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Sample records for 3d treatment planning

  1. 3D Computer aided treatment planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Wicher J; Vissink, Arjan; Ng, Yuan Ling; Gulabivala, Kishor

    2016-02-01

    Obliteration of the root canal system due to accelerated dentinogenesis and dystrophic calcification can challenge the achievement of root canal treatment goals. This paper describes the application of 3D digital mapping technology for predictable navigation of obliterated canal systems during root canal treatment to avoid iatrogenic damage of the root. Digital endodontic treatment planning for anterior teeth with severely obliterated root canal systems was accomplished with the aid of computer software, based on cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) scans and intra-oral scans of the dentition. On the basis of these scans, endodontic guides were created for the planned treatment through digital designing and rapid prototyping fabrication. The custom-made guides allowed for an uncomplicated and predictable canal location and management. The method of digital designing and rapid prototyping of endodontic guides allows for reliable and predictable location of root canals of teeth with calcifically metamorphosed root canal systems. The endodontic directional guide facilitates difficult endodontic treatments at little additional cost. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 3D Computer aided treatment planning in endodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Wicher J.; Vissink, Arjan; Ng, Yuan Ling; Gulabivala, Kishor

    Objectives: Obliteration of the root canal system due to accelerated dentinogenesis and dystrophic calcification can challenge the achievement of root canal treatment goals. This paper describes the application of 3D digital mapping technology for predictable navigation of obliterated canal systems

  3. Methodology for commissioning a brachytherapy treatment planning system in the era of 3D planning.

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    Dempsey, Claire

    2010-12-01

    To describe the steps undertaken to commission a 3D high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS). Emphasis was placed on validating previously published recommendations, in addition to checking 3D parameters such as treatment optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Commissioning was performed of the brachytherapy module of the Nucletron Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system (version 3.2). Commissioning test results were compared to an independent external beam TPS (Varian Eclipse v 8.6) and the previously commissioned Nucletron Plato (v 14.3.7) brachytherapy treatment planning system, with point doses also independently verified using the brachytherapy module in RadCalc (v 6.0) independent point dose calculation software. Tests were divided into eight categories: (i) Image import accuracy, (ii) Reconstruction accuracy, (iii) Source configuration data check, (iv) Dose calculation accuracy, (v) Treatment optimization validation, (vi) DVH reproducibility, (vii) Treatment export check and (viii) Printout consistency. Point dose agreement between Oncentra, Plato and RadCalc was better than 5% with source data and dose calculation protocols following the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) guidelines. Testing of image accuracy (import and reconstruction), along with validation of automated treatment optimization and DVH analysis generated a more comprehensive set of testing procedures than previously listed in published recommendations.

  4. Evaluation of isocenter reproducibility in telemedicine of 3D-radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Kimura, Kouji; Takada, Yoshiki; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Kono, Michio [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Kodama, Akihisa

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the utility in telemedicine of Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Treatment Planning (tele-3D-RTP) and to examine the accuracy of isocenter reproducibility in its offline trial. CT data of phantoms and patients in the satellite hospital were transferred to our hospital via floppy-disk and 3D-radiotherapy plans were generated by 3D-RTP computer in our hospital. Profile data of CT and treatment beams in the satellite hospital were pre-installed into the computer. Tele-3D-RTPs were performed in 3 phantom plans and 14 clinical plans for 13 patients. Planned isocenters were well reproduced, especially in the immobilized head and neck/brain tumor cases, whose 3D-vector of aberration was 1.96{+-}1.38 (SD) mm. This teletherapy system is well applicable for practical use and can provides cost-reduction through sharing the resources of expensive equipment and radiation oncologists. (author)

  5. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment planning with IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus A; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Sapru, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken in order to compare dose plans for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) dose plans in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Clinical data from 20 consecutive patients treated with IMRT are presented. For 11 patients 3D-CR...

  6. A treatment planning code for inverse planning and 3D optimization in hadrontherapy.

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    Bourhaleb, F; Marchetto, F; Attili, A; Pittà, G; Cirio, R; Donetti, M; Giordanengo, S; Givehchi, N; Iliescu, S; Krengli, M; La Rosa, A; Massai, D; Pecka, A; Pardo, J; Peroni, C

    2008-09-01

    The therapeutic use of protons and ions, especially carbon ions, is a new technique and a challenge to conform the dose to the target due to the energy deposition characteristics of hadron beams. An appropriate treatment planning system (TPS) is strictly necessary to take full advantage. We developed a TPS software, ANCOD++, for the evaluation of the optimal conformal dose. ANCOD++ is an analytical code using the voxel-scan technique as an active method to deliver the dose to the patient, and provides treatment plans with both proton and carbon ion beams. The iterative algorithm, coded in C++ and running on Unix/Linux platform, allows the determination of the best fluences of the individual beams to obtain an optimal physical dose distribution, delivering a maximum dose to the target volume and a minimum dose to critical structures. The TPS is supported by Monte Carlo simulations with the package GEANT3 to provide the necessary physical lookup tables and verify the optimized treatment plans. Dose verifications done by means of full Monte Carlo simulations show an overall good agreement with the treatment planning calculations. We stress the fact that the purpose of this work is the verification of the physical dose and a next work will be dedicated to the radiobiological evaluation of the equivalent biological dose.

  7. Fast thermal simulations and temperature optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning, including realistic 3D vessel networks.

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    Kok, H P; van den Berg, C A T; Bel, A; Crezee, J

    2013-10-01

    Accurate thermal simulations in hyperthermia treatment planning require discrete modeling of large blood vessels. The very long computation time of the finite difference based DIscrete VAsculature model (DIVA) developed for this purpose is impractical for clinical applications. In this work, a fast steady-state thermal solver was developed for simulations with realistic 3D vessel networks. Additionally, an efficient temperature-based optimization method including the thermal effect of discrete vasculature was developed. The steady-state energy balance for vasculature and tissue was described by a linear system, which was solved with an iterative method on the graphical processing unit. Temperature calculations during optimization were performed by superposition of several precomputed temperature distributions, calculated with the developed thermal solver. The thermal solver and optimization were applied to a human anatomy, with the prostate being the target region, heated with the eight waveguide 70 MHz AMC-8 system. Realistic 3D pelvic vasculature was obtained from angiography. Both the arterial and venous vessel networks consisted of 174 segments and 93 endpoints with a diameter of 1.2 mm. Calculation of the steady-state temperature distribution lasted about 3.3 h with the original DIVA model, while the newly developed method took only ≈ 1-1.5 min. Temperature-based optimization with and without taking the vasculature into account showed differences in optimized waveguide power of more than a factor 2 and optimized tumor T90 differed up to ≈ 0.5°C. This shows the necessity to take discrete vasculature into account during optimization. A very fast method was developed for thermal simulations with realistic 3D vessel networks. The short simulation time allows online calculations and makes temperature optimization with realistic vasculature feasible, which is an important step forward in hyperthermia treatment planning.

  8. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Sune K.; Duun-Christensen, Anne Katrine; Kristensen, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often used in modern day radiotherapy (RT) due to superior soft tissue contrast. However, treatment planning based solely on MRI is restricted due to e. g. the limitations of conducting online patient setup verification using MRI as reference....... In this study 3D/3D MRI-Cone Beam CT (CBCT) automatching for online patient setup verification was investigated. Material and methods. Initially, a multi-modality phantom was constructed and used for a quantitative comparison of CT-CBCT and MRI-CBCT automatching. Following the phantom experiment three patients...

  9. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery.

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    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  10. The Comparison 2D and 3D Treatment Planning in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy with Emphasis on Dose Homogeneity and Lung Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Falahatpour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast conserving radiotherapy is one of the most common procedures performed in any radiation oncology department. A tangential parallel-opposed pair is usually used for this purpose. This technique is performed using 2D or 3D treatment planning systems. The aim of this study was to compare 2D treatment planning with 3D treatment planning in tangential irradiation in breast conserving radiotherapy. In this comparison, homogeneity of isodoses in the breast volume and lung dose were considered. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery were included in this study. The patients were CT scanned. Two-dimensional treatment planning with the Alfard 2D TPS was performed for each patient using a single central CT slice. The data used on the Alfard 2D TPS was imported into the Eclipse 3D TPS, on which 3D treatment planning was performed. Cobalt-60 beams were used in all plans. Results: Comparing 2D and 3D treatment planning, homogeneity of isodoses was improved in 3D treatment planning (p30Gy was increased in 3D treatment planning (p< 0.01. Discussion and Conclusion: 3D treatment planning is a more suitable option for patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery because of improved dose homogeneity in 3D treatment planning. The results of the treatment can be improved with reduced recurrence probability and skin problems.

  11. Distinct effects of rectum delineation methods in 3D-confromal vs. IMRT treatment planning of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dose distribution to the rectum, delineated as solid organ, rectal wall and rectal surface, in 3D conformal (3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT planning for localized prostate cancer was evaluated. Materials and methods In a retrospective planning study 3-field, 4-field and IMRT treatment plans were analyzed for ten patients with localized prostate cancer. The dose to the rectum was evaluated based on dose-volume histograms of 1 the entire rectal volume (DVH 2 manually delineated rectal wall (DWH 3 rectal wall with 3 mm wall thickness (DWH3 4 and the rectal surface (DSH. The influence of the rectal filling and of the seminal vesicles' anatomy on these dose parameters was investigated. A literature review of the dose-volume relationship for late rectal toxicity was conducted. Results In 3D-CRT (3-field and 4-field the dose parameters differed most in the mid-dose region: the DWH showed significantly lower doses to the rectum (8.7% ± 4.2% compared to the DWH3 and the DSH. In IMRT the differences between dose parameters were larger in comparison with 3D-CRT. Differences were statistically significant between DVH and all other dose parameters and between DWH and DSH. Mean doses were increased by 23.6% ± 8.7% in the DSH compared to the DVH in the mid-dose region. Furthermore, both the rectal filling and the anatomy of the seminal vesicles influenced the relationship between the dose parameters: a significant correlation of the difference between DVH and DWH and the rectal volume was seen in IMRT treatment. Discussion The method of delineating the rectum significantly influenced the dose representation in the dose-volume histogram. This effect was pronounced in IMRT treatment planning compared to 3D-CRT. For integration of dose-volume parameters from the literature into clinical practice these results have to be considered.

  12. A 3D quantitative evaluation for assessing the changes of treatment planning system and irradiation techniques in radiotherapy

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    Abdulhamid Chaikh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work proposes and compares two 3D global evaluation methods for assessing the alteration of calculated dose distributions when treatment planning system algorithms or irradiation techniques is modified in radiation therapy. Methods: The global analysis is based on gamma index (γ proposed by Low et al.1 and Chi (χ index proposed by Bakai et al.2. The γ and χ values are signed in order to identify the over and under estimating dosage. The 3D maps, the cumulative Gamma Voxels Histograms (GVHs and Chi Voxels Histograms (CVHs were generated using two software. The γ and χ criteria were set to 3 mm for the distance to agreement and 3% for dose. Pearson's Chi-squared test was applied to assess the statistically significance between GVHs and CVHs. We illustrated this method for the change of dose calculation algorithms for lung cancer, and the change of irradiation techniques for breast cancer. For each patient, 2 treatment plans were generated. For the example of change of dose calculation algorithms, a plan 1 was calculated using Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC algorithm and a plan 2 was calculated using Modified Batho method (PBC-MB. For the example of change of irradiation technique, a plan 1 was calculated using Source Skin Distance SSD technique and a plan 2 was calculated using a single isocenter technique. Results: The 3D analysis based on γ and χ indexes showed a significant effect on the dosimetric representation in the lung cancer when we change the PBC algorithm to PBC-MB method. The comparison between the two irradiation techniques showed that the single isocenter technique produces a better dose distribution for the treatment of breast cancer. Pearson's Chi-squared test showed that there was no statistically significance between GVHs and CVHs generated by γ and χ indexes, (p > 0.05. The global analysis using 3D for γ and χ indexes confirmed the results obtained from dosimetric analysis. Conclusion: The methods

  13. Treatment planning for image-guided neuro-vascular interventions using patient-specific 3D printed phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M.; O'Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patientspecific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays.

  14. Evaluation of 3D pre-treatment verification for volumetric modulated arc therapy plan in head region

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    Ruangchan, S.; Oonsiri, S.; Suriyapee, S.

    2016-03-01

    The development of pre-treatment QA tools contributes to the three dimension (3D) dose verification using the calculation software with the measured planar dose distribution. This research is aimed to evaluate the Sun Nuclear 3DVH software with Thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD) measurement. The two VMAT patient plans (2.5 arcs) of 6 MV photons with different PTV locations were transferred to the Rando phantom images. The PTV of the first plan located in homogeneous area and vice versa in the second plan. For treatment planning process, the Rando phantom images were employed in optimization and calculation with the PTV, brain stem, lens and TLD position contouring. The verification plans were created, transferred to the ArcCHECK for measurement and calculated the 3D dose using 3DVH software. The range of the percent dose differences in both PTV and organ at risk (OAR) between TLD and 3DVH software of the first and the second plans were -2.09 to 3.87% and -1.39 to 6.88%, respectively. The mean percent dose differences for the PTV were 1.62% and 3.93% for the first and the second plans, respectively. In conclusion, the 3DVH software results show good agreement with TLD when the tumor located in the homogeneous area.

  15. 3-D superposition for radiotherapy treatment planning using fast Fourier transforms.

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    Murray, D C; Hoban, P W; Metcalfe, P E; Round, W H

    1989-09-01

    Currently used radiotherapy treatment planning algorithms based on effective path length or scatter function methods do not model electron ranging from photon interaction sites. The superposition (or convolution) technique does model this effect, which is especially important at higher (linear accelerator) energies since the electron range is significant. Another advantage of this method is that it is conceptually simple and models the physical processes directly, rather than using empirically derived methods. A major disadvantage of superposition lies in the large amount of computer time required to generate a plan, especially in three dimensions. To help solve this problem, superposition using an invariant dose spread array (kernel) can be achieved by performing a convolution in Fourier space using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). A method for 3 dimensional calculation of dose using FFTs is presented. Dose spread arrays are calculated using the EGS Monte Carlo code, and convolved with the TERMA (total energy released per unit mass). In both cases a 10 MV nominal beam energy is modelled by a 10 component spectrum, which is compared to the result obtained using monochromatic energy only (3.0 MeV at the surface). The FFT technique is shown to be significantly faster than standard convolution for medium to large TERMA and dose spread array sizes. The method is shown to be highly accurate for small fields in homogeneous media. For larger fields the central axis depth dose is accurate but the profile shape in the penumbral region becomes slightly distorted. This is because photons incident near the beam edges are not parallel to the cartesian coordinate system used as the convolution framework. However, this effect is sufficiently small to indicate that the convolution method is suitable for use in routine treatment planning.

  16. Commissioning of a 3D image-based treatment planning system for high-dose-rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongbok; Modrick, Joseph M; Pennington, Edward C; Kim, Yusung

    2016-03-08

    The objective of this work is to present commissioning procedures to clinically implement a three-dimensional (3D), image-based, treatment-planning system (TPS) for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) for gynecological (GYN) cancer. The physical dimensions of the GYN applicators and their values in the virtual applicator library were varied by 0.4 mm of their nominal values. Reconstruction uncertainties of the titanium tandem and ovoids (T&O) were less than 0.4 mm on CT phantom studies and on average between 0.8-1.0 mm on MRI when compared with X-rays. In-house software, HDRCalculator, was developed to check HDR plan parameters such as independently verifying active tandem or cylinder probe length and ovoid or cylinder size, source calibration and treatment date, and differences between average Point A dose and prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms were validated using another independent TPS. Comprehensive procedures to commission volume optimization algorithms and process in 3D image-based planning were presented. For the difference between line and volume optimizations, the average absolute differences as a percentage were 1.4% for total reference air KERMA (TRAK) and 1.1% for Point A dose. Volume optimization consistency tests between versions resulted in average absolute differences in 0.2% for TRAK and 0.9 s (0.2%) for total treatment time. The data revealed that the optimizer should run for at least 1 min in order to avoid more than 0.6% dwell time changes. For clinical GYN T&O cases, three different volume optimization techniques (graphical optimization, pure inverse planning, and hybrid inverse optimization) were investigated by comparing them against a conventional Point A technique. End-to-end testing was performed using a T&O phantom to ensure no errors or inconsistencies occurred from imaging through to planning and delivery. The proposed commissioning procedures provide a clinically safe implementation technique for 3D image-based TPS for HDR

  17. Treatment planning and 3D dose verification of whole brain radiation therapy with hippocampal avoidance in rats

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    Yoon, S. W.; Miles, D.; Cramer, C.; Reinsvold, M.; Kirsch, D.; Oldham, M.

    2017-05-01

    Despite increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) continues to have a therapeutic role in a selected subset of patients. Selectively avoiding the hippocampus during such treatment (HA-WBRT) emerged as a strategy to reduce the cognitive morbidity associated with WBRT and gave rise to a recently published the phase II trial (RTOG 0933) and now multiple ongoing clinical trials. While conceptually hippocampal avoidance is supported by pre-clinical evidence showing that the hippocampus plays a vital role in memory, there is minimal pre-clinic data showing that selectively avoiding the hippocampus will reduce radiation-induced cognitive decline. Largely the lack of pre-clinical evidence can be attributed to the technical hurdles associated with delivering precise conformal treatment the rat brain. In this work we develop a novel conformal HA-WBRT technique for Wistar rats, utilizing a 225kVp micro-irradiator with precise 3D-printed radiation blocks designed to spare hippocampus while delivering whole brain dose. The technique was verified on rodent-morphic Presage® 3D dosimeters created from micro-CT scans of Wistar rats with Duke Large Field-of-View Optical Scanner (DLOS) at 1mm isotropic voxel resolution. A 4-field box with parallel opposed AP-PA and two lateral opposed fields was explored with conformal hippocampal sparing aided by 3D-printed radiation blocks. The measured DVH aligned reasonably well with that calculated from SmART Plan Monte Carlo simulations with simulated blocks for 4-field HA-WBRT with both demonstrating hippocampal sparing of 20% volume receiving less than 30% the prescription dose.

  18. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

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    Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  19. A influência de imagens tridimensionais no plano de tratamento ortodôntico Orthodontic treatment plan changed by 3-D images

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    Iury Oliveira Castro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC foi introduzida no final da década de 90 e estudos têm aprimorado o seu emprego na Odontologia. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo foi verificar a influência de imagens tridimensionais (3D no plano de tratamento ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: duas situações clínicas (reabsorção cervical e deiscência óssea foram descritas por meio de imagens 3D. RESULTADOS: a conduta ortodôntica foi redirecionada para a simplificação da mecânica e o controle das lesões durante o tratamento ortodôntico. CONCLUSÃO: imagens 3D são capazes de aumentar a acurácia do diagnóstico e redirecionar o plano de tratamento ortodôntico.INTRODUCTION: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT was introduced in the 90's and studies have improved its use in dentistry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3D images in orthodontic treatment planning. METHOD: Two clinical situations (bone dehiscence and cervical resorption were described by 3D images. RESULTS: The orthodontic treatment plan was redirected to a simplified mechanics and control of the lesions during orthodontic treatment. CONCLUSION: 3D images are able to increase diagnostic accuracy and redirect orthodontic treatment plan.

  20. A Comparative Analysis for Verification of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans using a 2-D and 3-D Diode Array

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    Dance, Michael J.

    With the added complexity of current radiation treatment dose delivery modalities such as IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) and VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy), quality assurance (QA) of these plans become multifaceted and labor intensive. To simplify the patient specific quality assurance process, 2D or 3D diode arrays are used to measure the radiation fluence for IMRT and VMAT treatments which can then be quickly and easily compared against the planned dose distribution. Because the arrays that can be used for IMRT and VMAT patient-specific quality assurance are of different geometry (planar vs. cylindrical), the same IMRT or VMAT treatment plan measured by two different arrays could lead to different measured radiation fluences, regardless of the output and performance of linear accelerator. Thus, the purpose of this study is to compare patient specific QA results as measured by the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays for the same IMRT and VMAT treatment plans to see if one diode array consistently provides a closer comparison to reference data. Six prostate and three thoracic spine IMRT treatment plans as well as three prostate and three thoracic spine VMAT treatment plans were produced. Radiotherapy plans for this study were generated using the Pinnacle TPS v9.6 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI) using 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV x-ray beams from a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a 120-millenium multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Each IMRT and VMAT therapy plan was measured on Sun Nuclear's MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays. IMRT measured data was compared with planned dose distribution using Sun Nuclear's 3DVH quality assurance software program using gamma analysis and dose-volume histograms for target volumes and critical structures comparison. VMAT arc plans measured on the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK were compared using beam-by-beam analysis with the gamma evaluation method with

  1. Heart dose reduction in breast cancer treatment with simultaneous integrated boost. Comparison of treatment planning and dosimetry for a novel hybrid technique and 3D-CRT

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    Joest, Vincent; Kretschmer, Matthias; Sabatino, Marcello; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiological Alliance, Hamburg (Germany); Ueberle, Friedrich [University of Applied Sciences, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans of clinically established three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with a hybrid technique consisting of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) during normally fractionated radiation of mammary carcinomas with simultaneous integrated boost on the basis of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Radiation treatment planning was performed with a hybrid and a 3D-CRT treatment plan for 20 patients. Hybrid plans were implemented with two tangential IMRT fields and a VMAT field in the angular range of the tangents. Verification of the plan was performed with a manufacturer-independent measurement system consisting of a detector array and rotation unit. The mean values of the heart dose for the entire patient collective were 3.6 ± 2.5 Gy for 3D-CRT and 2.9 ± 2.1 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). For the left side (n = 10), the mean values for the left anterior descending artery were 21.8 ± 7.4 Gy for 3D-CRT and 17.6 ± 7.4 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). The mean values of the ipsilateral lung were 11.9 ± 1.6 Gy for 3D-CRT and 10.5 ± 1.3 Gy for the hybrid technique (p < 0.01). Calculated dose distributions in the hybrid arm were in good accordance with measured dose (on average 95.6 ± 0.5 % for γ < 1 and 3 %/3 mm). The difference of the mean treatment time per fraction was 7 s in favor of 3D-CRT. Compared with the established 3D-CRT technique, the hybrid technique allows for a decrease in dose, particularly of the mean heart and lung dose with comparable target volume acquisition and without disadvantageous low-dose load of contralateral structures. Uncomplicated implementation of the hybrid technique was demonstrated in this context. The hybrid technique combines the advantages of tangential IMRT with the superior sparing of organs at risk by VMAT. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Studie vergleicht ''in silico

  2. Continuous table acquisition MRI for radiotherapy treatment planning: Distortion assessment with a new extended 3D volumetric phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Amy, E-mail: aw554@uowmail.edu.au; Metcalfe, Peter [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia and Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Liney, Gary [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dowling, Jason; Rivest-Henault, David [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australian E-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD 4029 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Accurate geometry is required for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). When considering the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for RTP, geometric distortions observed in the acquired images should be considered. While scanner technology and vendor supplied correction algorithms provide some correction, large distortions are still present in images, even when considering considerably smaller scan lengths than those typically acquired with CT in conventional RTP. This study investigates MRI acquisition with a moving table compared with static scans for potential geometric benefits for RTP. Methods: A full field of view (FOV) phantom (diameter 500 mm; length 513 mm) was developed for measuring geometric distortions in MR images over volumes pertinent to RTP. The phantom consisted of layers of refined plastic within which vitamin E capsules were inserted. The phantom was scanned on CT to provide the geometric gold standard and on MRI, with differences in capsule location determining the distortion. MRI images were acquired with two techniques. For the first method, standard static table acquisitions were considered. Both 2D and 3D acquisition techniques were investigated. With the second technique, images were acquired with a moving table. The same sequence was acquired with a static table and then with table speeds of 1.1 mm/s and 2 mm/s. All of the MR images acquired were registered to the CT dataset using a deformable B-spline registration with the resulting deformation fields providing the distortion information for each acquisition. Results: MR images acquired with the moving table enabled imaging of the whole phantom length while images acquired with a static table were only able to image 50%–70% of the phantom length of 513 mm. Maximum distortion values were reduced across a larger volume when imaging with a moving table. Increased table speed resulted in a larger contribution of distortion from gradient nonlinearities in the through

  3. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, B; Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Jenkins, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery.

  4. IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without elective nodal irradiation in locally advanced NSCLC. A direct comparison of PET-based treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Kremp, Katharina; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical School, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The potential of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as opposed to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is analyzed for two different concepts of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-based target volume delineation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC): involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) vs. elective nodal irradiation (ENI). Treatment planning was performed for 41 patients with LA-NSCLC, using four different planning approaches (3D-CRT-IF, 3D-CRT-ENI, IMRT-IF, IMRT-ENI). ENI included a boost irradiation after 50 Gy. For each plan, maximum dose escalation was calculated based on prespecified normal tissue constraints. The maximum prescription dose (PD), tumor control probability (TCP), conformal indices (CI), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were analyzed. IMRT resulted in statistically significant higher prescription doses for both target volume concepts as compared with 3D-CRT (ENI: 68.4 vs. 60.9 Gy, p < 0.001; IF: 74.3 vs. 70.1 Gy, p < 0.03). With IMRT-IF, a PD of at least 66 Gy was achieved for 95 % of all plans. For IF as compared with ENI, there was a considerable theoretical increase in TCP (IMRT: 27.3 vs. 17.7 %, p < 0.00001; 3D-CRT: 20.2 vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.00001). The esophageal NTCP showed a particularly good sparing with IMRT vs. 3D-CRT (ENI: 12.3 vs. 30.9 % p < 0.0001; IF: 15.9 vs. 24.1 %; p < 0.001). The IMRT technique and IF target volume delineation allow a significant dose escalation and an increase in TCP. IMRT results in an improved sparing of OARs as compared with 3D-CRT at equivalent dose levels. (orig.) [German] Das Potenzial der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT) soll im Rahmen der FDG-PET basierten Bestrahlungsplanung des lokal fortgeschrittenen nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms (LA-NSCLC) fuer 2 Zielvolumenansaetze (Involved-Field-Bestrahlung, IF) sowie elektive Nodalbestrahlung (ENI) geprueft und mit der 3-D-konformalen Strahlentherapie (3-D

  5. Comparison of Radiation Treatment Plans for Breast Cancer between 3D Conformal in Prone and Supine Positions in Contrast to VMAT and IMRT Supine Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Buele, Ana Isabel

    The treatment regimen for breast cancer patients typically involves Whole Breast Irradiation (WBI). The coverage and extent of the radiation treatment is dictated by location of tumor mass, breast tissue distribution, involvement of lymph nodes, and other factors. The current standard treatment approach used at our institution is a 3D tangential beam geometry, which involves two fields irradiating the breast, or a four field beam arrangement covering the whole breast and involved nodes, while decreasing the dose to organs as risk (OARs) such as the lung and heart. The coverage of these targets can be difficult to achieve in patients with unfavorable thoracic geometries, especially in those cases in which the planning target volume (PTV) is extended to the chest wall. It is a well-known fact that exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation has been proved to increase the subsequent rate of ischemic heart disease. In these cases, inverse planned treatments have become a proven alternative to the 3D approach. The goal of this research project is to evaluate the factors that affect our current techniques as well as to adapt the development of inverse modulated techniques for our clinic, in which breast cancer patients are one of the largest populations treated. For this purpose, a dosimetric comparison along with the evaluation of immobilization devices was necessary. Radiation treatment plans were designed and dosimetrically compared for 5 patients in both, supine and prone positions. For 8 patients, VMAT and IMRT plans were created and evaluated in the supine position. Skin flash incorporation for inverse modulated plans required measurement of the surface dose as well as an evaluation of breast volume changes during a treatment course. It was found that prone 3D conformal plans as well as the VMAT and IMRT plans are generally superior in sparing OARs to supine plans with comparable PTV coverage. Prone setup leads to larger shifts in breast volume as well as in

  6. 3D CT-based high-dose-rate breast brachytherapy implants: treatment planning and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak K; Patel, Rakesh; Shah, Hiral; Odau, Heath; Kuske, Robert R

    2004-07-15

    Although accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as the sole radiation modality after lumpectomy has shown promising results for select breast cancer patients, published experiences thus far have provided limited information on treatment planning methodology and quality assurance measures. A novel three-dimensional computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning method for accurate delineation and geometric coverage of the target volume is presented. A correlation between treatment volume and irradiation time has also been studied for quality assurance purposes. Between May 2002 and January 2003, 50 consecutive patients underwent an image-guided interstitial implant followed by CT-based treatment planning and were subsequently treated with APBI with a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy remote afterloader. Target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity +2 cm margin modified to >/=5 mm to the skin surface. Catheter reconstruction, geometric optimization, and manual adjustment of irradiation time were done to optimally cover the target volume while minimizing hot spots. Dose homogeneity index (DHI) and percent of target volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (32 Gy in 8 fractions or 34 Gy in 10 fractions) was determined. Additionally, the correlation between the treatment volume and irradiation time, source strength, and dose was then analyzed for manual verification of the HDR computer calculation. In all cases, the lumpectomy cavity was covered 100%. Target volume coverage was excellent with a median of 96%, and DHI had a median value of 0.7. For each plan, source strength times the treatment time for every unit of prescribed dose had an excellent agreement of +/-7% to the Manchester volume implant table corrected for modern units. CT-based treatment planning allowed excellent visualization of the lumpectomy cavity and normal structures, thereby improving target volume delineation and optimal coverage, relative to conventional orthogonal film

  7. Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

    2013-04-01

    For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR's, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR's DVH's as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment.

  8. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark: From 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines of The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Hanne M.;

    2008-01-01

    with PWT. The dose to the internal mammary nodes (IMN) was not satisfactory for five of the seven patients for 3F, whereas only two of the seven patients had a minimum dose lower than 95% of the prescribed dose with PWT. Finally, the dose to the contralateral breast was increased when using PWT compared...... to 3F. It was concluded that PWT was an appropriate choice of technique for future radiation treatment of post-mastectomy patients. A working group was formed and guidelines for 3D planning were developed during a series of workshops where radiation oncologists and physicists from all radiotherapy...

  9. Image-Based 3D Treatment Planning for Vaginal Cylinder Brachytherapy: Dosimetric Effects of Bladder Filling on Organs at Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Jennifer; Shen Sui; De Los Santos, Jennifer F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kim, Robert Y., E-mail: rkim@uabmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of bladder filling on organs at risk (OARs) using three-dimensional image-based treatment planning for vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent postoperative high-dose rate vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. For three-dimensional planning, patients were simulated by computed tomography with an indwelling catheter in place (empty bladder) and with 180 mL of sterile water instilled into the bladder (full bladder). The bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel (OARs) were contoured, and a prescription dose was generated for 10 to 35 Gy in 2 to 5 fractions at the surface or at 5 mm depth. For each OAR, the volume dose was defined by use of two different criteria: the minimum dose value in a 2.0-cc volume receiving the highest dose (D{sub 2cc}) and the dose received by 50% of the OAR volume (D{sub 50%}). International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder and rectum point doses were calculated for comparison. The cylinder-to-bowel distance was measured using the shortest distance from the cylinder apex to the contoured sigmoid or small bowel. Statistical analyses were performed with paired t tests. Results: Mean bladder and rectum D{sub 2cc} values were lower than their respective ICRU doses. However, differences between D{sub 2cc} and ICRU doses were small. Empty vs. full bladder did not significantly affect the mean cylinder-to-bowel distance (0.72 vs. 0.92 cm, p = 0.08). In contrast, bladder distention had appreciable effects on bladder and small bowel volume dosimetry. With a full bladder, the mean small bowel D{sub 2cc} significantly decreased from 677 to 408 cGy (p = 0.004); the mean bladder D{sub 2cc} did not increase significantly (1,179 cGy vs. 1,246 cGy, p = 0.11). Bladder distention decreased the mean D{sub 50%} for both the bladder (441 vs. 279 cGy, p = 0.001) and the small bowel (168 vs. 132 cGy, p = 0.001). Rectum

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial 3D treatment planning system using the AAPM Task Group 23 test package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Borca, Valeria; Pasquino, Massimo; Bresciani, Sara; Catuzzo, Paola; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi

    2005-03-01

    The accuracy of the dose calculation algorithm is one of the most critical steps in assessing the radiotherapy treatment to achieve the 5% accuracy in dose delivery, which represents the suggested limit to increase the complication-free local control of tumor. We have used the AAPM Task Group 23 (TG-23) test package for clinical photon external beam therapy to evaluate the accuracy of the new version of the PLATO TPS algorithm. The comparison between tabulated values and calculated ones has been performed for 266 and 297 dose values for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. Dose deviations less than 2% were found in the 98.5%- and 90.6% analyzed dose points for the two considered energies, respectively. Larger deviations were obtained for both energies, in large dose gradients, such as the build-up region or near the field edges and blocks. As far as the radiological field width is concerned, 64 points were analyzed for both the energies: 53 points (83%) and 64 points (100%) were within +/-2 millimeters for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. The results show the good accuracy of the algorithm either in simple geometry beam conditions or in complex ones, in homogeneous medium, and in the presence of inhomogeneities, for low and high energy beams. Our results fit well the data reported by several authors related to the calculation accuracy of different treatment planning systems (TPSs) (within a mean value of 0.7% and 1.2% for 4 and 18 MV respectively). The TG-23 test package can be considered a powerful instrument to evaluate dose calculation accuracy, and as such may play an important role in a quality assurance program related to the commissioning of a new TPS.

  11. Data analysis tools for 3D dosimetry: the use of CERR as a platform to integrate and compare measurements and treatment planning information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, Joe; Apte, Aditya, E-mail: jdeasy@radonc.wustl.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, 4921 Parkview Place, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    CERR, the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research, is a mature Matlab-based application that allows users to visualize and analyze 3D treatment planning data exported using standard protocols from clinical treatment planning systems. In this presentation we will give an in-depth discussion of the use of CERR as a tool to analyze measurements compared to expected treatment planning systems. Extensions to CERR allow for straightforward import and registration of experimental data with the planning data. These tools allow users to compare the match between measurement and treatment planning calculation in detail, as provided by profile plots and other tools. Custom Matlab scripts can also be developed, providing complete flexibility in analysis methods. In addition, several offshoot tools have been developed by our group to facilitate dosimetric data analysis, including: A film QA tool, developed under a contract for the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), and a Monte Carlo recalculation tool, also developed under the same contract for the RPC. The film QA tool is meant to facilitate the analysis of film that is irradiated in a phantom. The tool provides a simple method for registering pin-marked points on film to corresponding points in a CT-scanned phantom. Similarly, the locations of point dosimeters can be found. Once registered, data can be compared with the expected treatment plan, interpolated from the converted CERR plan. The dose-distance gamma function is available to quantify agreement. We will discuss the ways these tools can be used to support dosimetry research. All the software discussed here is being made available under open-source licensing.

  12. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic ™ films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm × 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm × 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible.

  13. Fast 3D route-planning approach for air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jilin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping; Ai, Haojun

    1997-06-01

    A fast 3-D route planning method for unmanned air vehicle is proposed which can generate physically realizable 3-D route within a reasonable time. Our method includes two steps: First, 2-D route planning generates a route which satisfies turning radius constraint(abbreviated as R-constrained below); second, 3-D route planning generates 3-D route in vertical profile of the 2-D route. To make 2-D route R-constrained, a method is proposed by supposing 2-D route of air vehicle is composed of a sequence of arc route segments and tangential points between neighboring arcs are searching nodes. 3 -D route planning is considered as optimal control problem, and its route can be determined by applying motion equations of air vehicle. The experiments show that our method can produce feasible 3-D routes within a reasonable time, and ensure the planned 3-D routes satisfy aerodynamics constraints of air vehicle.

  14. Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötter, Richard; Haie-Meder, Christine; Van Limbergen, Erik; Barillot, Isabelle; De Brabandere, Marisol; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Dumas, Isabelle; Erickson, Beth; Lang, Stefan; Nulens, An; Petrow, Peter; Rownd, Jason; Kirisits, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO Working Group (I): concepts and terms in 3D image-based 3D treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy with emphasis on MRI assessment of GTV and CTV. Radiother Oncol 2005;74:235-245]). It is expected that the therapeutic ratio including target coverage and sparing of organs at risk can be significantly improved, if radiation dose is prescribed to a 3D image-based CTV taking into account dose volume constraints for OAR. However, prospective use of these recommendations in the clinical context is warranted, to further explore and develop the potential of 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy.

  15. Survey of Robot 3D Path Planning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yang; Juntong Qi; Dalei Song; Jizhong Xiao; Jianda Han; Yong Xia

    2016-01-01

    Robot 3D (three-dimension) path planning targets for finding an optimal and collision-free path in a 3D workspace while taking into account kinematic constraints (including geometric, physical, and temporal constraints). The purpose of path planning, unlike motion planning which must be taken into consideration of dynamics, is to find a kinematically optimal path with the least time as well as model the environment completely. We discuss the fundamentals of these most successful robot 3D path...

  16. Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, James K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Armeson, Kent E. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address

  17. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciller, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cillerruiz@unil.ch [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Centre d’Imagerie BioMédicale, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Sznitman, Raphael [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Thiran, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Munier, Francis L. [Unit of Pediatric Ocular Oncology, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor.

  18. A system for the simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment using a low cost 3D laser scanner for dental anatomy capturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, M; Grau, V; Monserrat, C; Juan, C; Albalat, S

    1999-01-01

    The detection and correction of malocclusions and other dental abnormalities is a significant area of work in orthodontic diagnosis. To assess the quality of occlusion between the teeth the orthodontist has to estimate distances between specific points located on the teeth of both arches. Distance measuring is based on the observation, by the orthodontist, of a plaster model of the mouth. Gathering of information required to make the diagnosis is a time consuming and costly operation. On the other hand, obtaining and manipulation of plaster casts constitute a huge problem in clinics, due to both the large space needed and high costs associated with plaster casts manufacturing. For this problem we present a new system for three-dimensional orthodontic treatment planning and movement of teeth. We describe a computer vision technique for the acquisition and processing of three-dimensional images of the profile of hydrocolloids dental imprints taken by mean of a own developed 3D laser scanner. Profile measurement is based on the triangulation method which detects deformation of the projection of a laser line on the dental imprints. The system is computer-controlled and designed to achieve depth and lateral resolutions of 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively, within a depth range of 40 mm. The developed diagnosis software system (named MAGALLANES) and the 3D laser scanner (named 3DENT) are both commercially available and have been designed to replace manual measurement methods, which use costly plaster models, with computer measurements methods and teeth movement simulation using cheap hydrocolloid dental wafers. This procedure will reduce the cost and acquisition time of orthodontic data and facilitate the conduct of epidemiological studies.

