by the author's group. The focused flows are mainly in the slip and a part of the transitional flow regimes at Kn < 1. The evaluated schemes of the {mu}-flow LBMs are the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook and the multiple-relaxation time LBMs with several boundary conditions and discrete velocity models. The effects of the discrete velocity models, the wall boundary conditions, the near-wall correction models of the molecular mean free path and the regularization process are discussed to confirm the applicability and the limitations of the {mu}-flow LBMs for complex flow geometries. (invited review)

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel


    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko


    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  5. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.


    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  6. Comparison of two-transsacral-screw fixation versus triangular osteosynthesis for transforaminal sacral fractures.

    Min, Kyong S; Zamorano, David P; Wahba, George M; Garcia, Ivan; Bhatia, Nitin; Lee, Thay Q


    Transforaminal pelvic fractures are high-energy injuries that are translationally and rotationally unstable. This study compared the biomechanical stability of triangular osteosynthesis vs 2-transsacral-screw fixation in the repair of a transforaminal pelvic fracture model. A transforaminal fracture model was created in 10 cadaveric lumbopelvic specimens. Five of the specimens were stabilized with triangular osteosynthesis, which consisted of unilateral L5-to-ilium lumbopelvic fixation and ipsilateral iliosacral screw fixation. The remaining 5 were stabilized with a 2-transsacral-screw fixation technique that consisted of 2 transsacral screws inserted across S1. All specimens were loaded cyclically and then loaded to failure. Translation and rotation were measured using the MicroScribe 3D digitizing system (Revware Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina). The 2-transsacral-screw group showed significantly greater stiffness than the triangular osteosynthesis group (2-transsacral-screw group, 248.7 N/mm [standard deviation, 73.9]; triangular osteosynthesis group, 125.0 N/mm [standard deviation, 66.9]; P=.02); however, ultimate load and rotational stiffness were not statistically significant. Compared with triangular osteosynthesis fixation, the use of 2 transsacral screws provides a comparable biomechanical stability profile in both translation and rotation. This newly revised 2-transsacral-screw construct offers the traumatologist an alternative method of repair for vertical shear fractures that provides biplanar stability. It also offers the advantage of percutaneous placement in either the prone or supine position.

  7. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Pentagonal Lattice

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Araki, Koji; Iwase, Kenji; Amaya, Naoki; Ono, Toshio; Hosokoshi, Yuko


    Geometric frustration, in which competing interactions give rise to degenerate ground states, potentially induces various exotic quantum phenomena in magnetic materials. Minimal models comprising triangular units, such as triangular and Kagome lattices, have been investigated for decades to realize novel quantum phases, such as quantum spin liquid. A pentagon is the second-minimal elementary unit for geometric frustration. The realization of such systems is expected to provide a distinct platform for studying frustrated magnetism. Here, we present a spin-1/2 quantum pentagonal lattice in the new organic radical crystal α-2,6-Cl2-V [=α-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl]. Its unique molecular arrangement allows the formation of a partially corner-shared pentagonal lattice (PCPL). We find a clear 1/3 magnetization plateau and an anomalous change in magnetization in the vicinity of the saturation field, which originate from frustrated interactions in the PCPL. PMID:26468930

  8. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong


    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  9. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  10. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Haavasalu, Virge


    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  11. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    Bommel, K.J.C. van


    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  12. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui


    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  13. Sliding Adjustment for 3D Video Representation

    Galpin Franck


    Full Text Available This paper deals with video coding of static scenes viewed by a moving camera. We propose an automatic way to encode such video sequences using several 3D models. Contrary to prior art in model-based coding where 3D models have to be known, the 3D models are automatically computed from the original video sequence. We show that several independent 3D models provide the same functionalities as one single 3D model, and avoid some drawbacks of the previous approaches. To achieve this goal we propose a novel algorithm of sliding adjustment, which ensures consistency of successive 3D models. The paper presents a method to automatically extract the set of 3D models and associate camera positions. The obtained representation can be used for reconstructing the original sequence, or virtual ones. It also enables 3D functionalities such as synthetic object insertion, lightning modification, or stereoscopic visualization. Results on real video sequences are presented.

  14. Forward ramp in 3D


    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Guided plasmon modes of triangular and inverted triangular cross section silver nanoridges

    Pan, Zeyu; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter; Sun, Greg


    Propagating two-dimensional plasmon modes guided along silver nanoridge waveguides with triangular and inverted triangular cross sections are investigated in this paper. Mode field profiles, dispersion curves, propagation distances, and figure-of-merits of the plasmon ridge modes are calculated for silver nanoridge waveguides with various triangular and inverted triangular waveguide cross sections. It is found that the triangular cross section nanoridge waveguide, if designed properly, can have longer propagation distance and higher figure-of-merit than the flat-top nanoridge waveguide of the same width. When the triangle height of the nanoridge is high, the mode approaches to the small angle wedge mode. An inverted triangular cross section nanoridge mode can be considered as a hybrid mode of two metal wedge plasmon modes. When inverted triangle depth increases, the propagation distance and the figure-of-merit decrease dramatically, suggesting the poorer performance when compared to the flat-top nanoridge pla...

  16. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System


    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  17. Phase transition in Heisenberg stacked triangular antiferromagnets: end of a controversy.

    Ngo, V Thanh; Diep, H T


    By using the Wang-Landau flat-histogram Monte Carlo (MC) method for very large lattice sizes never simulated before, we show that the phase transition in the frustrated Heisenberg stacked triangular antiferromagnet is of first order, contrary to results of earlier MC simulations using old-fashioned methods. Our result lends support to the conclusion of a nonperturbative renormalization group performed on an effective Hamiltonian. It puts an end to a 20-year -long controversial issue.

  18. Manufacturing of a 3D complex hyperstable Cesic structure

    Kroedel, Matthias; Courteau, Pascal; Poupinet, Anne; Sarri, Giuseppe


    Global astrometry requires extremely stable materials for instrument structures, such as optical benches. Cesic®, developed by ECM and Thales Alenia Space for mirrors and high stability structures, offers an excellent compromise in terms of structural strength, stability and very high lightweight capability, with a coefficient of thermal expansion that is virtually zero at cryogenic T°. The High-Stability Optical Bench (HSOB) GAIA study, realized by Thales Alenia Space under ESA contract, aimed to design, develop and test a full-scale representative of the HSOB bench, made entirely of Cesic®. The bench has been equipped with SAGEIS-CSO laser metrology system MOUSE1, a Michelson interferometer composed of integrated optics with nm-resolution. The HSOB bench has been submitted to a homogeneous T° step under vacuum to characterize 3-D expansion behavior of its two arms. The quite negligible interarm differential, measured with a nm-range reproducibility, demonstrates that a complete 3-D structure made of Cesic® has the same CTE homogeneity as do characterization samples, fully in line with the stringent GAIA requirements (1ppm at 120K). This demonstrates that Cesic® properties at cryogenic temperatures are fully appropriate to the manufacturing of complex highly stable optical structures. This successful study confirms ECM's and Thales Alenia Space's ability to design and manufacture monolithic lightweight highly stable optical structures, based on inner-cell triangular design made possible by the unique Cesic® manufacturing process.