  19. Comparison of 3D dose distributions for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry and treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senkesen, Oznur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Acibadem Kozyatagi Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Tezcanli, Evrim, E-mail: tezcanlievrim@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Acibadem University, Istanbul (Turkey); Buyuksarac, Bora [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Bogazici University Istanbul (Turkey); Ozbay, Ismail [Istanbul University, Institute of Oncology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-10-01

    Radiation fluence changes caused by the dosimeter itself and poor spatial resolution may lead to lack of 3-dimensional (3D) information depending on the features of the dosimeter and quality assurance of dose distributions for high–dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) brachytherapy sources is challenging and experimental dosimetry methods used for brachytherapy sources are limited. In this study, we investigated 3D dose distributions of {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources for irradiation with single and multiple dwell positions using a normoxic gel dosimeter and compared them with treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. For dose calibration purposes, 100-mL gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses and then scanned in an magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. Gel phantoms prepared in 2 spherical glasses were irradiated with {sup 192}Ir for the calculated dwell positions, and MR scans of the phantoms were obtained. The images were analyzed with MATLAB software. Dose distributions and profiles derived with 1-mm resolution were compared with TPS calculations. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. The x-, y-, and z-axes were defined as the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes, respectively, the sagittal and axial planes were defined parallel to the long axis of the source while the coronal plane was defined horizontally to the long axis of the source. The differences between measured and calculated profile widths of 3-cm source length and point source for 70%, 50%, and 30% isodose lines were evaluated at 3 dose levels using 18 profiles of comparison. The calculations for 3-cm source length revealed a difference of > 3 mm in 1 coordinate at 50% profile width on the sagittal plane and 3 coordinates at 70% profile width and 2 coordinates at 50% and 30% profile widths on the axial plane. Calculations on the coronal plane for 3-cm source length showed > 3-mm difference in 1

  20. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget.

  1. 3D conformal planning using low segment multi-criteria IMRT optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate automated multicriteria optimization (MCO)-- designed for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), but invoked with limited segmentation -- to efficiently produce high quality 3D conformal treatment (3D-CRT) plans. Methods: Ten patients previously planned with 3D-CRT were replanned with a low-segment inverse multicriteria optimized technique. The MCO-3D plans used the same number of beams, beam geometry and machine parameters of the corresponding 3D plans, but were limited to an energy of 6 MV. The MCO-3D plans were optimized using a fluence-based MCO IMRT algorithm and then, after MCO navigation, segmented with a low number of segments. The 3D and MCO-3D plans were compared by evaluating mean doses to individual organs at risk (OARs), mean doses to combined OARs, homogeneity indexes (HI), monitor units (MUs), physician preference, and qualitative assessments of planning time and plan customizability. Results: The MCO-3D plans significantly reduced the OAR mean doses and monitor unit...

  2. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  3. Dosimetric Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, Static Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and 3D Conformal Planning for the Treatment of a Right-Sided Reconstructed Chest Wall and Regional Nodal Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishruta A. Dumane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared 3D conformal planning, static field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT to investigate the suitable treatment plan and delivery method for a right-sided reconstructed chest wall and nodal case. The dose prescribed for the reconstructed chest wall and regional nodes was 50.4 Gy. Plans were compared for target coverage and doses of the lungs, heart, contralateral breast, and healthy tissue. All plans achieved acceptable coverage of the target and IMNs. The best right lung sparing achieved with 3D was a V20 Gy of 31.09%. Compared to it, VMAT reduced the same by 10.85% and improved the CI and HI over 3D by 18.75% and 2%, respectively. The ipsilateral lung V5 Gy to V20 Gy decreased with VMAT over IMRT by as high as 17.1%. The contralateral lung V5 Gy was also lowered with VMAT compared to IMRT by 16.22%. The MU and treatment beams were lowered with VMAT over IMRT by 30% and 10, respectively, decreasing the treatment time by >50%. VMAT was the treatment plan and delivery method of choice for this case due to a combination of improved lung sparing and reduced treatment time without compromising target coverage.

  4. PLANNING AND CONTROL OF 3-D NANO-MANIPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guangyong; Xi Ning; Wang Yuechao; Yu Mengmeng; Fung Wai-Keung

    2004-01-01

    The use of atomic force microscope (AFM) as a nanomanipulator has been evolving for various kinds of nano-manipulation tasks. Due to the bow effect of the piezo scanner of the AFM,the AFM space is different from the Cartesian space. Traditional nanomanipulation based on AFM is only a 2-D operation and does not consider the bow effect of the piezotube. In this paper, different 3-D nanomanipulation tasks using AFM such as nanolithography, pushing and cutting have been discussed.3-D path planning is performed directly in the AFM space and the 3-D paths are generated based on the 3-D topography information of the surface represented in the AFM space. This approach can avoid the mappings between the AFM space and Cartesian space in planning. By following the generated motion paths, the tip can either follow the topography of the surface or move across the surface by avoiding collision with bumps. Nanomanipulation using this method can be considered as the "true"3-D operations since the cantilever tip can be controlled to follow any desired 3-D trajectory within the range of AFM space. The experimental study shows the effectiveness of the planning and control scheme.

  5. 3D Mapping for Urban and Regional Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2002-01-01

    registered and georeferenced to the 2D plan. This paper will outline a new method for 3D mapping where new LIDAR (laser-scanning) technology and additional 2D maps with attributes will be combined to create a 3D map of an urban area. The 3D map will afterwards be used in a real-time simulation system (also...... known as Virtual Reality system) for urban and regional planning purposes. This initiative will be implemented in a specific geographic region (North Jutland County in Denmark) by a new research centre at Aalborg University called Centre for 3D GeoInformation. The key question for this research team......The process of mapping in 3D for urban and regional planning purposes is not an uncomplicated matter. It involves both the construction of a new data-model and new routines for the geometric modeling of the physical objects. This is due to the fact that most of the documentation until now has been...

  6. 3D Mapping for Urban and Regional Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The process of mapping in 3D for urban and regional planning purposes is not an uncomplicated matter. It involves both the construction of a new data-model and new routines for the geometric modeling of the physical objects. This is due to the fact that most of the documentation until now has been...... registered and georeferenced to the 2D plan. This paper will outline a new method for 3D mapping where new LIDAR (laser-scanning) technology and additional 2D maps with attributes will be combined to create a 3D map of an urban area. The 3D map will afterwards be used in a real-time simulation system (also...... known as Virtual Reality system) for urban and regional planning purposes. This initiative will be implemented in a specific geographic region (North Jutland County in Denmark) by a new research centre at Aalborg University called Centre for 3D GeoInformation. The key question for this research team...

  7. 3D surgical planning and navigation for CMF surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Jonas; Rudolph, Tobias; Borgesson, Blake; De Momi, Elena; Pappas, Ion P.; Hallermann, Wok; Schramm, Alexander; Caversaccio, Marco

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we describe a system for corrective and reconstructive CMF surgery that allows planning of bone segment relocations in 3D and transfer of the goal positions into an intra-operative navigation module, which provides guidance to realize the planned movement. In addition, the pre-operative planning module offers functions of mirroring and allows insertion of distraction devices. We present three clinical cases of CMF surgical procedures planned a posteriori with our application: bimaxillary realignment, involving subcondylar osteotomy of the mandible and LeFort I osteotomy, secondary orbital reconstruction and mandibular reconstruction.

  8. A Hybrid 3D Path Planning Method for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for path planning in 3D spaces. We propose an improvement to a near-optimal 2D off-line algorithm and a flexible normalized on-line fuzzy controller to find shortest paths. Our method, targeted to low altitude domains, is simple and efficient. Our preliminary resu...

  9. Quality assurance of computerized planning systems for radiotherapy treatments according the IAEA-TECDOC-1583: application to PCRT3D; Garantaa de calidad de sistemas de planificacion de tratamientos de radioterapia segun el documento IAEA-TECDOC-1583: aplicacion a PCRT3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laliena Bielsa, V.; Millan Cebrian, E.; Garcia Romero, A.; Cortes Rodicio, J.; Villa Gazulla, D.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Jimenez Alberico, J.; Hernandez Vitoria, A.; Canellas Anoz, M.

    2012-07-01

    The quality of the PCRT3D radiotherapy treatment planning system is analyzed following the guidelines of IAEA-TECDOC-1583. The two main algorithms for photon beams implemented by the system, Preciso and Superposicion, perform well in heterogeneities, especially Superposicion. The results are similar to those published for algorithms of the same type. The good performance in heterogeneities for high energy X-ray beams is remarkable: both algorithms perform better for 15 MV than for 6 MV. (Author)

  10. Survey of Robot 3D Path Planning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot 3D (three-dimension path planning targets for finding an optimal and collision-free path in a 3D workspace while taking into account kinematic constraints (including geometric, physical, and temporal constraints. The purpose of path planning, unlike motion planning which must be taken into consideration of dynamics, is to find a kinematically optimal path with the least time as well as model the environment completely. We discuss the fundamentals of these most successful robot 3D path planning algorithms which have been developed in recent years and concentrate on universally applicable algorithms which can be implemented in aerial robots, ground robots, and underwater robots. This paper classifies all the methods into five categories based on their exploring mechanisms and proposes a category, called multifusion based algorithms. For all these algorithms, they are analyzed from a time efficiency and implementable area perspective. Furthermore a comprehensive applicable analysis for each kind of method is presented after considering their merits and weaknesses.

  11. Clinical application of 3-D conformal radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus: 1. Comparative analysis between conventional 2-D and 3-D conformal plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, G. E.; Keum, K. C.; Park, H. C.; Cho, J. H.; Han, S. U.; Lee, K. K.; Suh, C. O.; Hong, W. P.; Park, I. Y. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    This is study of whether 3-D conformal radiotherapy for carcinomas of the ethmoid sinus were better than those treated with conventional 2-D plan. The 3-D conformal treatment plans were compared with conventional 2-D plans in 4 patients with malignancy of the ethmoid sinus. Isodose distribution , dose statistics, and dose volume histogram of the planning target volume were used to evaluate differences between 2-D and 3-D plans. In addition, the risk of radiation exposure of surrounding normal critical organs are evaluated by means of point dose calculation and dose volume histogram. 3-D conformal treatment plans for each patient that the better tumor coverages by the planning target volume with improved dose homogeneity, compared to 2-D conventional treatment plans in the same patient. On the other hand, the radiation dose distributions to the surrounding normal tissue organs, such as the orbit and optic nerves are not significantly reduced with our technique, but a substantial sparing in the brain stem and optic chiasm for each patient. Our findings represented the potential advantage of 3-D treatment planning for dose homogeneity as well as sparing of the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. However, further investigational studies are required to define the clinical benefit. (author).

  12. 3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-02-01

    Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.

  13. SU-E-T-538: Lung SBRT Dosimetric Comparison of 3D Conformal and RapidArc Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, R; Zhan, L; Osei, E [Grand River Hospital, Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distributions of RapidArc Plan can be quite different from standard 3D conformal radiation therapy. SBRT plans can be optimized with high conformity or mimic the 3D conformal treatment planning with very high dose in the center of the tumor. This study quantifies the dosimetric differences among 3D conformal plan; flattened beam and FFF beam RapidArc Plans for lung SBRT. Methods: Five lung cancer patients treated with 3D non-coplanar SBRT were randomly selected. All the patients were CT scanned with 4DCT to determine the internal target volume. Abdominal compression was applied to minimize respiratory motion for SBRT patients. The prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. The PTV coverage was optimized by two groups of objective function: one with high conformity, another mimicking 3D conformal dose distribution with high dose in the center of PTV. Optimization constraints were set to meet the criteria of the RTOG-0915 protocol. All VMAT plans were optimized with the RapidArc technique using four full arcs in Eclipse treatment planning system. The RapidArc SBRT plans with flattened 6MV beam and 6MV FFF beam were generated and dosimetric results were compared with the previous treated 3D non-coplanar plans. Results: All the RapidArc plans with flattened beam and FFF beam had similar results for the PTV and OARs. For the high conformity optimization group, The DVH of PTV exhibited a steep dose fall-off outside the PTV compared to the 3D non-coplanar plan. However, for the group mimicking the 3D conformal target dose distribution, although the PTV is very similar to the 3D conformal plan, the ITV coverage is better than 3D conformal plan. Conclusion: Due to excellent clinical experiences of 3D conformal SBRT treatment, the Rapid Arc optimization mimicking 3D conformal planning may be suggested for clinical use.

  14. Computer-Designed Splints for Surgical Transfer of 3D Orthognathic Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Max; Zoeller, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Advances in computers and imaging have permitted the adoption of three-dimensional (3D) planning protocols in orthognathic surgery, which may allow a paradigm shift when the computer-assisted planning can be transferred properly. The purpose of this investigation was to introduce an innovative clinical protocol using computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) surgical splints for surgical transfer of 3D orthognathic planning compared with the classic technique using arbitrary occlusal splints. The clinical protocols consisted of computed tomography (CT) or cone-beam CT (CBCT) maxillofacial imaging, bone segmentation, 3D diagnosis, computer-assisted surgical treatment planning, and CAD/CAM surgical splints (group A) and manufacture of arbitrary occlusal splints (group B) for intraoperative surgical planning transfer. The observed patients underwent bimaxillary osteotomies and, if necessary, an additional genioplasty. Both techniques were evaluated by applying 13 hard tissue parameters to compare the 3D orthognathic planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3D cephalometry. The CAD/CAM splints showed significant better precision for the maxilla (ΔT orthognathic planning, which is more precise compared with the conventional arbitrary occlusal splints.

  15. 3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Goularas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible and the Maxillary, and the teeth segmentation allowing more specific dental examinations. Finally, these specific treatments are presented via a client/server application with the aim of allowing a telediagnosis and treatment.

  16. Characterization of HDR Ir-192 source for 3D planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.b, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rubo, Rodrigo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia; Minamisawa, Renato A., E-mail: renato.minamisawa@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ferreira, Louise A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy treatment involves surgical or cavitary insertion of radioactive sources for diseases treatments, such as: lung, gynecologic or prostate cancer. This technique has great ability to administer high doses to the tumor, with adjacent normal tissue preservation equal or better than external beam radiation therapy. Several innovations have been incorporated in this treatment technique, such as, 3D treatment planning system and computer guided sources. In detriment to scientific advances there are no protocols that relate dose with tumor volume, organs or A point, established by ICRU38 and used to prescribe dose in treatment planning system. Several international studies, like as EMBRACE, the multicentre international study, has been trying to correlate the dose volume using 3D planning systems and medical images, as those obtained by CT or MRI, to establish treatment protocols. With the objective of analyzing the 3D dose distribution, a micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device for high dose-rate (HDR) was characterized in the present work. Through the data provided by the manufacturer the source was simulated, using the MCNP5 code to calculate American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 report (AAPM TG43) specified parameters. The simulations have shown great agreement when compared to the ONCENTRA planning system results and those provided by literature. The micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device will be utilized to simulate 3D dose distribution through CT images processed by an auxiliary software which process DICOM images. (author)

  17. The consuming time of 3D virtual treatment planning in orthognathic surgery%3D模拟手术计划性治疗在正颌外科手术的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄圣元; 吴小玮; 张力; 杨涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过临床病例评估3D模拟手术计划性治疗在正颌外科手术中的应用。方法:对51例需要正颌矫正畸形的临床病例进行完整3D模拟手术计划性治疗,将流程中每步所耗费的时间进行精确记录,最后得出不同种类正颌手术所需的平均时间;并通过实际临床病例分析3D模拟手术计划性治疗的优缺点。结果:双侧矢状劈开截骨术耗时平均为29:29 min;双侧矢状劈开截骨术和颏部截骨术耗时平均为29:56 min;Le-FortⅠ型截骨术和双侧矢状劈开截骨术耗时平均为39:17 min;Le-FortⅠ型截骨术、双侧矢状劈开截骨术和颏部截骨术耗时平均为40:57 min。结论:将3D模拟治疗计划作为一种新的工具应用在正颌外科正颌畸形手术中,可以使临床医生的手术方案同时兼顾功能和美学的设计。通过标准的设计流程(3D-VPS1-5),3D模拟治疗计划可以作为一种更高效的工具应用在正颌外科手术中。%Objevtive:To assess the timing of 3D virtual treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. Method:51 con-secutive orthognathic patients were included in this study. Each step of 3D virtual treatmrnt planning was recorded with a digital chronometer,recording the overall results of 3D virtual treatmrnt planning and made a strength and weakness analyse 3D virtual treatment planning based on the clinical patients. Result:The overall mean orthognathic treatment planning time (VPS1-5) was 29:29min for BSSO;29:56min for BSSO and chin osteotomy surgical procedures;39:17min for Le FortⅠand BSSO;40:57min for combined Le FortⅠ,BSSO,and chin osteotomy surgical procedures. Conclusion:3D virtual treat-ment planning of orthognathic surgery provides a potential new routine tool toward the clinician to improve both functional and aesthetic treatment outcomes in patients with maxillofacial deformity. By standardizing the different virtual planning steps(VPS1-5),the

  18. A dosimetric comparison between 3D-Conformal radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy plans in the treatment of posterior fossa boost in children with high risk medulloblastom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saad El Din I; Abd El AAl H; Makaar W; Mashhour K; El Beih D; Hashem W

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The work is a comparative study between two modalities of radiation therapy, the aim of which is to compare 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treating posterior fossa boost in children with high risk medul oblastoma;dosimetrical y evaluating and comparing both techniques as regard target coverage and doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods:Twenty patients with high risk medul oblastoma were treated by 3D-CRT technique. A dosimetric comparison was done by performing two plans for the posterior fossa boost, 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, for the same patient using Eclipse planning system (version 8.6). Results:IMRT had a better conformity index compared to 3D-CRT plans (P value of 0.000). As for the dose homogeneity it was also better in the IMRT plans, yet it hasn’t reached the statistical significant value. Also, doses received by the cochleae, brainstem and spinal cord were significantly less in the IMRT plans than those of 3D-CRT (P value<0.05). Conclusion:IMRT technique was clearly able to improve conformity and homogeneity index, spare the cochleae, reduce dose to the brainstem and spinal cord in comparison to 3D-CRT technique.

  19. The Use of 3D Printing Technology in the Ilizarov Method Treatment: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzyńska, Karolina; Morasiewicz, Piotr; Filipiak, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in additive manufacturing technology have occurred in recent years. 3D printing techniques can also be helpful in the Ilizarov method treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 3D printing technology in the Ilizarov method treatment. Physical models of bones used to plan the spatial design of Ilizarov external fixator were manufactured by FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) spatial printing technology. Bone models were made of poly(L-lactide) (PLA). Printed 3D models of both lower leg bones allow doctors to prepare in advance for the Ilizarov method treatment: detailed consideration of the spatial configuration of the external fixation, experimental assembly of the Ilizarov external fixator onto the physical models of bones prior to surgery, planning individual osteotomy level and Kirschner wires introduction sites. Printed 3D bone models allow for accurate preparation of the Ilizarov apparatus spatially matched to the size of the bones and prospective bone distortion. Employment of the printed 3D models of bone will enable a more precise design of the apparatus, which is especially useful in multiplanar distortion and in the treatment of axis distortion and limb length discrepancy in young children. In the course of planning the use of physical models manufactured with additive technology, attention should be paid to certain technical aspects of model printing that have an impact on the accuracy of mapping of the geometry and physical properties of the model. 3D printing technique is very useful in 3D planning of the Ilizarov method treatment.

  20. 3D GEOMARKETING SEGMENTATION: A HIGHER SPATIAL DIMENSION PLANNING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suhaibah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geomarketing is a discipline which uses geographic information in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. It can be used in any aspect of the marketing such as price, promotion or geo targeting. The analysis of geomarketing data use a huge data pool such as location residential areas, topography, it also analyzes demographic information such as age, genre, annual income and lifestyle. This information can help users to develop successful promotional campaigns in order to achieve marketing goals. One of the common activities in geomarketing is market segmentation. The segmentation clusters the data into several groups based on its geographic criteria. To refine the search operation during analysis, we proposed an approach to cluster the data using a clustering algorithm. However, with the huge data pool, overlap among clusters may happen and leads to inefficient analysis. Moreover, geomarketing is usually active in urban areas and requires clusters to be organized in a three-dimensional (3D way (i.e. multi-level shop lots, residential apartments. This is a constraint with the current Geographic Information System (GIS framework. To avoid this issue, we proposed a combination of market segmentation based on geographic criteria and clustering algorithm for 3D geomarketing data management. The proposed approach is capable in minimizing the overlap region during market segmentation. In this paper, geomarketing in urban area is used as a case study. Based on the case study, several locations of customers and stores in 3D are used in the test. The experiments demonstrated in this paper substantiated that the proposed approach is capable of minimizing overlapping segmentation and reducing repetitive data entries. The structure is also tested for retrieving the spatial records from the database. For marketing purposes, certain radius of point is used to analyzing marketing targets. Based on the presented tests in this paper

  1. Pediatric deformity treatment update, including 3D correction concepts%Pediatric deformity treatment update,including 3D correction concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randal R. Betz; Patrick J. Cahill; Joshua M. Pahys; Amer F. Samdani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the new developments in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,including 3D correction of deformity,posterior and minimally invasive surgery,and fusionless strategies.

  2. SU-E-T-157: Evaluation and Comparison of Doses to Pelvic Lymph Nodes and to Point B with 3D Image Guided Treatment Planning for High Dose Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandare, N. [University of Florida (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare the doses received by the obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes and point Methods: CT-MR fused image sets of 15 patients obtained for each of 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring applicator, were used to generate treatment plans optimized to deliver a prescription dose to HRCTV-D90 and to minimize the doses to organs at risk (OARs). For each set of image, target volume (GTV, HRCTV) OARs (Bladder, Rectum, Sigmoid), and both left and right pelvic lymph nodes (obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes) were delineated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for pelvic nodal groups (left and right obturator group, internal and external iliac chains) Per fraction DVH parameters used for dose comparison included dose to 100% volume (D100), and dose received by 2cc (D2cc), 1cc (D1cc) and 0.1 cc (D0.1cc) of nodal volume. Dose to point B was compared with each DVH parameter using 2 sided t-test. Pearson correlation were determined to examine relationship of point B dose with nodal DVH parameters. Results: FIGO clinical stage varied from 1B1 to IIIB. The median pretreatment tumor diameter measured on MRI was 4.5 cm (2.7– 6.4cm).The median dose to bilateral point B was 1.20 Gy ± 0.12 or 20% of the prescription dose. The correlation coefficients were all <0.60 for all nodal DVH parameters indicating low degree of correlation. Only 2 cc of obturator nodes was not significantly different from point B dose on t-test. Conclusion: Dose to point B does not adequately represent the dose to any specific pelvic nodal group. When using image guided 3D dose-volume optimized treatment nodal groups should be individually identified and delineated to obtain the doses received by pelvic nodes.

  3. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning: 3D virtual articulator: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanai, S; Marmulla, R; Wiechnik, J; Mühling, J; Kotrikova, B

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a computer-assisted planning system for dysgnathia treatment. It describes the process of information gathering using a virtual articulator and how the splints are constructed for orthognathic surgery. The deviation of the virtually planned splints is shown in six cases on the basis of conventionally planned cases. In all cases the plaster models were prepared and scanned using a 3D laser scanner. Successive lateral and posterior-anterior cephalometric images were used for reconstruction before surgery. By identifying specific points on the X-rays and marking them on the virtual models, it was possible to enhance the 2D images to create a realistic 3D environment and to perform virtual repositioning of the jaw. A hexapod was used to transfer the virtual planning to the real splints. Preliminary results showed that conventional repositioning could be replicated using the virtual articulator.

  4. Interactive 3D geodesign tool for multidisciplinary wind turbine planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Azarakhsh; Van der Male, Pim; Dias, Eduardo; Scholten, Henk

    2017-09-30

    Wind turbine site planning is a multidisciplinary task comprising of several stakeholder groups from different domains and with different priorities. An information system capable of integrating the knowledge on the multiple aspects of a wind turbine plays a crucial role on providing a common picture to the involved groups. In this study, we have developed an interactive and intuitive 3D system (Falcon) for planning wind turbine locations. This system supports iterative design loops (wind turbine configurations), based on the emerging field of geodesign. The integration of GIS, game engine and the analytical models has resulted in an interactive platform with real-time feedback on the multiple wind turbine aspects which performs efficiently for different use cases and different environmental settings. The implementation of tiling techniques and open standard web services support flexible and on-the-fly loading and querying of different (massive) geospatial elements from different resources. This boosts data accessibility and interoperability that are of high importance in a multidisciplinary process. The incorporation of the analytical models in Falcon makes this system independent from external tools for different environmental impacts estimations and results in a unified platform for performing different environmental analysis in every stage of the scenario design. Game engine techniques, such as collision detection, are applied in Falcon for the real-time implementation of different environmental models (e.g. noise and visibility). The interactivity and real-time performance of Falcon in any location in the whole country assist the stakeholders in the seamless exploration of various scenarios and their resulting environmental effects and provides a scope for an interwoven discussion process. The flexible architecture of the system enables the effortless application of Falcon in other countries, conditional to input data availability. The embedded open web

  5. Clinical verification of Neptune 3D-RTPS-A treatment planning system compared to Prowess TPS%两种放射治疗计划系统的对比验证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永祥; 李祥; 勇孙凯

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比Prowess治疗计划系统(TPS)以检验Neptune 3D-RTPS-A放射治疗计划系统在临床应用过程中的准确性和安全性.方法 选取2009年9月至2010年5月在Prowess TPS行三维放疗计划设计并顺利完成适形放疗的30例肿瘤病例,将Prowess TPS中勾画的外轮廓、危及器官、靶区导入到Neptune TPS,并在Neptune TPS中设置和Prowess TPS相同的治疗计划参数,对比2种TPS计算的结果数据.结果 使用Neptune 3D-RTPS-A三维治疗计划系统能够顺利完成所选30例肿瘤病例的放射治疗计划设计.与Prowess TPS比较,源皮距SSD差异<0.5%;机器跳数(MU)差异<0.5%;等中心剂量差异<2%;30%、50%、70%、80%、90%5条等剂量线包绕面积差异<3%,等中心平面上的等剂量线位置平均偏差0.43 mm;30例患者PTV的V90差异<2%,危及器官V30差异<3%.结论 Neptune 3D-RTPS-A三维治疗计划系统具备临床应用的准确性和安全性.%Objective To investigate the safety and validity of Neptune 3D-RTPS-A treatment planning system compared to Prowess TPS.Methods A total of 30 clinical tumor cases with radiotherapy planning on Prowess TPS from September 2009 to May 2010 were used.The contours, organs at risk and target volumes in Prowess TPS were transported into Neptune TPS, the same parameters setted in the two treatment planning systems.The results of comparison of the two TPS were calculated.Results All cases of clinical treatment planning were completed successfully by Neptune TPS, and the various functions of the design were achieved for fitting tumor conformal radiation therapy.The key parameters on radiation treatment were compared.The results are as follows:the differences of source skin distance ( SSD ) <0.5% , differences of Monitor Unites <0.5%, the differences of dose at isocenter <2%, the differences of five isodose lines surrounding area < 3%, and the mean difference of distances of five isodose lines was 0.43 mm, the differences of the

  6. Treatment of Die-Punch Fractures with 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhui; Cai, Leyi; Zhang, Chuanxu; Wang, Jianshun; Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Yifei

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the feasibility, accuracy and effectiveness of applying three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for preoperative planning for die-punch fractures. A total of 107 patients who underwent die-punch fracture surgery were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups: 52 cases in the 3D model group and 55 cases in the routine group. A 3D digital model of each die-punch fracture was reconstructed in the 3D group. The 3D digital model was imported to a 3D printer to build the full solid model. The operation time, blood loss volume, and the number of intraoperative fluoroscopy were recorded. Follow-up was performed to evaluate the patients' surgical outcomes. Treatment of die-punch fractures using the 3D printing approach reduced the number of intraoperative fluoroscopy, blood loss volume, and operation time, but did not improve wrist function compared to those in the routine group. The patients wanted the doctor to use the 3D model to introduce the condition and operative plan because it was easier for them to understand. The orthopedic surgeons thought that the 3D model was useful for communicating with their patients, but their satisfaction with the preoperative plan was much lower than the benefit of using the 3D model to communicate with their patients. 3D printing technology produced more accurate morphometric information for orthopedists to provide personalized surgical planning and communicate better with their patients. However, it is difficult to use widely in the department of orthopedics.

  7. Achievability of 3D planned bimaxillary osteotomies: maxilla-first versus mandible-first surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebregts, Jeroen; Baan, Frank; de Koning, Martien; Ongkosuwito, Edwin; Bergé, Stefaan; Maal, Thomas; Xi, Tong

    2017-08-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of sequencing a two-component surgical procedure for correcting malpositioned jaws (bimaxillary osteotomies); specifically, surgical repositioning of the upper jaw-maxilla, and the lower jaw-mandible. Within a population of 116 patients requiring bimaxillary osteotomies, the investigators analyzed whether there were statistically significant differences in postoperative outcome as measured by concordance with a preoperative digital 3D virtual treatment plan. In one group of subjects (n = 58), the maxillary surgical procedure preceded the mandibular surgery. In the second group (n = 58), the mandibular procedure preceded the maxillary surgical procedure. A semi-automated analysis tool (OrthoGnathicAnalyser) was applied to assess the concordance of the postoperative maxillary and mandibular position with the cone beam CT-based 3D virtual treatment planning in an effort to minimize observer variability. The results demonstrated that in most instances, the maxilla-first surgical approach yielded closer concordance with the 3D virtual treatment plan than a mandibular-first procedure. In selected circumstances, such as a planned counterclockwise rotation of both jaws, the mandible-first sequence resulted in more predictable displacements of the jaws.

  8. Dose Verification of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia with Presage 3D Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Thomas, A.; Newton, J.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.; Oldham, M.

    2010-11-01

    Achieving adequate verification and quality-assurance (QA) for radiosurgery treatment of trigeminal-neuralgia (TGN) is particularly challenging because of the combination of very small fields, very high doses, and complex irradiation geometries (multiple gantry and couch combinations). TGN treatments have extreme requirements for dosimetry tools and QA techniques, to ensure adequate verification. In this work we evaluate the potential of Presage/Optical-CT dosimetry system as a tool for the verification of TGN distributions in high-resolution and in 3D. A TGN treatment was planned and delivered to a Presage 3D dosimeter positioned inside the Radiological-Physics-Center (RPC) head and neck IMRT credentialing phantom. A 6-arc treatment plan was created using the iPlan system, and a maximum dose of 80Gy was delivered with a Varian Trilogy machine. The delivered dose to Presage was determined by optical-CT scanning using the Duke Large field-of-view Optical-CT Scanner (DLOS) in 3D, with isotropic resolution of 0.7mm3. DLOS scanning and reconstruction took about 20minutes. 3D dose comparisons were made with the planning system. Good agreement was observed between the planned and measured 3D dose distributions, and this work provides strong support for the viability of Presage/Optical-CT as a highly useful new approach for verification of this complex technique.

  9. Dose Verification of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia with Presage 3D Dosimetry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z; Thomas, A; Newton, J; Ibbott, G; Deasy, J; Oldham, M, E-mail: Zhiheng.wang@duke.ed

    2010-11-01

    Achieving adequate verification and quality-assurance (QA) for radiosurgery treatment of trigeminal-neuralgia (TGN) is particularly challenging because of the combination of very small fields, very high doses, and complex irradiation geometries (multiple gantry and couch combinations). TGN treatments have extreme requirements for dosimetry tools and QA techniques, to ensure adequate verification. In this work we evaluate the potential of Presage/Optical-CT dosimetry system as a tool for the verification of TGN distributions in high-resolution and in 3D. A TGN treatment was planned and delivered to a Presage 3D dosimeter positioned inside the Radiological-Physics-Center (RPC) head and neck IMRT credentialing phantom. A 6-arc treatment plan was created using the iPlan system, and a maximum dose of 80Gy was delivered with a Varian Trilogy machine. The delivered dose to Presage was determined by optical-CT scanning using the Duke Large field-of-view Optical-CT Scanner (DLOS) in 3D, with isotropic resolution of 0.7mm{sup 3}. DLOS scanning and reconstruction took about 20minutes. 3D dose comparisons were made with the planning system. Good agreement was observed between the planned and measured 3D dose distributions, and this work provides strong support for the viability of Presage/Optical-CT as a highly useful new approach for verification of this complex technique.

  10. A comprehensive EPID-based 3D validation technique for TrueBeam-delivered VMAT plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbacher, W.; Gagne, I. M.; Swift, C.-L.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a pre-treatment EPI dosimetry method on Varian TrueBeam linacs using continuous imaging, with reconstruction in a 3D cylindrical phantom geometry. Methods: Delivery of VMAT plans with continuous imaging is currently possible only in Research Mode on TrueBeam linacs, with images acquired in a proprietary format. An earlier technique was adapted to take advantage of technical improvements in EPID delivery, and was tested under various acquisition conditions. The dosimetry of VMAT plans was evaluated at isocentre and within patient volumes that had been transferred to the virtual phantom. Results: Approximately 60 portal image projections per arc were found to be adequate for 3D reconstruction in phantom volumes of 28cm diameter. Twelve prostate, CNS and Head & Neck deliveries were evaluated in Research mode relative to the corresponding Eclipse (v.10) treatment plans, and to measurements on an ArcCheck device in Treatment mode. Mean dose differences at isocentre were within 2% for the three-way comparison, and in PTV volumes were within 1% (s.d. 1%). However, some discrepancies were observed in ArcCheck results that may be related to the small dimensions of certain VMAT apertures. Conclusions: EPI dosimetry with 3D dose reconstruction is an accurate, comprehensive and efficient pre-treatment validation technique for VMAT delivery. Although currently limited to a research mode on TrueBeam, it has the potential to be implemented for clinical use.

  11. 3D-Printing of Arteriovenous Malformations for Radiosurgical Treatment: Pushing Anatomy Understanding to Real Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alfredo; Pontoriero, Antonio; Iatì, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniele; La Torre, Domenico; Vinci, Sergio; Germanò, Antonino; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Tomasello, Francesco

    2016-04-29

    Radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is a challenging procedure. Accuracy of target volume contouring is one major issue to achieve AVM obliteration while avoiding disastrous complications due to suboptimal treatment. We describe a technique to improve the understanding of the complex AVM angioarchitecture by 3D prototyping of individual lesions. Arteriovenous malformations of ten patients were prototyped by 3D printing using 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) as a template. A target volume was obtained using the 3DRA; a second volume was obtained, without awareness of the first volume, using 3DRA and the 3D-printed model. The two volumes were superimposed and the conjoint and disjoint volumes were measured. We also calculated the time needed to perform contouring and assessed the confidence of the surgeons in the definition of the target volumes using a six-point scale. The time required for the contouring of the target lesion was shorter when the surgeons used the 3D-printed model of the AVM (p=0.001). The average volume contoured without the 3D model was 5.6 ± 3 mL whereas it was 5.2 ± 2.9 mL with the 3D-printed model (p=0.003). The 3D prototypes proved to be spatially reliable. Surgeons were absolutely confident or very confident in all cases that the volume contoured using the 3D-printed model was plausible and corresponded to the real boundaries of the lesion. The total cost for each case was 50 euros whereas the cost of the 3D printer was 1600 euros. 3D prototyping of AVMs is a simple, affordable, and spatially reliable procedure that can be beneficial for radiosurgery treatment planning. According to our preliminary data, individual prototyping of the brain circulation provides an intuitive comprehension of the 3D anatomy of the lesion that can be rapidly and reliably translated into the target volume.

  12. Patient-specific independent 3D GammaPlan quality assurance for Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Zhao, Tianyu; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A; Drzymala, Robert E

    2013-01-07

    One of the most important aspects of quality assurance (QA) in radiation therapy is redundancy of patient treatment dose calculation. This work is focused on the patient-specific time and 3D dose treatment plan verification for stereotactic radiosurgery using Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGK PFX). The virtual model of LGK PFX was developed in MATLAB, based on the physical dimensions provided by the manufacturer. The ring-specific linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) and output factors (OFs) reported by the manufacturer were replaced by the measurement-based collimator size-specific OFs and a single LAC = 0.0065 mm-1. Calculation depths for each LGK PFX shot were obtained by ray-tracing technique, and the dose calculation formalism was similar to the one used by GammaPlan treatment planning software versions 8 and 9. The architecture of the QA process was based on the in-house online database search of the LGK PFX database search for plan-specific information. A series of QA phantom plans was examined to verify geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the software. The accuracy of the QA process was further evaluated through evaluation of a series of patient plans. The shot time/focus point dose verification for each shot took less than 1 sec/shot with full 3D isodose verification taking about 30 sec/shot on a desktop PC. GammaPlan database access time took less than 0.05 sec. The geometric accuracy (location of the point of maximum dose) of the phantom and patient plan was dependent on the resolution of the original dose matrix and was of the order of 1 dose element. Dosimetric accuracy of the independently calculated phantom and patient point (focus) doses was within 3.5% from the GammaPlan, with the mean = 2.3% and SD= 1.1%. The process for independent pretreatment patient-specific Gamma Knife Perfexion time and dose verification was created and validated.

  13. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  14. Using 3D Printing to Create Personalized Brain Models for Neurosurgical Training and Preoperative Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploch, Caitlin C; Mansi, Chris S S A; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing holds promise for a wide variety of biomedical applications, from surgical planning, practicing, and teaching to creating implantable devices. The growth of this cheap and easy additive manufacturing technology in orthopedic, plastic, and vascular surgery has been explosive; however, its potential in the field of neurosurgery remains underexplored. A major limitation is that current technologies are unable to directly print ultrasoft materials like human brain tissue. In this technical note, the authors present a new technology to create deformable, personalized models of the human brain. The method combines 3D printing, molding, and casting to create a physiologically, anatomically, and tactilely realistic model based on magnetic resonance images. Created from soft gelatin, the model is easy to produce, cost-efficient, durable, and orders of magnitude softer than conventionally printed 3D models. The personalized brain model cost $50, and its fabrication took 24 hours. In mechanical tests, the model stiffness (E = 25.29 ± 2.68 kPa) was 5 orders of magnitude softer than common 3D printed materials, and less than an order of magnitude stiffer than mammalian brain tissue (E = 2.64 ± 0.40 kPa). In a multicenter surgical survey, model size (100.00%), visual appearance (83.33%), and surgical anatomy (81.25%) were perceived as very realistic. The model was perceived as very useful for patient illustration (85.00%), teaching (94.44%), learning (100.00%), surgical training (95.00%), and preoperative planning (95.00%). With minor refinements, personalized, deformable brain models created via 3D printing will improve surgical training and preoperative planning with the ultimate goal to provide accurate, customized, high-precision treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiment for integrating dutch 3D spatial planning and BIM for checking building permits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlo, L.A.H.M. van; Dijkmans, T.J.A.; Stoter, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D mod

  16. Experiment for inegrating Dutch 3D spatial planning and BIM for checking building permits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D mod

  17. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic® EBT3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Corde, Stéphanie

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic(®) EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC(®) was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution. Using GafChromic(®) EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC(®). The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC(®) to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC(®) was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T = 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was accurately modeled in the planning system. Off-axis profiles

  18. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: Validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poder, Joel; Corde, Stéphanie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC{sup ®} was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution.Methods: Using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC{sup ®}.Results: The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC{sup ®} to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC{sup ®} was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T= 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was

  19. Interaction model for 3D cutting in maxillofacial surgery planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick; Siebert, Dirk; Schulz, Armin; Faulkner, Gabriele; Krauss, Manfred; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1999-05-01

    Our main research work is the realization of a completely computer-based maxillofacial surgery planning system. An important step toward this goal is the availability of virtual tools for the surgeon to interactively define bone segments from skull and jaw bones. The easy-to-handle user interface employs visual and force-feedback devices to define subvolumes of a patient's volume dataset. The defined subvolumes together with their spatial arrangements lead to an operation plan. We have evaluated modern low-cost, force- feedback devices with regard to their ability to emulate the surgeon's working procedure.

  20. Experiment for Integrating Dutch 3d Spatial Planning and Bim for Checking Building Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D model. The project realized a proof of concept to generate a 3D spatial planning model. The team used the model to integrate it with several 3D Building Information Models (BIMs) described in the open data standard Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Goal of the project was (1) to generate a 3D BIM model from spatial planning information to be used by the architect during the early design phase, and (2) allow 3D checking of building permits. The team used several technologies like CityGML, BIM clash detection and GeoBIM to explore the potential of this innovation. Within the project a showcase was created with a part of the spatial plan from the city of The Hague. Several BIM models were integrated in the 3D spatial plan of this area. A workflow has been described that demonstrates the benefits of collaboration between the spatial domain and the AEC industry in 3D. The research results in a showcase with conclusions and considerations for both national and international practice.

  1. Modification of a 3D-planning system for use with a multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Duyse, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Colle, C.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.

    1995-12-01

    Recently, the Philips SL25 linear accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department at the University Hospital of Gent was retro-fitted with a multileaf collimator (MLC). To allow treatment planning with the MLC, the currently use GRATISTM 3D-planning system (developed by G. Sherouse) needed some adaptations, using the C source code. The virtual Simulator section was extended so that the leaves are graphically set in the Beams Eye View. The leaves can be set manually or automatically, based on a previously defined margin around the target. Once the leaves are set, a data file is created for each beam, containing the leaf settings. This file is finally transferred to the MLC computer over the network or by disk. The entire process does not require any manual transfer of leaf settings, not only adding a time-saving but also an error preventing factor to the GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Measurements to verify the accuracy of the adaptations to the planning system are addressed.

  2. 3D geomarketing segmentation: A higher spatial dimension planning perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Rahman, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Geomarketing is a discipline which uses geographic information in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. It can be used in any aspect of the marketing such as price, promotion or geo targeting. The analysis of geomarketing data use a huge data pool such as location...... residential areas, topography, it also analyzes demographic information such as age, genre, annual income and lifestyle. This information can help users to develop successful promotional campaigns in order to achieve marketing goals. One of the common activities in geomarketing is market segmentation...

  3. 3D surgical planning in patients affected by lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Carrasco, J A; Acha, B; Gómez-Cia, T; Lopez-Garcia, R A; Delgado, Carlos; Serrano, C

    2015-03-01

    Lipodystrophy is a pathological condition characterized by the focal or general absence of adipose tissue. Surgeons reset the patient's surface contours using injectable materials to recreate a normal physical appearance. However, due to difficulties in preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment, about 15% of the surgical procedures involved are reinterventions to improve volume or symmetry. This increases the need for an available, efficient tool capable of providing the surgeon with a good estimation of the volumes to be injected before the intervention proper begins. This work describes a virtual reality-based application for the surgical planning of facial lipodystrophy correction (FLIC). The tool uses points selected interactively by the surgeon to compute a curve that delimits the surface area to be operated on. It then automatically computes an estimated natural reconstructed surface and the quantity of volume that needs to be implanted during the intervention. Experiments have been carried out in which the filling volumes estimated using FLIC and ZBrush software were compared with the real volumes injected by the surgeon. ICCs higher than 0.97 indicate that there were no significant differences between the respective measurements, thus validating the tool proposed in this paper.

  4. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in repeat calvarial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Melissa; Daniels, Bradley; Buchanan, Edward P; Monson, Laura; Lam, Sandi

    2017-04-01

    Repeat surgery for restenosis after initial nonsyndromic craniosynostosis intervention is sometimes needed. Calvarial vault reconstruction through a healed surgical bed adds a level of intraoperative complexity and may benefit from preoperative and intraoperative definitions of biometric and aesthetic norms. Computer-assisted design and manufacturing using 3D imaging allows the precise formulation of operative plans in anticipation of surgical intervention. 3D printing turns virtual plans into anatomical replicas, templates, or customized implants by using a variety of materials. The authors present a technical note illustrating the use of this technology: a repeat calvarial vault reconstruction that was planned and executed using computer-assisted design and 3D printed intraoperative guides.

  5. 3D printed liner for treatment of periprosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won B; Lopez, Osvaldo J; Sharkey, Jillian P; Marden, Kyle R; Murshed, Muhammad Ridwan; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, long standing deep infections of joint arthroplasty, such as total knee and total hip replacements, are treated with two-stage exchange. This requires the removal of the prior implant, placement of an antibiotic eluting spacer block made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), followed by re-implantation of a new implant after treatment with intravenous antibiotics for six to eight weeks. Unfortunately, the use of PMMA as a spacer material has limitations in terms of mechanical and drug-eluting properties. PMMA is brittle and elutes most of the antibiotics within the first few days. Furthermore, the polymerization reaction for PMMA is highly exothermic, thereby limiting the use to heat-stable antibiotics. We hypothesize that the use of a 3D printed polymeric liner made of polylactic acid (PLA) would overcome the limitations of PMMA because it is a stronger and a less brittle material than PMMA. Furthermore, the liner can also act as a controlled drug delivery vehicle by using built in reservoirs and a network of micro-channels as well as by incorporating antibiotics directly into the polymer during manufacturing stage. Finally, the liner can be 3D printed according to the anatomy of the patient and thereby has the potential to transform the manner in which periprosthetic joint infections are currently treated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Seelaus, Rosemary; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Cohen, Mimis

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D) computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis.

  7. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  8. Transition from Paris dosimetry system to 3D image-guided planning in interstitial breast brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercińska, Judyta; Wronczewska, Anna; Kabacińska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate our first experience with 3D image-guided breast brachytherapy and to compare dose distribution parameters between Paris dosimetry system (PDS) and image-based plans. First 49 breast cancer patients treated with 3D high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy as a boost were selected for the study. Every patient underwent computed tomography, and the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were outlined. Two treatment plans were created for every patient. First, based on a Paris dosimetry system (PDS), and the second one, imaged-based plan with graphical optimization (OPT). The reference isodose in PDS implants was 85%, whereas in OPT plans the isodose was chosen to obtain proper target coverage. Dose and volume parameters (D90, D100, V90, V100), doses at OARs, total reference air kerma (TRAK), and quality assurance parameters: dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), dose homogeneity index (DHI), and conformity index (COIN) were used for a comparison of both plans. The mean number of catheters was 7 but the mean for 20 first patients was 5 and almost 9 for the next 29 patients. The mean value of prescribed isodose for OPT plans was 73%. The mean D90 was 88.2% and 105.8%, the D100 was 59.8% and 75.7%, the VPTV90 was 88.6% and 98.1%, the VPTV100 was 79.9% and 98.9%, and the TRAK was 0.00375 Gym(-1) and 0.00439 Gym(-1) for the PDS and OPT plans, respectively. The mean DNR was 0.29 and 0.42, the DHI was 0.71 and 0.58, and the COIN was 0.68 and 0.76, respectively. The target coverage in image-guided plans (OPT) was significantly higher than in PDS plans but the dose homogeneity was worse. Also, the value of TRAK increased because of change of prescribing isodose. The learning curve slightly affected our results.

  9. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning and simulation: 3D virtual osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Ip, H H; Samman, N; Wang, D; Kot, C S; Yeung, R W; Tideman, H

    2000-02-01

    A computer-assisted three-dimensional virtual osteotomy system for orthognathic surgery (CAVOS) is presented. The virtual reality workbench is used for surgical planning. The surgeon immerses in a virtual reality environment with stereo eyewear, holds a virtual "scalpel" (3D Mouse) and operates on a "real" patient (3D visualization) to obtain pre-surgical prediction (3D bony segment movements). Virtual surgery on a computer-generated 3D head model is simulated and can be visualized from any arbitrary viewing point in a personal computer system.

  10. Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalhofer, Jardel L.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Junior, Juraci R.P., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: samandacristine@uezo.rj.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Edmilson M., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Centro Universitario da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Colegiado de Comutacao e Matematica; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: delano@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)

  11. Application of 3D Printing in the Surgical Planning of Trimalleolar Fracture and Doctor-Patient Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of 3D printing in treating trimalleolar fractures and its roles in physician-patient communication, thirty patients with trimalleolar fractures were randomly divided into the 3D printing assisted-design operation group (Group A and the no-3D printing assisted-design group (Group B. In Group A, 3D printing was used by the surgeons to produce a prototype of the actual fracture to guide the surgical treatment. All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation. A questionnaire was designed for doctors and patients to verify the verisimilitude and effectiveness of the 3D-printed prototype. Meanwhile, the operation time and the intraoperative blood loss were compared between the two groups. The fracture prototypes were accurately printed, and the average overall score of the verisimilitude and effectiveness of the 3D-printed prototypes was relatively high. Both the operation time and the intraoperative blood loss in Group A were less than those in Group B (P<0.05. Patient satisfaction using the 3D-printed prototype and the communication score were 9.3±0.6 points. A 3D-printed prototype can faithfully reflect the anatomy of the fracture site; it can effectively help the doctors plan the operation and represent an effective tool for physician-patient communication.

  12. Application of 3D Printing in the Surgical Planning of Trimalleolar Fracture and Doctor-Patient Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Shang, Xian-Wen; Fan, Jian-Nan; He, Zhi-Xu; Wang, Jian-Ji; Liu, Miao; Zhuang, Yong; Ye, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3D printing in treating trimalleolar fractures and its roles in physician-patient communication, thirty patients with trimalleolar fractures were randomly divided into the 3D printing assisted-design operation group (Group A) and the no-3D printing assisted-design group (Group B). In Group A, 3D printing was used by the surgeons to produce a prototype of the actual fracture to guide the surgical treatment. All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation. A questionnaire was designed for doctors and patients to verify the verisimilitude and effectiveness of the 3D-printed prototype. Meanwhile, the operation time and the intraoperative blood loss were compared between the two groups. The fracture prototypes were accurately printed, and the average overall score of the verisimilitude and effectiveness of the 3D-printed prototypes was relatively high. Both the operation time and the intraoperative blood loss in Group A were less than those in Group B (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction using the 3D-printed prototype and the communication score were 9.3 ± 0.6 points. A 3D-printed prototype can faithfully reflect the anatomy of the fracture site; it can effectively help the doctors plan the operation and represent an effective tool for physician-patient communication.

  13. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Hui Huang,1,2 Rosemary Seelaus,1,2 Linping Zhao,1,2 Pravin K Patel,1,2 Mimis Cohen1,2 1The Craniofacial Center, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System, 2University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis. Keywords: computer-assisted surgery, virtual surgical planning (VSP, 3D printing, orbital prosthetic reconstruction, craniofacial implants

  14. [Exploratory study of 3D printing technique in the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yiheng; Yu, Xinguang; Tong, Huaiyu; Xu, Tao; Wang, Peng; Qiao, Guangyu

    2015-10-06

    To investigate the clinical application value of the 3D printing technique in the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation. From January 2013 to September 2013, 10 patients with basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation needing posterior fixation undertook 3D printing modes at the Department of Neurosurgery in PLA General Hospital. The 1:1 size models were established from skull base to C4 level with different colors between bone structures and vertebral arteries. The simulation of screw insertion was made to investigate the fixation plan and ideal entry point to avoid vertebral artery injury. After obtaining the individual screw insertion data in 3D printing modes, the according surgical operations were performed. The actual clinical results and virtual screw data in 3D printing mode were compared with each other. The 3D printing modes revealed that all the 10 patients had the dysplasia or occipitalized C1 posterior arch indicating C1 posterior arch screw implantation was not suitable. C1 lateral masses were chosen as the screws entry points. C2 screws were designed individually based on the 3D printing modes as follows: 3 patients with aberrant vertebral artery or narrow C2 pedicle less than 3.5 mm were not suitable for pedicle screw implantation. Among the 3 patients, 1 was fixed with C2 laminar screw, and 1 with C2-3 transarticular screw and 1 with C3 pedicle screw (also combined with congenital C2-3 vertebral fusion). Two patients with narrow C2 pedicle between 3.5 and 4mm were designed to choose pedicle screw fixation after 3D printing mode evaluation. One patient with C1 lateral mass vertically dislocated axis was planned with C1-2 transarticular screw fixation. All the other patients were planned with C2 pedicle screws. All the 10 patients had operation designed as the 3D printing modes schemes. The follow-up ranged from 12 to 18 months and all the patients recovered from the clinical symptoms and the bony fusion attained to

  15. Domestic comparison of radiation treatment techniques for breast cancer: 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Yoon, Myong Geun [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yusung Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare method in the treatment of breast cancer using dose index. And, it is to find the optimized treatment technique to the patient. The phantom filled with tissue-equivalent material were used simulation and treatment as techniques of 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT was planned using Eclipse v10. By using HI(homogeneity index), CI(Conformity index), OE (Organ equivalent dose), EAR(Excess Absolute Risk), were assessed for each treatment plans. HI and CI of 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT were calculated 16.89, 11.21, 9.55 and 0.59, 0.61, 0.83. The organ average doses of Lt lung, Rt lung, liver, heart, esophagus, cord, Lt breast, trachea and stomach were 0.01 ∼ 2.02 Gy, 0.36 ∼ 5.01 Gy, 0.25 ∼ 2.49 Gy, 0.14 ∼ 6.92 Gy, 0.03 ∼ 2.02 Gy, 0.01 ∼ 1.06 Gy, 0.25 ∼ 6.08 Gy, 0.08 ∼ 0.59 Gy, 0.01 ∼ 1.34 Gy, respectively. The OED, EAR of the IMRT and VMAT show higher than 3D-CRT. As the result of this study, we could confirm being higher dose index(HI, CI) in IMRT and VMAT than 3D-CRT, but doses of around normal organs was higher IMRT, VMAT than 3D-CRT.

  16. Task Assignment and Path Planning for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using 3D Dubins Curves (†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenyu; Zhang, Meiyan; Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    2017-07-11

    This paper investigates the task assignment and path planning problem for multiple AUVs in three dimensional (3D) underwater wireless sensor networks where nonholonomic motion constraints of underwater AUVs in 3D space are considered. The multi-target task assignment and path planning problem is modeled by the Multiple Traveling Sales Person (MTSP) problem and the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to solve the MTSP problem with Euclidean distance as the cost function and the Tour Hop Balance (THB) or Tour Length Balance (TLB) constraints as the stop criterion. The resulting tour sequences are mapped to 2D Dubins curves in the X - Y plane, and then interpolated linearly to obtain the Z coordinates. We demonstrate that the linear interpolation fails to achieve G 1 continuity in the 3D Dubins path for multiple targets. Therefore, the interpolated 3D Dubins curves are checked against the AUV dynamics constraint and the ones satisfying the constraint are accepted to finalize the 3D Dubins curve selection. Simulation results demonstrate that the integration of the 3D Dubins curve with the MTSP model is successful and effective for solving the 3D target assignment and path planning problem.

  17. 3D Geovisualization & Stylization to Manage Comprehensive and Participative Local Urban Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasebin, M.; Christophe, S.; Jacquinod, F.; Vinesse, A.; Mahon, H.

    2016-10-01

    3D geo-visualization is more and more used and appreciated to support public participation, and is generally used to present predesigned planned projects. Nevertheless, other participatory processes may benefit from such technology such as the elaboration of urban planning documents. In this article, we present one of the objectives of the PLU++ project: the design of a 3D geo-visualization system that eases the participation concerning local urban plans. Through a pluridisciplinary approach, it aims at covering the different aspects of such a system: the simulation of built configurations to represent regulation information, the efficient stylization of these objects to make people understand their meanings and the interaction between 3D simulation and stylization. The system aims at being adaptive according to the participation context and to the dynamic of the participation. It will offer the possibility to modify simulation results and the rendering styles of the 3D representations to support participation. The proposed 3D rendering styles will be used in a set of practical experiments in order to test and validate some hypothesis from past researches of the project members about 3D simulation, 3D semiotics and knowledge about uses.

  18. Task Assignment and Path Planning for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using 3D Dubins Curves †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Cai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the task assignment and path planning problem for multiple AUVs in three dimensional (3D underwater wireless sensor networks where nonholonomic motion constraints of underwater AUVs in 3D space are considered. The multi-target task assignment and path planning problem is modeled by the Multiple Traveling Sales Person (MTSP problem and the Genetic Algorithm (GA is used to solve the MTSP problem with Euclidean distance as the cost function and the Tour Hop Balance (THB or Tour Length Balance (TLB constraints as the stop criterion. The resulting tour sequences are mapped to 2D Dubins curves in the X − Y plane, and then interpolated linearly to obtain the Z coordinates. We demonstrate that the linear interpolation fails to achieve G 1 continuity in the 3D Dubins path for multiple targets. Therefore, the interpolated 3D Dubins curves are checked against the AUV dynamics constraint and the ones satisfying the constraint are accepted to finalize the 3D Dubins curve selection. Simulation results demonstrate that the integration of the 3D Dubins curve with the MTSP model is successful and effective for solving the 3D target assignment and path planning problem.

  19. Sensor planning method for visual tracking in 3D camera networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anlong Ming; and Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Most sensors or cameras discussed in the sensor net-work community are usual y 3D homogeneous, even though their 2D coverage areas in the ground plane are heterogeneous. Mean-while, observed objects of camera networks are usual y simplified as 2D points in previous literature. However in actual application scenes, not only cameras are always heterogeneous with differ-ent height and action radiuses, but also the observed objects are with 3D features (i.e., height). This paper presents a sensor plan-ning formulation addressing the efficiency enhancement of visual tracking in 3D heterogeneous camera networks that track and de-tect people traversing a region. The problem of sensor planning consists of three issues: (i) how to model the 3D heterogeneous cameras;(i ) how to rank the visibility, which ensures that the object of interest is visible in a camera’s field of view;(i i) how to reconfi-gure the 3D viewing orientations of the cameras. This paper stud-ies the geometric properties of 3D heterogeneous camera net-works and addresses an evaluation formulation to rank the visibility of observed objects. Then a sensor planning method is proposed to improve the efficiency of visual tracking. Final y, the numerical results show that the proposed method can improve the tracking performance of the system compared to the conventional strate-gies.

  20. Evaluation of dosimetric misrepresentations from 3D conventional planning of liver SBRT using 4D deformable dose integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Unjin A; Taylor, Michael L; Supple, Jeremy R; Siva, Shankar; Kron, Tomas; Pham, Daniel; Franich, Rick D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dosimetric errors in 3D conventional plan- ning of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by using a 4D deformable image registration (DIR)-based dose-warping and integration technique. Respiratory- correlated 4D CT image sets with 10 phases were acquired for four consecutive patients with five liver tumors. Average intensity projection (AIP) images were used to generate 3D conventional plans of SBRT. Quasi-4D path-integrated dose accumulation was performed over all 10 phases using dose-warping techniques based on DIR. This result was compared to the conventional plan in order to evalu- ate the appropriateness of 3D (static) dose calculations. In addition, we consider whether organ dose metrics derived from contours defined on the average intensity projection (AIP), or on a reference phase, provide the better approximation of the 4D values. The impact of using fewer (3D planning approach overestimated doses to targets by 1.4% to 8.7% (mean 4.2%) and underestimated dose to normal liver by up to 8% (mean -5.5%; range -2.3% to -8.0%), compared to the 4D methodology. The homogeneity of the dose distribution was overestimated when using conventional 3D calculations by up to 24%. OAR doses estimated by 3D planning were, on average, within 10% of the 4D calculations; however, differences of up to 100% were observed. Four-dimensional dose calculation using 3 phases gave a reasonable approximation of that calculated from the full 10 phases for all patients, which is potentially useful from a workload perspective. 4D evaluation showed that conventional 3D planning on an AIP can significantly overestimate target dose (ITV and GTV+5mm), underestimate normal liver dose, and overestimate dose homogeneity. Implementing nonadaptive quasi- 4D dose calculation can highlight the potential limitation of 3D conventional SBRT planning and the resultant misrepresentations of dose in some regions affected by motion and deformation. Where the 4D

  1. Multimodal 3D PET/CT system for bronchoscopic procedure planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Higgins, William E.

    2013-02-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) / computed-tomography (CT) scanners give 3D multimodal data sets of the chest. Such data sets offer the potential for more complete and specific identification of suspect lesions and lymph nodes for lung-cancer assessment. This in turn enables better planning of staging bronchoscopies. The richness of the data, however, makes the visualization and planning process difficult. We present an integrated multimodal 3D PET/CT system that enables efficient region identification and bronchoscopic procedure planning. The system first invokes a series of automated 3D image-processing methods that construct a 3D chest model. Next, the user interacts with a set of interactive multimodal graphical tools that facilitate procedure planning for specific regions of interest (ROIs): 1) an interactive region candidate list that enables efficient ROI viewing in all tools; 2) a virtual PET-CT bronchoscopy rendering with SUV quantitative visualization to give a "fly through" endoluminal view of prospective ROIs; 3) transverse, sagittal, coronal multi-planar reformatted (MPR) views of the raw CT, PET, and fused CT-PET data; and 4) interactive multimodal volume/surface rendering to give a 3D perspective of the anatomy and candidate ROIs. In addition the ROI selection process is driven by a semi-automatic multimodal method for region identification. In this way, the system provides both global and local information to facilitate more specific ROI identification and procedure planning. We present results to illustrate the system's function and performance.

  2. 3D printed renal cancer models derived from MRI data: application in pre-surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Nicole; Rude, Temitope; Kang, Stella K; Stifelman, Michael D; Borin, James F; Sodickson, Daniel K; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether patient-specific 3D printed renal tumor models change pre-operative planning decisions made by urological surgeons in preparation for complex renal mass surgical procedures. From our ongoing IRB approved study on renal neoplasms, ten renal mass cases were retrospectively selected based on Nephrometry Score greater than 5 (range 6-10). A 3D post-contrast fat-suppressed gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence was used to generate 3D printed models. The cases were evaluated by three experienced urologic oncology surgeons in a randomized fashion using (1) imaging data on PACS alone and (2) 3D printed model in addition to the imaging data. A questionnaire regarding surgical approach and planning was administered. The presumed pre-operative approaches with and without the model were compared. Any change between the presumed approaches and the actual surgical intervention was recorded. There was a change in planned approach with the 3D printed model for all ten cases with the largest impact seen regarding decisions on transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach and clamping, with changes seen in 30%-50% of cases. Mean parenchymal volume loss for the operated kidney was 21.4%. Volume losses >20% were associated with increased ischemia times and surgeons tended to report a different approach with the use of the 3D model compared to that with imaging alone in these cases. The 3D printed models helped increase confidence regarding the chosen operative procedure in all cases. Pre-operative physical 3D models created from MRI data may influence surgical planning for complex kidney cancer.

  3. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, Alena; Sramka, Miron; Thurzo, Andrej; Furdová, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery. The software for segmentation (3D Slicer) created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D(®)) and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid. In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient's eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001-2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma) were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm(3) (0.2-1.6 cm(3)). The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram. The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures.

  4. 3-Phase Recognition Approach to Pseudo 3D Building Generation from 2D Floor Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Moloo, Raj Kishen; Auleear, Abu Salmaan

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays three dimension (3D) architectural visualisation has become a powerful tool in the conceptualisation, design and presentation of architectural products in the construction industry, providing realistic interaction and walkthrough on engineering products. Traditional ways of implementing 3D models involves the use of specialised 3D authoring tools along with skilled 3D designers with blueprints of the model and this is a slow and laborious process. The aim of this paper is to automate this process by simply analyzing the blueprint document and generating the 3D scene automatically. For this purpose we have devised a 3-Phase recognition approach to pseudo 3D building generation from 2D floor plan and developed a software accordingly. Our 3-phased 3D building system has been implemented using C, C++ and OpenCV library [24] for the Image Processing module; The Save Module generated an XML file for storing the processed floor plan objects attributes; while the Irrlitch [14] game engine was used to impleme...

  5. Plan de empresa dedicada a las nuevas tecnologías (impresoras 3D)

    OpenAIRE

    LLOPIS LLOPIS, JUAN GABRIEL

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Plan de negocio de una empresa dedicada a la venta de impresoras 3D y diseño y fabricación de piezas con impresión 3D para distintos sectores (como sector de la medicina, odontología, ejercito, automoción,¿). Se pondrán a disposición de los clientes para la venta una amplia gama de impresoras 3D, accesorios para ellas, así como diseños de piezas personalizadas para diferentes sectores para los que trabajara la empresa bajo demanda. Además, se piensa en prestar servicio de asesorami...

  6. Applying 3D-printing technology in planning operations of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, L. N.; N, A. N. Rudyk A.; Kashapov, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work was creation 3D model of the front part of the skull of the patient and evaluates the effectiveness of its use in the planning of the operation. To achieve this goal was chosen an operation to remove a tumor of the right eyelid, germinate in the zygomatic bone. 3D printing was performed at different peripheral devices using the method of layering creating physical objects by a digital 3D model as well as the recovery model of the skull with the entire right malar bone for fixation on her titanium frame to maintain the eyeball in a fixed state.

  7. Web-based 3-D GIS and its applications for pipeline planning and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, V.; Wang, T.Q.K. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The many benefits that web-based 3D geographical information system (GIS) technology can bring to pipeline planning and construction was discussed. GIS can effectively integrate and manage a variety of data sources including geological, geographical, environmental, engineering and socioeconomic data. The third dimension of geospatial data is also very significant for pipeline planning, construction and maintenance which explains the increased demand for the development of a 3D GIS for pipeline applications. The Internet has made it possible to integrate GIS, visualization and distributed object computing technologies for a web-based 3D GIS. While this offers many advantages, it also poses several technical challenges. The technology allows users to access, manipulate and analyze geospatial objects remotely. This has positive implications for pipeline operating companies in their collaborative decision making for large pipeline projects that cover large areas with multiple landowners and different government sections. The technology will enhance their capability and productivity by making it possible to run their operations more efficiently. The Department of Geomatics Engineering at the University of Calgary has developed a web-based 3D GIS, GeoEye 3D prototype using a pure Java solution. The system is based on an advanced client/server model for visualization, manipulation and analysis of spatial data such as 3D terrain, wells, linear objects such as roads or pipelines and solid objects such as buildings. The system can be linked to other databases for spatial inquiry. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, Alena; Sramka, Miron; Thurzo, Andrej; Furdová, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods The software for segmentation (3D Slicer) created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D®) and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid. Results In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient’s eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001–2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma) were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm3 (0.2–1.6 cm3). The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram. Conclusion The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures. PMID:28203052

  9. Recent improvements in SPE3D: a VR-based surgery planning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Verdonschot, Nico

    2014-02-01

    SPE3D is a surgery planning environment developed within TLEMsafe project [1] (funded by the European Commission FP7). It enables the operator to plan a surgical procedure on the customized musculoskeletal (MS) model of the patient's lower limbs, send the modified model to the biomechanical analysis module, and export the scenario's parameters to the surgical navigation system. The personalized patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) MS model is registered with 3-D MRI dataset of lower limbs and the two modalities may be visualized simultaneously. Apart from main planes, any arbitrary MRI cross-section can be rendered on the 3-D MS model in real time. The interface provides tools for: bone cutting, manipulating and removal, repositioning muscle insertion points, modifying muscle force, removing muscles and placing implants stored in the implant library. SPE3D supports stereoscopic viewing as well as natural inspection/manipulation with use of haptic devices. Alternatively, it may be controlled with use of a standard computer keyboard, mouse and 2D display or a touch screen (e.g. in an operating room). The interface may be utilized in two main fields. Experienced surgeons may use it to simulate their operative plans and prepare input data for a surgical navigation system while student or novice surgeons can use it for training.

  10. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway.

  11. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furdová A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alena Furdová,1 Miron Sramka,2 Andrej Thurzo,3 Adriana Furdová3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 2Department of Stereotactic Radiosurgery, St Elisabeth Cancer Inst and St Elisabeth University College of Health and Social Work, 3Department of Simulation and Virtual Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.Methods: The software for segmentation (3D Slicer created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D® and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid.Results: In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient’s eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001–2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm3 (0.2–1.6 cm3. The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram.Conclusion: The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures. Keywords: 3D printing, uveal melanoma, stereotactic radiosurgery, linear accelerator, intraocular tumor, stereotactic planning scheme

  12. Predictably replacing maxillary incisors with implants using 3-D planning and guided implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrle, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Replacement of multiple adjacent teeth in the esthetic zone with dental implants is a surgical and restorative challenge, especially when an esthetic outcome is essential. Sound diagnosis and treatment planning can be combined with use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 3-dimensional (3-D) software to achieve desired results. Placement of implants using guided surgical templates is critical when there is limited space between adjacent teeth or limited bone volume. Slight deviations in implant positioning during placement can lead to implants being too close to adjacent teeth, resulting in bone loss, recession, and encroachment upon adjacent papillae. Placement of implants in anatomically deficient or compromised areas is difficult when using a freehand drill protocol, because attaining the necessary precision cannot be achieved routinely. Esthetically demanding patients require precise implant placement. Use of guided surgical planning and implant placement enables the surgeon to take maximum advantage of available bone in anatomically restricted areas. Restoratively, ideal implant placement facilitates rehabilitation; therefore, all parameters must be observed in order to achieve an esthetically pleasing final restoration.

  13. Full Scale 3D Preoperative Planning System of the Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery with Multimedia System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ping Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to develop a computer-aided pre-surgical planning and simulating system in a multimedia environment for ankle joint replacement surgery. This system uses full-scale 3D reverse engineering techniques in design and development of the pre-surgical planning modules for ankle joint replacement surgery. This planning system not only develops the real-scale 3D image of the artificial ankle joint but also provides a detailed interior measurement of the ankle joint from various cutting planes. In this study, we apply the multimedia user interface to integrate different software functions into a surgical planning system with integrated functions. The functions include 3D model image acquisition, cutting, horizontal shifting and rotation of related bones (tibia and talus of the ankle joint in the predetermined time. For related bones of the ankle joint, it can also be used to design artificial ankle joints for adults in Taiwan. Those planning procedures can be recorded in this system for further research and investigation. Furthermore, since this system is a multimedia user interface, surgeons can use this system to plan and find a better and more efficient surgical approach before surgery. A database is available for this system to update and expand, which can provide different users with clinical cases as per their experience and learning.

  14. Difference in the Set-up Margin between 2D Conventional and 3D CT Based Planning in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sun Mi; Chun, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Hwa; Oh, Young Taek; Noh, O Kyu [Ajou University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seung Hee [Inje University, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Simulation using computed tomography (CT) is now widely available for radiation treatment planning for breast cancer. It is an important tool to help define the tumor target and normal tissue based on anatomical features of an individual patient. In Korea, most patients have small sized breasts and the purpose of this study was to review the margin of treatment field between conventional two-dimensional (2D) planning and CT based three-dimensional (3D) planning in patients with small breasts. Twenty-five consecutive patients with early breast cancer undergoing breast conservation therapy were selected. All patients underwent 3D CT based planning with a conventional breast tangential field design. In 2D planning, the treatment field margins were determined by palpation of the breast parenchyma (In general, the superior: base of the clavicle, medial: midline, lateral: mid - axillary line, and inferior margin: 2 m below the inflamammary fold). In 3D planning, the clinical target volume (CTV) ought to comprise all glandular breast tissue, and the PTV was obtained by adding a 3D margin of 1 cm around the CTV except in the skin direction. The difference in the treatment field margin and equivalent field size between 2D and 3D planning were evaluated. The association between radiation field margins and factors such as body mass index, menopause status, and bra size was determined. Lung volume and heart volume were examined on the basis of the prescribed breast radiation dose and 3D dose distribution. The margins of the treatment field were smaller in the 3D planning except for two patients. The superior margin was especially variable (average, 2.5 cm; range, -2.5 to 4.5 cm; SD, 1.85). The margin of these targets did not vary equally across BMI class, menopause status, or bra size. The average irradiated lung volume was significantly lower for 3D planning. The average irradiated heart volume did not decrease significantly. The use of 3D CT based planning reduced the

  15. 3D-visualization by MRI for surgical planning of Wilms tumors; 3-D-Visualisierung in der MRT zur Operationsplanung von Wilms-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, J.P.; Wunsch, R.; Jourdan, C.; Troeger, J. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie; Waag, K.-L.; Guenther, P. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Kinderchirurgie; Graf, N. [Universitaetsklinik Homburg (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie; Behnisch, W. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To improve surgical planning of kidney tumors in childhood (Wilms tumor, mesoblastic nephroma) after radiologic verification of the presumptive diagnosis with interactive colored 3D-animation in MRI. Materials and Methods: In 7 children (1 boy, 6 girls) with a mean age of 3 years (1 month to 11 years), the MRI database (DICOM) was processed with a raycasting-based 3D-volume-rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.1/Volume Graphics). The abdominal MRI-sequences (coronal STIR, coronal T1 TSE, transverse T1/T2 TSE, sagittal T2 TSE, transverse and coronal T1 TSE post contrast) were obtained with a 0.5T unit in 4-6 mm slices. Additionally, phase-contrast-MR-angiography was applied to delineate the large abdominal and retroperitoneal vessels. A notebook was used to demonstrate the 3D-visualization for surgical planning before surgery and during the surgical procedure. Results: In all 7 cases, the surgical approach was influenced by interactive 3D-animation and the information found useful for surgical planning. Above all, the 3D-visualization demonstrates the mass effect of the Wilms tumor and its anatomical relationship to the renal hilum and to the rest of the kidney as well as the topographic relationship of the tumor to the critical vessels. One rupture of the tumor capsule occurred as a surgical complication. For the surgeon, the transformation of the anatomical situation from MRI to the surgical situs has become much easier. Conclusion: For surgical planning of Wilms tumors, the 3D-visualization with 3D-animation of the situs helps to transfer important information from the pediatric radiologist to the pediatric surgeon and optimizes the surgical preparation. A reduction of complications is to be expected. (orig.)

  16. A precision 3D conformal treatment technique in rats: application to whole brain radiotherapy with hippocampal avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suk W; Cramer, Christina K; Miles, Devin A; Reinsvold, Michael H; Joo, Kyeung M; Kirsch, David G; Oldham, Mark

    2017-08-24

    To develop and validate 3D conformal hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) for Wistar rats utilizing precision 3D printed immobilization and micro-blocks. This technique paves the way for future pre-clinical studies investigating brain treatments that reduce neurotoxicity. A novel pre-clinical treatment planning and delivery process was developed to enable precision 3D conformal treatment and hippocampal avoidance capability for the Xrad 225cx small animal irradiator. A range of conformal avoidance plans were evaluated consisting of equi-angularly spaced co-planar axial beams, with plans containing 2, 4, 7, and 8 fields. The hippocampal sparing and coverage of these plans were investigated through Monte Carlo dose calculation (SmART-Plan Xrad 225cx planning system). Treatment delivery was implemented through a novel process where hippocampal block shapes were computer-generated from an MRI rat atlas which was registered to on-board cone-beam-CT of the rat in treatment position. The blocks were 3D-printed with a tungsten-doped filament at lateral resolution of 80μm. Precision immobilization was achieved utilizing a 3D-printed support system which enabled angled positioning of the rat head in supine position and bite-block to improve coverage of the central diencephalon. Treatment delivery was verified on rodent-morphic Presage(®) 3D dosimeters optically scanned at 0.2mm isotropic resolution. Biological verification of hippocampal avoidance was performed with immunohistologic staining. All simulated plans spared the hippocampus while delivering high dose to the brain (22.5-26.2Gy mean dose to brain at mean hippocampal dose of 7Gy). No significant improvement in hippocampal sparing was observed by adding beams beyond 4 fields. Dosimetric sparing of hippocampal region of the 4-field plan was verified with the Presage(®) dosimeter (mean dose = 9.6Gy, D100% = 7.1Gy). Simulation and dosimeter match at distance-to-agreement of 2mm and dose

  17. Computer-aided planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Markus; Xing Li; Xiaojun Chen; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Egger, Jan

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution, a prototype for semiautomatic computer-aided planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants is presented. The software prototype guides the user through the workflow, beginning with loading and mirroring the patient's head to obtain an initial curvature of the cranial implant. However, naïve mirroring is not sufficient for an implant, because human heads are in general too asymmetric. Thus, the user can perform Laplacian smoothing, followed by Delaunay triangulation, for generating an aesthetic looking and well-fitting implant. Finally, our software prototype allows to save the designed 3D model of the implant as a STL-file for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can be used for further pre-interventional planning or even as the final implant for the patient. In summary, our findings show that a customized MeVisLab prototype can be an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may not be available in a clinic.

  18. Individualized Surgical Approach Planning for Petroclival Tumors Using a 3D Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelleman, Thomas John; Peterson, Jeremy; Chowdhury, Naweed Iffat; Gorup, Jason; Camarata, Paul; Lin, James

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To determine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in individualized petroclival tumor resection planning by measuring the fidelity of printed anatomical structures and comparing tumor exposure afforded by different approaches. Design Case series and review of the literature. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants Three patients with petroclival lesions. Main Outcome Measures Subjective opinion of access by neuro-otologists and neurosurgeons as well as surface area of tumor exposure. Results Surgeons found the 3D models of each patient's skull and tumor useful for preoperative planning. Limitations of individual surgical approaches not identified through preoperative imaging were apparent after 3D models were evaluated. Significant variability in exposure was noted between models for similar or identical approaches. A notable drawback is that our printing process did not replicate mastoid air cells. Conclusions We found that 3D modeling is useful for individualized preoperative planning for approaching petroclival tumors. Our printing techniques did produce authentic replicas of the tumors in relation to bony structures.

  19. 3D Environment Mapping Using the Kinect V2 and Path Planning Based on RRT Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbert G. Aguilar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a 3D path planning system that is able to provide a solution trajectory for the automatic control of a robot. The proposed system uses a point cloud obtained from the robot workspace, with a Kinect V2 sensor to identify the interest regions and the obstacles of the environment. Our proposal includes a collision-free path planner based on the Rapidly-exploring Random Trees variant (RRT*, for a safe and optimal navigation of robots in 3D spaces. Results on RGB-D segmentation and recognition, point cloud processing, and comparisons between different RRT* algorithms, are presented.