  19. Properties of plane discrete Poisson-Voronoi tessellations on triangular tiling formed by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami growth of triangular islands.

    Korobov, A


    Discrete uniform Poisson-Voronoi tessellations of two-dimensional triangular tilings resulting from the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) growth of triangular islands have been studied. This shape of tiles and islands, rarely considered in the field of random tessellations, is prompted by the birth-growth process of Ir(210) faceting. The growth mode determines a triangular metric different from the Euclidean metric. Kinetic characteristics of tessellations appear to be metric sensitive, in contrast to area distributions. The latter have been studied for the variant of nuclei growth to the first impingement in addition to the conventional case of complete growth. Kiang conjecture works in both cases. The averaged number of neighbors is six for all studied densities of random tessellations, but neighbors appear to be mainly different in triangular and Euclidean metrics. Also, the applicability of the obtained results for simulating birth-growth processes when the 2D nucleation and impingements are combined with the 3D growth in the particular case of similar shape and the same orientation of growing nuclei is briefly discussed.

  20. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil


    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  1. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    Engle, Rob


    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  2. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil


    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  3. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi


    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  4. Opening the Door on Triangular Numbers

    McMartin, Kimberley; McMaster, Heather


    As an alternative to looking solely at linear functions, a three-lesson learning progression developed for Year 6 students that incorporates triangular numbers to develop children's algebraic thinking is described and evaluated.

  5. Molecular rectification in triangularly shaped graphene nanoribbons.

    Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Jianwei; Kiguchi, Manabu


    We present a theoretical study of electron transport in tailored zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with triangular structure using density functional theory together with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. We find significant rectification with a favorite electron transfer direction from the vertex to the right edge. The triangular ZGNR connecting to the electrode with one thiol group at each terminal shows an average rectification ratio of 8.4 over the bias range from -1.0 to 1.0 V. This asymmetric electron transport property originates from nearly zero band gap of triangular ZGNR under negative bias, whereas a band gap opens under positive bias. When the molecule is connected to the electrode by multithiol groups, the current is enhanced due to strong interfacial coupling; however, the rectification ratio decreases. The simulation results indicate that the unique electronic states of triangular ZGNR are responsible for rectification, rather than the asymmetric anchoring groups.

  6. Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond

    Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi


    Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection efficiency than that of slab-based nanocavities, and eliminates the need for a pre-existing membrane. The nanobeam is fabricated by Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) patterning. The cavity is characterized by a confocal photoluminescence. The modes display quality factors of Q ~220 and are deviated in wavelength by only ~1.7nm from the NV- color center zero phonon line (ZPL). The measured results are found in good agreement with 3D Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations. A more advanced cavity design with Q=22,000 is model...

  7. Improved Lattice Radial Quantization

    Brower, Richard C; Fleming, George T


    Lattice radial quantization was proposed in a recent paper by Brower, Fleming and Neuberger[1] as a nonperturbative method especially suited to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories. The lessons learned from the lattice radial quantization of the 3D Ising model on a longitudinal cylinder with 2D Icosahedral cross-section suggested the need for an improved discretization. We consider here the use of the Finite Element Methods(FEM) to descretize the universally-equivalent $\\phi^4$ Lagrangian on $\\mathbb R \\times \\mathbb S^2$. It is argued that this lattice regularization will approach the exact conformal theory at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum. Numerical tests are underway to support this conjecture.

  8. Light transmission through a triangular air gap

    Carvalho, Silvania A


    Due to the recent interest in studying propagation of light through triangular air gaps, we calculate, by using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics and the multiple step technique, the transmissivity through a triangular air gap surrounded by an homogeneous dielectric medium. The new formula is then compared with the formula used in literature. Starting from the qualitative and quantitative differences between these formulas, we propose optical experiments to test our theoretical results.

  9. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Christodoulou, Christos George (The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew


    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  10. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Feldner, Lucas Matthew


    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  11. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets

    Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)


    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  12. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E


    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  13. Investigating Mobile Stereoscopic 3D Touchscreen Interaction

    Colley, Ashley; Hakkila, Jonna; SCHOENING, Johannes; Posti, Maaret


    3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in tou...

  14. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael


    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  15. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    Gao, Yue


    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  16. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke


    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  17. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Handy Turner, Tara


    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  18. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David


    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  19. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard


    3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest....... In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality....... The conceptual level is used to structure and organise user-centered 3D Geovisualisation into four categories: representation, rendering, interface and interaction. The categories reflect a process of development of 3D Geovisualisation where objects can be represented verisimilar to the real world...

  20. Magnetism in 3d transition metal doped SnO

    Albar, Arwa


    Using first principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of 3d transition metal doped SnO. We examine the stability of different doping sites using formation energy calculations. The magnetic behavior of the dopant atoms is found to be complex because of interplay between strong structural relaxation, spin-lattice coupling, and crystal field splitting. The interaction between dopant atoms is analyzed as a function of their separation, showing that clustering typically counteracts spin polarization. An exception is found for V doping, which thus turns out to be a promising candidate for realizing a magnetic p-type oxide.

  1. QCD thermodynamics from 3d adjoint Higgs model

    Karsch, Frithjof; Patkós, András; Petreczky, P; Szép, Z; Szep, Zs.


    The screening masses of hot SU(N) gauge theory, defined as poles of the corresponding propagators are studied in 3d adjoint Higgs model, considered as an effective theory of QCD, using coupled gap equations and lattice Monte-Carlo simulations (for N=2). Using so-called lambda gauges non-perturbative evidence for gauge independence of the pole masses within this class of gauges is given. A possible application of the screening masses for the resummation of the free energy is discussed.