  20. Evaluation of 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT radiotherapy plans for left breast cancer based on clinical dosimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyun; Chen, Xinde; He, Zhijian; Li, Jun

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to compare dosimetric differences based on three types of radiotherapy plans for postoperative left breast cancer. In particular, based on a clinical dosimetric study, the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity- modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and VMAT plans were implemented on 15 cases of postoperative patients with left breast cancer with prescription doses of 5000cGy. Dose volume histogram (DVH) was used to analyze each evaluation index of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Except for homogeneous index (HI), D2, each CTV evaluation index of 3D-CRT plan was inferior to IMRT and VMAT plans (Pplans, IMRT has a statistical significance only in Dmean, V95 (Pplan is much closer to the prescription dose with a V95 coverage rate as high as 97.44%. For the infected lung, V5, V10 of 3D-CRT were the lowest (Pplans. Here, the V5, V10 of infected lung were slightly higher (Pplans. Each evaluation index of the contralateral lung and heart in 3D-CRT was the lowest (Pplans, which were 1770.89±121.16cGy and 1839.92±92.77cGy, respectively. While D1 of the spinal cord in IMRT and VMAT plans was higher, which were 1990.12±61.52cGy and 1927.38±43.67cGy, respectively. When the radiation dose of 500-1500cGy was delivered to the normal tissues, 3D-CRT significantly shows the lowest volume, VMAT is relatively higher. Monitor Units (MU) and treatment time (T) of VMAT were the least, only 49.33% and 55.86% of those of IMRT. The three types of plans can meet the clinical dosimetry demands of postoperative radiotherapy for left breast cancer. The target of IMRT and VMAT plans has a better conformity, and the VMAT plan takes the advantages of less MU and treatment time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostate and seminal vesicle volume based consideration of prostate cancer patients for treatment with 3D-conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chang, Hyesook; Lange, Christopher S.; Ravi, Akkamma [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the suitability of the prostate and seminal vesicle volumes as factors to consider patients for treatment with image-guided 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using common dosimetry parameters as comparison tools. Methods: Dosimetry of 3D and IMRT plans for 48 patients was compared. Volumes of prostate, SV, rectum, and bladder, and prescriptions were the same for both plans. For both 3D and IMRT plans, expansion margins to prostate+SV (CTV) and prostate were 0.5 cm posterior and superior and 1 cm in other dimensions to create PTV and CDPTV, respectively. Six-field 3D plans were prepared retrospectively. For 3D plans, an additional 0.5 cm margin was added to PTV and CDPTV. Prescription for both 3D and IMRT plans was the same: 45 Gy to CTV followed by a 36 Gy boost to prostate. Dosimetry parameters common to 3D and IMRT plans were used for comparison: Mean doses to prostate, CDPTV, SV, rectum, bladder, and femurs; percent volume of rectum and bladder receiving 30 (V30), 50 (V50), and 70 Gy (V70), dose to 30% of rectum and bladder, minimum and maximum point dose to CDPTV, and prescription dose covering 95% of CDPTV (D95). Results: When the data for all patients were combined, mean dose to prostate and CDPTV was higher with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). Mean D95 to CDPTV was the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). On average, among all cases, the minimum point dose was less for 3D-CRT plans and the maximum point dose was greater for 3D-CRT than for IMRT (P<0.01). Mean dose to 30% rectum with 3D and IMRT plans was comparable (P>0.1). V30 was less (P<0.01), V50 was the same (P>0.2), and V70 was more (P<0.01) for rectum with 3D than IMRT plans. Mean dose to bladder was less with 3D than IMRT plans (P<0.01). V30 for bladder with 3D plans was less than that of IMRT plans (P<0.01). V50 and V70 for 3D plans were the same for 3D and IMRT plans (P>0.2). Mean dose to femurs

  2. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case. PMID:28220752

  3. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsworth Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  4. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  5. Surgical planning for resection of an ameloblastoma and reconstruction of the mandible using a selective laser sintering 3D biomodel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo; Silva, Jorge Vicente L; Brito, Antonio Albuquerque; Saez, Daniel Martinez; Angelieri, Fernanda; Dalben, Gisele da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally aggressive infiltrative odontogenic lesion. It is characterized by slow growth and painless swelling. The treatment for ameloblastoma varies from curettage to en bloc resection, and the reported recurrence rates after treatment are high; the safety margin of resection is important to avoid recurrence. Advances in technology brought about great benefits in dentistry; a new generation of computed tomography scanners and 3-dimensional images enhance the surgical planning and management of maxillofacial tumors. The development of new prototyping systems provides accurate 3D biomodels on which surgery can be simulated, especially in cases of ameloblastoma, in which the safety margin is important for treatment success. A case of mandibular follicular ameloblastoma is reported where a 3D biomodel was used before and during surgery.

  6. Development of tactile floor plan for the blind and the visually impaired by 3D printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raša Urbas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to produce tactile floor plans for blind and visually impaired people for the use in the museum. For the production of tactile floor plans 3D printing technique was selected among three different techniques. 3D prints were made of white and colored ABS polymer materials. Development of different elements of tactile floor plans, as well as the problems and the solutions during 3D printing, are described in the paper.

  7. Renal Tumor Cryoablation Planning. The Efficiency of Simulation on Reconstructed 3D CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Valerian LUCAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nephron-sparing surgical techniques risks are related to tumor relationships with adjacent anatomic structures. Complexity of the renal anatomy drives the interest to develop tools for 3D reconstruction and surgery simulation. The aim of the article was to assess the simulation on reconstructed 3D CT scan used for planning the cryoablation. Material & Method: A prospective randomized study was performed between Jan. 2007 and July 2009 on 27 patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic T1a renal tumors cryoablation (RC. All patients were assessed preoperatively by CT scan, also used for 3D volume rendering. In the Gr.A, the patients underwent surgery planning by simulation on 3D CT scan. In the Gr.B., patients underwent standard RC. The two groups were compared in terms of surgical time, bleeding, postoperative drainage, analgesics requirement, hospital stay, time to socio-professional reintegration. Results: Fourteen patients underwent preoperative cryoablation planning (Gr.A and 13 patients underwent standard CR (Gr.B. All parameters analyzed were shorter in the Gr.A. On multivariate logistic regression, only shortens of the surgical time (138.79±5.51 min. in Gr.A. vs. 140.92±5.54 min in Gr.B. and bleeding (164.29±60.22 mL in Gr.A. vs. 215.38±100.80 mL in Gr.B. achieved statistical significance (p<0.05. The number of cryoneedles assessed by simulation had a 92.52% accuracy when compared with those effectively used. Conclusions: Simulation of the cryoablation using reconstructed 3D CT scan improves the surgical results. The application used for simulation was able to accurately assess the number of cryoneedles required for tumor ablation, their direction and approach.

  8. Human race as indicator of 3D planning of soft tissue of face and multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadazdyova, A; Samohyl, M; Stefankova, E; Pintesova, S; Stanko, P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal parameters for 3D soft tissue planning for ortognatic treatment by gender and increases the effectiveness of multidisciplinary cooperation. Craniofacial parameters which were analysed: nose breadth (al-al), bi-entocanthion breadth (en-en), bi-zygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bi-gonial breadth (go-go), total facial height (n-gn), mouth breadth (ch-ch), morphologic face height (sn-gn), upper-lip height (Ls-Stm), lower-lip height (Stm-Li) and pupils - mid-face (right). The statistically significant level was determined at p values maxilofacial surgeon. The gender and age influenced the variability of following parameters: bi-gonial breadth, total facial height and morphologic face height. The soft tissue values for craniofacial parameters can be used to identify the surgical-orthodontic goal for patient - europoid race. Due to the immigration and the mix of races it is necessary to take this fact into account (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 41).

  9. Gap-filling methods for 3D PlanTIS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukiala, A; Tuna, U; Ruotsalainen, U [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 553, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Beer, S [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Jahnke, S, E-mail: uygar.tuna@tut.f [ICG-3 Phytosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-10-21

    The range of positron emitters and their labeled compounds have led to high-resolution PET scanners becoming widely used, not only in clinical and pre-clinical studies but also in plant studies. A high-resolution PET scanner, plant tomographic imaging system (PlanTIS), was designed to study metabolic and physiological functions of plants noninvasively. The gantry of the PlanTIS scanner has detector-free regions. Even when the gantry of the PlanTIS is rotated during the scan, these regions result in missing sinogram bins in the acquired data. Missing data need to be estimated prior to the analytical image reconstructions in order to avoid artifacts in the final reconstructed images. In this study, we propose three gap-filling methods for estimation of the unique gaps existing in the 3D PlanTIS sinogram data. The 3D sinogram data were gap-filled either by linear interpolation in the transaxial planes or by the bicubic interpolation method (proposed for the ECAT high-resolution research tomograph) in the transradial planes or by the inpainting method in the transangular planes. Each gap-filling method independently compensates for slices in one of three orthogonal sinogram planes (transaxial, transradial and transangular planes). A 3D numerical Shepp-Logan phantom and the NEMA image quality phantom were used to evaluate the methods. The gap-filled sinograms were reconstructed using the analytical 3D reprojection (3DRP) method. The NEMA phantom sinograms were also reconstructed by the iterative reconstruction method, ordered subsets maximum a posteriori one step late (OSMAPOSL), to compare the results of gap filling followed by 3DRP with the results of OSMAPOSL reconstruction without gap filling. The three methods were evaluated quantitatively (by mean square error and coefficients of variation) over the selected regions of the 3D numerical Shepp-Logan phantom at eight different Poisson noise levels. Moreover, the NEMA phantom scan data were used in visual assessments

  10. Corrective distal radius osteotomy: including bilateral differences in 3-D planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbe, J G G; Vroemen, J C; Strackee, S D; Streekstra, G J

    2013-07-01

    After a fracture of the distal radius, the bone segments may heal in a suboptimal position. This condition may lead to a reduced hand function, pain and finally osteoarthritis, sometimes requiring corrective surgery. Recent studies report computer-assisted 3-D planning techniques in which the mirrored contralateral unaffected radius serves as reference for planning the position of the distal radius before corrective osteotomy surgery. Bilateral asymmetry, however, may introduce length errors into this type of preoperative planning that can be compensated for by taking into account the concomitant ulnae asymmetry. This article investigates a method for planning a correction osteotomy of the distal radius, while compensating for bilateral length differences using a linear regression model that describes the relationship between radii and ulnae asymmetry. The method is evaluated quantitatively using CT scans of 20 healthy individuals, and qualitatively using CT scans of patients suffering from a malunion of the distal radius. The improved planning method reduces absolute length deviations by a factor of two and markedly reduces positioning variation, from 2.9 ± 2.1 to 1.5 ± 0.6 mm. We expect the method to be of great value for future 3-D planning of a corrective distal radius osteotomy.

  11. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability post-irradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2-22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3-24 h, 2-6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given

  12. Innovative 3D information system for the restoration and preventive maintenance plan of the Milan Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Giuseppe G.; Di Paola, Eleonora; Morlin Visconti Castiglione, Benigno

    2004-02-01

    The restoration and maintenance of architecturally complex monuments need advanced tools for helping the definition of the working plan and for storing analysing and updating all the data produced. In the case of the Gothic Milan Cathedral a three-dimensional metric support has been developed. It comprises several oriented and connected stereoscopic models which makes it possible, through the stereoscopic vision, to navigate through several photograms, to accurately measure the dimension of architectural details, to draw structures with a millimeter precision. In this way a 3D-CAD model of the facade and of the internal walls of the Milan Cathedral have been created. On those vectorial models, it is possible to insert photos, documents, characterisation data and even to draw thematic maps. For instance, the load bearing structures maps have been realised after a GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) structural survey. These maps provide structural information (e.g. fractures, block thickness and status, lessons, etc.) extremely useful for planning the restoration and maintenance work. The photogrammetric survey has been proceeded by a 3D laser scanning survey, necessary for providing a preliminary model for planning the work until the complete elaboration of the stereoscopic model. All the data have been updated in the georeferenced and integrated 3D data base of the Cathedral, which now constitutes the necessary support for defining the specific operations.

  13. Comparison of the Conventional Surgery and the Surgery Assisted by 3d Printing Technology in the Treatment of Calcaneal Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenhao; Tao, Zhenyu; Lou, Yiting; Feng, Zhenhua; Li, Hang; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jianshun; Guo, Xiaoshan; Chen, Hua

    2017-09-19

    This study was aimed to compare conventional surgery and surgery assisted by 3D printing technology in the treatment of calcaneal fractures. In addition, we also investigated the effect of 3D printing technology on the communication between doctors and patients. we enrolled 75 patients with calcaneal fracture from April 2014 to August 2016. They were divided randomly into two groups: 35 cases of 3D printing group, 40 cases of conventional group. The individual models were used to simulate the surgical procedures and carry out the surgery according to plan in 3D printing group. Operation duration, blood loss volume during the surgery, number of intraoperative fluoroscopy and fracture union time were recorded. The radiographic outcomes Böhler angle, Gissane angle, calcaneal width and calcaneal height and final functional outcomes including VAS and AOFAS score as well as the complications were also evaluated. Besides, we made a simple questionnaire to verify the effectiveness of the 3D-printed model for both doctors and patients. The operation duration, blood loss volume and number of intraoperative fluoroscopy for 3D printing group was 71.4 ± 6.8 minutes, 226.1 ± 22.6 ml and 5.6 ± 1.9 times, and for conventional group was 91.3 ± 11.2 minutes, 288.7 ± 34.8 ml and 8.6 ± 2.7 times respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the conventional group and 3D printing group (p 3D printing group achieved significantly better radiographic results than conventional group both postoperatively and at the final follow-up (p 3D printing model. This study suggested the clinical feasibility of 3D printing technology in treatment of calcaneal fractures.

  14. 3D Motion Planning Algorithms for Steerable Needles Using Inverse Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duindam, Vincent; Xu, Jijie; Alterovitz, Ron; Sastry, Shankar; Goldberg, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Steerable needles can be used in medical applications to reach targets behind sensitive or impenetrable areas. The kinematics of a steerable needle are nonholonomic and, in 2D, equivalent to a Dubins car with constant radius of curvature. In 3D, the needle can be interpreted as an airplane with constant speed and pitch rate, zero yaw, and controllable roll angle. We present a constant-time motion planning algorithm for steerable needles based on explicit geometric inverse kinematics similar to the classic Paden-Kahan subproblems. Reachability and path competitivity are analyzed using analytic comparisons with shortest path solutions for the Dubins car (for 2D) and numerical simulations (for 3D). We also present an algorithm for local path adaptation using null-space results from redundant manipulator theory. Finally, we discuss several ways to use and extend the inverse kinematics solution to generate needle paths that avoid obstacles. PMID:21359051

  15. 3D-Route Planning Method to Realize Missile Cruise Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-jie; FAN Chen; ZHU Qun-Min; TANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    In order to increase the aircraft's survival in the flight mission, it is necessary to carry out flight mission planning, which includes TF/TA\\+2(terrain following/terrain avoidance/threat avoidance).An approach to 3D-route planning based on A* heuristic search algorithm was selected to determine the routes of fiber optic guidance missile's cruise segment.The cost function was discussed, which was mainly related to the physical obstacle, threat exposure, and aircraft performance characteristics.The digital map techniques were presented, which included setting "no-go" area according to fiber's safety requirement.The optimal or the sub-optimal route was obtained, while the cost function constraints were satisfied and the stored terrain obtained from a real terrain was digitized.The algorithm is validated through simulation and can fulfill the route planning task which focuses on the cruise segment of fiber optic guidance missile.

  16. 3D Printing Technology in Planning Thumb Reconstructions with Second Toe Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Cheng-Wu; Zhang, Jian-Lei; Meng, Ze-Zu; Liu, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Cong, Rui

    2017-05-01

    To report preoperative planning using 3D printing to plan thumb reconstructions with second toe transplant. Between December 2013 and October 2015, the thumbs of five patients with grade 3 thumb defects were reconstructed using a wrap-around flap and second toe transplant aided by 3D printing technology. CT scans of hands and feet were analyzed using Boholo surgical simulator software (www.boholo.com). This allowed for the creation of a mirror image of the healthy thumb using the uninjured thumb. Using 3D images of the reconstructed thumb, a model of the big toe and the second toe was created to understand the dimensions of the donor site. This model was also used to repair the donor site defect by designing appropriate iliac bone and superficial circumflex iliac artery flaps. The polylactic acid model of the donor toes and reconstructed thumb was produced using 3D printing. Surgically, the wrap-around flap of the first dorsal metatarsal artery and vein combined with the joint and bone of the second toe was based upon the model donor site. Sensation was reconstructed by anastomosing the dorsal nerve of the foot and the plantar digital nerve of the great toe. Patients commenced exercises 2 weeks after surgery. All reconstructed thumbs survived, although partial flap necrosis occurred in one case. This was managed with regular dressing changes. Patients were followed up for 3-15 months. The lengths of the reconstructed thumbs are 34-49 mm. The widths of the thumb nail beds are 16-19 mm, and the thickness of the digital pulp is 16-20 mm. The thumb opposition function was 0-1.5 cm; the extension angle was 5°-20° (mean, 16°), and the angle of flexion was 38°-55° (mean, 47°). Two-point discrimination was 9-11 mm (mean, 9.6 mm). The reconstructed thumbs had good appearance, function and sensation. Based on the criteria set forth by the Standard on Approval of Reconstructed Thumb and Finger Functional Assessment of the Chinese Medical Association, the results were

  17. Planning and Control for Passive Dynamics Based Walking of 3D Biped Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Luo; Wenlong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Efficient walking is one of the main goals of research on biped robots.Passive Dynamics Based Walking (PDBW) has been proven to be an efficient pattern in numerous previous approaches to 2D biped walking.The goal of this study is to develop a feasible method for the application of PDBW to 3D robots.First a hybrid control method is presented,where a previously proposed two-point-foot walking pattern is employed to generate a PDBW gait in the sagittal plane and,in the frontal plane,a systematic balance control algorithm is applied including online planning of the landing point of the swing leg and feedback control of the stance foot.Then a multi-space planning structure is proposed to implement the proposed method on a 13-link 3D robot.Related kinematics and planning details of the robot are presented.Furthermore,a simulation of the 13-link biped robot verifies that stable and highly efficient walking can be achieved by the proposed control method.In addition,a number of features of the biped walking,including the transient powers and torques of the joints are explored.

  18. Interactive Motion Planning for Steerable Needles in 3D Environments with Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Bevel-tip steerable needles for minimally invasive medical procedures can be used to reach clinical targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable areas and are inaccessible to straight, rigid needles. We present a fast algorithm that can compute motion plans for steerable needles to reach targets in complex, 3D environments with obstacles at interactive rates. The fast computation makes this method suitable for online control of the steerable needle based on 3D imaging feedback and allows physicians to interactively edit the planning environment in real-time by adding obstacle definitions as they are discovered or become relevant. We achieve this fast performance by using a Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) combined with a reachability-guided sampling heuristic to alleviate the sensitivity of the RRT planner to the choice of the distance metric. We also relax the constraint of constant-curvature needle trajectories by relying on duty-cycling to realize bounded-curvature needle trajectories. These characteristics enable us to achieve orders of magnitude speed-up compared to previous approaches; we compute steerable needle motion plans in under 1 second for challenging environments containing complex, polyhedral obstacles and narrow passages. PMID:22294214

  19. Curvature-continuous 3D Path-planning Using QPMI Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ryong Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to achieve vertex movement and rapid velocity control in aerial robots and aerial vehicles because of momentum from the air. A continuous-curvature path ensures such robots and vehicles can fly with stable and continuous movements. General continuous path-planning methods use spline interpolation, for example B-spline and Bézier curves. However, these methods cannot be directly applied to continuous path planning in a 3D space. These methods use a subset of the waypoints to decide curvature and some waypoints are not included in the planned path. This paper proposes a method for constructing a curvature-continuous path in 3D space that includes every waypoint. The movements in each axis, x, y and z, are separated by the parameter u. Waypoint groups are formed, each with its own continuous path derived using quadratic polynomial interpolation. The membership function then combines each continuous path into one continuous path. The continuity of the path is verified and the curvature-continuous path is produced using the proposed method.

  20. Using Stereoscopic 3D Technologies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Amblyopia in Children

    CERN Document Server

    Gargantini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The 3D4Amb project aims at developing a system based on the stereoscopic 3D techonlogy, like the NVIDIA 3D Vision, for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia in young children. It exploits the active shutter technology to provide binocular vision, i.e. to show different images to the amblyotic (or lazy) and the normal eye. It would allow easy diagnosis of amblyopia and its treatment by means of interactive games or other entertainment activities. It should not suffer from the compliance problems of the classical treatment, it is suitable to domestic use, and it could at least partially substitute occlusion or patching of the normal eye.

  1. SU-E-T-460: Isoeffective Dose Display (EQD2) for Composite Plan of Radiosurgery and Conventional 3D Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Yuan, J; Woods, C; Machtay, M; Wessels, B

    2012-06-01

    Direct addition of doses between plans with different fractionation fails to provide accurate dose-response information to anticipate clinical outcome. To combine different fractionation patterns, first-order biological model correction for dose-rate must be included. Moreover, 3-D isoeffect patterns of the combined doses must be displayed so that overlap area to elegant volumes can be avoided. The linear quadratic (LQ) model and biologically effective dose (BED) method were used to produce a combined plan in equivalent 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) for radiosurgery and conventional 3D radiotherapy. For patients with multiple courses of radiotherapy, dose distributions of the prior and boost treatment plans were converted to BED. The fraction size specified by the prescription was applied globally for each BED calculation, α/β ratio of 10 and 2.5 was used for early and late effect, respectively. Image registration with CT or MR was performed for initial and boost plans. The registration information was applied to dose distributions to obtain the composite EQD2. As a demonstration of this method, two patients were selected who had combined treatments from substantially different modalities. A patient with liver cancer initially received radiotherapy of 30 Gy/10 Fx and re-irradiation with CyberKnife radiosurgery (15 Gy/1 Fx). The combined plan showed that the PTV received EQD2 of 63.8 Gy. Another patient had brain metastasis treated with GammaKnife of 18 Gy (50% isodose) followed by conventional 3D whole brain radiation of 30 Gy/10 Fx. The minimal combined tumor EQD2 was 74.5 Gy. Early and late calculated responses showed that all critical organ doses were within tolerance. For patients receiving radiation with different fractionation schemes, combined isoeffective dose distributions were calculated and displayed. In both cases, crucial information regarding 3-D dose distributions assisted the physicians in determining whether tolerance limits of overlap areas of retreated

  2. PACS-based interface for 3D anatomical structure visualization and surgical planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Christophe; Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2002-05-01

    The interpretation of radiological image is routine but it remains a rather difficult task for physicians. It requires complex mental processes, that permit translation from 2D slices into 3D localization and volume determination of visible diseases. An easier and more extensive visualization and exploitation of medical images can be reached through the use of computer-based systems that provide real help from patient admission to post-operative followup. In this way, we have developed a 3D visualization interface linked to a PACS database that allows manipulation and interaction on virtual organs delineated from CT-scan or MRI. This software provides the 3D real-time surface rendering of anatomical structures, an accurate evaluation of volumes and distances and the improvement of radiological image analysis and exam annotation through a negatoscope tool. It also provides a tool for surgical planning allowing the positioning of an interactive laparoscopic instrument and the organ resection. The software system could revolutionize the field of computerized imaging technology. Indeed, it provides a handy and portable tool for pre-operative and intra-operative analysis of anatomy and pathology in various medical fields. This constitutes the first step of the future development of augmented reality and surgical simulation systems.

  3. The Application of 2D/3D Rigid Image Registration in Tumor Radiation Treatment Planning%2D/3D刚性图像配准在肿瘤放疗计划中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 周凌宏; 甄鑫; 卢文婷

    2011-01-01

    目的:在肿瘤放疗中,2D/3D刚性图像配准技术是精确定位病人重要保证.方法:数字重建放射影像技术是2D/3D配准中最为关键的部分,一定程度上影响着配准效率.在对数字重建放射影像进行重点研究的基础上,实现了一种基于Bresenham方法的快速数字影像重建算法,并利用腹部CT体数据进行了2D/3D配准实验.实验以互信息、模式强度和梯度差分为相似性测度并采用了Powell-Brent优化算法.结果:在数字重建放射图像算法实验中,Bresemham方法相比于另外两种光线跟踪算法,时间仅需0.467 s.在2D/3D配准实验中,对三种相似性测度的实验结果进行了比较,互信息和梯度差分有较好的配准结果,模式强度仍存在不少问题.结论:实验结果表明,利用Bresenham方法产生的数字重建影像能使得配准具有较高精度,但配准时间仍然较长.%Objective: The technique of 2D/3D rigid image registration is critical to ensure accurately positioning of patients in radiation therapy. Methods: Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) played the most important pole in 2D/3D registration,which affected the registration efficiency in some way. On the basis of special researches about DRRs, the authors realized a fast DRRs algorithm based on Bresenham method. Various 2D/3D registration experiments were carried out on abdomen CT volume data. Mutual information, Pattem Intensity, Gradient Difference and Powell-Brent algorithm were used as similarity measurement and search strategy in the experiments, respectively. Results: In DRRs algorithms, compared with the two other methods, Bresenham method has time of 0.467 s. In 2D/3D image registration experiment, the results of three similarities are compared. MI and GD have an excellent performance; however, there are some problems in PI' s experiment. Conclusions: The results show that the registration algorithm utilizing Bresenham method to generate DRRs has a great

  4. Usefulness of 3D-fast-SPGR MR image for gamma knife radiosurgery planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasushi; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Koshikawa, Tokiko [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    Optimal stereotactic radiosurgery depends on accurate definition of the target and surrounding structures on neuroimaging. The recently developed 3D-Fast-SPGR magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides high-resolution images of brain anatomy. We investigated various parameters in 3D-Fast-SPGR images both in experimental phantom studies and in assessment of clinical cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and trigeminal neuralgia. In addition, we investigated the accuracy of coordinates in 3D-Fast-SPGR images. In phantom study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was best at TE=minimum full and band width (BW)=16 kHz. Contrast ratio between 1.0 mmol/l gadolinium (Gd) solution (compatible with contrast-enhanced vessels) and 0.2 mmol/l Gd solution (compatible with brain parenchyma) was largest at TE=minimum and band width=32 kHz. However, in clinical images of patients, shorter TE (minimum) more clearly reveals feeding arteries as high-intensity vessels without low-intensity flow voids in the assessment of AVMs and identifies arteries pressing against the trigeminal nerve in trigeminal neurlgia cases. We recommend parameters of TE=minimum, band width=16 kHz, TR=19.5 ms, TE=4.2 ms, and FA=25 degrees for radiosurgery dose planning in cases of AVM or trigeminal neuralgia. We also checked the accuracy of each coordinate obtained on 3D-Fast-SPGR axial images. Around the center of Leksell stereotactic G-frame (x=50-150, y=50-150, z=70-130), the error of x-coordinates was 0.48 {+-}0.12 mm, that of y-coordinates was 0.36{+-}0.1 mm, and that of z-coordinates was 0.62{+-}0.38 mm. The error was minimum at the center (x=100, y=100, and z=100). In conclusion, 3D-Fast-SPGR MR imaging is a fast, non-invasive, accurate imaging method for stereotactic radiosurgery. It provides useful information on vascular and parenchymal brain anatomy for optimal dose planning, especially in cases of AVM and trigeminal neuralgia. We believe that it can be used with confidence as the sole

  5. 3D printed cardiac phantom for procedural planning of a transcatheter native mitral valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Richard L.; O'Hara, Ryan P.; Iyer, Vijay; Hansen, Rose; Meess, Karen M.; Nagesh, S. V. Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Springer, Michael; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing an anatomically accurate, functional flow loop phantom of a patient's cardiac vasculature was used to assist in the surgical planning of one of the first native transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures. CTA scans were acquired from a patient about to undergo the first minimally-invasive native TMVR procedure at the Gates Vascular Institute in Buffalo, NY. A python scripting library, the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), was used to segment the 3D geometry of the patient's cardiac chambers and mitral valve with severe stenosis, calcific in nature. A stereolithographic (STL) mesh was generated and AutoDesk Meshmixer was used to transform the vascular surface into a functioning closed flow loop. A Stratasys Objet 500 Connex3 multi-material printer was used to fabricate the phantom with distinguishable material features of the vasculature and calcified valve. The interventional team performed a mock procedure on the phantom, embedding valve cages in the model and imaging the phantom with a Toshiba Infinix INFX-8000V 5-axis Carm bi-Plane angiography system. Results: After performing the mock-procedure on the cardiac phantom, the cardiologists optimized their transapical surgical approach. The mitral valve stenosis and calcification were clearly visible. The phantom was used to inform the sizing of the valve to be implanted. Conclusion: With advances in image processing and 3D printing technology, it is possible to create realistic patientspecific phantoms which can act as a guide for the interventional team. Using 3D printed phantoms as a valve sizing method shows potential as a more informative technique than typical CTA reconstruction alone.

  6. Virtual cardiotomy based on 3-D MRI for preoperative planning in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Thomas Sangild [University of Aarhus, Department of Computer Science, Aarhus N (Denmark); University of Aarhus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus (Denmark); Beerbaum, Philipp; Razavi, Reza; Greil, Gerald Franz [King' s College London School of Medicine, Division of Imaging Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, London (United Kingdom); Mosegaard, Jesper [Alexandra Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Rasmusson, Allan [University of Aarhus, Department of Computer Science, Aarhus N (Denmark); Schaeffter, Tobias [King' s College London School of Medicine, Division of Imaging Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Austin, Conal [Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Patient-specific preoperative planning in complex congenital heart disease may be greatly facilitated by virtual cardiotomy. Surgeons can perform an unlimited number of surgical incisions on a virtual 3-D reconstruction to evaluate the feasibility of different surgical strategies. To quantitatively evaluate the quality of the underlying imaging data and the accuracy of the corresponding segmentation, and to qualitatively evaluate the feasibility of virtual cardiotomy. A whole-heart MRI sequence was applied in 42 children with congenital heart disease (age 3{+-}3 years, weight 13{+-}9 kg, heart rate 96{+-} 21 bpm). Image quality was graded 1-4 (diagnostic image quality {>=}2) by two independent blinded observers. In patients with diagnostic image quality the segmentation quality was also graded 1-4 (4 no discrepancies, 1 misleading error). The average image quality score was 2.7 - sufficient for virtual reconstruction in 35 of 38 patients (92%) older than 1 month. Segmentation time was 59{+-}10 min (average quality score 3.5). Virtual cardiotomy was performed in 19 patients. Accurate virtual reconstructions of patient-specific cardiac anatomy can be produced in less than 1 h from 3-D MRI. The presented work thus introduces a new, clinically feasible noninvasive technique for improved preoperative planning in complex cases of congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  7. A model-based 3D patient-specific pre-treatment QA method for VMAT using the EPID

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, P. M.; Asuni, G.; van Beek, T.; van Uytven, E.; Kujanpaa, K.; McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2017-02-01

    This study reports the development and validation of a model-based, 3D patient dose reconstruction method for pre-treatment quality assurance using EPID images. The method is also investigated for sensitivity to potential MLC delivery errors. Each cine-mode EPID image acquired during plan delivery was processed using a previously developed back-projection dose reconstruction model providing a 3D dose estimate on the CT simulation data. Validation was carried out using 24 SBRT-VMAT patient plans by comparing: (1) ion chamber point dose measurements in a solid water phantom, (2) the treatment planning system (TPS) predicted 3D dose to the EPID reconstructed 3D dose in a solid water phantom, and (3) the TPS predicted 3D dose to the EPID and our forward predicted reconstructed 3D dose in the patient (CT data). AAA and AcurosXB were used for TPS predictions. Dose distributions were compared using 3%/3 mm (95% tolerance) and 2%/2 mm (90% tolerance) γ-tests in the planning target volume (PTV) and 20% dose volumes. The average percentage point dose differences between the ion chamber and the EPID, AcurosXB, and AAA were 0.73  ±  1.25%, 0.38  ±  0.96% and 1.06  ±  1.34% respectively. For the patient (CT) dose comparisons, seven (3%/3 mm) and nine (2%/2 mm) plans failed the EPID versus AAA. All plans passed the EPID versus Acuros XB and the EPID versus forward model γ-comparisons. Four types of MLC sensitive errors (opening, shifting, stuck, and retracting), of varying magnitude (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mm), were introduced into six different SBRT-VMAT plans. γ-comparisons of the erroneous EPID dose and original predicted dose were carried out using the same criteria as above. For all plans, the sensitivity testing using a 3%/3 mm γ-test in the PTV successfully determined MLC errors on the order of 1.0 mm, except for the single leaf retraction-type error. A 2%/2 mm criteria produced similar results with two more additional detected

  8. Surgical Planning by 3D Printing for Primary Cardiac Schwannoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Kim, Kun-Woo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Park, Chul Hyun; Lee, Jae-Ik; Jeon, Yang Bin

    2015-11-01

    We report herein a case of benign cardiac schwannoma in the interatrial septum. A 42-year-old woman was transferred from a clinic because of cardiomegaly as determined by chest X-ray. A transthoracic echocardiography and chest computed tomography examination revealed a huge mass in the pericardium compressing the right atrium, superior vena cava (SVC), left atrium, and superior pulmonary vein. To confirm that the tumor originated from either heart or mediastinum, cine magnetic resonance imaging was performed, but the result was not conclusive. To facilitate surgical planning, we used 3D printing. Using a printed heart model, we decided that tumor resection under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) through sternotomy would be technically feasible. At surgery, a huge tumor in the interatrial septum was confirmed. By incision on the atrial roof between the aorta and SVC, tumor enucleation was performed successfully under CPB. Pathology revealed benign schwannoma. The patient was discharged without complication. 3D printing of the heart and tumor was found to be helpful when deciding optimal surgical approach.

  9. Dosimetric and radiobiologic comparison of 3D conformal versus intensity modulated planning techniques for prostate bed radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Das, Shiva; Temple, Kathy; Bynum, Sigrun; Catalano, Suzanne; Koontz, Jason I; Montana, Gustavo S; Oleson, James R

    2009-01-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer improves biochemical and clinical disease-free survival. While comparisons in intact prostate cancer show a benefit for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) over 3D conformal planning, this has not been studied for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (RT). This study compares normal tissue and target dosimetry and radiobiological modeling of IMRT vs. 3D conformal planning in the postoperative setting. 3D conformal plans were designed for 15 patients who had been treated with IMRT planning for salvage post-prostatectomy RT. The same computed tomography (CT) and target/normal structure contours, as well as prescription dose, was used for both IMRT and 3D plans. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) were calculated based on the dose given to the bladder and rectum by both plans. Dose-volume histogram and NTCP data were compared by paired t-test. Bladder and rectal sparing were improved with IMRT planning compared to 3D conformal planning. The volume of the bladder receiving at least 75% (V75) and 50% (V50) of the dose was significantly reduced by 28% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.002 and 0.037). Rectal dose was similarly reduced, V75 by 33% and V50 by 17% (p = 0.001 and 0.004). While there was no difference in the volume of rectum receiving at least 65 Gy (V65), IMRT planning significant reduced the volume receiving 40 Gy or more (V40, p = 0.009). Bladder V40 and V65 were not significantly different between planning modalities. Despite these dosimetric differences, there was no significant difference in the NTCP for either bladder or rectal injury. IMRT planning reduces the volume of bladder and rectum receiving high doses during post-prostatectomy RT. Because of relatively low doses given to the bladder and rectum, there was no statistically significant improvement in NTCP between the 3D conformal and IMRT plans.

  10. Efficient UAV Path Planning with Multiconstraints in a 3D Large Battlefield Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an improved A* algorithm for the real-time path planning of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs in a 3D large-scale battlefield environment to solve the problem that UAVs require high survival rates and low fuel consumption. The algorithm is able to find the optimal path between two waypoints in the target space and comprehensively takes factors such as altitude, detection probability, and path length into account. It considers the maneuverability constraints of the UAV, including the safety altitude, climb rate, and turning radius, to obtain the final flyable path. Finally, the authors test the algorithm in an approximately 2,500,000 square meter area containing radars, no-fly zones, and extreme weather conditions to measure its feasibility, stability, and efficiency.

  11. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope, E-mail: mordechaimillunchick@gmail.com [Rush University Medical Center, Radiation Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  12. 3D-visualization in mine planning. Development, current status and prospects; 3D-Visualisierung in der Bergbauplanung. Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Grafe, R. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2001-06-01

    The visualization of spatial information is of particular significance in mining. The more realistically geological and mining models can be visualized, the more convincingly they can be conveyed. This, in turn, results in improvements as regards the speed, the reliability and the quality of the planning. Errors can thus be avoided during the planning preparations and safety aspects can be taken into account much better, so that an overall positive economic effect is achieved. Moreover, the idea of a certain mining project can be introduced much more realistically to others who are normally not involved in mining so much, which leads to better understanding, confidence and eventually acceptance. An auto-stereoscopic display (developed by the Technical University Dresden) for a genuine 3D visualization of mine planning processes was introduced at the Freiberg Mining University on March 29, 2000 for the first time in the world. This innovative technology opens up completely new opportunities for using graphic software in the field of mine planning. (orig.) [German] Der Visualisierung von raeumlichen Informationen kommt im Bergbau eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Je realistischer geologische und bergbauliche Modelle veranschaulicht werden koennen, desto ueberzeugender lassen sie sich vermitteln, Verbesserungen in Schnelligkeit, Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet der Planung sind die Folge. Dies traegt dazu bei, Fehler in der planerischen Vorbereitung zu vermeiden, Sicherheitsaspekten im Bergbau staerker Rechnung zu tragen und insgesamt positive wirtschaftliche Effekte zu erzielen. Darueber hinaus kann Aussenstehenden ein realitaetsnahes Bild eines bergbaulichen Vorhabens vermittelt werden, was zu mehr Verstaendnis, Vertrauen und Akzeptanz fuehrt. Als weltweite Premiere wurde am 29. Maerz 2000 an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg der Einsatz eines autostereoskopischen Displays (Entwicklung der TU Dresden) fuer echte 3D-Visualisierung in der Bergbauplanung vorgestellt. Diese

  13. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  14. 3D-printed haptic "reverse" models for preoperative planning in soft tissue reconstruction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Michael P; Lin, Frank; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2015-02-01

    In reconstructive surgery, preoperative planning is essential for optimal functional and aesthetic outcome. Creating a three-dimensional (3D) model from two-dimensional (2D) imaging data by rapid prototyping has been used in industrial design for decades but has only recently been introduced for medical application. 3D printing is one such technique that is fast, convenient, and relatively affordable. In this report, we present a case in which a reproducible method for producing a 3D-printed "reverse model" representing a skin wound defect was used for flap design and harvesting. This comprised a 82-year-old man with an exposed ankle prosthesis after serial soft tissue debridements for wound infection. Soft tissue coverage and dead-space filling were planned with a composite radial forearm free flap (RFFF). Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the donor site (left forearm), recipient site (right ankle), and the left ankle was performed. 2D data from the CTA was 3D-reconstructed using computer software, with a 3D image of the left ankle used as a "control." A 3D model was created by superimposing the left and right ankle images, to create a "reverse image" of the defect, and printed using a 3D printer. The RFFF was thus planned and executed effectively, without complication. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mechanism of calculating a soft tissue wound defect and producing a 3D model that may be useful for surgical planning. 3D printing and particularly "reverse" modeling may be versatile options in reconstructive planning, and have the potential for broad application.

  15. Comparison of 3D conformal radiotherapy vs. intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of a stomach cancer treatment;Comparacion dosimetrica de radioterapia conformal 3D versus radioterapia de intensidad modulada (IMRT) de un tratamiento de cancer de estomago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernui de V, Maria Giselle; Cardenas, Augusto; Vargas, Carlos [Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo (ESSALUD), Arequipa (Peru). Servicio de Radioterapia

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the dosimetry in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in a treatment of stomach cancer. For this comparison we selected a patient who underwent subtotal gastrectomy and D2 dissection for a T3N3 adenocarcinoma Mx ECIIIB receiving treatment under the scheme Quimio INT 0116 - in adjuvant radiotherapy. In the treatment plan was contouring the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) and the Planning Target Volume (PTV) was generated from the expansion of 1cm of the CTV, the risky organs contouring were: the liver, kidneys and spinal cord, according to the consensus definition of volumes in gastric cancer. The 3D Conformal Radiotherapy planning is carried out using 6 half beams following the Leong Trevol technique; for the IMRT plan was used 8 fields, the delivery technique is step-and-shoot. In both cases the fields were coplanar, isocentric and the energy used was 18 MV. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), in this case has proved to be a good treatment alternative to the technique of 3D Conformal Radiotherapy; the dose distributions with IMRT have better coverage of PTV and positions of the hot spots, as well as the kidneys volume that received higher doses to 2000 cGy is lower, but the decrease in dose to the kidneys is at the expense of increased dose in other organs like the liver. (author)

  16. 3D planning in orthognathic surgery: CAD/CAM surgical splints and prediction of the soft and hard tissues results - our experience in 16 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Hosn Centenero, Samir; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the advantages of 3D planning in predicting postoperative results and manufacturing surgical splints using CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology in orthognathic surgery when the software program Simplant OMS 10.1 (Materialise(®), Leuven, Belgium) was used for the purpose of this study which was carried out on 16 patients. A conventional preoperative treatment plan was devised for each patient following our Centre's standard protocol, and surgical splints were manufactured. These splints were used as study controls. The preoperative treatment plans devised were then transferred to a 3D-virtual environment on a personal computer (PC). Surgery was simulated, the prediction of results on soft and hard tissue produced, and surgical splints manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. In the operating room, both types of surgical splints were compared and the degree of similitude in results obtained in three planes was calculated. The maxillary osteotomy line was taken as the point of reference. The level of concordance was used to compare the surgical splints. Three months after surgery a second set of 3D images were obtained and used to obtain linear and angular measurements on screen. Using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient these postoperative measurements were compared with the measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results. Results showed that a high degree of correlation in 15 of the 16 cases. A high coefficient of correlation was obtained in the majority of predictions of results in hard tissue, although less precise results were obtained in measurements in soft tissue in the labial area. The study shows that the software program used in the study is reliable for 3D planning and for the manufacture of surgical splints using CAD/CAM technology. Nevertheless, further progress in the development of technologies for the acquisition of 3D images, new versions of software programs

  17. Planning for corrective osteotomy of the femoral bone using 3D-modeling. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey G Baindurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In standard planning for corrective hip osteotomy, a surgical intervention scheme is created on a uniplanar paper medium on the basis of X-ray images. However, uniplanar skiagrams are unable to render real spatial configuration of the femoral bone. When combining three-dimensional and uniplanar models of bone, human errors inevitably occur, causing the distortion of preset parameters, which may lead to glaring errors and, as a result, to repeated operations. Aims. To develop a new three-dimensional method for planning and performing corrective osteotomy of the femoral bone, using visualizing computer technologies. Materials and methods. A new method of planning for corrective hip osteotomy in children with various hip joint pathologies was developed. We examined the method using 27 patients [aged 5–18 years (32 hip joints] with congenital and acquired femoral bone deformation. The efficiency of the proposed method was assessed in comparison with uniplanar planning using roentgenograms. Conclusions. Computerized operation planning using three-dimensional modeling improves treatment results by minimizing the likelihood of human errors and increasing planning and surgical intervention  accuracy.

  18. 3D augmented reality for improving social acceptance and public participation in wind farms planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S.; Klein, T. M.

    2016-09-01

    Wind energy is one of the most important source of renewable energy characterized by a significant growth in the last decades and giving a more and more relevant contribution to the energy supply. One of the main disadvantages of a faster integration of wind energy into the energy mix is related to the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. In addition, the siting of new massive infrastructures has the potential to threaten a community's well-being if new projects are perceived being unfair. The public perception of the impact of wind turbines on the landscape is also crucial for their acceptance. The implementation of wind energy projects is hampered often because of a lack of planning or communication tools enabling a more transparent and efficient interaction between all stakeholders involved in the projects (i.e. developers, local communities and administrations, NGOs, etc.). Concerning the visual assessment of wind farms, a critical gap lies in effective visualization tools to improve the public perception of alternative wind turbines layouts. In this paper, we describe the advantages of a 3D dynamical and interactive visualization platform for an augmented reality to support wind energy planners in order to enhance the social acceptance of new wind energy projects.

  19. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound for pre-operative assessment and guiding percutaneous treatment of focal liver tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Neshat, Hamid; Bax, Jeffery; Barker, Kevin; Gardi, Lori; Chedalavada, Jason; Kakani, Nirmal; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Image-guided percutaneous ablation is the standard treatment for focal liver tumors deemed inoperable and is commonly used to maintain eligibility for patients on transplant waitlists. Radiofrequency (RFA), microwave (MWA) and cryoablation technologies are all delivered via one or a number of needle-shaped probes inserted directly into the tumor. Planning is mostly based on contrast CT/MRI. While intra-procedural CT is commonly used to confirm the intended probe placement, 2D ultrasound (US) remains the main, and in some centers the only imaging modality used for needle guidance. Corresponding intraoperative 2D US with planning and other intra-procedural imaging modalities is essential for accurate needle placement. However, identification of matching features of interest among these images is often challenging given the limited field-of-view (FOV) and low quality of 2D US images. We have developed a passive tracking arm with a motorized scan-head and software tools to improve guiding capabilities of conventional US by large FOV 3D US scans that provides more anatomical landmarks that can facilitate registration of US with both planning and intra-procedural images. The tracker arm is used to scan the whole liver with a high geometrical accuracy that facilitates multi-modality landmark based image registration. Software tools are provided to assist with the segmentation of the ablation probes and tumors, find the 2D view that best shows the probe(s) from a 3D US image, and to identify the corresponding image from planning CT scans. In this paper, evaluation results from laboratory testing and a phase 1 clinical trial for planning and guiding RFA and MWA procedures using the developed system will be presented. Early clinical results show a comparable performance to intra-procedural CT that suggests 3D US as a cost-effective alternative with no side-effects in centers where CT is not available.

  20. [3D-TECHNOLOGIES AS A CORE ELEMENT OF PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF VIRTUAL AND ACTUAL RENAL SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Aljaev, Ju G; Bezrukov, E A; Sirota, E S; Proskura, A V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the role of modern computer technologies in performing virtual and actual renal tumor surgery. Currently 3D modeling makes it possible to clearly define strategy and tactics of an individual patient treatment.

  1. Planning and Implementing a 3D Printing Service in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara Russell; Bennett, Denise Beaubien

    2014-01-01

    Initiating a 3D printing service in an academic library goes beyond justification of its value and gaining the necessary library and administrative support. Additional aspects such as policies, environmental safety, training, publicizing, maintenance, and scope of service must be considered. This article provides a guide to developing a 3D print…

  2. Planning and Implementing a 3D Printing Service in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara Russell; Bennett, Denise Beaubien

    2014-01-01

    Initiating a 3D printing service in an academic library goes beyond justification of its value and gaining the necessary library and administrative support. Additional aspects such as policies, environmental safety, training, publicizing, maintenance, and scope of service must be considered. This article provides a guide to developing a 3D print…

  3. Computer-based vertebral tumor cryoablation planning and procedure simulation involving two cases using MRI-visible 3D printing and advanced visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Jeffrey P.; Himes, Nathan; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Kelil, Tatiana; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Lee, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the development and use of MRI-compatible and MRI-visible 3D printed models in conjunction with advanced visualization software models to plan and simulate safe access routes to achieve a theoretical zone of cryoablation for percutaneous image-guided treatment of a C7 pedicle osteoid osteoma and an L1 lamina osteoblastoma. Both models altered procedural planning and patient care. Patient-specific MRI-visible models can be helpful in planning complex percutaneous image-guided cryoablation procedures. PMID:27505064

  4. Volumetric modulated arc planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using conventional and unflattened photon beams: a dosimetric comparison with 3D technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Geoffrey G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Frequently, three-dimensional (3D conformal beams are used in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT. Recently, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT was introduced as a new treatment modality. VMAT techniques shorten delivery time, reducing the possibility of intrafraction target motion. However dose distributions can be quite different from standard 3D therapy. This study quantifies those differences, with focus on VMAT plans using unflattened photon beams. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients previously treated with 3D or VMAT SBRT were randomly selected. For each patient, non-coplanar 3D, coplanar and non-coplanar VMAT and flattening filter free VMAT (FFF-VMAT plans were generated to meet the same objectives with 50 Gy covering 95% of the PTV. Two dynamic arcs were used in each VMAT plan. The couch was set at ± 5° to the 0° straight position for the two non-coplanar arcs. Pinnacle version 9.0 (Philips Radiation Oncology, Fitchburg WI treatment planning system with VMAT capabilities was used. We analyzed the conformity index (CI, which is the ratio of the total volume receiving at least the prescription dose to the target volume receiving at least the prescription dose; the conformity number (CN which is the ratio of the target coverage to CI; and the gradient index (GI which is the ratio of the volume of 50% of the prescription isodose to the volume of the prescription isodose; as well as the V20, V5, and mean lung dose (MLD. Paired non-parametric analysis of variance tests with post-tests were performed to examine the statistical significance of the differences of the dosimetric indices. Results Dosimetric indices CI, CN and MLD all show statistically significant improvement for all studied VMAT techniques compared with 3D plans (p Conclusion Besides the advantage of faster delivery times, VMAT plans demonstrated better conformity to target, sharper dose fall-off in normal tissues and lower dose to

  5. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 01: 3D Pre-treatment Dose Verification for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuni, G; Beek, T van; Van Utyven, E [Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); McCowan, P [Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); McCurdy, B.M.C. [Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Manitoba (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Radical treatment techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are becoming popular and they involve delivery of large doses in fewer fractions. Due to this feature of SBRT, a high-resolution, pre-treatment dose verification method that makes use of a 3D patient representation would be appropriate. Such a technique will provide additional information about dose delivered to the target volume(s) and organs-at-risk (OARs) in the patient volume compared to 2D verification methods. In this work, we investigate an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based pre-treatment QA method which provides an accurate reconstruction of the 3D-dose distribution in the patient model. Customized patient plans are delivered ‘in air’ and the portal images are collected using the EPID in cine mode. The images are then analysed to determine an estimate of the incident energy fluence. This is then passed to a collapsed-cone convolution dose algorithm which reconstructs a 3D patient dose estimate on the CT imaging dataset. To date, the method has been applied to 5 SBRT patient plans. Reconstructed doses were compared to those calculated by the TPS. Reconstructed mean doses were mostly within 3% of those in the TPS. DVHs of target volumes and OARs compared well. The Chi pass rates using 3%/3mm in the high dose region are greater than 97% in all cases. These initial results demonstrate clinical feasibility and utility of a robust, efficient, effective and convenient pre-treatment QA method using EPID. Research sponsored in part by Varian Medical Systems.

  6. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  7. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsworth Kevin; Block Steve; Glatt Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illu...

  8. 3D dose reconstruction of pretreatment verification plans using multiple 2D planes from the OCTAVIUS/Seven29 phantom array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, O; Stathakis, S; Gutiérrez, A N; Esquivel, C; Papanikolaou, N

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate 3D dose reconstruction of pretreatment verification plans using multiple 2D planes acquired from the OCTAVIUS phantom and the Seven29 detector array. Eight VMAT patient treatment plans of different sites were delivered onto the OCTAVIUS phantom. The plans span a variety of tumor site locations from low to high plan complexity. A patient specific quality assurance (QA) plan was created and delivered for each of the 8 patients using the OCTAVIUS phantom in which the Seven29 detector array was placed. Each plan was delivered four times by rotating the phantom in 45° increments along its longitudinal axis. The treatment plans were delivered using a Novalis Tx with the HD120 MLC. Each of the four corresponding planar doses was exported as a text file for further analysis. An in-house MATLAB code was used to process the planar dose information. A cylindrical geometry-based, linear interpolation method was utilized to generate the measured 3D dose reconstruction. The TPS calculated volumetric dose was exported and compared against the measured reconstructed volumetric dose. Dose difference, dose area histograms (DAH), isodose lines, profiles, 2D and 3D gamma were used for evaluation. The interpolation method shows good agreement (<2%) between the planned dose distributions in the high dose region but shows discrepancies in the low dose region. Horizontal profiles, dose area histograms and isodose lines show good agreement for the sagittal and coronal planes but demonstrate slight discrepancies in the transverse plane. The 3D gamma index average was 92.4% for all patients when a 5%/5 mm gamma passing rate criteria was employed but dropped to <80.1% on average when parameters were reduced to 2%/2 mm. A simple cylindrical geometry-based, linear interpolation method is able to predict good agreement in the high dose region between the reconstructed volumetric dose and the planned volumetric dose. It is important to mention that the

  9. CS651 Computer Systems Security Foundations 3d Imagination Cyber Security Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Roy S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-02

    3d Imagination is a new company that bases its business on selling and improving 3d open source related hardware. The devices that they sell include 3d imagers, 3d printers, pick and place machines and laser etchers. They have a fast company intranet for ease in sharing, storing and printing large, complex 3d designs. They have an employee set that requires a variety of operating systems including Windows, Mac and a variety of Linux both for running business services as well as design and test machines. There are a wide variety of private networks for testing transfer rates to and from the 3d devices, without interference with other network tra c. They do video conferencing conferencing with customers and other designers. One of their machines is based on the project found at delta.firepick.org(Krassenstein, 2014; Biggs, 2014), which in future, will perform most of those functions. Their devices all include embedded systems, that may have full blown operating systems. Most of their systems are designed to have swappable parts, so when a new technology is born, it can be quickly adopted by people with 3d Imagination hardware. This company is producing a fair number of systems and components, however to get the funding they need to mass produce quality parts, so they are preparing for an IPO to raise the funds they need. They would like to have a cyber-security audit performed so they can give their investors con dence that they are protecting their data, customers information and printers in a proactive manner.

  10. Comparison of 3D reconstruction of mandible for pre-operative planning using commercial and open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Johari Yap; Omar, Marzuki; Pritam, Helmi Mohd Hadi; Husein, Adam; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    3D printing of mandible is important for pre-operative planning, diagnostic purposes, as well as for education and training. Currently, the processing of CT data is routinely performed with commercial software which increases the cost of operation and patient management for a small clinical setting. Usage of open-source software as an alternative to commercial software for 3D reconstruction of the mandible from CT data is scarce. The aim of this study is to compare two methods of 3D reconstruction of the mandible using commercial Materialise Mimics software and open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) software. Head CT images with a slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512x512 pixels each were retrieved from the server located at the Radiology Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The CT data were analysed and the 3D models of mandible were reconstructed using both commercial Materialise Mimics and open-source MITK software. Both virtual 3D models were saved in STL format and exported to 3matic and MeshLab software for morphometric and image analyses. Both models were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Hausdorff Distance. No significant differences were obtained between the 3D models of the mandible produced using Mimics and MITK software. The 3D model of the mandible produced using MITK open-source software is comparable to the commercial MIMICS software. Therefore, open-source software could be used in clinical setting for pre-operative planning to minimise the operational cost.

  11. Preoperative Planning Using 3D Reconstructions and Virtual Endoscopy for Location of the Frontal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, João Paulo Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computed tomography (TC generated tridimensional (3D reconstructions allow the observation of cavities and anatomic structures of our body with detail. In our specialty there have been attempts to carry out virtual endoscopies and laryngoscopies. However, such application has been practically abandoned due to its complexity and need for computers with high power of graphic processing. Objective: To demonstrate the production of 3D reconstructions from CTs of patients in personal computers, with a free specific program and compare them to the surgery actual endoscopic images. Method: Prospective study in which the CTs proper files of 10 patients were reconstructed with the program Intage Realia, version 2009, 0, 0, 702 (KGT Inc., Japan. The reconstructions were carried out before the surgeries and a virtual endoscopy was made to assess the recess and frontal sinus region. After this study, the surgery was digitally performed and stored. The actual endoscopic images of the recess and frontal sinus region were compared to the virtual images. Results: The 3D reconstruction and virtual endoscopy were made in 10 patients submitted to the surgery. The virtual images had a large resemblance with the actual surgical images. Conclusion: With relatively simple tools and personal computer, we demonstrated the possibility to generate 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopies. The preoperative knowledge of the frontal sinus natural draining path location may generate benefits during the performance of surgeries. However, more studies must be developed for the evaluation of the real roles of such 3D reconstructions and virtual endoscopies.

  12. Interactive reconstructions of cranial 3D implants under MeVisLab as an alternative to commercial planning software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Tax, Alois; Ücal, Muammer; Zefferer, Ulrike; Li, Xing; von Campe, Gord; Schäfer, Ute; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Chen, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    In this publication, the interactive planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants under the medical prototyping platform MeVisLab as alternative to commercial planning software is introduced. In doing so, a MeVisLab prototype consisting of a customized data-flow network and an own C++ module was set up. As a result, the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software prototype guides a user through the whole workflow to generate an implant. Therefore, the workflow begins with loading and mirroring the patients head for an initial curvature of the implant. Then, the user can perform an additional Laplacian smoothing, followed by a Delaunay triangulation. The result is an aesthetic looking and well-fitting 3D implant, which can be stored in a CAD file format, e.g. STereoLithography (STL), for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can finally be used for an in-depth pre-surgical evaluation or even as a real implant for the patient. In a nutshell, our research and development shows that a customized MeVisLab software prototype can be used as an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may also not be available in every clinic. Finally, not to conform ourselves directly to available commercial software and look for other options that might improve the workflow.

  13. Interactive reconstructions of cranial 3D implants under MeVisLab as an alternative to commercial planning software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Tax, Alois; Ücal, Muammer; Zefferer, Ulrike; Li, Xing; von Campe, Gord; Schäfer, Ute; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Chen, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    In this publication, the interactive planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants under the medical prototyping platform MeVisLab as alternative to commercial planning software is introduced. In doing so, a MeVisLab prototype consisting of a customized data-flow network and an own C++ module was set up. As a result, the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software prototype guides a user through the whole workflow to generate an implant. Therefore, the workflow begins with loading and mirroring the patients head for an initial curvature of the implant. Then, the user can perform an additional Laplacian smoothing, followed by a Delaunay triangulation. The result is an aesthetic looking and well-fitting 3D implant, which can be stored in a CAD file format, e.g. STereoLithography (STL), for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can finally be used for an in-depth pre-surgical evaluation or even as a real implant for the patient. In a nutshell, our research and development shows that a customized MeVisLab software prototype can be used as an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may also not be available in every clinic. Finally, not to conform ourselves directly to available commercial software and look for other options that might improve the workflow. PMID:28264062

  14. SU-E-T-793: Validation of COMPASS 3D Dosimetry as Pre Treatment Verification with Commercial TPS Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikraman, S; Ramu, M; Karrthick, Kp; Rajesh, T; Senniandavar, V; Sambasivaselli, R; Maragathaveni, S; Dhivya, N; Tejinder, K [Medanta The Medicity Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Hospital, Mohali, Punjab (India); Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the advent of COMPASS 3D dosimetry as a routine pre treatment verification tool with commercially available CMS Monaco and Oncentra Masterplan planning system. Methods: Twenty esophagus patients were selected for this study. All these patients underwent radical VMAT treatment in Elekta Linac and plans were generated in Monaco v5.0 with MonteCarlo(MC) dose calculation algorithm. COMPASS 3D dosimetry comprises an advanced dose calculation algorithm of collapsed cone convolution(CCC). To validate CCC algorithm in COMPASS, The DICOM RT Plans generated using Monaco MC algorithm were transferred to Oncentra Masterplan v4.3 TPS. Only final dose calculations were performed using CCC algorithm with out optimization in Masterplan planning system. It is proven that MC algorithm is an accurate algorithm and obvious that there will be a difference with MC and CCC algorithms. Hence CCC in COMPASS should be validated with other commercially available CCC algorithm. To use the CCC as pretreatment verification tool with reference to MC generated treatment plans, CCC in OMP and CCC in COMPASS were validated using dose volume based indices such as D98, D95 for target volumes and OAR doses. Results: The point doses for open beams were observed <1% with reference to Monaco MC algorithms. Comparisons of CCC(OMP) Vs CCC(COMPASS) showed a mean difference of 1.82%±1.12SD and 1.65%±0.67SD for D98 and D95 respectively for Target coverage. Maximum point dose of −2.15%±0.60SD difference was observed in target volume. The mean lung dose of −2.68%±1.67SD was noticed between OMP and COMPASS. The maximum point doses for spinal cord were −1.82%±0.287SD. Conclusion: In this study, the accuracy of CCC algorithm in COMPASS 3D dosimetry was validated by compared with CCC algorithm in OMP TPS. Dose calculation in COMPASS is feasible within < 2% in comparison with commercially available TPS algorithms.

  15. 3D 打印技术在复杂胫骨平台骨折治疗中的临床应用%Clinical Application of 3D Printing Technology in the Treatment of Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣文; 张堃; 朱养均; 宋哲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨3D 打印技术在复杂胫骨平台骨折手术治疗中的可行性和临床应用价值。方法对临床上复杂胫骨平台骨折的患者进行螺旋 CT 扫描,将其 DICOM 数据输入计算机中,采用 Mimics 软件数据处理,应用3D 打印技术打印骨折三维模型。按胫骨平台三柱分型重新进行分型,在3D 打印模型上确定手术入路及手术体位,并进行骨折的准确复位及钢板放置的选择等模拟手术。结果重建的胫骨平台骨折三维模型能准确反映出骨折移位的方向和程度,可准确的进行骨折的三柱分型,可初步实现胫骨平台骨折的术前手术设计。结论3D 打印技术应用于复杂胫骨平台骨折的治疗,临床可行性良好,可作为术前准备的常规项目。%Objective To explore the feasibility and clinical value of three-dimension(3D)printing technology in the treatment of complex tibial plateau fracture. Methods Spiral CT scan was performed in patients with complex tibial plateau fracture. DICOM data were imported into Mimics software. The 3D printing technology was used to print the fracture models. The reclassilifcation was performed on the basis of three-dimensional measurements. According to 3D printing models,we de-cided the surgical approach and position,the reducted of fractures and choose the internal fixation. Results Reconstructed 3D printing models of complex tibial plateau fracture could show the characteristics of fracture accurately,help doctors to reclassify the fracture from the three-column,and decide preoperative plan in the tibial plateau fracture. Conclusion The 3D printing technology is helpful for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fracture,which should be a conventional step in the manage-ment of complex tibial plateau fracture.

  16. Application and evaluation of interactive 3D PDF for presenting and sharing planning results for liver surgery in clinical routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file ("PDF App"). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a wider use of this new technology, since the basic idea

  17. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertl, Petra M., E-mail: petra.haertl@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg (Germany); Pohl, Fabian; Weidner, Karin; Groeger, Christian; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara [Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D{sub 15%} of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D{sub 15%} was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D{sub 10%} of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes.

  18. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertl, Petra M; Pohl, Fabian; Weidner, Karin; Groeger, Christian; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D(15%) of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D(15%) was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D(10%) of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes.

  19. The Role of 3-D Heart Models in Planning and Executing Interventional Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Elena K; Olivieri, Laura J

    2017-09-01

    Percutaneous interventions aimed at addressing congenital and structural heart disease are simultaneously becoming more common and more complex as time progresses. An increasing number of heart defects that had previously required open heart surgery can now be successfully addressed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Adequate preprocedural preparation for these novel, complex procedures is critical to ensure their success. Diagnostic data can be collected before the intervention and displayed in multiple formats during the procedure. Advanced cardiac imaging, including cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography form the basis of this preparatory information. Novel methods of displaying these images are becoming more widespread and more useful, including 3-D printed models, 3-D digital models displayed on a virtual or augmented reality system and 3-D digital models overlaid onto a fluoroscopy system. In this review we summarize these state-of-the-art technologies and how they are able to help interventional cardiologists push the boundaries of what is possible in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment techniques for 3D conformal radiation to breast and chest wall including the internal mammary chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnik, Deborah; Selvaraj, Raj N; Faul, Clare; Gerszten, Kristina; Heron, Dwight E; King, Gwendolyn C

    2007-01-01

    Breast, chest wall, and regional nodal irradiation have been associated with an improved outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients. Complex treatment planning is often utilized to ensure complete coverage of the target volume while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The 2 techniques evaluated in this report are the partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) and the 4-field photon/electron combination (the modified "Kuske Technique"). These 2 techniques were evaluated in 10 consecutive breast cancer patients. All patients had computerized tomographic (CT) scans for 3D planning supine on a breast board. The breast was defined clinically by the physician and confirmed radiographically with radiopaque bebes. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of normal and target tissues were then compared. The deep tangent field with blocks resulted in optimal coverage of the target and the upper internal mammary chain (IMC) while sparing of critical and nontarget tissues. The wide tangent technique required less treatment planning and delivery time. We compared the 2 techniques and their resultant DVHs and feasibility in a busy clinic.

  1. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  2. Planning and Control of Stable Walking for a 3D Bipedal Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Long Shih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-invariant feedback controller that simultaneously regulates the ZMP (zero-moment point position and the joint configuration of a 3D biped in order to achieve an asymptotically, periodic walking gait for a 3D bipedal robot with feet. The cyclic walking gait is composed of a successive single-support phase and an impulsive impact with full plane-contact between the feet and the ground. The biped robot has 10 DOFs (degrees of freedom in the single-support phase and 10 actuators. In order to avoid the unexpected rotation of the supporting foot, the position of the ZMP in the horizontal plane has to be controlled. It is also desired that the feedback controller tracks a parameterized reference trajectory to achieve walking stability. We use the method of virtual constraints previously implemented for controlling point-feet bipedal robots to create a set of parameterized reference walking trajectories. By creating the hybrid zero dynamics, an orbital stability study with Poincaré map is evaluated in a reduced space. We then design a supplemental event-based feedback controller to enhance walking stability. The walking gait has an average walking speed of 0.76m/sec (or 0.72 body lengths per second in the simulation study.

  3. Robust 3-D Algorithm for Flare Planning and Guidance for Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a robust nonlinear guidance law for planning and executing the flare-touchdown maneuver for impaired aircraft under adverse wind conditions is...

  4. Path Planning and Replanning for Mobile Robot Navigation on 3D Terrain: An Approach Based on Geodesic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Lin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mobile robot navigation on a 3D terrain with a single obstacle is addressed. The terrain is modelled as a smooth, complete manifold with well-defined tangent planes and the hazardous region is modelled as an enclosing circle with a hazard grade tuned radius representing the obstacle projected onto the terrain to allow efficient path-obstacle intersection checking. To resolve the intersections along the initial geodesic, by resorting to the geodesic ideas from differential geometry on surfaces and manifolds, we present a geodesic-based planning and replanning algorithm as a new method for obstacle avoidance on a 3D terrain without using boundary following on the obstacle surface. The replanning algorithm generates two new paths, each a composition of two geodesics, connected via critical points whose locations are found to be heavily relying on the exploration of the terrain via directional scanning on the tangent plane at the first intersection point of the initial geodesic with the circle. An advantage of this geodesic path replanning procedure is that traversability of terrain on which the detour path traverses could be explored based on the local Gauss-Bonnet Theorem of the geodesic triangle at the planning stage. A simulation demonstrates the practicality of the analytical geodesic replanning procedure for navigating a constant speed point robot on a 3D hill-like terrain.

  5. SU-E-T-217: Comprehensive Dosimetric Evaluation On 3D-CRT, IMRT and Non-Coplanar Arc Treatment for Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T; Yan, Y; Ramirez, E; Lee, P; Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an effective treatment for early stage breast-cancer. Irradiation in a prone position can mitigate breast motion and spare heart and lung. In this study, a comprehensive study is performed to evaluate various treatment techniques for prone APBI treatment including: 3D-CRT, IMRT, co-planar and non-coplanar partial arcs treatment. Methods: In this treatment planning study, a left breast patient treated in prone position in our clinic was imported into Varian Eclipse TPS. Six beams tangential to chest wall were used in both 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. These six beams were coplanar in a transactional plane achieved by both gantry and couch rotation. A 60-beam IMRT plan was also created to explore the maximum benefit of co-planar IMRT. Within deliverable couch rotation range (±30°), partial arc treatment plans with one and up to ten couch positions were generated for comparison. For each plan, 30Gy in 6 fractions was prescribed to 95% PTV volume. Critical dosimetric parameters, such as conformity index, mean, maximum, and volume dose of organ at risk, are evaluated. Results: The conformity indexes (CI) are 3.53, 3.17, 2.21 and 1.08 respectively to 3D-CRT, 6-beam IMRT, 60-beam IMRT, and two-partial-arcs coplanar plans. However, arc plans increase heart dose. CI for non-coplanar arc plans decreases from 1.19 to 1.10 when increases couch positions. Maximum dose in ipsilateral lung (1.98 to 1.13 Gy), and heart (0.62 to 0.43 Gy) are steadily decreased with the increased number of non-coplanar arcs. Conclusions: The dosimetric evaluation results show that partial arc plans have improved CIs compared to conventional 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. Increasing number of partial arcs decreases lung and heart dose. The dosimetric benefit obtained from non-coplanar arcs should be considered with treatment delivery time.

  6. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  7. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2017-03-01

    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  8. Soft tissue models: easy and inexpensive flexible 3D printing as a help in surgical planning of cardiovascular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Ezon, David S.; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Dodd, Nicholas; Heinle, Jeffrey; Mckenzie, Dean E.; Annapragada, Ananth

    2017-03-01

    We developed a technology that allows a simple desktop 3D printer with dual extruder to fabricate 3D flexible models of Major AortoPulmonary Collateral Arteries. The study was designed to assess whether the flexible 3D printed models could help during surgical planning phase. Simple FDM 3D printers are inexpensive, versatile in use and easy to maintain, but complications arise when the designed model is complex and has tubular structures with small diameter less than 2mm. The advantages of FDM printers are cost and simplicity of use. We use precisely selected materials to overcome the obstacles listed above. Dual extruder allows to use two different materials while printing, which is especially important in the case of fragile structures like pulmonary vessels and its supporting structures. The latter should not be removed by hand to avoid a truncation of the model. We utilize the water soluble PVA as a supporting structure and Poro-Lay filament for flexible model of AortoPulmonary collateral arteries. Poro-Lay filament is different as compared to all the other flexible ones like polymer-based. Poro-Lay is rigid while printing and this allows printing of structures small in diameter. It achieves flexibility after washing out of printed model with water. It becomes soft in touch and gelatinous. Using both PVA and Poro-Lay gives a huge advantage allowing to wash out the supporting structures and achieve flexibility in one washing operation, saving time and avoiding human error with cleaning the model. We evaluated 6 models for MAPCAS surgical planning study. This approach is also cost-effective - an average cost of materials for print is less than $15; models are printed in facility without any delays. Flexibility of 3D printed models approximate soft tissues properly, mimicking Aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Second utilization models has educational value for both residents and patients' family. Simplification of 3D flexible process could help in other models

  9. 3D angiography in the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms before and after treatment. Initial experience; L'angiografia 3D nella valutazione pre e post-trattamento degli aneurismi intracranici. Esperienza preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauriola, Walter; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Florio, Francesco [Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, IRCCS San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Radiologia Interventistica; Cali, Alessandro; D' Angelo, Vincenzo [Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, IRCCS San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Divisione di Neurochirugia

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the advantages of 3D angiography as compared to 2D angiography in assessing intracranial aneurysms before and after treatment and, in particular, in selecting and planning the correct treatment. Materials and methods: Thirty intracranial aneurysms were retrospectively reviewed before and after treatment. The study population consisted of 12 men and 18 women (age range: 35-77 years; mean age: 58 years). Eighteen aneurysms were treated surgically, 10 endovascularly and 2 with combined treatment. The 2D and 3D finding before and after the treatment were compared , and the pre-treatment angiographic images were compared with surgical findings. The following parameters were assessed and compared: aneurysmal sac and neck size, vascular involvement and evaluation of post-treatment residual mass. Results: On the 2D DSA images, visualisation of the sac and neck was optimal in 45% and 15% of cases, adequate in 10% and 35% of cases and inadequate in 5% and 50% of cases, respectively. On the 3D DSA images, visualisation of the sac and neck was optimal in 100% of cases. Three-dimensional DSA was able to detect 8 aneurysms with vessel involvement in all cases (100%). Of these, four (50%) went undetected on 2D DSA; in two cases, two-dimensional DSA erroneously detected the presence of vascular involvement (false positive). Three-dimensional angiography proved superior to 2D angiography in the evaluation of the residual aneurysms treated with clipping. Finally, 3D DSA was able to reduce the number of the radiographic projections, the quantity of contrast medium, the time and associated risks necessary for a precise evaluation of the aneurysm. Conclusions: In our first experience, 3D DSA proved useful in reducing the risks and diagnostic time as well as in selecting and planning the treatment. Moreover, it improved the operating conditions of both surgical and endovascular treatment. Technological advances in this field will enable the

  10. 3D Path Planning for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in Constrained Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Flemming

    Determining how an autonomous Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) should reach a goal position amidst obstacles is a challenging and difficult problem. This thesis treats the subject of path planning and trajectory generation for UAS, while utilizing the ability to move in all three spatial dimensions...

  11. 3D Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of the Nonuniform Residual Stress in Ultrasonic Impact Treatment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengsun; Guo, Chaobo; Wang, Dongpo; Wang, Zhijiang

    2016-09-01

    The nonuniform distributions of the residual stress were simulated by a 3D finite element model to analyze the elastic-plastic dynamic ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) process of multiple impacts on the 2024 aluminum alloy. The evolution of the stress during the impact process was discussed. The successive impacts during the UIT process improve the uniformity of the plastic deformation and decrease the maximum compressive residual stress beneath the former impact indentations. The influences of different controlled parameters, including the initial impact velocity, pin diameter, pin tip, device moving, and offset distances, on the residual stress distributions were analyzed. The influences of the controlled parameters on the residual stress distributions are apparent in the offset direction due to the different surface coverage in different directions. The influences can be used to understand the UIT process and to obtain the desired residual stress by optimizing the controlled parameters.

  12. Adaptive Gait Control for a Quadruped Robot on 3D Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Kakikura, Masayoshi

    A legged walking robot is able to not only move on irregular terrain but also change its posture. For example, the robot can pass under overhead obstacles by crouching. The purpose of our research is to realize efficient path planning with a quadruped robot. Therefore, the path planning is expected to extended in three dimensions because of the mobility. However, some issues of the quadruped robot, which are instability, workspace limitation, deadlock and slippage, complicate realizing such application. In order to improve these issues and reinforce the mobility, a new static gait pattern for a quadruped robot, called TFG: Trajectory Following Gait, is proposed. The TFG intends to obtain high controllability like a wheel robot. Additionally, the TFG allows to change it posture during the walk. In this paper, some experimental results show that the TFG improves the issues and it is available for efficient locomotion in three dimensional environment.

  13. Optimal matching of 3D film-measured and planned doses for intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Sung Yong; Park, Dong Hyun; Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2007-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is one of the most complex applications of radiotherapy that requires patient-specific quality assurance (QA). Here, we describe a novel method of 3-dimensional (3D) dose-verification using 12 acrylic slabs in a 3D phantom (30 x 30 x 12 cm(3)) with extended dose rate (EDR2) films, which is both faster than conventionally used methods, and clinically useful. With custom-written software modules written in Microsoft Excel Visual Basic Application, the measured and planned dose distributions for the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were superimposed by matching their origins, and the point doses were compared at all matched positions. Then, an optimization algorithm was used to correct the detected setup errors. The results show that this optimization method significantly reduces the average maximum dose difference by 7.73% and the number of points showing dose differences of more than 5% by 8.82% relative to the dose differences without an optimization. Our results indicate that the dose difference was significantly decreased with optimization and this optimization method is statistically reliable and effective. The results of 3D optimization are discussed in terms of various patient-specific QA data obtained from statistical analyses.

  14. Computer-assisted preoperative planning for reduction of proximal femoral fracture using 3-D-CT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Iwasaki, Yuta; Koyama, Tsuyoshi; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Chen, Yen-Wei; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes procedures for repositioning calculations of fractured bone fragments using 3-D-computed tomography (CT), aimed at preoperative planning for computer-guided fracture reduction of the proximal femur. Fracture boundaries of the bone fragments, as "fracture lines (FLs)," and the mirror-transformed contralateral femur shape extracted from 3-D-CT were used for repositioning of the fragments. We first describe a method for extracting FLs based on 3-D curvature analysis and then formulate repositioning methods based on registration of bone fragments using the following three constraints: 1) contralateral (CL) femur shape; 2) FLs; and 3) both CL femur shape and fracture lines, as "both constraints". We performed experiments using CT datasets from five simulated and four real patients with proximal femoral fracture. We evaluated the rotation error in reposition calculations and the contact ratio between repositioned fragment boundaries, which are crucial for the recovery of proper functional axes and bone adhesion of fragments, respectively. Experimental results showed that good accuracy and stability were attainable when registration using both constraints was performed after registration using the fracture-line constraint. On average, 6.0 degrees +/-0.8 degrees in rotation error and 89%+/-3 % in contact ratio were obtained without providing precise initial values.

  15. 3D digitizing path planning for part inspection with laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mussa; Joannic, David; Fontaine, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    If the first work relating to the automation of the digitalization of machine elements goes back to approximately 25 years, the process of digitalization of parts with non-contact sensor remains nevertheless complex. It is not completely solved today, in particular from a metrological point of view. In this article, we consider the determination of the trajectory planning within the framework of the control of dimensional and geometrical specifications. The sensor used in this application is a laser planner scanner with CCD camera oriented and moved by a CMM. For this purpose, we have focused on the methodology used to determine the best possible viewpoints which will satisfy the digitizing of a mechanical part. The developed method is based on the concept of visibility: for each facet of a part CAD Model (STL) a set of orientations, called real visibility chart, is calculated under condition of measurement uncertainties. By application of several optimisation criteria, the real visibility chart is reduced to create a viewpoint set from which the path planning is built.