  2. Wave propagation in fractal-inspired self-similar beam lattices

    Lim, Qi Jian [Engineering Science Programme, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Wang, Pai [Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Koh, Soo Jin Adrian [Engineering Science Programme, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Khoo, Eng Huat [Engineering Science Programme, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); A*STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Bertoldi, Katia [Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Kavli Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)


    We combine numerical analysis and experiments to investigate the effect of hierarchy on the propagation of elastic waves in triangular beam lattices. While the response of the triangular lattice is characterized by a locally resonant band gap, both Bragg-type and locally resonant gaps are found for the hierarchical lattice. Therefore, our results demonstrate that structural hierarchy can be exploited to introduce an additional type of band gaps, providing a robust strategy for the design of lattice-based metamaterials with hybrid band gap properties (i.e., possessing band gaps that arises from both Bragg scattering and localized resonance)

  3. A novel modeling method for manufacturing hearing aid using 3D medical images

    Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed to suggest a novel method of modeling a hearing aid ear shell based on Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) in the hearing aid ear shell manufacturing method using a 3D printer. In the experiment, a 3D external auditory meatus was extracted by using the critical values in the DICOM volume images, a nd t he modeling surface structures were compared in standard type STL (STereoLithography) files which could be recognized by a 3D printer. In this 3D modeling method, a conventional ear model was prepared, and the gaps between adjacent isograms produced by a 3D scanner were filled with 3D surface fragments to express the modeling structure. In this study, the same type of triangular surface structures were prepared by using the DICOM images. The result showed that the modeling surface structure based on the DICOM images provide the same environment that the conventional 3D printers may recognize, eventually enabling to print out the hearing aid ear shell shape.


    My Abdellah Kassimi


    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  5. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter


    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  6. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)


    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  7. 3D-tulostus : case Printrbot

    Arvekari, Lassi


    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää 3D-tulostustekniikan perusteita ja 3D-tulostuksen nykytilannetta. 3D-tulostukseen sopivien mallien luomista tutkitaan ja mallin tekemiseen on etsitty toimivia ohjesääntöjä. Tärkeä osa työtä on tutkia mitä vaiheita 3D-tulostimen hankinnassa kotikäyttöön tulee vastaan. Käytännön kokeita varten opinnäytetyössä on case Printrbot, jossa on tutustuttu edulliseen 3D-tulostuslaitteeseen kokoonpanosta lähtien. Työn kuluessa selvisi että edulliset 3D-tulos...

  8. Stability Criteria of 3D Inviscid Shears

    Li, Y Charles


    The classical plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and pipe Poiseuille flow share some universal 3D steady coherent structure in the form of "streak-roll-critical layer". As the Reynolds number approaches infinity, the steady coherent structure approaches a 3D limiting shear of the form ($U(y,z), 0, 0$) in velocity variables. All such 3D shears are steady states of the 3D Euler equations. This raises the importance of investigating the stability of such inviscid 3D shears in contrast to the classical Rayleigh theory of inviscid 2D shears. Several general criteria of stability for such inviscid 3D shears are derived. In the Appendix, an argument is given to show that a 2D limiting shear can only be the classical laminar shear.

  9. Ultrasonic Sensor Based 3D Mapping & Localization

    Shadman Fahim Ahmad


    Full Text Available This article provides a basic level introduction to 3D mapping using sonar sensors and localization. It describes the methods used to construct a low-cost autonomous robot along with the hardware and software used as well as an insight to the background of autonomous robotic 3D mapping and localization. We have also given an overview to what the future prospects of the robot may hold in 3D based mapping.

  10. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Deaky Bogdan


    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  11. Reconhecimento de faces 3D com Kinect

    Cardia Neto, João Baptista [UNESP


    For person identification, facil recognition has several advantages over other biometric traits due mostly to its high universelly, collectability, and acceptability. When dealing with 2D face images several problems arise related to pose, illumination, and facial expressions. To increase the performance of facial recognition, 3D mehtods have been proposed and developedm since working with 3D objects allow us to handle better the aforementioned problems. With 3D object, it is possible to rota...

  12. Topology Dictionary for 3D Video Understanding


    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted pattern...

  13. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth


    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  14. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement


    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  15. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    Watkins, Adam


    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  16. Virtual Realization using 3D Password



    Full Text Available Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed; however, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3D password. The 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3D password. The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space.

  17. Ekologinen 3D-tulostettava asuste

    Paulasaari, Laura


    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli ekologisuus 3D-tulostuksessa ja sen hyödynnettävyys erityisesti asustesuunnittelussa. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää, kuinka 3D-tulostusta voi tehdä ekologisemmin ja mitä vaihtoehtoja kuluttajalle tällä hetkellä on. Työ tehtiin Young skills –osuuskunnalle. 3D-tulostuksella on mahdollisuus antaa todella paljon tulevaisuuden tuotantomenetelmille ja se vapauttaa tuotteiden muotoilua täysin uudella tavalla. 3D-tulostuksen avulla voidaan keskittyä enemmän esim...

  18. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S


    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.

  19. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M


    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques.

  20. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy


    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  1. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun


    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  2. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.


    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  3. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van


    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  4. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal


    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  5. 3D printing of functional structures

    Krijnen, G.J.M.


    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  6. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Norbury, Keith


    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  7. The 3D-city model

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno


    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  8. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur


    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken


    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi


    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  11. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    Sørensen, Niels N.


    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...

  12. Limited Feedback for 3D Massive MIMO under 3D-UMa and 3D-UMi Scenarios

    Zheng Hu


    Full Text Available For three-dimensional (3D massive MIMO utilizing the uniform rectangular array (URA in the base station (BS, we propose a limited feedback transmission scheme in which the channel state information (CSI feedback operations for horizontal domain and vertical domain are separate. Compared to the traditional feedback scheme, the scheme can reduce the feedback overhead, code word index search complexity, and storage requirement. Also, based on the zenith of departure angle (ZoD distribution in 3D-Urban Macro Cell (3D-UMa and 3D-Urban Micro Cell (3D-UMi scenarios, we propose the angle quantization codebook for vertical domain, while the codebook of long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced is still adopted in horizontal domain to preserve compatibility with the LTE-Advanced. Based on the angle quantization codebook, the subsampled 3-bit DFT codebook is designed for vertical domain. The system-level simulation results reveal that, to compromise the feedback overhead and system performance, 2-bit codebook for 3D-UMa scenario and 3-bit codebook for 3D-UMi scenario can meet requirements in vertical domain. The feedback period for vertical domain can also be extended appropriately to reduce the feedback overhead.

  13. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.


    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  14. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    Bell, Charles


    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  15. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.