  16. Building Analysis for Urban Energy Planning Using Key Indicators on Virtual 3d City Models - the Energy Atlas of Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, A.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of increasing greenhouse gas emission and global demographic change with the simultaneous trend to urbanization, it is a big challenge for cities around the world to perform modifications in energy supply chain and building characteristics resulting in reduced energy consumption and carbon dioxide mitigation. Sound knowledge of energy resource demand and supply including its spatial distribution within urban areas is of great importance for planning strategies addressing greater energy efficiency. The understanding of the city as a complex energy system affects several areas of the urban living, e.g. energy supply, urban texture, human lifestyle, and climate protection. With the growing availability of 3D city models around the world based on the standard language and format CityGML, energy system modelling, analysis and simulation can be incorporated into these models. Both domains will profit from that interaction by bringing together official and accurate building models including building geometries, semantics and locations forming a realistic image of the urban structure with systemic energy simulation models. A holistic view on the impacts of energy planning scenarios can be modelled and analyzed including side effects on urban texture and human lifestyle. This paper focuses on the identification, classification, and integration of energy-related key indicators of buildings and neighbourhoods within 3D building models. Consequent application of 3D city models conforming to CityGML serves the purpose of deriving indicators for this topic. These will be set into the context of urban energy planning within the Energy Atlas Berlin. The generation of indicator objects covering the indicator values and related processing information will be presented on the sample scenario estimation of heating energy consumption in buildings and neighbourhoods. In their entirety the key indicators will form an adequate image of the local energy situation for

  17. 3D soft tissue predictions with a tetrahedral mass tensor model for a maxillofacial planning system: a quantitative validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollemans, W.; Schutyser, F.; Nadjmi, N.; Maes, F.; Suetens, P.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present an extensive quantitative validation on 3D facial soft tissue simulation for maxillofacial surgery planning. The study group contained 10 patients. In previous work we presented a new Mass Tensor Model to simulate the new facial appearance after maxillofacial surgery in a fast way. 10 patients were preoperatively CT-scanned and the surgical intervention was planned. 4 months after surgery, a post-operative control CT was acquired. In this study, the simulated facial outlook is compared with post-operative image data. After defining corresponding points between the predicted and actual post-operative facial skin surface, using a variant of the non-rigid TPS-RPM algorithm, distances between these correspondences are quantified and visualized in 3D. As shown, the average median distance measures only 0.60 mm and the average 90% percentile stays below 1.5 mm. We can conclude that our model clearly provides an accurate prediction of the real post-operative outcome and is therefore suitable for use in clinical practice.

  18. Anterior Teeth Splinting After Orthodontic Treatment: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geramy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retention after orthodontic treatment is still an important part of the treatment. Splints are considered as an alternative for removable retainers. The main goal of this study was to assess splinting biomechanically.Materials and Methods: Three dimensional finite element models (3D were designed of a mandibular anterior segment which included six anterior teeth with their supporting tissues (model 1 as control and with a bonded lingual fixed retainer in the two other models. The wire cross section was round (0.016” in model 2 and rectangular (0.016” × 0.022” in model 3. The models were designed in Solid Works 2006 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench Ver. 11.0 SolidWorks Incisors were loaded with a vertical force of 187 N. PDL stress and tooth displacements were evaluated.Results: The numeric findings showed an increase after splinting in the central incisors [2.42 MPa to 4.57 MPa (round and 16.66 (rectangular MPa] in biting with four incisors. Biting with two incisors decreased the stress after splinting [2.42 MPa to 1.7 MPa (round wire and 1.77 MPa (rectangular wire]. In lateral movement, all teeth showed an increased stress except for the working side canine.Conclusion: Splinted cases (with round or rectangular wires can benefit from stress redistribution when biting small food particles and in lateral movement.

  19. Personalized treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B; Richards, D

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to outline a flexible framework which the dental team can use to bring together key elements of information about their patients and their patients' teeth in order to plan appropriate, patient-centred, caries management based on the application of best current evidence and practice. This framework can be enabled by the use of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) clinical visual scoring systems for caries detection and activity, but also needs additional information about lesions and the patient to plan and then monitor the effectiveness of personalized caries care. The treatment planning process has evolved from restorative treatment decisions being largely made during clinical assessment as an examination of wet teeth proceeds, with limited charting and a minor role for patient factors. Best practice now involves a comprehensive examination being made systematically of clean dry teeth using sharp eyes and blunt probes. The ICDAS-enabled framework provides for information to be collected at the tooth/surface level (clinical visual lesion detection, lesion detection aids and lesion activity assessment) and at the patient level (patient caries risk assessment, dentition and lesion history and patient behavioural assessment). This information is then synthesized to inform integrated, personalized treatment planning which involves the choice of appropriate treatment options (background level care, preventive treatment options, operative treatment options) and then recall, reassessment and monitoring. Examples of international moves towards using integrated, personalized treatment planning for caries control are given, drawing on experiences in the UK, the USA and from the ICDAS Committee. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. [Postoperative patient. Treatment plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Medina, I M; Sánchez Criado, V

    2001-03-01

    In order to prevent problems and complications which patients who have undergone surgery tend to suffer, it is fundamental to utilize a generic standardized treatment plan due to the preventive dimension which nursing care may then acquire. So that this treatment plan provide greater effectiveness, it should include standardized nursing interventions such as those listed in the Classification of Nursing Interventions since by this method, a common terminology is built up among professionals which provides continuity to treatment and facilitates the selection of adequate interventions for each situation. This report establishes the most frequent nursing diagnoses among post-surgical patients and adapts these to the nursing treatments in the Classification of Nursing Interventions.

  1. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Pavanetto, Franca; Perugini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a "placebo" formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or t(0)), after 1 month (t(1)), and at the end of the study (t(2)). Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment.

  2. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Bleve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a “placebo” formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or 0, after 1 month (1, and at the end of the study (2. Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment.

  3. Dosimetric study for cervix carcinoma treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D intracavitary brachytherapy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Wang, Pei; Lang, Jinyi; Tian, Yin; Luo, Yangkun; Fan, Zixuan; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-06-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) boost technique (ICBT + IMRT) has been used in our hospital for advanced cervix carcinoma patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of the four different boost techniques (the conventional 2D HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [CICBT], 3D optimized HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [OICBT], and IMRT-alone with the applicator in situ). For 30 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma, after the completion of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for whole pelvic irradiation 45 Gy/25 fractions, five fractions of ICBT + IMRT boost with 6 Gy/fractions for high risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and 5 Gy/fractions for intermediate risk clinical target volume (IRCTV) were applied. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired using an in situ CT/MRI-compatible applicator. The gross tumor volume (GTV), the high/intermediate-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV/IRCTV), bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were contoured by CT scans. For ICBT + IMRT plan, values of D90, D100 of HRCTV, D90, D100, and V100 of IRCTV significantly increased (p < 0.05) in comparison to OICBT and CICBT. The D2cc values for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were significantly lower than that of CICBT and IMRT alone. In all patients, the mean rectum V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT and OICBT techniques were very similar but for bladder and sigmoid, the V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT were higher than that of OICBT. For the ICBT + IMRT plan, the standard deviations (SD) of D90 and D2cc were found to be lower than other three treatment plans. The ICBT + IMRT technique not only provides good target coverage but also maintains low doses (D2cc) to the OAR. ICBT + IMRT is an optional technique to boost parametrial region or tumor of large size and irregular shape when intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy

  4. Improving sand and gravel utilization and land-use planning. - 3D-modelling gravel resources with geospatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad Libach, Lars; Wolden, Knut; Dagestad, Atle; Eskil Larsen, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    The Norwegian aggregate industry produces approximately 14 million tons of sand and gravel aggregates annually to a value of approximately 100 million Euros. Utilization of aggregates are often linked to land-use conflicts and complex environmental impacts at the extraction site. These topics are managed on a local municipal level in Norway. The Geological Survey of Norway has a database and a web map service with information about sand and gravel deposits with considerable volumes and an importance evaluation. Some of the deposits covers large areas where the land-use conflicts are high. To ease and improve land-use planning, safeguard other important resources like groundwater and sustainable utilization of sand and gravel resources - there is a need for more detailed information of already mapped important resources. Detailed 3D-models of gravel deposits is a tool for a better land-use- and resource management. By combining seismic, GPR and resistivity geophysical profile data, borehole data, quaternary maps and lidar surface data, it has been possible to make 3D-models of deposits and to further research the possibilities for distinguishing different qualities and volumes. Good datasets and a detailed resource map is a prerequisite to assess geological resources for planners, extractors and neighbours. Future challenges lies in use of, often old, geophysical data, and combining these. What kind of information is it possible to grasp from depth-data that actually argues for a more detailed delineation of resources?

  5. 3D Preoperative Planning in the ER with OsiriX®: When There is No Time for Neuronavigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Ferreira de Andrade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of patients in the emergency room department (ER through more accurate imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT has revolutionized their assistance in the early 80s. However, despite technical improvements seen during the last decade, surgical planning in the ER has not followed the development of image acquisition methods. The authors present their experience with DICOM image processing as a navigation method in the ER. The authors present 18 patients treated in the Emergency Department of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo. All patients were submitted to volumetric CT. We present patients with epidural hematomas, acute/subacute subdural hematomas and contusional hematomas. Using a specific program to analyze images in DICOM format (OsiriX®, the authors performed the appropriate surgical planning. The use of 3D surgical planning made it possible to perform procedures more accurately and less invasively, enabling better postoperative outcomes. All sorts of neurosurgical emergency pathologies can be treated appropriately with no waste of time. The three-dimensional processing of images in the preoperative evaluation is easy and possible even within the emergency care. It should be used as a tool to reduce the surgical trauma and it may dispense methods of navigation in many cases.

  6. The Use of a 3D Printer in Pre-operative Planning for a Patient Requiring Acetabular Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M; Nahas, Samuel; Akhtar, Kashif; Daurka, Jasvinder

    2015-01-01

    Surgical management of acetabular fractures is often highly complex, and a successful outcome depends upon an appreciation of the fracture pattern and the most appropriate approach to reduce and hold it. Currently, computed tomography (CT) images are used in conjunction with plain x-rays to identify the main fracture components and their spatial relationship to one another, and as such surgeons still have to make decisions based upon their ability to visualise the fracture from the images available. 3D printers have now become widely available and inexpensive, and can be used to rapidly produce life-size models based on CT scans of an individual patient. The availability of patient specific, accurate and detailed models of complex acetabular fractures can aid planning of surgical management on a patient specific basis. This report describes the use of a 3D printer to create a life-size model reconstruction of the pelvis of a 48 year old male patient who sustained a left sided associated both column acetabular fracture following a motorbike accident in the Sahara Desert. The model allowed visualisation of the multiple fracture fragments and their relative displacements. The tactile feedback allowed assessment of the different fracture fragments. The relative displacement of the quadrilateral plate and posterior column fragments could be assessed and the surgeon felt that these would be amenable to reduction from an ilioinguinal approach. An anatomic reduction was achieved and was held with the application of a pelvic brim plate with 2 screws lagging the posterior column/quadrilateral plate fragment. There are previous examples of 3D models being used in orthopaedic surgery through the use of rapid prototyping, however this method is usually expensive and time consuming. Advances in 3D printer technology offer surgeons a number of advantages when treating these complex fractures. With the ever-increasing economy, ease of use and speed of additive processing, the

  7. 中上段食管癌3D-CRT与IMRT肺损伤剂量学的对比研究%Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Versus 3D Conformal Radiotherapy in Treatment of Cancer of Upper/Mid Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 罗辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compared 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)-induced and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-induced pulmonary injury by using 3D treatment planning system,and to explore the optimum treatment strategy for upper/mid esophageal carcinoma.Methods Eight patients with upper/mid esophageal carcinoma were selected in this study. Four different radiotherapy plans were developed for each patient,including 5-field 3D-CRT(CRT5),7-field 3D-CRT(CRT7), 5-field IMRT (IMRT5) and 7-field IMRT (IMRT7). The planning target volume (PTV) received at least 95% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose (MLD),V5,V10,V20 and V30 were evaluated using dose volume histogram(DVH). All statistics were analyzed using the SPSS version 11.5 software. Results CRT5 plan reduced lung V10 compared with CRT7 (P=0. 006), but V5, V20, V30 and MLD were not different between the two plans(P>0. 008 3). There were no significant differences in lung parameters between IMRT5 and IMRT7.Compared with IMRT plans, V20, V30 and MLD were increased by 3D-CRT, while V5 was decreased by 3D-CRT(P<0. 0083). Conclusion Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT can reduce the MLD,V20 and V30 to achieve lung sparing in treatment of upper/mid esophageal carcinoma.There were no significant differences in the protection of lung tissues between 5-field and 7-field techniques for both 3D-CRT and IMRT plans.%目的 应用三维适形放疗(3D-CRT)计划比较中上段食管鳞癌3D-CRT和调强放疗(IMRT)的放射性肺损伤情况从而探讨理想的治疗计划模式.方法 8例患者每例分别设计4个放疗计划(CRT-5 、CRT-7、IMRT-5及 IMRT-7),规定PTV至少达到95%处方剂量前提下用DVH评价每个计划的V5 、V10 、V20 、V30及肺 MLD.采用SPSS 11.5软件包进行数据统计与分析.结果 采用3D-CRT技术时,5野的V10优于7野(P=0.006);5野与7野的肺Mean、肺V5、V20、V30(P>0.0083)之间无统计学意义;采用IMRT技术时,5野与7野之间各参数的对

  8. 3D-CTA、DSA对颅内动脉瘤诊疗价值的对比%Comparative study of 3D-CTA and DSA in the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥; 于如同; 范月超; 郭克勤

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical value of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography(3D-DSA), three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) and conventional DSA(2D-DSA) in the diagnosis and treatment of Intracranial aneurysms. Methods The data of 3D-DSA, 3D-CTA, 2D-DSA and operation of 32 patients with Intracranial aneurysms were reviewed, retrospectively. Results 35 aneurysms were detected by 3D-DSA and correlated well with microsurgical findings. The shape of the aneurysms, their neck size and their relationships to the parent vessels and other branches were depicted clearly, especially compared with images obtained by 3D-CTA and 2D-DSA. 33 aneurysms were detected by 3D-CTA. 32 aneurysms were detected by 2D-DSA. Aneurysms' body, neck, parent artery and the relationship between the aneurysms and surrounding structures (bone) were clearly and surely displayed by 3D-CTA. Conclusion 3D-CTA is a sensitivity and rapid and noninvasive method for detecting aneurysms. 3D-CTA can be the first choice for diagnosing Intracranial aneurysms without performing 2D-DSA. During CT for ruptured aneurysms, a negative 3D-CTA should be investigated further by 3D-DSA. 3D-DSA should be performed in cases of multiple intracranial aneurysms with complex shapes or very small size. 3D-DSA should be the "gold standard" for detecting intracranial aneurysms.%目的 评价3D-DSA、3D-CTA、2D-DSA在颅内动脉瘤诊疗中的作用.方法 回顾性分析32例动脉瘤患者3D-DSA、3D-CTA、2D-DSA和手术资料.结果 32例患者共35个动脉瘤(有3例患者为多发动脉瘤).3D-DSA能清楚显示所有动脉瘤的形态,准确判断3例多发动脉瘤中破裂的动脉瘤且手术顺利夹闭;3D-CTA检出33个,遗漏1个前交通动脉瘤及1个颈内动脉瘤;2D-DSA检出32个,遗漏2个前交通动脉瘤和1个大脑中动脉瘤.3D-DSA及3D-CTA在显示瘤颈上明显优于2D-DSA,3D-CTA可准确显示动脉瘤与相邻骨质结构关系.结论 3D~CTA是检查颅

  9. 4D analysis of influence of patient movement and anatomy alteration on the quality of 3D U/S-based prostate HDR brachytherapy treatment delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milickovic, Natasa; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Tselis, Nikolaos; Nikolova, Iliyana; Katsilieri, Zaira; Kefala, Vasiliki; Zamboglou, Nikolaos; Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (Sweden); Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main, Germany and Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Modern HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer based on the 3D ultrasound (U/S) plays increasingly important role. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible patient movement and anatomy alteration between the clinical image set acquisition, made after the needle implantation, and the patient irradiation and their influence on the quality of treatment. Methods: The authors used 3D U/S image sets and the corresponding treatment plans based on a 4D-treatment planning procedure: plans of 25 patients are obtained right after the needle implantation (clinical plan is based on this 3D image set) and just before and after the treatment delivery. The authors notice the slight decrease of treatment quality with increase of time gap between the clinical image set acquisition and the patient irradiation. 4D analysis of dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) for prostate: CTV1 = PTV, and urethra, rectum, and bladder as organs at risk (OARs) and conformity index (COIN) is presented, demonstrating the effect of prostate, OARs, and needles displacement. Results: The authors show that in the case that the patient body movement/anatomy alteration takes place, this results in modification of DVHs and radiobiological parameters, hence the plan quality. The observed average displacement of needles (1 mm) and of prostate (0.57 mm) is quite small as compared with the average displacement noted in several other reports [A. A. Martinez et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 49(1), 61-69 (2001); S. J. Damore et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 46(5), 1205-1211 (2000); P. J. Hoskin et al., Radiotherm. Oncol. 68(3), 285-288 (2003); E. Mullokandov et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 58(4), 1063-1071 (2004)] in the literature. Conclusions: Although the decrease of quality of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters occurs, this does not cause clinically unacceptable changes to the 3D dose distribution, according to our clinical protocol.

  10. Study on the application of 3D modeling based on UAV photography in urban planning — Taking Yi Jiequ area in Du Jiangyan as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingshuang; Zhang, Lingqing

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposed a new technique combining UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) with 3D (three-dimension) modeling to integrate and analyze a large amount of information and to guide urban planning. This paper expounded the status and methods of UAV applying to 3D modeling, verified the practical values of this technique and summarized the future development trend by taking Yi Jiequ area in Du Jiangyan as an example.

  11. Could 3D bioprinted tissues offer future hope for microtia treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Microtia is a congenital deformity where the pinna is underdeveloped. Contraindications to rib surgery for microtia reconstruction include high-risk surgical status and chest-wall deformities [1-2]. However does stem-cell-based 3D Bioprinting offer revolutionary therapeutic options for patients with such tissue abnormalities. As a technology, 3D-bioprinting is being developed to generate homogeneous tissues by depositing a low viscosity printable cellular-active gel which matures into a tissue [3]. Currently on-going research is developing the process towards producing cartilage tissues for use in reconstructive surgery. This process focuses on using the natural self-organising properties of cells in order to produce a functional tissue which has measurable: mechanical, metabolic and functional properties.

  12. Volume visualization in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, C A; Chen, G T

    2000-12-01

    Radiation treatment planning (RTP), historically an image-intensive discipline and one of the first areas in which 3D information from imaging was clinically applied, has become even more critically dependent on accurate 3D definition of target and non-target structures in recent years with the advent of conformal radiation therapy. In addition to the interactive display of wireframe or shaded surface models of anatomic objects, proposed radiation beams, beam modifying devices, and calculated dose distributions, recently significant use has been made of direct visualization of relevant anatomy from image data. Dedicated systems are commercially available for the purpose of geometrically optimizing beam placement, implementing in virtual reality the functionality of standard radiation therapy simulators. Such "CT simulation" systems rely heavily on 3D visualization and on reprojection of image data to produce simulated radiographs for comparison with either diagnostic-quality radiographs made on a simulator or megavoltage images made using the therapeutic beams themselves. Although calculation and analysis of dose distributions is an important component of radiation treatment design, geometric targeting with optimization based on 3D anatomic information is frequently performed as a separate step independent of dose calculations.

  13. [Oligodontia: treatment plan and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, J H; Meijer, H J A; van Oort, R P

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to gain insight in treatment planning and therapy for patients with oligodontia. Records of 58 treated patients with oligodontia were screened using several parameters: gender, year and age of registration, symptoms, case history, treatment plan and therapy. Treatment plans were sorted into the following categories: tooth-supported overdentures, fixed or removable partial dentures and implant-supported restorations. Dependent on the complexity of oligodontia, it is advocated to make a treatment plan before the age of 12 years old and to follow the provided treatment conscientiously until the final prosthetic treatment. After analyzing the 58 treatment plans, the following conclusions could be made: the treatment plan was not in all cases made before the age of 12 years, it was not clear in all cases who was the coordinator of the treatment and dental implants are becoming more and more important in treating patients with oligodontia.

  14. 基于ArcGIS的三维辅助规划设计%3D Aided Plan Design Based on ArcGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚珍; 吴浩; 黎华

    2012-01-01

    从B/S架构入手,对城市规划进行三维辅助设计研究,给出了2D GIS与3D GIS相结合的GIS系统框架,实现了2D GIS与3D GIS之间的切换.同时,针对未建设区域的城市规划,根据已测得的数据点,建立了Delaunay三角网,然后将拟建设的3D模型放置在该区域进行辅助设计,为城市规划方案探讨提供了具有真实感的效果图.除此之外,建立了城市的3D GIS预警系统,对洪水淹没过程进行了模拟,为三维城市辅助规划提供了可行的设计思路和实施方案,具有一定的实用价值.%The B/S structure was discussed. Then the city design based on 3D aid design was conducted. And GIS system was constructed by 2D GIS and 3D GIS. The 2D GIS and the 3D GIS could switch into each other. Base on measured data, Delaunay triangulation network was constructed for wasteland in city; then 3D model was plaeeed in the area to aid the design. It offered designer the effect diagram with a sense of reality. Furthermore, a 3D early warning system of city was established to simulate the process of flooding. A practical design and implementation plan was proposed to 3D city design plan.

  15. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John [CCSEO, Kingston General Hospital and Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  16. Development of 3D statistical mandible models for cephalometric measurements

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to provide sex-matched three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape models of the mandible, which would provide cephalometric parameters for 3D treatment planning and cephalometric measurements in orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods The subjects used to create the 3D shape models of the mandible included 23 males and 23 females. The mandibles were segmented semi-automatically from 3D facial CT images. Each individual mandible shape was reconstructed as a ...

  17. Usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging for preoperative planning in patients with posterior fossa hemangioblastoma: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Kin, Taichi; Saito, Toki; Shono, Naoyuki; Nomura, Seiji; Nakagawa, Daichi; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Imai, Hideaki; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-07-01

    Successful resection of hemangioblastoma depends on preoperative assessment of the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins. Simultaneous 3D visualization of feeding arteries, draining veins, and surrounding structures is needed. The present study evaluated the usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging (hr-3DMMI) for preoperative planning of hemangioblastoma. The hr-3DMMI combined MRI, MR angiography, thin-slice CT, and 3D rotated angiography. Surface rendering was mainly used for the creation of hr-3DMMI using multiple thresholds to create 3D models, and processing took approximately 3-5 hours. This hr-3DMMI technique was used in 5 patients for preoperative planning and the imaging findings were compared with the operative findings. Hr-3DMMI could simulate the whole 3D tumor as a unique sphere and show the precise penetration points of both feeding arteries and draining veins with the same spatial relationships as the original tumor. All feeding arteries and draining veins were found intraoperatively at the same position as estimated preoperatively, and were occluded as planned preoperatively. This hr-3DMMI technique could demonstrate the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins preoperatively and estimate the appropriate route for resection of the tumor. Hr-3DMMI is expected to be a very useful support tool for surgery of hemangioblastoma.

  18. Class solution to decrease rectal dose in prostate radiotherapy treatments 3D-CRT; Solucion de clase para disminuir dosis en recto en tratamientos de prostata con radioterapia 3D-CRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres Rodriguez, C.; Tortosa Oliver, R.; Alonso Hernandez, D.; Mari Palacios, A.; Castillo Belmonte, A. del

    2011-07-01

    This paper contains a method developed in our center with conventional 3D radiotherapy techniques to increase the dose conformation around the target volume in prostate cancer treatments significantly reduced the doses to the rectum. To evaluate the goodness of the method, the results are compared with two classical techniques of treatment.

  19. The Effect of Flattening Filter Free on Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT), Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Plans for Metastatic Brain Tumors from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Wan; Lai, You-Qun; Lin, Qin; Ha, Hui-Ming; Fu, Li-Rong

    2015-07-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) may affect outcome measures of radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters in three types of radiotherapy plans, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), with or without the flattening filter (FF), developed for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From July 2013 to October 2013, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans were designed using 6 MV and 10 MV, with and without FF, for 10 patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC. The evaluation of the treatment plans included homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), monitor units (MU), mean dose (Dmean), treatment time, and the influence of FFF on volumes. There was no difference in CI or HI between FFF and FF models with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans. At 6 MV, a lower Dmean was seen in the FFF model of 3D-CRT and in the VMAT plan at 10 MV. In the IMRT 6 MV, IMRT 10 MV, and VMAT 10 MV plans, higher MUs were seen in the FFF models. FFF treatments are similar in quality to FF plans, generally lead to more monitor units, and are associated with shorter treatment times. FFF plans ranked by the order of superiority in terms of a time advantage are VMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT.

  20. 3D printed facial laser scans for the production of localised radiotherapy treatment masks - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matthew; Clements, Helen; Wynne, Neil; Rennie, Allan; Kellett, Darren

    This study investigates the use of 3D printing for patients that require localised radiotherapy treatment to the face. The current process involves producing a lead mask in order to protect the healthy tissue from the effects of the radiotherapy. The mask is produced by applying a thermoplastic sheet to the patient's face and allowing to set hard. This can then be used as a mould to create a plaster impression of the patient's face. A sheet of lead is then hammered on to the plaster to create a bespoke fitted face mask. This process can be distressing for patients and can be problematic when the patient is required to remain motionless for a prolonged time while the thermoplastic sets. In this study, a 1:1 scale 3D print of a patient's face was generated using a laser scanner. The lead was hammered directly on to the surface of the 3D print in order to create a bespoke fitted treatment mask. This eliminated the thermoplastic moulding stage and significantly reduced the time needed for the patient to be in clinic. The higher definition impression of the the face resulted in a more accurate, better fitting treatment mask.

  1. PATH PLANNING OF AN AUTONOMOUS MOBILE MULTI-SENSOR PLATFORM IN A 3D ENVIRONMENT USING NEWTONIAN IMPERIALIST COMPETITIVE OPTIMIZATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an innovative evolutionary computation approach to 3D path planning of autonomous UAVs in real environment. To solve this Np-hard problem, Newtonian imperialist competitive algorithm (NICA was developed and extended for path planning problem. This paper is related to optimal trajectory-designing before UAV missions. NICA planner provides 3D optimal paths for UAV planning in real topography of north Tehran environment. To simulate UAV path planning, a real DTM is used to algorithm. For real-world applications, final generated paths should be smooth and also physical flyable that made the path planning problems complex and more constrained. The planner progressively presents a smooth 3D path from first position to mission target location. The objective function contains distinctive measures of the problem. Our main goal is minimization of the total mission time. For evaluating of NICA efficiency, it is compared with other three well-known methods, i.e. ICA, GA, and PSO. Then path planning of UAV will done. Finally simulations proved the high capabilities of proposed methodology.

  2. Path Planning of AN Autonomous Mobile Multi-Sensor Platform in a 3d Environment Using Newtonian Imperialist Competitive Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A. A.; Afghan-Toloee, A.; Abbaspour, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses an innovative evolutionary computation approach to 3D path planning of autonomous UAVs in real environment. To solve this Np-hard problem, Newtonian imperialist competitive algorithm (NICA) was developed and extended for path planning problem. This paper is related to optimal trajectory-designing before UAV missions. NICA planner provides 3D optimal paths for UAV planning in real topography of north Tehran environment. To simulate UAV path planning, a real DTM is used to algorithm. For real-world applications, final generated paths should be smooth and also physical flyable that made the path planning problems complex and more constrained. The planner progressively presents a smooth 3D path from first position to mission target location. The objective function contains distinctive measures of the problem. Our main goal is minimization of the total mission time. For evaluating of NICA efficiency, it is compared with other three well-known methods, i.e. ICA, GA, and PSO. Then path planning of UAV will done. Finally simulations proved the high capabilities of proposed methodology.

  3. A Novel Bio-carrier Fabricated Using 3D Printing Technique for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Fan, Shu-Qian; Shen, Yu; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Yan, Peng; Chen, You-Peng; Li, Jing; Guo, Jin-Song; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Fang, Fang; Liu, Shao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structure of bio-carriers is one of the key operational characteristics of a biofilm reactor. The goal of this study is to develop a series of novel fullerene-type bio-carriers using the three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique. 3DP can fabricate bio-carriers with more specialized structures compared with traditional fabrication processes. In this research, three types of fullerene-type bio-carriers were fabricated using the 3DP technique and then compared with bio-carrier K3 (from AnoxKaldnes) in the areas of physicochemical properties and biofilm growth. Images acquired by 3D profiling and SEM indicated that the surface roughness of the 3DP bio-carrier was greater than that of K3. Furthermore, contact angle data indicated that the 3DP bio-carriers were more hydrophilic than K3. The biofilm on the 3DP bio-carriers exhibited higher microbial activity and stronger adhesion ability. These findings were attributed to excellent mass transfer of the substrate (and oxygen) between the vapour-liquid-solid tri-phase system and to the surface characteristics. It is concluded that the novel 3DP fullerene-type bio-carriers are ideal carriers for biofilm adherence and growth. PMID:26202477

  4. Virtual patient 3D dose reconstruction using in air EPID measurements and a back-projection algorithm for IMRT and VMAT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Rozendaal, Roel; van Oers, René F M; Mijnheer, Ben; Mans, Anton

    2017-05-01

    At our institute, a transit back-projection algorithm is used clinically to reconstruct in vivo patient and in phantom 3D dose distributions using EPID measurements behind a patient or a polystyrene slab phantom, respectively. In this study, an extension to this algorithm is presented whereby in air EPID measurements are used in combination with CT data to reconstruct 'virtual' 3D dose distributions. By combining virtual and in vivo patient verification data for the same treatment, patient-related errors can be separated from machine, planning and model errors. The virtual back-projection algorithm is described and verified against the transit algorithm with measurements made behind a slab phantom, against dose measurements made with an ionization chamber and with the OCTAVIUS 4D system, as well as against TPS patient data. Virtual and in vivo patient dose verification results are also compared. Virtual dose reconstructions agree within 1% with ionization chamber measurements. The average γ-pass rate values (3% global dose/3mm) in the 3D dose comparison with the OCTAVIUS 4D system and the TPS patient data are 98.5±1.9%(1SD) and 97.1±2.9%(1SD), respectively. For virtual patient dose reconstructions, the differences with the TPS in median dose to the PTV remain within 4%. Virtual patient dose reconstruction makes pre-treatment verification based on deviations of DVH parameters feasible and eliminates the need for phantom positioning and re-planning. Virtual patient dose reconstructions have additional value in the inspection of in vivo deviations, particularly in situations where CBCT data is not available (or not conclusive). Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The utility of 3D printing for surgical planning and patient-specific implant design for complex spinal pathologies: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Ralph J; Coughlan, Marc; Thompson, Robert; Sutterlin, Chester E; Phan, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE There has been a recent renewed interest in the use and potential applications of 3D printing in the assistance of surgical planning and the development of personalized prostheses. There have been few reports on the use of 3D printing for implants designed to be used in complex spinal surgery. METHODS The authors report 2 cases in which 3D printing was used for surgical planning as a preoperative mold, and for a custom-designed titanium prosthesis: one patient with a C-1/C-2 chordoma who underwent tumor resection and vertebral reconstruction, and another patient with a custom-designed titanium anterior fusion cage for an unusual congenital spinal deformity. RESULTS In both presented cases, the custom-designed and custom-built implants were easily slotted into position, which facilitated the surgery and shortened the procedure time, avoiding further complex reconstruction such as harvesting rib or fibular grafts and fashioning these grafts intraoperatively to fit the defect. Radiological follow-up for both cases demonstrated successful fusion at 9 and 12 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These cases demonstrate the feasibility of the use of 3D modeling and printing to develop personalized prostheses and can ease the difficulty of complex spinal surgery. Possible future directions of research include the combination of 3D-printed implants and biologics, as well as the development of bioceramic composites and custom implants for load-bearing purposes.

  6. Cost-effective, personalized, 3D-printed liver model for preoperative planning before laparoscopic liver hemihepatectomy for colorectal cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witowski, Jan Sylwester; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2017-01-31

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing for preoperative planning has been intensively developed in the recent years. However, the implementation of these solutions in hospitals is still difficult due to high costs, extremely expensive industrial-grade printers, and software that is difficult to obtain and learn along with a lack of a defined process. This paper presents a cost-effective technique of preparing 3D-printed liver models that preserves the shape and all of the structures, including the vessels and the tumor, which in the present case is colorectal liver metastasis. The patient's computed tomography scans were used for the separation and visualization of virtual 3D anatomical structures. Those elements were transformed into stereolithographic files and subsequently printed on a desktop 3D printer. The multipart structure was assembled and filled with silicone. The patient underwent subsequent laparoscopic right hemihepatectomy. The entire process is described step-by-step, and only free-to-use and mostly open-source software was used. As a result, a transparent, full-sized liver model with visible vessels and colorectal metastasis was created for under $150, which-taking into account 3D printer prices-is much cheaper than models presented in previous research papers. The increased accessibility of 3D models for physicians before complex laparoscopic surgical procedures such as hepatic resections could lead to beneficial breakthroughs in these sophisticated surgeries, as many reports show that these models reduce operative time and improve short term outcomes.

  7. Comparison between 3D conventional techniques, field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation for mantle fields planning; Comparacao entre tecnica 3D convencional, field-in-field e compensacao eletronica para planejamento de manto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Trindade, Cassia; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: pm.lais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    External radiotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma over diaphragm region requires large radiation fields with protections applied to larynx, humerus head and lungs. The size and shape of the field, which covers different depths, make it difficult to distribute a homogeneous dose. Techniques such as field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation may be used to make dose homogeneous and compensate the obliquity from the tissue. Three types of planning were performed for diagnose of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma: one plan with two fields, AP-PA (AP plan), another with four fields field-in- field (FF plan), and a third one with two fields and electronic tissue compensation (ETC plan). Results showed better gradient, cover of PTV and dose distribution for the ETC plan, besides the advantage from this technique of does not require protection blocks. In the meanwhile, AP and FF plans require simpler dosimetry and fewer MU. Related to the uniformity of dose distribution, AP plan showed hot areas in the neck region, FF plan showed hot areas in the shoulder region and ETC plan showed most uniform distribution without hot areas. The electronic tissue compensation is a useful tool for large and shaped fields as the mantle field, however higher MU and complex dosimetry should be taken in account. (author)

  8. Dose Verification of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia with Presage 3D Dosimetry System

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Achieving adequate verification and quality-assurance (QA) for radiosurgery treatment of trigeminal-neuralgia (TGN) is particularly challenging because of the combination of very small fields, very high doses, and complex irradiation geometries (multiple gantry and couch combinations). TGN treatments have extreme requirements for dosimetry tools and QA techniques, to ensure adequate verification. In this work we evaluate the potential of Presage/Optical-CT dosimetry system as a tool for the v...

  9. A possible concept for an interactive 3D visualization system for training and planning of liver surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Darvann, T.; Damgaard, K.;

    1996-01-01

    A demonstration of a fully interactive (20 frames per second) 3D graphics display of the blood vessels supporting the biliary tree and bileduct, automatically segmented from CT data, is given. Emphasis is on speed of interaction, modularity and programmer friendliness of graphics programming...

  10. 3D virtual planning in orthognathic surgery and CAD/CAM surgical splints generation in one patient with craniofacial microsomia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this case report, the feasibility and precision of tridimensional (3D virtual planning in one patient with craniofacial microsomia is tested using Nemoceph 3D-OS software (Software Nemotec SL, Madrid, Spain to predict postoperative outcomes on hard tissue and produce CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing surgical splints. Methods: The clinical protocol consists of 3D data acquisition of the craniofacial complex by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and surface scanning of the plaster dental casts. The ''virtual patient'' created underwent virtual surgery and a simulation of postoperative results on hard tissues. Surgical splints were manufactured using CAD/CAM technology in order to transfer the virtual surgical plan to the operating room. Intraoperatively, both CAD/CAM and conventional surgical splints are comparable. A second set of 3D images was obtained after surgery to acquire linear measurements and compare them with measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results virtually. Results: It was found a high similarity between both types of surgical splints with equal fitting on the dental arches. The linear measurements presented some discrepancies between the actual surgical outcomes and the predicted results from the 3D virtual simulation, but caution must be taken in the analysis of these results due to several variables. Conclusions: The reported case confirms the clinical feasibility of the described computer-assisted orthognathic surgical protocol. Further progress in the development of technologies for 3D image acquisition and improvements on software programs to simulate postoperative changes on soft tissue are required.

  11. Particle sedimentation in curved tubes: A 3D simulation and optimization for treatment of vestibular vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian; Squires, Todd M.; Hain, Timothy C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2003-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a mechanical disorder of the vestibular system where micron-size crystals abnormally drift into the semicircular canals of the inner ear that sense angular motion of the head. Sedimentation of these crystals causes sensation of motion after true head motion has stopped: vertigo results. The usual clinical treatment is through a series of head maneuvers designed to move the particles into a less sensitive region of the canal system. We present a three-dimensional model to simulate treatment of BPPV by determining the complete hydrodynamic motion of the particles through the course of a therapeutic maneuver while using a realistic representation of the actual geometry. Analyses of clinical maneuvers show the parameter range for which they are effective, and indicate inefficiencies in current practice. In addition, an optimization process determines the most effective head maneuver, which significantly differs from those currently in practice.

  12. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  13. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Hardy, D. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Favennec, Y., E-mail: yann.favennec@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Rousseau, B. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Hecht, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7598, inria de Paris, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  14. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hardy, D.; Favennec, Y.; Rousseau, B.; Hecht, F.

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  15. 3D-QSAR Design of New Escitalopram Derivatives for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Speranta; Buiu, Catalin; Duda-Seiman, Daniel M.; Duda-Seiman, Corina; Mihailescu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressants are psychiatric agents used for the treatment of different types of depression being at present amongst the most commonly prescribed drug, while their effectiveness and adverse effects are the subject of many studies and competing claims. Having studied five QSAR models predicting the biological activities of 18 antidepressants, already approved for clinical treatment, in interaction with the serotonin transporter (SERT), we attempted to establish the membrane ions’ contributions (sodium, potassium, chlorine and calcium) supplied by donor/acceptor hydrogen bond character and electrostatic field to the antidepressant activity. Significant cross-validated correlation q2 (0.5–0.6) and the fitted correlation r2 (0.7–0.82) coefficients were obtained indicating that the models can predict the antidepressant activity of compounds. Moreover, considering the contribution of membrane ions (sodium, potassium and calcium) and hydrogen bond donor character, we have proposed a library of 24 new escitalopram structures, some of them probably with significantly improved antidepressant activity in comparison with the parent compound. PMID:21179345

  16. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  17. Dosimetric prospective study comparing 2D and 3D planning for irradiation of supraclavicular and infraclavicular regions in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Mohsen; Mostafa, Magda; El Hossieny, Hisham; Nasr, Azza; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Fouda, Sally

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare 2D plan and 3D plan regarding coverage of the target (supraclavicular and infraclavicular regions) and dose reaching the risk organs (using mean DVH). Depending on the results of this study, modifications can be made to the 2D conventional planning of supraclavicular and infraclavicular regions in order to achieve better coverage of the target tissues. This is a dosimetric study carried out at the radiation oncology department in NCI-Cairo University in the period from January 2012 to October 2012, on 15 patients with breast cancer who are eligible for supraclavicular and infraclavicular irradiation. For All patients, a 2D and a 3D plan were done. We found that the coverage of the supraclavicular and infraclavicular regions and the chest wall or breast together with levels I and II axilla (PTV) were significantly better with the 3D technique with less over dose than the 2D technique. That difference was highly significant and was most evident in MRM cases. Also we found that organs at risk received a dose in the 3D technique that was more than that received in the 2D technique, again that difference was highly significant and was also most evident in MRM cases but all doses were still within tolerance. From the present study we concluded that the coverage of the supraclavicular and infraclavicular PTV is significantly worse with the 2D technique using a single oblique field at a fixed depth of 3 cm for all patients despite their different builts. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Preparation of 3-D porous fibroin scaffolds by freeze drying with treatment of methanol solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN JingLin; SUN XiaoDan; CUI FuZhai; KONG XiangDong

    2007-01-01

    In this study,silk scaffolds with appropriate porous structures were prepared by adjusting solution concentrations and providing treatment with methanol solutions in the way of freeze drying. The effects of the preparation conditions on the microstructures and properties of the scaffolds were discussed. Fibroin solutions with different concentrations of 4,6,8,10 wt% were used respectively to prepare the scaffolds. The effects of the addition of 20 vol% methanol before or after freeze drying to the 4 wt% fibroin solution were investigated. As demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),the fibroin scaffolds prepared without methanol had porous microstructures composed of thin sheets,and the sizes of the pores decreased with the increase of the fibroin solution concentrations,while the scaffolds prepared in the presence of methanol showed porous microstructures formed by fine-particle aggregates. The porosities and mechanical properties of the prepared fibroin scaffolds under different conditions were tested. The crystalline structures and conformations of the fibroin scaffolds were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  19. Nanomaterial characterization through image treatment, 3D reconstruction and AI techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Uralde Huarte, Juan Jose

    Nanotechnology is not only the science of the future, but it is indeed the science of today. It is used in all sectors, from health to energy, including information technologies and transport. For the present investigation, we have taken carbon black as a use case. This nanomaterial is mixed with a wide variety of materials to improve their properties, like abrasion resistance, tire and plastic wear or tinting strength in pigments. Nowadays, indirect methods of analysis, like oil absorption or nitrogen adsorption are the most common techniques of the nanomaterial industry. These procedures measure the change in the physical state while adding oil and nitrogen. In this way, the superficial area is estimated and related with the properties of the material. Nevertheless, we have chosen to improve the existent direct methods, which consist in analysing microscopy images of nanomaterials. We have made progress in the image processing treatments and in the extracted features. In fact, some of them have overcome the existing features in the literature. In addition, we have applied, for the first time in the literature, machine learning to aggregate categorization. In this way, we identify automatically their morphology, which will determine the final properties of the material that is mixed with. Finally, we have presented an aggregate reconstruction genetic algorithm that, with only two orthogonal images, provides more information than a tomography, which needs a lot of images. To summarize, we have improved the state of the art in direct analysing techniques, allowing in the near future the replacement of the current indirect techniques.

  20. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cattoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3% and the milling mockup test (85.7% very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step.

  1. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP) to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoni, F; Mastrangelo, F; Gherlone, E F; Gastaldi, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3%) and the milling mockup test (85.7%) very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step.

  2. SU-E-T-346: Effect of Jaw Position On Dose to Critical Structures in 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, N; Han, E; Liang, X; Morrill, S; Zhang, X; Hardee, M; Penagaricano, J; Ratanatharathorn, V [Vaneerat, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional conformal therapy remains a valid and widely used modality for pancreatic radiotherapy treatment. It usually meets dose constraints on critical structures. However, careful positioning of collimation jaws can reduce dose to the critical structures. Here we investigate the dosimetric effect of jaw position in MLC-based 3-D conformal treatment planning on critical structures. Methods: We retrospectively selected seven pancreatic cancer patients treated with 3-D conformal radiotherapy. We started with treatment plans (Varian Truebeam LINAC, Eclipse TPS, AAA, 18MV) having both x and y jaws aligned with the farthest extent of the block outline (8mm around PTV). Then we subsequently moved either both x-jaws or all x and y jaws outwards upto 3 cm in 1 cm increments and investigated their effect on average and maximum dose to neighboring critical structures keeping the same coverage to treatment volume. Results: Lateral displacement of both x-jaws by 1cm each increased kidney and spleen mean dose by as much as 1.7% and 1.3% respectively and superior inferior displacement increased liver, right kidney, stomach and spleen dose by as much as 2.1%, 2%, 5.2% and 1.6% respectively. Displacement of all x and y-jaws away by 1cm increased the mean dose to liver, right kidney, left kidney, bowels, cord, stomach and spleen by as much as 4.9%, 5.9%, 2.1%, 2.8%, 7.4%, 10.4% and 4.2% respectively. Percentage increase in mean dose due to 2 and 3cm jaw displacement increased almost linearly with the displaced distance. Changes in maximum dose were much smaller (mostly negligible) than the changes in mean dose. Conclusion: Collimation jaw position affects dose mostly to critical structures adjacent to it. Though treatment plans with MLCs conforming the block margin usually meet dose constraints to critical structures, keeping jaws all the way in, to the edge of the block reduces dose to the critical structures during radiation treatment.

  3. 一种快速3维无人机航迹规划方法%A Fast 3D Path Planning Method for UAVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李时东; 艾青; 刘嵩

    2012-01-01

    无人机三维航迹规划由于规划约束众多,同时面临在巨大的搜索空间中寻优,往往规划速度慢,规划效率低.结合二维规划和高度规划实现三维规划是一种有效提升规划速度的解决方案,在利用Fast M arching Method(FMM)进行二维规划的基础上,采用SparseA—star(SAS)搜索算法进行高度规划,分阶段考虑航迹规划的各种环境约束和机动约束,从而压缩规划空间.实验表明,该方法航迹规划速度快,所得到的三维航迹具有良好的地形跟随能力和避障能力.%3D path planning is always slow and in efficient for there are many constraints to be considered while planning, meanwhile, the path is produced by searching in huge space. It is an efficient scheme to improve path planning speed by combining 2D path planning and height planning. We proposed a fast 3D path planning method' by planning 2D path with Fast Marching Method (FMM) and making height plan- ning using Sparse A-Star (SAS) searching method, where the environment and maneuverability constraints are processed by stages, thereby, the planning space is reduced. Experiments showed that the proposed method generates path quickly, and the obtained path follows terrain and avoids obstacle well.

  4. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  5. Bilateral Mesiodens in Monozygotic Twins: 3D Diagnostic and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione Gurgel, Carla; Soares Cota, Ana Lídia; Yuriko Kobayashi, Tatiana; Moura Bonifácio Silva, Salete; Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria; Rios, Daniela; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2013-01-01

    Mesiodens is the most frequent type of supernumerary tooth and may occur in several forms, causing different local disorders, such as impaction of the anterior permanent teeth. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images have improved the diagnosis and treatment plan of patients with impacted and supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of two mesiodens in monozygotic twin boys with appropriate 3D diagnostic and treatment plan.

  6. Bilateral Mesiodens in Monozygotic Twins: 3D Diagnostic and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vecchione Gurgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesiodens is the most frequent type of supernumerary tooth and may occur in several forms, causing different local disorders, such as impaction of the anterior permanent teeth. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D images have improved the diagnosis and treatment plan of patients with impacted and supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of two mesiodens in monozygotic twin boys with appropriate 3D diagnostic and treatment plan.

  7. Selection of candidate wells and optimization of conformance treatment design in the Barrancas Field using a 3D conformance simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosta, Dante; Elitseche, Luis [Repsol YPF (Argentina); Gutierrez, Mauricio; Ansah, Joe; Everett, Don [Halliburton Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Minimizing the amount of unwanted water production is an important goal at the Barrancas field. This paper describes a selection process for candidate injection wells that is part of a pilot conformance project aimed at improving vertical injection profiles, reducing water cut in producing wells, and improving ultimate oil recovery from this field. The well selection process is based on a review of limited reservoir information available for this field to determine inter-well communications. The methodology focuses on the best use of available information, such as production and injection history, well intervention files, open hole logs and injectivity surveys. After the candidate wells were selected and potential water injection channels were identified, conformance treatment design and future performance of wells in the selected pilot area were evaluated using a new 3 -D conformance simulator, developed specifically for optimization of the design and placement of unwanted fluid shut-off treatments. Thus, when acceptable history match ing of the pilot area production was obtained, the 3 -D simulator was used to: evaluate the required volume of selected conformance treatment fluid; review expected pressures and rates during placement;. model temperature behavior; evaluate placement techniques, and forecast water cut reduction and incremental oil recovery from the producers in this simulated section of the pilot area. This paper outlines a methodology for selecting candidate wells for conformance treatments. The method involves application of several engineering tools, an integral component of which is a user-friendly conformance simulator. The use of the simulator has minimized data preparation time and allows the running of sensitivity cases quickly to explore different possible scenarios that best represent the reservoir. The proposed methodology provides an efficient means of identifying conformance problems and designing optimized solutions for these individual

  8. Treatment planning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama-Ito, Hiroko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the treatment planning (TP) and its peripheral system for carbon ion therapy that has been developed and in clinical use in recent two years at our institution. A new treatment planning system which is FOCUS customized to our irradiation system will be launched in clinical use soon. A new DICOM based PACS has been developed and in use. Now MRI, PET images are ready to be utilized for patient definition with image fusion functionality of radiotherapy TP. We implemented the exchange functionality of TP data specified by RTOG 3D QA Center in FOCUS, Pinnacle3 and heavy ion TP. Target volume and normal structure contours and dose distributions are exchangeable. A database system of carbon ion therapy dedicated to analysis of therapy data has been designed and implemented. All accessible planning data and treatment records of more than 1000 patients treated for seven and half years have been archived. The system has a DICOM RT sever and a database for miscellaneous text data. Limited numbers of private attributes were introduced for ion therapy specific objects. On-line as well as manual registration along with edit functionalities is prepared. Standard web browser is used to search and retrieve information. A DICOM RT viewer has been developed to view and retrieve RT images, dose distributions and structure set. These system described above are all designed to conform to the up-to-date standards of radiation therapy so as to be bases of the future development of the therapy at our institution. (author)

  9. Integrated view and path planning for a fully autonomous mobile-manipulator system for 3D object modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Torabi, Liila

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a fully autonomous system for building a 3D model of an object in situ. Our system assumes no knowledge of object other than that it is within a bounding box whose location and size are known a priori, and furthermore, the environment is unknown. The system consists of a mobile manipulator, a powerbot mobile base with a six degrees of freedom (DOF) powercube arm mounted on it. The arm and the powerbot are equipped with line-scan range sensors, which provide ra...

  10. Toward 3D graphene oxide gels based adsorbents for high-efficient water treatment via the promotion of biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chong Sage; Deng, Jie; Lei, Bei; He, Ai; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lang; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Changsheng

    2013-12-15

    Recent studies showed that graphene oxide (GO) presented high adsorption capacities to various water contaminants. However, the needed centrifugation after adsorption and the potential biological toxicity of GO restricted its applications in wastewater treatment. In this study, a facile method is provided by using biopolymers to mediate and synthesize 3D GO based gels. The obtained hybrid gels present well-defined and interconnected 3D porous network, which allows the adsorbate molecules to diffuse easily into the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments indicate that the obtained porous GO-biopolymer gels can efficiently remove cationic dyes and heavy metal ions from wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV), two cationic dyes, are chosen as model adsorbates to investigate the adsorption capability and desorption ratio; meanwhile, the influence of contacting time, initial concentration, and pH value on the adsorption capacity of the prepared GO-biopolymer gels are also studied. The GO-biopolymer gels displayed an adsorption capacity as high as 1100 mg/g for MB dye and 1350 mg/g for MV dye, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the MB were studied in details. The experimental data of MB adsorption fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, and the results indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. Moreover, the adsorption data revealed that the porous GO-biopolymer gels showed good selective adsorbability to cationic dyes and metal ions.

  11. SU-D-201-07: Exploring the Utility of 4D FDG-PET/CT Scans in Design of Radiation Therapy Planning Compared with 3D PET/CT: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y [Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Provice (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A method using four-dimensional(4D) PET/CT in design of radiation treatment planning was proposed and the target volume and radiation dose distribution changes relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT were examined. Methods: A target deformable registration method was used by which the whole patient’s respiration process was considered and the effect of respiration motion was minimized when designing radiotherapy planning. The gross tumor volume of a non-small-cell lung cancer was contoured on the 4D FDG-PET/CT and 3D PET/CT scans by use of two different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; another technique using a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5. The target volume and radiotherapy dose distribution between VOL3D and VOL4D were analyzed. Results: For all phases, the average automatic and manually GTV volume was 18.61 cm3 (range, 16.39–22.03 cm3) and 31.29 cm3 (range, 30.11–35.55 cm3), respectively. The automatic and manually volume of merged IGTV were 27.82 cm3 and 49.37 cm3, respectively. For the manual contour, compared to 3D plan the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung of 4D plan have an average decrease 21.55%, 15.17% and 15.86%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 2.35%. For the automatic contour, the mean dose for the left, right, and total lung have an average decrease 23.48%, 16.84% and 17.44%, respectively. The maximum dose of spinal cord has an average decrease 1.68%. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D PET/CT, 4D PET/CT may better define the extent of moving tumors and reduce the contouring tumor volume thereby optimize radiation treatment planning for lung tumors.

  12. 3-D VARIABLE PARAMETER NUMERICAL MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF THE PLANNED EXPLOITABLE GROUNDWATER RESOURCE IN REGIONAL UNCONSOLIDATED SEDIMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zu-jiang; WANG Yan

    2012-01-01

    In order to correctly evaluate the exploitable groundwater resource in regional complex,thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments,the whole Quaternary unconsolidated sediments are considered as a unified hydrogeological unit and a 3-D unsteady groundwater flow numerical model is adopted.Meanwhile,with the consideration of the dynamic changes of the porosity,the hydraulic conductivity and the specific storage with the groundwater level dropping during the exploitation process,an improved composite element seepage matrix adjustment method is applied to solve the unsteady flow problem of free surface.In order to evaluate the exploitable groundwater resource in Cangzhou,Hebei Province,the hydrogeological conceptual model of Cangzhou is generalized to establish,a 3-D variable parameter numerical model of Cangzhou.Based on the prediction of the present groundwater exploitation,and by adjusting the groundwater exploitation layout,the exploitable groundwater resource is predicted.The model enjoys features like good convergence,good stability and high precision.

  13. A Computationally-Efficient Kinetic Approach for Gas/Particle Mass Transfer Treatments: Development, Testing, and 3-D Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) that simulates chemistry simultaneously with meteorology has recently been developed for real-time forecasting by the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As one of the six air quality models, WRF/Chem with a modal aerosol module has been applied for ozone and PM2.5 ensemble forecasts over eastern North America as part of the 2004 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) program (NEAQS-2004). Significant differences exist in the partitioning of volatile species (e.g., ammonium and nitrate) simulated by the six models. Model biases are partially attributed to the equilibrium assumption used in the gas/particles mass transfer approach in some models. Development of a more accurate, yet computationally- efficient gas/particle mass transfer approach for three-dimensional (3-D) applications, in particular, real-time forecasting, is therefore warranted. Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID) has been implemented into WRF/Chem (referred to as WRF/Chem-MADRID). WRF/Chem-MADRID offers three gas/particle partitioning treatments: equilibrium, kinetic, and hybrid approaches. The equilibrium approach is computationally-efficient and commonly used in 3-D air quality models but less accurate under certain conditions (e.g., in the presence of coarse, reactive particles such as PM containing sea-salts in the coastal areas). The kinetic approach is accurate but computationally-expensive, limiting its 3-D applications. The hybrid approach attempts to provide a compromise between merits and drawbacks of the two approaches by treating fine PM (typically MADRID has recently been developed for 3-D applications based on an Analytical Predictor of Condensation (referred to as kinetic/APC). In this study, WRF/Chem-MADRID with the kinetic/APC approach will be further evaluated along with the equilibrium and hybrid approaches

  14. Treatment planning in conservative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Andamuthu; Thangaswamy, Vinod; Ravi, Vaiyapuri

    2012-08-01

    A patient attending for treatment of a restorative nature may present for a variety of reasons. The success is built upon careful history taking coupled with a logical progression to diagnosis of the problem that has been presented. Each stage follows on from the preceding one. A fitting treatment plan should be formulated and should involve a holistic approach to what is required.

  15. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planing and simulation. 3D soft tissue planning and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Samman, N; Yeung, R W; Wang, D; Shen, S G; Ip, H H; Tideman, H

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report a new technique for three-dimensional facial soft-tissue-change prediction after simulated orthognathic surgical planning. A scheme for soft tissue deformation, "Computer-assisted three-dimensional virtual reality soft tissue planning and prediction for orthognathic surgery (CASP)", is presented. The surgical planning was based on three-dimensional reconstructed CT visualization. Soft tissue changes were predicted by two newly devised algorithms: Surface Normal-based Model Deformation Algorithm and Ray Projection-based Model Deformation Algorithm. A three-dimensional color facial texture-mapping technique was also used for generating the color photo-realistic facial model. As a final result, a predicted and simulated patient's color facial model can be visualized from arbitrary viewing points.

  16. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  17. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  18. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for IMRT and VMAT treatments using on-treatment EPID images and a model-based forward-calculation algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Uytven, Eric, E-mail: eric.vanuytven@cancercare.mb.ca; Van Beek, Timothy [Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); McCowan, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada and Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Chytyk-Praznik, Krista [Medical Physics Department, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia); McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). Methods: EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of the patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). Conclusions: An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient

  20. [3D-TOF MR-angiography with high spatial resolution for surgical planning in insular lobe gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykanov, A E; Pitskhelauri, D I; Pronin, I N; Tonoyan, A S; Kornienko, V N; Zakharova, N E; Turkin, A M; Sanikidze, A Z; Shkarubo, M A; Shkatova, A M; Shults, E I

    2015-01-01

    Цель — определение эффективности время-пролетной (3D-TOF) магнитно-резонансной ангиографии (МРА) с высоким разрешением в визуализации медиальных и латеральных лентикулостриарных артерий (ЛСА) и их соотношения с краем опухоли у пациентов с глиомами островковой доли. Материал и методы. Проведен анализ 3D-TOF МРА у 20 пациентов с первично выявленными глиомами головного мозга с вовлечением островковой доли. Всем больным выполнена 3D-TOF МРА без контрастного усиления, а в 6 наблюдениях — до и после него. Результаты. При 3D-TOF МРА до внутривенного контрастирования удавалось определить медиальные ЛСА у 19 (95%) пациентов и латеральные ЛСА — у 18 (90%). 3D-TOF МРА на фоне контрастного усиления позволяет лучше визуализировать как проксимальный, так и дистальный сегмент ЛСА. Выделено три варианта взаимоотношения опухоли и ЛСА: I — опухоль обрастала артерии без их смещения — 2 (10%) случая; II — опухоль смещала артерии медиально без признаков обрастания — 11 (55%); III — опухоль частично обрастала и смещала артерии — 2 (10%). У 5 (25%) пациентов опухоль плохо видна на 3D-TOF МРА из-за отсутствия различий сигнальных хар

  1. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  2. A dosimetric comparison of four treatment planning methods for high grade glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert W

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade gliomas (HGG are typically treated with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Three dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning is still the main stay of treatment for these patients. New treatment planning methods suggest better dose distributions and organ sparing but their clinical benefit is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to compare normal tissue sparing and tumor coverage using four different radiotherapy planning methods in patients with high grade glioma. Methods Three dimensional conformal (3D, sequential boost IMRT, integrated boost (IB IMRT and Tomotherapy (TOMO treatment plans were generated for 20 high grade glioma patients. T1 and T2 MRI abnormalities were used to define GTV and CTV with 2 and 2.5 cm margins to define PTV1 and PTV2 respectively. Results The mean dose to PTV2 but not to PTV1 was less then 95% of the prescribed dose with IB and IMRT plans. The mean doses to the optic chiasm and the ipsilateral globe were highest with 3D plans and least with IB plans. The mean dose to the contralateral globe was highest with TOMO plans. The mean of the integral dose (ID to the brain was least with the IB plan and was lower with IMRT compared to 3D plans. The TOMO plans had the least mean D10 to the normal brain but higher mean D50 and D90 compared to IB and IMRT plans. The mean D10 and D50 but not D90 were significantly lower with the IMRT plans compared to the 3D plans. Conclusion No single treatment planning method was found to be superior to all others and a personalized approach is advised for planning and treating high-grade glioma patients with radiotherapy. Integral dose did not reflect accurately the dose volume histogram (DVH of the normal brain and may not be a good indicator of delayed radiation toxicity.

  3. Structure, Texture and Phases in 3D Printed IN718 Alloy Subjected to Homogenization and HIP Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing results in anisotropy in the microstructure and mechanical properties. The focus of this study is to investigate the structure, texture and phase evolution of the as-printed and heat treated IN718 superalloy. Cylindrical specimens, printed by powder-bed additive manufacturing technique, were subjected to two post-treatments: homogenization (1100 °C, 1 h, furnace cooling and hot isostatic pressing (HIP (1160 °C, 100 MPa, 4 h, furnace cooling. The Selective laser melting (SLM printed microstructure exhibited a columnar architecture, parallel to the building direction, due to the heat flow towards negative z-direction. Whereas, a unique structural morphology was observed in the x-y plane due to different cooling rates resulting from laser beam overlapping. Post-processing treatments reorganized the columnar structure of a strong {002} texture into fine columnar and/or equiaxed grains of random orientations. Equiaxed structure of about 150 µm average grain size, was achieved after homogenization and HIP treatments. Both δ-phase and MC-type brittle carbides, having rough morphologies, were formed at the grain boundaries. Delta-phase formed due to γ″-phase dissolution in the γ matrix, while MC-type carbides nucleates grew by diffusion of solute atoms. The presence of (Nb0.78Ti0.22C carbide phase, with an fcc structure having a lattice parameter a = 4.43 Å, was revealed using Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD analysis. The solidification behavior of IN718 alloy was described to elucidate the evolution of different phases during selective laser melting and post-processing heat treatments of IN718.

  4. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, C.; Gómez, F.; Fleta, C.; Rodríguez, J.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lousa, A.; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.; Pombar, M.; Lozano, M.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  5. 矿区土地复垦规划三维可视化技术%3 D Visualization Technology of the Mining Area Land Reclamation Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 王海峰; 王世东

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the traditional two-dimensional mine reclamation plan can not express and analyze the spatial data and attribute data required by user,the construction and visualization methods of land reclamation of three-dimensional landscape model in mining area based on ArcGIS is investigated. The ArcGIS 3D analyst module is used to establish the 3D landscape models of land reclamation area,and analyze the slope ingredient,slope aspect and cut and fill in reclamation area. According to the data,the location,size and scope of landscape entities in the 3D landscape model,including farmland,woodland,residential areas,roads,ponds and others,are identified so as to make a scientific and reasonable land-scape planning. A greater degree of real scene planning was achieved. Taking the Fengying Mine in Jiaozuo as a case,the appli-cation of 3D visualization technology in the landscape planning was studied. The results showed that the three-dimensional landscape model construction methods of land reclamation based on ArcGIS is real and correct. It can help to improve overall mining efficiency of land reclamation and scientificity and authenticity of landscape planning.%为了解决传统的二维矿区复垦平面规划不能满足用户对空间数据和属性数据进行表达和分析的问题,研究了基于ArcGIS的矿区土地复垦三维景观模型的构建及可视化方法。利用ArcGIS平台的3D Analyst模块,建立矿区土地复垦区的三维景观模型,并对复垦区进行坡度、坡向分析和挖填方分析,根据分析得到的数据确定耕地、林地、居民区、道路、鱼塘等景观实体在三维景观模型中的位置、面积及范围,并对三维模型整体区域进行科学合理的景观规划,实现了较大程度的真实场景规划。以焦作市冯营矿区为例,研究了通过复垦区景观三维可视化技术进行规划的应用过程。结果表明,所研究的基于ArcGIS的矿区

  6. Comparison of 2D temperature maps recorded during laser-induced thermal tissue treatment with corresponding temperature distributions calculated from 3D Monte-Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Bublat, Martin; Ratering, Ralf; Rassek, Margarethe; Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Kahn, Thomas

    2000-05-01

    Minimally invasive techniques often require special biomedical monitoring schemes. In the case of laser coagulation of tumors accurate temperature mapping is desirable for therapy control. While magnetic resonance (MR)-based thermometry can easily yield qualitative results it is still difficult to calibrate this technique with independent temperature probes for the entire 2D field of view. Calculated temperature maps derived from Monte-Carlo simulations (MCS), on the other hand, are suitable for therapy planning and dosimetry but typically can not account for the extract individual tissue parameters and physiological changes upon heating. In this work, online thermometry was combined with MCS techniques to explore the feasibility and potential of such a biomodal approach for surgical assist systems. For the first time, the result of a 3D simulation were evaluated with MR techniques. An MR thermometry system was used to monitor the temperature evolution during laser-induced thermal treatment of bovine liver using a commercially available water-cooled applicator. A systematic comparison between MR-derived 2D temperature maps in different orientations and corresponding snapshots of a 3D MCS of the laser-induced processes is presented. The MCS is capable of resolving the complex temperature patterns observed in the MR-derived images and yields a good agreement with respect to absolute temperatures and damage volume dimensions. The observed quantitative agreement is around 10 degrees C and on the order of 10 percent, respectively. The integrated simulation-and-monitoring approach has the potential to improve surgical assistance during thermal interventions.

  7. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant;

    2016-01-01

    treatment plans were reoptimized with the Auto-Planning module. Comparison of the two types of treatment plans were performed using DVH metrics and a blinded clinical evaluation by two senior radiation oncologists using a scale from one to six. Both evaluations investigated dose coverage of target and dose......Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also pro-vide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing...... radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck...

  8. Application of a 3D printed customized implant for canine cruciate ligament treatment by tibial tuberosity advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Dias, Marta; Vorndran, Elke; Gbureck, Uwe; Fernandes, Paulo; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Armés, Henrique; Pires, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    Fabrication of customized implants based on patient bone defect characteristics is required for successful clinical application of bone tissue engineering. Recently a new surgical procedure, tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA), has been used to treat cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficient stifle joints in dogs, which involves an osteotomy and the use of substitutes to restore the bone. However, limitations in the use of non-biodegradable implants have been reported. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development of a bioceramic customized cage to treat a large domestic dog assigned for TTA treatment. A cage was designed using a suitable topology optimization methodology in order to maximize its permeability whilst maintaining the structural integrity, and was manufactured using low temperature 3D printing and implanted in a dog. The cage material and structure was adequately characterized prior to implantation and the in vivo response was carefully monitored regarding the biological response and patient limb function. The manufacturing process resulted in a cage composed of brushite, monetite and tricalcium phosphate, and a highly permeable porous morphology. An overall porosity of 59.2% was achieved by the combination of a microporosity of approximately 40% and a designed interconnected macropore network with pore sizes of 845 μm. The mechanical properties were in the range of the trabecular bone although limitations in the cage's reliability and capacity to absorb energy were identified. The dog's limb function was completely restored without patient lameness or any adverse complications and also the local biocompatibility and osteoconductivity were improved. Based on these observations it was possible to conclude that the successful design, fabrication and application of a customized cage for a dog CrCL treatment using a modified TTA technique is a promising method for the future fabrication of patient-specific bone implants, although

  9. SU-E-T-632: A Dosimetric Comparison of the 3D-CRT Planning of Chest Wall in Post-Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients, with and Without Breast Board Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzaffar, Ambreen; Masood, Asif; Ullah, Haseeb; Mehmood, Kashif; Qasim, Uzma; Afridi, M. Ali; Khan, Salim; Hameed, Abdul [Radiation Oncology Department, Shifa International Hospitals Ltd. Sector H-8/4 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Breast boards are used in breast radiation which increases normal lung and heart doses, when supraclavicular field is included. Therefore, in this study through dose volume histogram (DVHs), lung and heart doses comparison was done between two different setups i.e. with and without breast board, for the treatment of left chest wall and supraclavicular fossa in postmastectomy left breast cancer. Methods: In this study, CT-Simulation scans of ten breast cancer patients were done with and without breast board, at Shifa International Hospitals Islamabad, to investigate the differences between the two different setups of the irradiation of left chest wall in terms of lung and heart doses. For immobilization, support under the neck, shoulders and arms was used. Precise PLAN 2.15 treatment planning system (TPS) was used for 3D-CRT planning. The total prescribed dose for both the plans was 5000 cGy/25 fractions. The chest wall was treated with a pair of tangential photon fields and the upper supraclavicular nodal regions were treated with an anterior photon field. A mono-isocentric technique was used to match the tangential fields with the anterior field at the isocentre. The dose volume histogram was used to compare the doses of heart and ipsilateral lung. Results: Both the plans of each patient were generated and compared. DVH results showed that for the same PTV dose coverage, plans without breast board resulted in a reduction of lung and heart doses compared with the plans with breast board. There was significant reductions in V20, V<25 and mean doses for lung and V<9 and mean doses for heart. Conclusion: In comparison of both the plans, setup without breast board significantly reduced the dose-volume of the ipsilateral lung and heart in left chest wall patients. Waived registration request has been submitted.

  10. 2D-DSA与R-DSA及3D-DSA在脑动脉瘤诊疗中的应用%Comparision of 2D-DSA,R-DSA,3D-DSA in diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董富山; 翟水亭; 王子亮; 李天晓

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the advantages of 3D-DSA as compared to 2D-DSA,R-DSA in detecting the saccular size and neck size of the aneurysm and its relationship with parent vessels. Methods Forty-two patients with cerebral aneurysms underwent 3D-DSA,2D-DSA and R-DSA.After standard 2D-DSA3rotational DSA was performed,then R-DSA images were transined to the 3D-workstation.The volume-rendering images were created from the rotational-DSA data sets by the workstation.All images were assessed for overall image quality,presence of aneurysm,visualization of aneurysmal neck,and relationship to adiacent vessels.Statistical analysis was conducted for 50 aneurysms by endovaseular treatment. Results 1.The presence of aneurysm:Three aneurysms that were not detected at 2D-DSA were classified as uncertain on the basis of rotational-DSA.All aneurysms were classified as definitive presence on the basis of volume-rendering findings.2.Overall image quality of rotational-DSA and 3D-DSA was statistically inferior to that of the standard 2D-DSA for visualization of distal arteries.3.For detection of aneurysmal shape,visualization of aneurysmal neck and its relationship to neighboring arteries,volume-rendering images were significantly suDerior to 2D-DSA and R-DSA.Conclusion 3D-DSA is superior to the standard 2D-DSA and R-DSA in diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm,particularly visualization of aneurysmal neck,and this is very important for endovascular treatment of intracranial anerysm.%目的 通过对比2D-DSA、R-DSA与3D-DSA在显示脑动脉瘤瘤体的大小、瘤颈的宽窄及与毗邻血管的关系,说明3D-DSA优于2D-DSA及R-DSA.方法 42例资料完整的颅内动脉瘤患者均行2D-DSA、R-DSA及3D-DSA检查,常规2D-DSA检查后即行R-DSA检查,把R-DSA图像传送到3D工作站,由3D工作站生成容积再现图像(VR).通过图像在对脑动脉瘤瘤体的大小、形态、瘤颈的宽窄与毗邻血管的关系等方面显示评价分析.对50个行血管内栓塞治疗

  11. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant; Hansen, Christian R; Bertelsen, Anders; Eriksen, Jesper G; Johansen, Jørgen; Brink, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also provide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck treatment plans were reoptimized with the Auto-Planning module. Comparison of the two types of treatment plans were performed using DVH metrics and a blinded clinical evaluation by two senior radiation oncologists using a scale from one to six. Both evaluations investigated dose coverage of target and dose to healthy tissues. Auto-Planning was able to produce clinically acceptable treatment plans in all 26 cases. Target coverages in the two types of plans were similar, but automatically generated plans had less irradiation of healthy tissue. In 94% of the evaluations, the autoplans scored at least as high as the previously delivered clinical plans. For all patients, the Auto-Planning tool produced clinically acceptable head and neck treatment plans without any manual intervention, except for the initial target and OAR delineations. The main benefit of the method is the likely improvement in the overall treatment quality since consistent, high-quality plans are generated which even can be further optimized, if necessary. This makes it possible for the dosimetrist to focus more time on difficult dose planning goals and to spend less time on the more tedious parts of the planning process.

  12. Accuracy and consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy in upper and lower extremity fracture treatment: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerekamp, M.S.H., E-mail: m.s.beerekamp@amc.nl [Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sulkers, George S.I., E-mail: georgesulkers@gmail.com [Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ubbink, Dirk T., E-mail: D.Ubbink@amc.nl [Department of Quality and Process Innovation, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, Mario, E-mail: M.Maas@amc.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schep, Niels W.L., E-mail: N.W.Schep@amc.nl [Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goslings, J. Carel, E-mail: J.C.Goslings@amc.nl [Trauma Unit, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the diagnostic accuracy, subjective image quality and clinical consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy with standard imaging modalities (2D-fluoroscopy, X-ray or CT) during reduction and fixation of intra-articular upper and lower extremity fractures. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. In total 673 articles were identified (up to March 2012). The 19 included studies described patients/cadavers with intra-articular upper/lower extremity fractures and compared 3D-fluoroscopy to standard imaging. The study was performed in accordance with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) guidelines. Diagnostic accuracy was defined by the quality of fracture reduction or implant position and, if possible, expressed as sensitivity and specificity; subjective image quality was determined by the quality of depiction of bone or implants; clinical consequences were defined as corrections in reduction or implant position following 3D-fluoroscopy. Results: Ten cadaver- and nine clinical studies were included. A meta-analysis was not possible, because studies used different scoring protocols to express diagnostic accuracy and reported incomplete data. Based on the individual studies, diagnostic accuracy of 3D-fluoroscopy was better than 2D-fluoroscopy and X-ray, but similar to CT-scanning. Subjective image quality of 3D-fluoroscopy was inferior compared to all other imaging modalities. In 11–40% of the operations additional corrections were performed after 3D-fluoroscopy, while the necessity for these corrections were not recognized based on 2D-fluoroscopic images. Conclusions: Although subjective image quality is rated inferior compared to other imaging modalities, intra-operative use of 3D-fluoroscopy is a helpful diagnostic tool for improving the quality of reduction and implant position in intra-articular fractures.

  13. 3D vision system assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  14. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  15. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  16. Side-to-side 3D coverage path planning approach for agricultural robots to minimize skip/overlap areas between swaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Osen, O. L.

    2016-01-01

    Automated path planning is important for the automation and optimization of field operations. It can provide the waypoints required for guidance, navigation and control of agricultural robots and autonomous tractors throughout the execution of these field operations. In agriculture, field...... the machine rolls on slopes the effective width of the implement decreases by a similar amount to double this error and complicates the problem. In this paper, a numerical approach to estimate the total skip and/or overlap areas is developed and applied to determine the optimum driving angle which minimizes...... experimental fields of uneven terrain nature. The proposed approaches illustrated that a significant percentage of uncovered area could be saved and used if appropriate driving angle is chosen and if a side-to-side 3D coverage is used....

  17. 3D-model building of the jaw impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.

    1997-03-01

    A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract 3D information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for 3D data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting 3D model can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a model-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.

  18. SU-E-T-596: Axillary Nodes Radiotherapy Boost Field Dosimetric Impact Study: Oblique Field and Field Optimization in 3D Conventional Breast Cancer Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, M [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Elmhurst, NY (United States); Sura, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric impact of two axillary nodes (AX) boost techniques: (1) posterior-oblique optimized field boost (POB), (2) traditional posterior-anterior boost (PAB) with field optimization (O-PAB), for a postmastectomy breast patient with positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods: Five patients, 3 left and 2 right chest walls, were included in this study. All patients were simulated in 5mm CT slice thickness. Supraclavicular (SC) and level I/II/III AX were contoured based on the RTOG atlas guideline. Five treatment plans, (1) tangential chest wall, (2) oblique SC including AX, (3) PAB, O-PAB and POB, were created for each patient. Three plan sums (PS) were generated by sum one of (3) plan with plan (1) and (2). The field optimization was done through PS dose distribution, which included a field adjustment, a fractional dose, a calculation location and a gantry angle selection for POB. A dosimetric impact was evaluated by comparing a SC and AX coverage, a PS maximum dose, an irradiated area percentage volume received dose over 105% prescription dose (V105), an ipsi-laterial mean lung dose (MLD), an ipsi-laterial mean humeral head dose (MHHD), a mean heart dose (MHD) (for left case only) and their DVH amount these three technique. Results: O-PAB, POB and PAB dosimetric results showed that there was no significant different on SC and AX coverage (p>0.43) and MHD (p>0.16). The benefit of sparing lung irradiation from PAB to O-PAB to POB was significant (p<0.004). PAB showed a highest PS maximum dose (p<0.005), V105 (p<0.023) and MLD (compared with OPAB, p=0.055). MHHD showed very sensitive to the patient arm positioning and anatomy. O-PAB convinced a lower MHHD than PAB (p=0.03). Conclusion: 3D CT contouring plays main role in accuracy radiotherapy. Dosimetric advantage of POB and O-PAB was observed for a better normal tissue irradiation sparing.

  19. Tolerance doses for treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.

    1985-10-01

    Data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to (low-LET) radiation has been compiled from a number of sources which are referenced at the end of this document. This tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD/sub 5/) or 50% (TD/sub 50/) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represents doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same endpoint. The data from some sources shows a tendancy to be quantized in 5 Gy increments. This reflects the size of possible round off errors. It is believed that all these data have been accumulated without the benefit of 3-D dose distributions and therefore the estimates of the size of the volume and/or the uniformity of the irradiation may be less accurate than is now possible. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Is 3D printing safe? Analysis of the thermal treatment of thermoplastics: ABS, PLA, PET, and nylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyła, Szymon; Klama, Piotr; Baran, Tomasz

    2017-02-06

    The fast development of low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers has made those devices widely accessible for goods manufacturing at home. However, is it safe? Users may belittle the effects or influences of pollutants (organic compounds and ultrafine particles) generated by the devices in question. Within the scope of this study, the authors attempt to investigate thermal decomposition of the following commonly used, commercially available thermoplastic filaments: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon. Thermogravimetric analysis has shown the detailed thermal patterns of their behavior upon increasing temperature in neutral atmosphere, while GC analysis of organic vapors emitted during the process of heating thermoplastics have made it possible to obtain crucial pieces of information about the toxicity of 3D printing process. The conducted study has shown that ABS is significantly more toxic than PLA. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been in the range of 0.50 μmol/h. Styrene has accounted for more than 30% of total VOC emitted from ABS, while for PLA, methyl methacrylate has been detected as the predominant compound (44% of total VOCs emission). Moreover, the authors have summarized available or applicable methods that can eliminate formed pollutants and protect the users of 3D printers. This paper summarizes theoretical knowledge on thermal degradation of polymers used for 3D printers and shows results of authors' investigation, as well as presents forward-looking solutions that may increase the safety of utilization of 3D printers.