    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  16. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos


    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  17. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  18. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew


    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  19. Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    Ideal graphene antidot lattices are predicted to show promising band gap behavior (i.e., EG≃500 meV) under carefully specified conditions. However, for the structures studied so far this behavior is critically dependent on superlattice geometry and is not robust against experimentally realistic disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag-edged antidots give rise to large band gaps compared to armchair-edged antidots, irrespective of the rules which govern the existence of gaps in armchair-edged antidot lattices. In addition the zigzag-edged antidots appear more robust than armchair-edged antidots in the presence of geometrical disorder. The inclusion of spin polarization within a mean-field Hubbard approach gives rise to a large overall magnetic moment at each antidot due to the sublattice imbalance imposed by the triangular geometry. Half-metallic behavior arises from the formation of spin-split dispersive states near the Fermi energy, reducing the band gaps compared to the unpolarized case. This behavior is also found to be robust in the presence of disorder. Our results highlight the possibilities of using triangular perforations in graphene to open electronic band gaps in systems with experimentally realistic levels of disorder, and furthermore, of exploiting the strong spin dependence of the system for spintronic applications.

  20. Multi-pulse time delay integration method for flexible 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging.

    Xinwei, Wang; Youfu, Li; Yan, Zhou


    Constructing flexible regular-shaped range-intensity profiles by the convolution of illuminator laser pulse and sensor gate pulse is crucial for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging. However, ns-scale rectangular-shaped laser pulse with tunable pulse width is difficult to be obtained, especially for pulsed solid-stated lasers. In this paper we propose a multi-pulse time delay integration (MPTDI) method to reshape range-intensity profiles (RIP) free from the above limitation of pulsed lasers. An equivalent laser pulse temporal shaping model is established to evaluate and optimize the MPTDI method. By using MPTDI, the RIP shape and depth of viewing can both be flexibly changed as desired. Here typical triangular and trapezoidal RIPs are established for 3D imaging under triangular and trapezoidal range-intensity correlation algorithms. In addition, a prototype experiment is demonstrated to prove the feasibility of MPTDI.

  1. Solitons in nonlinear lattices

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis


    This article offers a comprehensive survey of results obtained for solitons and complex nonlinear wave patterns supported by purely nonlinear lattices (NLs), which represent a spatially periodic modulation of the local strength and sign of the nonlinearity, and their combinations with linear lattices. A majority of the results obtained, thus far, in this field and reviewed in this article are theoretical. Nevertheless, relevant experimental settings are surveyed too, with emphasis on perspectives for implementation of the theoretical predictions in the experiment. Physical systems discussed in the review belong to the realms of nonlinear optics (including artificial optical media, such as photonic crystals, and plasmonics) and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). The solitons are considered in one, two, and three dimensions (1D, 2D, and 3D). Basic properties of the solitons presented in the review are their existence, stability, and mobility. Although the field is still far from completion, general conclusions c...

  2. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter


    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  3. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J


    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  4. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian


    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  5. Polarizablity of 2D and 3D conducting objects using method of moments

    Shahpari, Morteza; Lewis, Andrew


    Fundamental antenna limits of the gain-bandwidth product are derived from polarizability calculations. This electrostatic technique has significant value in many antenna evaluations. Polarizability is not available in closed form for most antenna shapes and no commercial electromagnetic packages have this facility. Numerical computation of the polarizability for arbitrary conducting bodies was undertaken using an unstructured triangular mesh over the surface of 2D and 3D objects. Numerical results compare favourably with analytical solutions and can be implemented efficiently for large structures of arbitrary shape.

  6. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitati...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  7. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia


    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  8. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼


    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  9. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.


    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  10. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    Ratner, Peter


    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  11. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.


    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  12. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    Kent, Brian R.


    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  13. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro


    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  14. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco


    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  15. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee


    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  16. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia


    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  17. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    Kodge, B G


    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.


    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.


    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.


    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.


    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.


    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.


    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  5. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune


    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...

  6. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    Kliem, Soeren; Bilodid, Yuri; Fridman, Emil; Baier, Silvio; Grahn, Alexander; Gommlich, Andre; Nikitin, Evgeny; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)


    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  7. Topological spin models in Rydberg lattices

    Kiffner, Martin; Jaksch, Dieter


    We show that resonant dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms in a triangular lattice can give rise to artificial magnetic fields for spin excitations. We consider the coherent dipole-dipole coupling between $np$ and $ns$ Rydberg states and derive an effective spin-1/2 Hamiltonian for the $np$ excitations. By breaking time-reversal symmetry via external fields we engineer complex hopping amplitudes for transitions between two rectangular sub-lattices. The phase of these hopping amplitudes depends on the direction of the hop. This gives rise to a staggered, artificial magnetic field which induces non-trivial topological effects. We calculate the single-particle band structure and investigate its Chern numbers as a function of the lattice parameters and the detuning between the two sub-lattices. We identify extended parameter regimes where the Chern number of the lowest band is $C=1$ or $C=2$.

  8. Photonic band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed lattices

    Cai Xiang-Hua; Zheng Wan-Hua; Ma Xiao-Tao; Ren Gang; Xia Jian-Bai


    Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.

  9. Full Core 3-D Simulation of a Partial MOX LWR Core

    S. Bays; W. Skerjanc; M. Pope


    A comparative analysis and comparison of results obtained between 2-D lattice calculations and 3-D full core nodal calculations, in the frame of MOX fuel design, was conducted. This study revealed a set of advantages and disadvantages, with respect to each method, which can be used to guide the level of accuracy desired for future fuel and fuel cycle calculations. For the purpose of isotopic generation for fuel cycle analyses, the approach of using a 2-D lattice code (i.e., fuel assembly in infinite lattice) gave reasonable predictions of uranium and plutonium isotope concentrations at the predicted 3-D core simulation batch average discharge burnup. However, it was found that the 2-D lattice calculation can under-predict the power of pins located along a shared edge between MOX and UO2 by as much as 20%. In this analysis, this error did not occur in the peak pin. However, this was a coincidence and does not rule out the possibility that the peak pin could occur in a lattice position with high calculation uncertainty in future un-optimized studies. Another important consideration in realistic fuel design is the prediction of the peak axial burnup and neutron fluence. The use of 3-D core simulation gave peak burnup conditions, at the pellet level, to be approximately 1.4 times greater than what can be predicted using back-of-the-envelope assumptions of average specific power and irradiation time.

  10. Superradiance Lattice

    Wang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan O


    We show that the timed Dicke states of a collection of three-level atoms can form a tight-binding lattice in the momentum space. This lattice, coined the superradiance lattice (SL), can be constructed based on an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system. For a one-dimensional SL, we need the coupling field of the EIT system to be a standing wave. The detuning between the two components of the standing wave introduces an effective electric field. The quantum behaviours of electrons in lattices, such as Bloch oscillations, Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch band collapsing and dynamic localization can be observed in the SL. The SL can be extended to two, three and even higher dimensions where no analogous real space lattices exist and new physics are waiting to be explored.

  11. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice using anodized aluminum oxide nanotemplates

    Hallet, X.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Michotte, S.;


    The bottom barrier layer of well-ordered nanoporous alumina membranes reveals a previously unexploited nanostructured template surface consisting of a triangular lattice of hemispherical nanoscale bumps. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice arrays are created in superconducting Nb films deposited...

  12. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.


    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  13. 3D presentatie van geluid in de cockpit [3D sound presentation in the cockpit

    Bronkhorst, A.W.


    A.W. Bronkhorst, 3D-presentatie van geluid in de cockpit 1 Using virtual acoustics, sound can be presented from virtual sources located in the 3D space around the listener. This 3D sound has interesting applications in the cockpit. Sounds can be used to convey directional information, and interferen

  14. Indications of c-axis Charge Transport in Hole Doped Triangular Antiferromagnets

    LIANG Ying; LIU Bin; FENG Shi-Ping


    The c-axis charge transport of the hole doped triangular antiferromagnet is investigated within the tJ model by considering the incoherent interlayer hopping.It is shown that the c-axis charge transport of the hole doped triangular antiferromagnet is essentially determined by the scattering from the in-plane fluctuation.The c-axis conductivity spectrum shows a lov-energy peak and the unusual high-energy broad band,while the c-axis resistivity is characterized by a crossover from the high temperature metallic-like behavior to the Iow temperature insulating-like behavior,which is qualitatively consistent with those of the hole doped square lattice antiferromagnet.


    Qi-ding Zhu


    In this paper, we construct a projection interpolation for cubic triangular ele- ment by using othogonal expansion triangular method. We show two fundamental formulas of estimation on a special partion and obtain a superconvergence result of 1 -e order higher for the placement function and its tangential derivative on the third order Lobatto points and Gauss points on each edge of triangular element.

  16. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System


    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  17. Two Accelerating Techniques for 3D Reconstruction

    刘世霞; 胡事民; 孙家广


    Automatic reconstruction of 3D objects from 2D orthographic views has been a major research issue in CAD/CAM. In this paper, two accelerating techniques to improve the efficiency of reconstruction are presented. First, some pseudo elements are removed by depth and topology information as soon as the wire-frame is constructed, which reduces the searching space. Second, the proposed algorithm does not establish all possible surfaces in the process of generating 3D faces. The surfaces and edge loops are generated by using the relationship between the boundaries of 3D faces and their projections. This avoids the growth in combinational complexity of previous methods that have to check all possible pairs of 3D candidate edges.

  18. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  19. The 3-d view of planetary nebulae

    Hugo E. Schwarz


    Full Text Available Considerando las nebulosas planetarias (PNe de manera tridimensional (3-D, demonstramos que se pueden reducir las grandes incertidumbres asociadas con los m etodos cl asicos de modelar y observar PNe para obtener sus estructuras 3-D y distancias. Usando espectrofotometr a de ranura larga o empleando un Integral Field Unit para restringir los modelos de fotoionizaci on 3-D de PNe y as eliminar dicha incertidumbre de la densidad y de la fracci on del volumen que emite radiaci on ( lling factor, determinamos las detalladas estructuras 3-D, los par ametros de las estrellas centrales y las distancias con una precisi on de 10-20%. Los m etodos cl asicos t picamente daban estos par ametros con una incertidumbre de un factor 3 o m as.

  20. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  1. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim


    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  2. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin


    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  3. Cubical Cohomology Ring of 3D Photographs

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio; Medrano, Belen; 10.1002/ima.20271


    Cohomology and cohomology ring of three-dimensional (3D) objects are topological invariants that characterize holes and their relations. Cohomology ring has been traditionally computed on simplicial complexes. Nevertheless, cubical complexes deal directly with the voxels in 3D images, no additional triangulation is necessary, facilitating efficient algorithms for the computation of topological invariants in the image context. In this paper, we present formulas to directly compute the cohomology ring of 3D cubical complexes without making use of any additional triangulation. Starting from a cubical complex $Q$ that represents a 3D binary-valued digital picture whose foreground has one connected component, we compute first the cohomological information on the boundary of the object, $\\partial Q$ by an incremental technique; then, using a face reduction algorithm, we compute it on the whole object; finally, applying the mentioned formulas, the cohomology ring is computed from such information.

  4. 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry

    Hoyer, Klaus; Holzner, Markus; Lüthi, Beat; Guala, Michele; Liberzon, Alexander; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang


    In this article, we present an experimental setup and data processing schemes for 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV), which expands on the classical 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) through changes in the illumination, image acquisition and analysis. 3D PTV is a flexible flow measurement technique based on the processing of stereoscopic images of flow tracer particles. The technique allows obtaining Lagrangian flow information directly from measured 3D trajectories of individual particles. While for a classical PTV the entire region of interest is simultaneously illuminated and recorded, in SPTV the flow field is recorded by sequential tomographic high-speed imaging of the region of interest. The advantage of the presented method is a considerable increase in maximum feasible seeding density. Results are shown for an experiment in homogenous turbulence and compared with PTV. SPTV yielded an average 3,500 tracked particles per time step, which implies a significant enhancement of the spatial resolution for Lagrangian flow measurements.

  5. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    Audronis, Ty


    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  6. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  7. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;


    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  8. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.


    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.


    M. Skamantzari


    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  10. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.


    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser ( Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  11. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  12. Copper Electrodeposition for 3D Integration

    Beica, Rozalia; Ritzdorf, Tom


    Two dimensional (2D) integration has been the traditional approach for IC integration. Due to increasing demands for providing electronic devices with superior performance and functionality in more efficient and compact packages, has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Three-dimensional (3D) approaches address both miniaturization and integration required for advanced and portable electronic products. Vertical integration proved to be essential in achieving a greater integration flexibility of disparate technologies, reason for which a general trend of transition from 2D to 3D integration is currently being observed in the industry. 3D chip integration using through silicon via (TSV) copper is considered one of the most advanced technologies among all different types of 3D packaging technologies. Copper electrodeposition is one of technologies that enable the formation of TSV structures. Because of its well-known application for copper damascene, it was believed ...

  13. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan


    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  14. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    Morales, Jose A.


    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  15. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Ahmad P. Tafti


    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  16. Analytical solutions of the lattice Boltzmann BGK model

    Zou, Q; Doolen, G D; Zou, Qisu; Hou, Shuling; Doolen, Gary D.


    Abstract: Analytical solutions of the two dimensional triangular and square lattice Boltzmann BGK models have been obtained for the plain Poiseuille flow and the plain Couette flow. The analytical solutions are written in terms of the characteristic velocity of the flow, the single relaxation time representation of these two flows without any approximation.

  17. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments Michael B. Porter...complicated 3D environments . I have also been doing a great deal of work in modeling the noise field (the ocean soundscape) due to various sources...we have emphasized the propagation of ‘signals’. We have become increasingly interested in modeling ‘ noise ’ which can illuminate the ocean environment



    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information...

  19. 3D Computer Graphics and Nautical Charts

    Porathe, Thomas


    This paper gives an overview of an ongoing project using real-time 3D visualization to display nautical charts in a way used by 3D computer games. By displaying the map in an egocentric perspective the need to make cognitively demanding mental rotations are suggested to be removed, leading to faster decision-making and less errors. Experimental results support this hypothesis. Practical tests with limited success have been performed this year.

  20. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    Kim, Oleksiy S.


    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  1. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Peter Izak


    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  2. Mayavi: Making 3D Data Visualization Reusable

    Varoquaux, Gaël; Ramachandran, Prabhu


    International audience; Mayavi is a general-purpose 3D scientific visualization package. We believe 3D data visualization is a difficult task and different users can benefit from an easy-to-use tool for this purpose. In this article, we focus on how Mayavi addresses the needs of different users with a common code-base, rather than describing the data visualization functionalities of Mayavi, or the visualization model exposed to the user.

  3. 3D visualization of biomedical CT images based on OpenGL and VRML techniques

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Xia, Fuhua


    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three- dimensional visualization objects in biomedical computer tomographic (CT) images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we should hold the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. Furthermore, this project is a future part of PACS system our lab is working on. So in this system we use the 3D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm. Then we used OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulating voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed.

  4. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit


    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  5. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael


    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.


    M. C. Moshobane


    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  7. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.


    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  8. Computer Graphics Teaching Support using X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web Authors

    Brutzman, Don


    X3D is the ISO-standard scene-graph language for interactive 3D graphics on the Web. A new course is available for teaching the fundamentals of 3D graphics using Extensible 3D (X3D). Resources include a detailed textbook, an authoring tool, hundreds of example scenes, and detailed slidesets covering each chapter. The published book is commercially available, while all other course-module resources are provided online free under open-source licenses. Numerous other commercial and o...

  9. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L


    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  10. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo


    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  11. Multirresolución adaptativa de mallas triangulares basado en criterios de textura

    Alexánder Ceballos


    Full Text Available Los modelos 3D están generalmente compuestos por miles de polígonos. En ocasiones estas representaciones pueden obtenerse con la misma calidad visual pero con un menor número de polígonos. En este artículo se propone un método para reducir el tamaño de imágenes 3D texturadas basadas en mallas triangulares, conservando la calidad visual del modelo. Se introduce un criterio de textura que controla el proceso de decimación triangular. Para eliminar puntos sin necesidad de realizar una nueva triangulación, sobre la nube de puntos se usa un algoritmo poligonal de decimación. Para definir cuáles puntos deben ser removidos, se usa un filtro de Sobel 2D sobre la textura correspondiente. Se muestra que se puede usar el algoritmo para reducir los tiempos de carga, de renderización, de transferencia y de almacenamiento de una imagen 3D texturada

  12. Sums of Two Triangulars and of Two Squares Associated with Sum of Corresponding Factorial and Triangular Number

    Romer C. Castillo


    Full Text Available Factoriangular numbers resulted from adding corresponding factorials and triangular numbers. If Ftn is the nth factoriangular number, n! is the factorial of n and Tn is the nth triangular number, then Ftn = n! + Tn. In this study, interesting results on the representations of factoriangular number as sum of two triangular numbers and as sum of two squares are presented.




    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  14. Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging.

    Jung, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Keehoon; Park, Gilbae; Chung, Indeok; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lee, Byoungho


    We proposed a reconstruction method for the occluded region of three-dimensional (3D) object using the depth extraction based on the optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging. The depth information of sub-images from the acquired elemental image set is extracted using the optical flow with sub-pixel accuracy, which alleviates the depth quantization problem. The extracted depth maps of sub-image array are segmented by the depth threshold from the histogram based segmentation, which is represented as the point clouds. The point clouds are projected to the viewpoint of center sub-image and reconstructed by the triangular mesh reconstruction. The experimental results support the validity of the proposed method with high accuracy of peak signal-to-noise ratio and normalized cross-correlation in 3D image recognition.

  15. Visual Fixation for 3D Video Stabilization

    Hans-Peter Seidel


    Full Text Available Visual fixation is employed by humans and some animals to keep a specific 3D location at the center of the visual gaze. Inspired by this phenomenon in nature, this paper explores the idea to transfer this mechanism to the context of video stabilization for a hand-held video camera. A novel approach is presented that stabilizes a video by fixating on automatically extracted 3D target points. This approach is different from existing automatic solutions that stabilize the video by smoothing. To determine the 3D target points, the recorded scene is analyzed with a state-of-the-art structure-from-motion algorithm, which estimates camera motion and reconstructs a 3D point cloud of the static scene objects. Special algorithms are presented that search either virtual or real 3D target points, which back-project close to the center of the image for as long a period of time as possible. The stabilization algorithm then transforms the original images of the sequence so that these 3D target points are kept exactly in the center of the image, which, in case of real 3D target points, produces a perfectly stable result at the image center. Furthermore, different methods of additional user interaction are investigated. It is shown that the stabilization process can easily be controlled and that it can be combined with state-of-the-art tracking techniques in order to obtain a powerful image stabilization tool. The approach is evaluated on a variety of videos taken with a hand-held camera in natural scenes.

  16. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Alter, Stephen


    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  17. Validation of 3D simulations of reverse osmosis membrane biofouling.

    Pintelon, Thomas R R; Creber, Sarah A; von der Schulenburg, Daniel A Graf; Johns, Michael L


    The increasing demand for drinking water and its stricter quality requirements have resulted in an exponentially expanding industry of membrane filtration processes. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO) is the most common method of desalination, able to produce water that is virtually free of pollutants and pathogenic micro-organisms. Biofouling of these devices however is a significant limitation. Here we present a 3D simulation of RO membrane biofouling based on a lattice Boltzmann (LB) platform that we subsequently favorably compare with experimental data. This data consists of temporally (and spatially) resolved velocity measurements acquired for a RO membrane using magnetic resonance techniques. The effect of biofilm cohesive strength on system pressure drop is then explored; weaker biomass is observed to have a reduced impact on pressure drop (per unit biomass accumulated).

  18. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla


    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  19. Emergent lattices with geometrical frustration in doped extended Hubbard models

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Gros, Claudius


    Spontaneous charge ordering occurring in correlated systems may be considered as a possible route to generate effective lattice structures with unconventional couplings. For this purpose we investigate the phase diagram of doped extended Hubbard models on two lattices: (i) the honeycomb lattice with on-site U and nearest-neighbor V Coulomb interactions at 3 /4 filling (n =3 /2 ) and (ii) the triangular lattice with on-site U , nearest-neighbor V , and next-nearest-neighbor V' Coulomb interactions at 3 /8 filling (n =3 /4 ). We consider various approaches including mean-field approximations, perturbation theory, and variational Monte Carlo. For the honeycomb case (i), charge order induces an effective triangular lattice at large values of U /t and V /t , where t is the nearest-neighbor hopping integral. The nearest-neighbor spin exchange interactions on this effective triangular lattice are antiferromagnetic in most of the phase diagram, while they become ferromagnetic when U is much larger than V . At U /t ˜(V/t ) 3 , ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions nearly cancel out, leading to a system with four-spin ring-exchange interactions. On the other hand, for the triangular case (ii) at large U and finite V', we find no charge order for small V , an effective kagome lattice for intermediate V , and one-dimensional charge order for large V . These results indicate that Coulomb interactions induce [case (i)] or enhance [case(ii)] emergent geometrical frustration of the spin degrees of freedom in the system, by forming charge order.

  20. Superfluid-Mott transitions and vortices in the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices with time-reversal-symmetry breaking

    Hayward, A. L. C.; Martin, A. M.


    We investigate the ground-state behavior of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices in the presence of a synthetic magnetic field, via a Gutzwiller ansatz. Specifically, we study the superfluid-Mott transition and the formation of vortex lattices in the superfluid regime. We find a suppression of the superfluid fraction due to the frustration induced by the incommensurate magnetic and spacial lattice lengths. We also predict the formation of triangular vortex lattices inside the superfluid regime.

  1. Scatter integration with right triangular fields.

    Siddon, R L; Dewyngaert, J K; Bjärngard, B E


    The concept of the equivalent field is used extensively in radiotherapy dose calculation algorithms. The rationale for using equivalent fields is to allow dose calculations for a wide variety of field shapes, while maintaining dose calculational data for only a few, very regularly shaped fields. A common example is the table of equivalent squares of rectangular fields presented by Day in the British Journal of Radiology. Recently, in searching for fast dose calculation algorithms for irregular fields, we introduced the concept of the equivalent square of a right triangular field. It is shown that an arbitrary irregular field of N vertices may be decomposed into 2N right triangular fields, each with a precalculated equivalent square. The scatter at the point of calculation due to the irregular field is then obtained as a sum of the scatter contributions from the equivalent squares. The scatter integration with right triangles is compared with scatter integration using program IRREG.

  2. Heat Equation to 3D Image Segmentation

    Nikolay Sirakov


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach, capable of 3D image segmentation and objects' surface reconstruction. The main advantages of the method are: large capture range; quick segmentation of a 3D scene/image to regions; multiple 3D objects reconstruction. The method uses centripetal force and penalty function to segment the entire 3D scene/image to regions containing a single 3D object. Each region is inscribed in a convex, smooth closed surface, which defines a centripetal force. Then the surface is evolved by the geometric heat differential equation toward the force's direction. The penalty function is defined to stop evolvement of those surface patches, whose normal vectors encountered object's surface. On the base of the theoretical model Forward Difference Algorithm was developed and coded by Mathematica. Stability convergence condition, truncation error and calculation complexity of the algorithm are determined. The obtained results, advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed at the end of this paper.

  3. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    Lange, Jörn


    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  4. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio


    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  5. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  6. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Zuppinger, Christian


    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.


    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  8. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho


    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  9. Fabrication of 3D nanostructures by multidirectional UV lithography and predictive structural modeling

    Kim, Jungkwun; Kim, Cheolbok; Allen, Mark G.; ‘YK' Yoon, Yong-Kyu


    This paper presents the fabrication and modeling of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by automated multidirectional ultraviolet (UV) lithography, which is a fast, cost-effective, manufacturable fabrication method. Multidirectional UV exposure is performed using a static UV light source equipped with a tilt-rotational substrate holder. A glass substrate with a nanopatterned chrome layer is utilized as both a photomask and a substrate, for which a backside UV exposure scheme is used. For the analytical modeling of the shape of fabricated nanostructures, UV exposure dosage, diffraction and refraction effects, and absorption rate are taken into account. For more accurate process predictive models, a commercially available multiphysics simulation tool is used. The structural shapes predicted from analytical calculation and simulation are compared with the fabricated ones for which various 3D nanoscale test structures are fabricated such as an inclined nanopillar array and a vertical triangular slab. Also, nanostructures with multiple heights are successfully implemented from single layer photoresist by controlling the UV exposure dosage and tilt angles. A tripod embedded horn and a triangular-slab embedded horn are demonstrated.

  10. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel


    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  11. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri


    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  12. Resist loss in 3D compact modeling

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh


    An enhancement to compact modeling capability to include photoresist (PR) loss at different heights is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to any other plane of interest as a proportional corresponding change in model threshold, which is analogous to a change in exposure dose. The result is compared and validated with 3D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can construct 3D resist profiles capturing resist profile degradation at any vertical plane. Sidewall angle and standing wave information can also be granted from the vertical profile reconstruction. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated to validation and correction without any additional work.

  13. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram


    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  14. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia


    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  15. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z


    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces.

  16. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel


    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  17. Solving a 3D structural puzzle

    Hoeck, Casper

    to spatial structural information using NMR spectroscopy. Experimental distances from nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) correlations, and dihedral angles from 3JHH-coupling constants, were used to obtain 3D structural information for several natural and synthetic compounds. The stereochemistry of novel natural...... samples, which allows for RDCs to be extracted. The number of internuclear vectors for the correlation of RDCs to 3D structures is often limited for small molecules. Homonuclear RDCs were extracted by use of the homonuclear S3 HMBC that correlated well to alignment tensors from 1DCH-coupling constants......-calculation of RDCs from 3D structures was developed and tested, which copes better with multiple conformers than the commonly used SVD methodology. The approach thus resulted in good conformer populations for several small molecules, including multiple cinchona alkaloids....

  18. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    A. Jamali


    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  19. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O' Keefe, Michael A.


    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  20. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco


    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  1. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas


    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  2. Novel proposals in widefield 3D microscopy

    Sanchez-Ortiga, E.; Doblas, A.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.


    Patterned illumination is a successful set of techniques in high resolution 3D microscopy. In particular, structured illumination microscopy is based on the projection of 1D periodic patterns onto the 3D sample under study. In this research we propose the implementation of a very simple method for the flexible production of 1D structured illumination. Specifically, we propose the insertion of a Fresnel biprism after a monochromatic point source. The biprism produces a pair of twin, fully coherent, virtual point sources. After imaging the virtual sources onto the objective aperture stop, the expected 1D periodic pattern is produced into the 3D sample. The main advantage of using the Fresnel biprism is that by simply varying the distance between the biprism and the point source one can tune the period of the fringes while keeping their contrast.

  3. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL


    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  4. Quantum phase transitions in the Heisenberg J1-J2 triangular antiferromagnet in a magnetic field

    Ye, Mengxing; Chubukov, Andrey V.


    We present the zero-temperature phase diagram of a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a frustrated triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions, in a magnetic field. We show that the classical model has an accidental degeneracy for all J2/J1 and all fields, but the degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations. We show that at large spin S , for J2/J11 , the transition remains first order, with a finite hysteresis width, but for S =1 /2 and, possibly, S =1 , there appears a new intermediate phase without a quasiclassical long-range order.

  5. Orbital degeneracy removed by charge order in triangular antiferromagnet AgNiO2

    Wawrzynska, E.; Coldea, R.; Wheeler, E M; Mazin, I. I.; Johannes, M. D.; Sorgel, T.; Jansen, M; Ibberson, R. M.; Radaelli, P. G.


    We report a high-resolution neutron diffraction study on the orbitally-degenerate spin-1/2 hexagonal antiferromagnet AgNiO2. A structural transition to a tripled unit cell with expanded and contracted NiO6 octahedra indicates root(3) x root(3) charge order on the Ni triangular lattice. This suggests charge order as a possible mechanism of lifting the orbital degeneracy in the presence of charge fluctuations, as an alternative to Jahn-Teller distortions. A novel magnetic ground state is observ...

  6. Charge disproportionation and collinear magnetic order in the frustrated triangular antiferromagnet AgNiO2

    Wawrzynska, E.; Coldea, R.; Wheeler, E M; Sorgel, T.; Jansen, M; Ibberson, R. M.; Radaelli, P. G.; Koza, M. M.


    We report a high-resolution neutron diffraction study of the crystal and magnetic structure of the orbitally-degenerate frustrated metallic magnet AgNiO2. At high temperatures the structure is hexagonal with a single crystallographic Ni site, low-spin Ni3+ with spin-1/2 and two-fold orbital degeneracy, arranged in an antiferromagnetic triangular lattice with frustrated spin and orbital order. A structural transition occurs upon cooling below 365 K to a tripled hexagonal unit cell containing t...

  7. 3D-skannauksen hyödyntäminen 3D-tulostuksessa

    Seppälä, Mikko


    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusteknologioihin. Työssä käytiin läpi erilaiset 3D-tulostusmenetelmät ja esiteltiin erilaisia 3D-skannausmenetelmiä. Lisäksi käytiin läpi 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusprosessi. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä oli tutkia, kuinka nämä kaksi teknologiaa toimivat yhdessä. Tarkoituksena oli käydä läpi prosessi, jossa fyysinen kappale skannattiin digitaaliseen muotoon, jonka jälkeen se voidaan tulostaa uudeksi fyysiseksi kappaleeksi. Lisäksi tarko...

  8. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah;


    are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a sub-interval of the ([0,1]) interval to the corresponding...... method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban...... web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2 D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access...

  9. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen


    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  10. X3d2pov. Traductor of X3D to POV-Ray

    Andrea Castellanos Mendoza


    Full Text Available High-quality and low-quality interactive graphics represent two different approaches to computer graphics’ 3D object representation. The former is mainly used to produce high computational cost movie animation. The latter is used for producing interactive scenes as part of virtual reality environments. Many file format specifications have appeared to satisfy underlying model needs; POV-ray (persistence of vision is an open source specification for rendering photorealistic images with the ray tracer algorithm and X3D (extendable 3D as the VRML successor standard for producing web virtual-reality environments written in XML. X3D2POV has been introduced to render high-quality images from an X3D scene specification; it is a grammar translator tool from X3D code to POV-ray code.

  11. Design and Implementation of 3D Model Database for General-Purpose 3D GIS

    XU Weiping; ZHU Qing; DU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Yeting


    To improve the reusability of three-dimensional (3D) models and simplify the complexity of natural scene reconstruction, this paper presents a 3D model database for universal 3D GIS. After the introduction of its extensible function architecture,accompanied by the conclusion of implicit spatial-temporal hierarchy of models in any reconstructed scene of 3D GIS for general purpose, several key issues are discussed in detail, such as the storage and management of 3D models and related retrieval and load method, as well as the interfaces for further on-demand development. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this model database are proved through its application in the development of 3D visualization system of railway operation.

  12. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y


    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ∼74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ∼ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications.

  13. High Current Density 2D/3D Esaki Tunnel Diodes

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lee, Choong Hee; Zhang, Yuewei; McCulloch, William D; Johnson, Jared M; Hwang, Jinwoo; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth


    The integration of two-dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides with bulk semiconductors offer interesting opportunities for 2D/3D heterojunction-based novel device structures without any constraints of lattice matching. By exploiting the favorable band alignment at the GaN/MoS2 heterojunction, an Esaki interband tunnel diode is demonstrated by transferring large area, Nb-doped, p-type MoS2 onto heavily n-doped GaN. A peak current density of 446 A/cm2 with repeatable room temperature negative differential resistance, peak to valley current ratio of 1.2, and minimal hysteresis was measured in the MoS2/GaN non-epitaxial tunnel diode. A high current density of 1 kA/cm2 was measured in the Zener mode (reverse bias) at -1 V bias. The GaN/MoS2 tunnel junction was also modeled by treating MoS2 as a bulk semiconductor, and the electrostatics at the 2D/3D interface was found to be crucial in explaining the experimentally observed device characteristics.

  14. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang


    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins.

  15. Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices.

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl


    In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.

  16. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G


    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  17. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh


    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  18. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold


    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  19. The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D

    Koribalski, B S


    Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

  20. Tekstiilit 3d-mallinnuksessa ja -animaatiossa

    Lahti, Toni


    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia tekstiilien 3D-mallinnusta ja animaatiota. Hahmon vaatetus on työn pääroolissa ja esimerkit liittyvät useimmiten vaatekappaleisiin. Vaatteet ovat mielenkiintoisimpia ja vaikeimmin toteutettavia tekstiilejä.; Alkuun täytyi tutustua tekstiilien luonteeseen. Tekstiilien erilaiset rakenteet vaikuttavat siihen kuinka tekstiili käyttäytyy. Tämän takia työssä esitellään kudotun ja neulotun tekstiilin valmistus ja niiden perusrakenteet.; 3D-mallinnettujen tekst...