  1. Design and fabrication of 3D-printed anatomically shaped lumbar cage for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, T; Capelli, C; Toumpaniari, R; Orriss, I R; Leong, J J H; Dalgarno, K; Kalaskar, D M

    2016-07-19

    Spinal fusion is the gold standard surgical procedure for degenerative spinal conditions when conservative therapies have been unsuccessful in rehabilitation of patients. Novel strategies are required to improve biocompatibility and osseointegration of traditionally used materials for lumbar cages. Furthermore, new design and technologies are needed to bridge the gap due to the shortage of optimal implant sizes to fill the intervertebral disc defect. Within this context, additive manufacturing technology presents an excellent opportunity to fabricate ergonomic shape medical implants. The goal of this study is to design and manufacture a 3D-printed lumbar cage for lumbar interbody fusion. Optimisations of the proposed implant design and its printing parameters were achieved via in silico analysis. The final construct was characterised via scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, x-ray micro computed tomography (μCT), atomic force microscopy, and compressive test. Preliminary in vitro cell culture tests such as morphological assessment and metabolic activities were performed to access biocompatibility of 3D-printed constructs. Results of in silico analysis provided a useful platform to test preliminary cage design and to find an optimal value of filling density for 3D printing process. Surface characterisation confirmed a uniform coating of nHAp with nanoscale topography. Mechanical evaluation showed mechanical properties of final cage design similar to that of trabecular bone. Preliminary cell culture results showed promising results in terms of cell growth and activity confirming biocompatibility of constructs. Thus for the first time, design optimisation based on computational and experimental analysis combined with the 3D-printing technique for intervertebral fusion cage has been reported in a single study. 3D-printing is a promising technique for medical applications and this study paves the way for future development of customised implants in spinal

  2. Dynamic MLC tracking of moving targets with a single kV imager for 3D conformal and IMRT treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per R. (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark)), E-mail: perpolse@rm.dk; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Univ., Stanford (United States))

    2010-10-15

    Background. Tumor motion during radiotherapy is a major challenge for accurate dose delivery, in particular for hypofractionation and dose painting. The motion may be compensated by dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking. Previous work has demonstrated that a single kV imager can accurately localize moving targets for DMLC tracking during rotational delivery, however this method has not been investigated for the static gantry geometry used for conformal and IMRT treatments. In this study we investigate the accuracy of single kV-imager based DMLC tracking for static-gantry delivery. Material and methods. A 5-field treatment plan with circular field shape and 200 MU per field was delivered in 20 s per field to a moving phantom with an embedded gold marker. Fluoroscopic kV images were acquired at 5 Hz perpendicular to the treatment beam axis during a 120 deg pre-treatment gantry rotation, during treatment delivery, and during inter-field gantry rotations. The three-dimensional marker position was estimated from the kV images and used for MLC adaptation. Experiments included 12 thoracic/abdominal tumor trajectories and five prostate trajectories selected from databases with 160 and 548 trajectories, respectively. The tracking error was determined as the mismatch between the marker position and the MLC aperture center in portal images. Simulations extended the study to all trajectories in the databases and to treatments with prolonged duration of 60 s per field. Results. In the experiments, the mean root-mean-square (rms) tracking error was 0.9 mm (perpendicular to MLC) and 1.1 mm (parallel to MLC) for thoracic/abdominal tumor trajectories and 0.6 mm (perpendicular) and 0.5 mm (parallel) for prostate trajectories. Simulations of these experiments agreed to within 0.1 mm. Simulations of all trajectories in the databases resulted in mean rms tracking errors of 0.6 mm (perpendicular) and 0.9 mm (parallel) for thorax/abdomen tumors and 0.4 mm (perpendicular) and 0

  3. Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

  4. Real -time 3D -Route Planning Simulation Platform of UAV%无人机三维实时航迹规划仿真平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文平; 李严

    2011-01-01

    UAV route planning is a key technology in mission planning. A safe, reliable and optimal three -di-mension flight path is found with it. In this paper, a simulation platform for UAV route planning is established by u-sing of graphical user interface development environment. A variety of threats based on terrain factors are established by digital elevation model of regular network. 3D path is planning by a method combined with improved probabilistic roadmap method (PRM) and the shortest path search Dijkstra algorithm. Multiple route planning algorithms can be search by the platform. Simulation of route planning about two - dimensional and three - dimensional, real - time and non real - time, single and multiple UAVs can be made. Through the actual operation by the platform, simulation re-sults are given to verify high efficiency of improved PRM algorithm and validity and usability of the platform.%无人机航迹规划是任务规划中的关键技术,为得到一条既安全可靠又全局代价最优的三维航迹.针对实现实时动态规划最佳航迹,利用图形用户界面开发环境,规则网格的数字高程地图模型建立了基于地形因素的多种威胁源模型,采用改进型概率地图法(probabilistic roadmap method,PRM)与最短路径搜索-Dijkstra算法相结合的方法规划了三维航迹.最终设计的平台能够实现多种航迹规划算法的搜索,二维与三维、实时与非实时、单机与多机的航迹规划仿真.通过平台的实际运行,证明了改进PRM算法的高效性,同时验证了该平台的有效性与实用性.

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy as neoadjuvant chemoradiation for the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Outcome analysis and comparison with a 3D-treated patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, S.E.; Habermehl, D.; Kessel, K.; Brecht, I. [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Bergmann, F.; Schirmacher, P. [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Werner, J.; Buechler, M.W. [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery; Jaeger, D. [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, J. [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology

    2013-09-15

    Background: To evaluate outcome after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-RT) as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Materials and methods: In total, 57 patients with LAPC were treated with IMRT and chemotherapy. A median total dose of 45 Gy to the PTV {sub baseplan} and 54 Gy to the PTV {sub boost} in single doses of 1.8 Gy for the PTV {sub baseplan} and median single doses of 2.2 Gy in the PTV {sub boost} were applied. Outcomes were evaluated and compared to a large cohort of patients treated with 3D-RT. Results: Overall treatment was well tolerated in all patients and IMRT could be completed without interruptions. Median overall survival was 11 months (range 5-37.5 months). Actuarial overall survival at 12 and 24 months was 36 % and 8 %, respectively. A significant impact on overall survival could only be observed for a decrease in CA 19-9 during treatment, patients with less pre-treatment CA 19-9 than the median, as well as weight loss during treatment. Local progression-free survival was 79 % after 6 months, 39 % after 12 months, and 13 % after 24 months. No factors significantly influencing local progression-free survival could be identified. There was no difference in overall and progression-free survival between 3D-RT and IMRT. Secondary resectability was similar in both groups (26 % vs. 28 %). Toxicity was comparable and consisted mainly of hematological toxicity due to chemotherapy. Conclusion: IMRT leads to a comparable outcome compared to 3D-RT in patients with LAPC. In the future, the improved dose distribution, as well as advances in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques, may improve the use of IMRT in local dose escalation strategies to potentially improve outcome. (orig.)

  6. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  7. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor W; Epelman, Marina A; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Haken, Randall K Ten; Matuszak, Martha M

    2017-01-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (ℓEUD) (conventional ‘ℓEUD model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted ℓEUD (fEUD) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting ℓEUD, fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target ℓEUD are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6%(7.5%) more liver function than the fEUD (ℓEUD) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5%(5.6%) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in ℓEUD of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and often achieves better GLF than ℓEUD model optimization does, the GLF model directly optimizes a more clinically

  8. [The 3D-printed dental splint: a valuable tool in the surgical treatment of malocclusion after polytrauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, W L; Schepers, R H; van Minnen, B

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year old male was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of a university clinic 2 months after he had sustained multiple traumatic injuries abroad because of an anterior malocclusion. The malocclusion was the sequel of an unrecognised, untreated, already consolidated paramedian mandibular fracture on the right and a fracture of the contralateral mandibular angle on the left. Preoperatively, a cobalt-chrome 3D-printed dental splint was prepared. Surgical correction of the malocclusion was carried out by segmental osteotomies of the mandible at the original fracture sites. This involved a vertical paramedian osteotomy on the right side and a unilateral sagittal split osteotomy on the left mandibular angle side. The mandibular segment was mobilised in the correct occlusion with the aid of the 3D-printed dental splint. The splint was fixed to the teeth with dental composite. The custom made 3D-printed dental splint is considered a promising procedural innovation in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  9. Strategies for microwave thermal treatment planning, navigation, and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    2011-03-01

    Thermal treatment is commonly performed interstitially in either surgical or percutaneous procedures, using microwave antenna sources at 915 or 2540 MHz. There are a number of tools or aids as well as challenges for clinicians performing these procedures in the course of patient treatment. These challenges will be present whether the procedure is surgical, laparoscopic, or percutaneous, and include treatment planning, image guidance, navigation, coregistration in 3D, and treatment assessment. Treatment planning has been used historically in hyperthermia for microwave antenna arrays, but has yet to be properly applied in thermal ablation. Image assessment of thermal treatment is not typically performed in real time, although these tools will provide the clinician with further information to understand the extent of treatment and whether further treatment is needed. 3D imaging is available, but not coregistered to patient space. Navigation has been used in many medical specialties, but is also not in the clinician's toolbox in thermal treatment. Although treatment planning will lay out the skin entry and trajectory for each antenna placed, subsequently, each antenna needs to be tracked to accurately show placement in the patient and overlaid in patient space, along with the tumor target location. Some patient treatments may consist of multiple, but sequential single placements of an antenna, and guidance is even more critical to track positions and plan for the next insertion. Lastly, real-time image assessment will show the extent and shape of the coagulated lesion and which targets may have been undertreated. If used synchronously in arrays, MW power steering may also aid in filling in the ablation as the treatment progresses. This paper will analyze the present state-of-the art as well as a strategy to incorporate the various facets of planning, guidance, and assessment of treatment. The integration of thermal treatment planning, navigation and guidance, robotics

  10. Treatment with tibolone partially protects 3-D microarchitecture of lumbar Vertebral Bone Tissues and Prevents Ovariectomy-induced Reduction in Mechanical Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    Treatment with Tibolone partially Protects 3-D Microarchitecture of Lumbar Vertebral Bone Tissues and Prevents Ovariectomy-induced Reduction in Mechanical Properties Tibolone (Org OD14) is a tissue selective steroid with estrogenic effects on the brain, bone and vagina, without stimulating...... hypothesized that tibolone might have significant effects on 3-D microarchitecture of vertebra, thus to preserve OVX-induced reduction in mechanical properties. One hundred and sixty-six female 10-month-old rats were randomly allocated into one of the 13 groups. These groups included a baseline control group...... of tibolone treatment. This partially improved microarchitecture resulted in full recovery of mechanical properties to normal level, suggesting increased bone quality after long-term tibolone treatment. We concluded that long-term tibolone treatment completely preserved bone’s mechanical properties...

  11. A framework for inverse planning of beam-on times for 3D small animal radiotherapy using interactive multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvert, Marleen; van Hoof, S.J.; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, A.L.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Advances in precision small animal radiotherapy hardware enable the delivery of increasingly complicated dose distributions on the millimeter scale. Manual creation and evaluation of treatment plans becomes difficult or even infeasible with an increasing number of degrees of freedom for dose deliver

  12. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Steigner, Michael L.; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Medical 3D printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, echocardiography and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced pre-operative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases, valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing peri-operative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  13. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  14. Improved treatments for evaluating horizontal magnetic components through the 3-D FDM in E-polarization induction problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伯舫

    2002-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the numerical evaluation through the 3-D finite difference method, the surface boundary conditions are added to modify the old program. The author has tested the new program by making calculations for the model constructed by Wanamaker, et al (1984). The comparison between the numerical results obtained from this paper and those by Wannamaker, et al (1984) indicates that a pronounced improvement is realized in the evaluation of the horizontal magnetic components. Moreover, better calculations for the vertical magnetic components are also obtainable by using the new program.

  15. Comparative evaluation of a novel 3D segmentation algorithm on in-treatment radiotherapy cone beam CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gareth; Moore, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Image segmentation and delineation is at the heart of modern radiotherapy, where the aim is to deliver as high a radiation dose as possible to a cancerous target whilst sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. This, of course, requires that a radiation oncologist dictates both where the tumour and any nearby critical organs are located. As well as in treatment planning, delineation is of vital importance in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT): organ motion studies demand that features across image databases are accurately segmented, whilst if on-line adaptive IGRT is to become a reality, speedy and correct target identification is a necessity. Recently, much work has been put into the development of automatic and semi-automatic segmentation tools, often using prior knowledge to constrain some grey level, or derivative thereof, interrogation algorithm. It is hoped that such techniques can be applied to organ at risk and tumour segmentation in radiotherapy. In this work, however, we make the assumption that grey levels do not necessarily determine a tumour's extent, especially in CT where the attenuation coefficient can often vary little between cancerous and normal tissue. In this context we present an algorithm that generates a discontinuity free delineation surface driven by user placed, evidence based support points. In regions of sparse user supplied information, prior knowledge, in the form of a statistical shape model, provides guidance. A small case study is used to illustrate the method. Multiple observers (between 3 and 7) used both the presented tool and a commercial manual contouring package to delineate the bladder on a serially imaged (10 cone beam CT volumes ) prostate patient. A previously presented shape analysis technique is used to quantitatively compare the observer variability.

  16. Four-dimensional IMRT treatment planning using a DMLC motion-tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Sawant, Amit; Venkat, Raghu; Keall, Paul J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, 875 Black Wilbur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5847 (United States)], E-mail: ysuh@stanford.edu

    2009-06-21

    The purpose of this study is to develop a four-dimensional (4D) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment-planning method by modifying and applying a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) motion-tracking algorithm. The 4D radiotherapy treatment scenario investigated is to obtain a 4D treatment plan based on a 4D computed tomography (CT) planning scan and to have the delivery flexible enough to account for changes in tumor position during treatment delivery. For each of 4D CT planning scans from 12 lung cancer patients, a reference phase plan was created; with its MLC leaf positions and three-dimensional (3D) tumor motion, the DMLC motion-tracking algorithm generated MLC leaf sequences for the plans of other respiratory phases. Then, a deformable dose-summed 4D plan was created by merging the leaf sequences of individual phase plans. Individual phase plans, as well as the deformable dose-summed 4D plan, are similar for each patient, indicating that this method is dosimetrically robust to the variations of fractional time spent in respiratory phases on a given 4D CT planning scan. The 4D IMRT treatment-planning method utilizing the DMLC motion-tracking algorithm explicitly accounts for 3D tumor motion and thus hysteresis and nonlinear motion, and is deliverable on a linear accelerator.

  17. Treatment Planning Systems for BNCT Requirements and Peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G

    2003-01-01

    The main requirements and peculiarities expected from the BNCT-oriented treatment planning system (TPS) are summarized in this paper. The TPS is a software, which can be integrated or composed by several auxiliary programs. It plays important roles inside the whole treatment planning of the patient's organ in BNCT. However, the main goal is the simulation of the irradiation, in order to obtain the optimal configuration, in terms of neutron spectrum, patient positioning and dose distribution in the tumour and healthy tissues. The presence of neutrons increases the level of complexity, because much more nuclear reactions need to be monitored and properly calculated during the simulation of the patient's treatment. To this purposes several 3D geometry reconstruction techniques, generally based on the CT scanning data, are implemented and Monte Carlo codes are normally used. The TPSs are expected to show also the results (basically doses and fluences) in a proper format, such as isocurves (or isosurfaces) along t...

  18. Development of 3D statistical mandible models for cephalometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Goo; Yi, Won Jin; Hwang, Soon Jung; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Tae Il [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Helen; Yoo, Ji Hyun [Division of Multimedia Engineering, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to provide sex-matched three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape models of the mandible, which would provide cephalometric parameters for 3D treatment planning and cephalometric measurements in orthognathic surgery. The subjects used to create the 3D shape models of the mandible included 23 males and 23 females. The mandibles were segmented semi-automatically from 3D facial CT images. Each individual mandible shape was reconstructed as a 3D surface model, which was parameterized to establish correspondence between different individual surfaces. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to all mandible shapes produced a mean model and characteristic models of variation. The cephalometric parameters were measured directly from the mean models to evaluate the 3D shape models. The means of the measured parameters were compared with those from other conventional studies. The male and female 3D statistical mean models were developed from 23 individual mandibles, respectively. The male and female characteristic shapes of variation produced by PCA showed a large variability included in the individual mandibles. The cephalometric measurements from the developed models were very close to those from some conventional studies. We described the construction of 3D mandibular shape models and presented the application of the 3D mandibular template in cephalometric measurements. Optimal reference models determined from variations produced by PCA could be used for craniofacial patients with various types of skeletal shape.

  19. Implant Restoration of Edentulous Jaws with 3D Software Planning, Guided Surgery, Immediate Loading, and CAD-CAM Full Arch Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Mario Meloni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 23 edentulous jaws treated with 3D software planning, guided surgery, and immediate loading and restored with CAD-CAM full arch frameworks. Materials and Methods. This work was designed as a prospective case series clinical study. Twenty patients have been consecutively rehabilitated with an immediately loaded implant supported fixed full prosthesis. A total of 120 fixtures supporting 23 bridges were placed. 117 out of 120 implants were immediately loaded. Outcome measures were implants survival, radiographic marginal bone levels and remodeling, soft tissue parameters, and complications. Results. 114 of 117 implants reached a 30 months follow-up, and no patients dropped out from the study. The cumulative survival rate was 97.7%; after 30 months, mean marginal bone level was  mm, mean marginal bone remodeling value was , mean PPD value was  mm, and mean BOP value was 4% ± 2.8%. Only minor prosthetic complications were recorded. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that computer-guided surgery and immediate loading seem to represent a viable option for the immediate rehabilitations of completely edentulous jaws with fixed implant supported restorations. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01866696.

  20. Optimisation of beam-orientations in conformal radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowbottom, C.G

    1999-07-01

    Many synergistic advances have led to the beginnings of the routine use of conformal radiotherapy. These include advances in diagnostic imaging, in 3D treatment planning, in the technology for complex treatment delivery and in computer assessment of rival treatment plans. A conformal radiotherapy treatment plan more closely conforms the high-dose volume to the target volume, reducing the dose to normal healthy tissue. Traditionally, human planners have devised the treatment parameters used in radiotherapy treatment plans via a manually iterative process. Computer 'optimisation' algorithms have been shown to improve treatment plans as they can explore much more of the search space in a relatively short time. This thesis examines beam-orientation computer 'optimisation' in radiotherapy treatment planning and several new techniques were developed. Using these techniques a comparison was performed between treatment plans with 'standard', fixed beam-orientations and treatment plans with 'optimised' beam-orientations for patients with cancer of the prostate, oesophagus and brain. Plans were compared on the basis of dose-distributions and in some cases biological models for the probability of damage to the target volume and the major organs-at-risk (OARs) in each patient group. A cohort of patients was considered in each group to avoid bias from a specific patient geometry. In the case of the patient cohort with cancer of the prostate, a coplanar beam-orientation 'optimisation' scheme led to an average increase in the TCP of (5.7{+-}1.4)% compared to the standard plans after the dose to the isocentre had been scaled to produce a rectal NTCP of 1%. For the patient cohort with cancer of the oesophagus, the beam-orientation 'optimisation' scheme reduced the average lung NTCP by (0.7{+-}0.2)% at the expense of a modest increase in the average spinal cord NTCP of (0.1{+-}0.2)%. A non-coplanar beam-orientation &apos

  1. 3D space analysis of dental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Joon H.; Ong, Sim Heng; Kondo, Toshiaki; Foong, Kelvin W. C.; Yong, Than F.

    2001-05-01

    Space analysis is an important procedure by orthodontists to determine the amount of space available and required for teeth alignment during treatment planning. Traditional manual methods of space analysis are tedious and often inaccurate. Computer-based space analysis methods that work on 2D images have been reported. However, as the space problems in the dental arch exist in all three planes of space, a full 3D analysis of the problems is necessary. This paper describes a visualization and measurement system that analyses 3D images of dental plaster models. Algorithms were developed to determine dental arches. The system is able to record the depths of the Curve of Spee, and quantify space liabilities arising from a non-planar Curve of Spee, malalignment and overjet. Furthermore, the difference between total arch space available and the space required to arrange the teeth in ideal occlusion can be accurately computed. The system for 3D space analysis of the dental arch is an accurate, comprehensive, rapid and repeatable method of space analysis to facilitate proper orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

  2. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: a planning parameters study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q Jackie

    2013-11-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (~2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning). Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency. All online reoptimized plans were finished within ~2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the original plan fluence map as the

  3. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie [Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  4. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  5. 3-Dimentional radiotherapy versus conventional treatment plans for gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghili M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The current standard of adjuvant management for gastric cancer after curative resection based on the results of intergroup 0116 is concurrent chemoradiation. Current guidelines for designing these challenging fields still include two-dimensional simulation with simple AP-PA parallel opposed design. However, the implementation of radiotherapy (RT remains a concern. Our objective was to compare three-dimensional (3D techniques to the more commonly used AP-PA technique."n"nMethods: A total of 24 patients with stages II-IV adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant postoperative chemoradiation with simple AP-PA technique, using Cobalt-60. Total radiation dose was 50.4Gy. Landmark-based fields were simulated to assess PTV coverage. For each patient, three additional radiotherapy treatment plans were generated using three-dimensional (3D technique. The four treatment plans were then compared for target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues (liver, spinal cord, kidneys using dose volume histogram (DVH analysis."n"nResults: The three-dimensional planning techniques provided 10% superior PTV coverage compared to conventional AP-PA fields (p<0.001. Comparative DVHs for the right kidney, left kidney

  6. WE-F-16A-04: Micro-Irradiator Treatment Verification with High-Resolution 3D-Printed Rodent-Morphic Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bache, S; Belley, M [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Benning, R; Adamovics, J [Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States); Stanton, I; Therien, M [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yoshizumi, T [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pre-clinical micro-radiation therapy studies often utilize very small beams (∼0.5-5mm), and require accurate dose delivery in order to effectively investigate treatment efficacy. Here we present a novel high-resolution absolute 3D dosimetry procedure, capable of ∼100-micron isotopic dosimetry in anatomically accurate rodent-morphic phantoms Methods: Anatomically accurate rat-shaped 3D dosimeters were made using 3D printing techniques from outer body contours and spinal contours outlined on CT. The dosimeters were made from a radiochromic plastic material PRESAGE, and incorporated high-Z PRESASGE inserts mimicking the spine. A simulated 180-degree spinal arc treatment was delivered through a 2 step process: (i) cone-beam-CT image-guided positioning was performed to precisely position the rat-dosimeter for treatment on the XRad225 small animal irradiator, then (ii) treatment was delivered with a simulated spine-treatment with a 180-degree arc with 20mm x 10mm cone at 225 kVp. Dose distribution was determined from the optical density change using a high-resolution in-house optical-CT system. Absolute dosimetry was enabled through calibration against a novel nano-particle scintillation detector positioned in a channel in the center of the distribution. Results: Sufficient contrast between regular PRESAGE (tissue equivalent) and high-Z PRESAGE (spinal insert) was observed to enable highly accurate image-guided alignment and targeting. The PRESAGE was found to have linear optical density (OD) change sensitivity with respect to dose (R{sup 2} = 0.9993). Absolute dose for 360-second irradiation at isocenter was found to be 9.21Gy when measured with OD change, and 9.4Gy with nano-particle detector- an agreement within 2%. The 3D dose distribution was measured at 500-micron resolution Conclusion: This work demonstrates for the first time, the feasibility of accurate absolute 3D dose measurement in anatomically accurate rat phantoms containing variable density

  7. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  8. 3T MR-based treatment planning for radiotherapy of brain lesions:

    OpenAIRE

    Fallone, B Gino; Hans-Sonke, Jans; Stanescu, Teodor; Stavrev, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this work is to develop a complete treatment planning procedure for radiation therapy of intracranial lesions based solely on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), i.e. MRI simulation. Methods. The proposed 3T MR-based radiotherapy treatment planning procedure consists of converting the MR images into CT-like images by assigning electron density information (related to CT values) to organ structures. Firstly, the 3D distortion field present in the MR volumes is determined a...

  9. Technical Note: Partial body irradiation of mice using a customized PMMA apparatus and a clinical 3D planning/LINAC radiotherapy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagounis, Ilias V.; Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr, E-mail: mkoukour@med.duth.gr [Department of Radiotherapy–Oncology, Radiopathology and Radiobiology Unit, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Abatzoglou, Ioannis M., E-mail: abadzoglou@yahoo.gr [Medical Physics Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: In vivo radiobiology experiments involving partial body irradiation (PBI) of mice are of major importance because they allow for the evaluation of individual organ tolerance; overcoming current limitations of experiments using lower dose, whole body irradiation. In the current study, the authors characterize and validate an effective and efficient apparatus for multiple animal PBI, directed to the head, thorax, or abdomen of mice. Methods: The apparatus is made of polymethylmethacrylate and consists of a rectangular parallelepiped prism (40 cm × 16 cm × 8 cm), in which five holes were drilled to accomodate standard 60 ml syringes, each housing an unanesthetized, fully immobilized mouse. Following CT-scanning and radiotherapy treatment planning, radiation fields were designed to irradiate the head, thorax, or abdomen of the animal. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to confirm the treatment planning dosimetry for primary beam and scattered radiation. Results: Mice are efficiently placed into 60 ml syringes and immobilized, without the use of anesthetics. Although partial rotational movement around the longitudinal axis and a minor 2 mm forward/backward movement are permitted, this does not compromise the irradiation of the chosen body area. TLDs confirmed the dose values predicted by the treatment planning dosimetry, both for primary beam and scattered radiation. Conclusions: The customized PMMA apparatus described and validated is cost-effective, convenient to use, and efficient in performing PBI without the use of anesthesia. The developed apparatus permits the isolated irradiation of the mouse head, thorax, and abdomen. Importantly, the apparatus allows the delivery of PBI to five mice, simultaneously, representing an efficient way to effectively expose a large number of animals to PBI through multiple daily fractions, simulating clinical radiotherapy treatment schedules.

  10. Therapeutic value of 3-D printing template-assisted 125I-seed implantation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tao Han,1,* Xiaodan Yang,1,* Ying Xu,2,* Zhendong Zheng,1,* Ying Yan,2 Ning Wang2 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Radiotherapy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To explore the therapeutic value of 3-D printing template-assisted 125I-seed implantation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors.Materials and methods: Fifteen liver cancer patients with 47 total lesions were treated with 3-D printing template-assisted radioactive seed implantation (group A, and 25 liver-tumor patients with 66 total lesions were treated with 125I-seed implantation without a template auxiliary (group B. Operation time, in-hospital time, operation complications, dose distribution, and response rate (number were compared between the two groups. Results: Shorter operation times and better dose distribution were observed in group A than in group B, and the differences were statistically significant. The response rate after 2 months was 86.7% (13 of 15 in group A and 84% (21 of 25 in group B; differences between the two groups were not significant.Conclusion: Application of 3-D printing template-assisted radioactive seed implantation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors can help shorten operation time and optimize radiation-dose distribution, is worthy of further study, and has clinical significance. Keywords: brachytherapy, stereotactic techniques, iodine isotopes, liver, carcinoma 

  11. TEHNOLOGIJE 3D TISKALNIKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  12. TU-CD-207-09: Analysis of the 3-D Shape of Patients’ Breast for Breast Imaging and Surgery Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agasthya, G; Sechopoulos, I [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ external breast surface before and during breast compression for mammography/tomosynthesis. Methods: During this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 50 women were recruited to undergo 3-D breast surface imaging during breast compression and imaging for the cranio-caudal (CC) view on a digital mammography/breast tomosynthesis system. Digital projectors and cameras mounted on tripods were used to acquire 3-D surface images of the breast, in three conditions: (a) positioned on the support paddle before compression, (b) during compression by the compression paddle and (c) the anterior-posterior view with the breast in its natural, unsupported position. The breast was compressed to standard full compression with the compression paddle and a tomosynthesis image was acquired simultaneously with the 3-D surface. The 3-D surface curvature and deformation with respect to the uncompressed surface was analyzed using contours. The 3-D surfaces were voxelized to capture breast shape in a format that can be manipulated for further analysis. Results: A protocol was developed to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ breast before and during compression for mammography. Using a pair of 3-D scanners, the 50 patient breasts were scanned in three conditions, resulting in accurate representations of the breast surfaces. The surfaces were post processed, analyzed using contours and voxelized, with 1 mm{sup 3} voxels, converting the breast shape into a format that can be easily modified as required. Conclusion: Accurate characterization of the breast curvature and shape for the generation of 3-D models is possible. These models can be used for various applications such as improving breast dosimetry, accurate scatter estimation, conducting virtual clinical trials and validating compression algorithms. Ioannis Sechopoulos is consultant for Fuji Medical Systems USA.

  13. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, S.K.; Duun-Christensen, Anne Katrine; Kristensen, B.H.;

    2010-01-01

    undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors received a weekly CBCT. In total 18 scans was matched with both CT and MRI as reference. The CBCT scans were acquired using a Clinac iX 2300 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) with an On-Board Imager (OBI). Results. For the phantom...

  14. 3D scanning and printing as conversation tools: an innovative treatment of a vandalized bronze statue, The Thinker by Rodin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.; van der Molen, R.; Saunders, D.; Strlic, M.; Korenberg, C.; Luxford, N.; Birkhölzer, K.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution discusses the innovative treatment of a severely vandalized bronze sculpture, The Thinker by Auguste Rodin, from the Singer Museum in Laren, The Netherlands. Additional aspects of this controversial treatment such as decision making and documentation are also discussed. In 2007 the

  15. 3D scanning and printing as conversation tools: an innovative treatment of a vandalized bronze statue, The Thinker by Rodin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Beentjes; R. van der Molen

    2011-01-01

    This contribution discusses the innovative treatment of a severely vandalized bronze sculpture, The Thinker by Auguste Rodin, from the Singer Museum in Laren, The Netherlands. Additional aspects of this controversial treatment such as decision making and documentation are also discussed. In 2007 the

  16. Timing of three-dimensional virtual treatment planning of orthognathic surgery: a prospective single-surgeon evaluation on 350 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Gwen R J

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the timing for three-dimensional (3D) virtual treatment planning of orthognathic surgery in the daily clinical routine. A total of 350 consecutive patients were included in this study. All patients were scanned following the standardized "Triple CBCT Scan Protocol" in centric relation. Integrated 3D virtual planning and actual surgery were performed by the same surgeon in all patients. Although clinically acceptable, still software improvements especially toward 3D virtual occlusal definition are mandatory to make 3D virtual planning of orthognathic surgery less time-consuming and more user-friendly to the clinician.

  17. Treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy of breast cancer - from Paris system to anatomy-based inverse planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2017-02-01

    In the last decades, treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial breast brachytherapy has evolved considerably from fluoroscopy-based 2D to anatomy-based 3D planning. To plan the right positions of the catheters, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) imaging can be used, but the treatment plan is always based on postimplant CT images. With CT imaging, the 3D target volume can be defined more precisely and delineation of the organs at risk volumes is also possible. Consequently, parameters calculated from dose-volume histogram can be used for quantitative plan evaluation. The catheter reconstruction is also easier and faster on CT images compared to X-ray films. In high dose rate brachytherapy, using a stepping source, a number of forward dose optimization methods (manual, geometrical, on dose points, graphical) are available to shape the dose distribution to the target volume, and these influence dose homogeneities to different extent. Currently, inverse optimization algorithms offer new possibilities to improve dose distributions further considering the requirements for dose coverage, dose homogeneity, and dose to organs at risk simultaneously and automatically. In this article, the evolvement of treatment planning for interstitial breast implants is reviewed, different forward optimization methods are discussed, and dose-volume parameters used for quantitative plan evaluation are described. Finally, some questions of the inverse optimization method are investigated and initial experiences of the authors are presented.

  18. Treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy of breast cancer – from Paris system to anatomy-based inverse planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Major

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial breast brachytherapy has evolved considerably from fluoroscopy-based 2D to anatomy-based 3D planning. To plan the right positions of the catheters, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT imaging can be used, but the treatment plan is always based on postimplant CT images. With CT imaging, the 3D target volume can be defined more precisely and delineation of the organs at risk volumes is also possible. Consequently, parameters calculated from dose-volume histogram can be used for quantitative plan evaluation. The catheter reconstruction is also easier and faster on CT images compared to X-ray films. In high dose rate brachytherapy, using a stepping source, a number of forward dose optimization methods (manual, geometrical, on dose points, graphical are available to shape the dose distribution to the target volume, and these influence dose homogeneities to different extent. Currently, inverse optimization algorithms offer new possibilities to improve dose distributions further considering the requirements for dose coverage, dose homogeneity, and dose to organs at risk simultaneously and automatically. In this article, the evolvement of treatment planning for interstitial breast implants is reviewed, different forward optimization methods are discussed, and dose-volume parameters used for quantitative plan evaluation are described. Finally, some questions of the inverse optimization method are investigated and initial experiences of the authors are presented.

  19. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  20. Interactive registration of 2D histology and 3D CT data for assessment of radiofrequency ablation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Seise

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological investigation of a lesion induced by radiofrequency ablation (RFA treatment provides ground-truth about the true lesion size, thus verifying the success or failure of the RFA treatment. This work presents a framework for registration of two-dimensional large-scale histological sections and three-dimensional CT data typically used to guide the RFA intervention. The focus is on the developed interactive methods for reconstruction of the histological volume data by fusion of histological and high-resolution CT (MicroCT data and registration into CT data based on natural feature points. The framework is evaluated using RFA interventions in a porcine liver and applying medically relevant metrics. The results of registration are within clinically required precision targets; thus the developed methods are suitable for validation of the RFA treatment.

  1. Three-dimensional treatment planning of orthognathic surgery in the era of virtual imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, G.R.; Mollemans, W.; Schutyser, F.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this report was to present an integrated 3-dimensional (3D) virtual approach toward cone-beam computed tomography-based treatment planning of orthognathic surgery in the clinical routine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have described the different stages of the workflow process for ro

  2. Design and implementation of a rotational radiotherapy technique for breast cancer treatment and their comparison with 3-D-Crt irradiation technique; Diseno e implementacion de una tecnica de radioterapia rotacional para tratamiento de cancer de mama y su comparacion contra la tecnica 3D-CRT de irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez M, J. G.; Lopez V, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Velazquez T, J. J.; Adame G, C. S. [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Oncologia, Departamento de Fisica Medica, Av. Cuauhtemoc No. 330, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rubio N, O.; Chagoya G, A.; Hernandez G, J. C., E-mail: jggm25@yahoo.com.mx [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Oncologia, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Cuauhtemoc No. 330, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Breast cancer is one of oncological diseases worldwide, as well in Mexico, which causes even more deaths than cervical cancer; this condition is the second death cause in women aged 30-54 years and threatens all socio-economic groups. The treatment is highly dependent on the stage which is detected and based on protocols that include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This paper studies the main irradiation technique for patients with mastectomy, breast full cycle (irradiation of the chest well and supraclavicular nodes) in their mode Three Dimensional - Conformal Radiation Therapy (3-D-Crt), and compared with the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) technique proposed in this paper. In both techniques the prescription was 50 Gy divided into 25 fractions. The techniques were applied in three female patients (being an initial study) with disease of the left side, the target volume and organs at risk were delineated by the medical treating radiation oncologist, the planning system used was Eclipse version 10; for quantitative comparison of both plans indexes of homogeneity were used, con formality, the target volume coverage and normal tissue, sub factors and overdosing, the conformation number and coverage quality. They were evaluated and compared the media, maximum and minimum dose of the organs at risk, based on the fact that the coverage of the target volume, dose gradient and dose at risk organs are acceptable (prescription dose greater that 90% coverage, gradient less that 20% and organs at risk in accordance with the Quantec limitations for both versions). (Author)

  3. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  4. 3-D conformal treatment of prostate cancer to 74 Gy vs. high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost: A cross-sectional quality-of-life survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordermark, Dirk [Univ. of Wuerzburg (DE). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The effects of two modalities of dose-escalated radiotherapy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were compared. Forty-one consecutive patients were treated with a 3-D conformal (3-DC) boost to 74 Gy, and 43 with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (2x9 Gy), following 3-D conformal treatment to 46 Gy. Median age was 70 years in both groups, median initial PSA was 7.9 {mu}g/l in 3-DC boost patients and 8.1 {mu}g/l in HDR boost patients. Stage was 7 in 52% and 47%, respectively. HRQOL was assessed cross-sectionally using EORTC QLQ-C30 and organ-specific PR25 modules 3-32 (median 19) and 4-25 (median 14) months after treatment, respectively. Questionnaires were completed by 93% and 97% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea and insomnia scores were significantly increased in both groups. In the PR25 module, scores of 3-DC boost and HDR boost patients for urinary, bowel and treatment-related symptoms were similar. Among responders, 34% of 3-DC boost patients and 86% of HDR boost patients had severe erectile problems. Dose escalation in prostate cancer by either 3-DC boost to 74 Gy or HDR brachytherapy boost appears to result in similar HRQOL profiles.

  5. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  6. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  7. Evaluation of effect of 3D video glasses on perceived pain and unpleasantness induced by restorative dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Bo; Svensson, Peter; Wenzel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    whether distraction induced by video glasses also had an effect on the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness during dental treatment. Pain and unpleasantness was evoked by the preparation (drilling) of a minor dental cavity (class I). Twenty-three patients (17 female and six male, age range 20...... a positive effect of the video glasses. These findings suggest that perceived intensity of dental pain is resistant to a simple distraction technique. (C) 2001 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain....

  8. Automatic treatment planning facilitates fast generation of high-quality treatment plans for esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Rønn; Nielsen, Morten; Bertelsen, Anders Smedegaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quality of radiotherapy planning has improved substantially in the last decade with the introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the plan quality and efficacy of automatically (AU) generated VMAT plans for inoperable esophageal...... to the lungs. The automation of the planning process generated esophageal cancer treatment plans quickly and with high quality....... cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive inoperable patients with esophageal cancer originally treated with manually (MA) generated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were retrospectively replanned using an auto-planning engine. All plans were optimized with one full 6MV...

  9. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  10. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  11. Pediatric Patient with Incidental Os Odontoideum Safely Treated with Posterior Fixation Using Rod-Hook System and Preoperative Planning Using 3D Printer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    Os odontoideum is often found incidentally. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients with atlantoaxial instability or neurologic deficits. Although various techniques have been used for C1-C2 fusion in adults, the use of these procedures in children is not widely accepted. We present a 12-year-old boy with incidental os odontoideum and obvious C1-C2 instability, in which bony union was achieved safely and successfully by posterior fixation using a rod-hook system and perioperative planning using a three-dimensional printer. At the 2-year follow-up, bone formation around the gap of the dens, which has been generally considered as pseudoarthrosis, was obtained after union of the posterior element of C1-C2. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of

  13. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  14. AE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  15. Clinical observation of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy(3D-CRT)with concurrent chemotherapy in treatment of recurrent cervical cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbing Ma; Minghua Bai; Xijing Wang; Hongtao Ren

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy(3DCRT)combined with TP concurrent chemotherapy in treatment of recurrent cervical cancers.Methods:From May 2005 to May 2009,36 patients with recurrent cervical cancer were treated by 3D-CRT of 60-66 Gy and TP(docetaxel 70 mg/m2,d1;cisplatin 20 mg/m2,d1-d3;21 days per cycle,totally 2 cycles)concurrent chemotherapy.Results:All of the patients had finished the 3D-CRT,the total response rate,complete response rate and partial response rate were 80.0%(28/35),45.7%(16/35),and 34.3%(12/35),respectively.The pain-alleviation rate was 91.4%(32/35).The hemorrhage control rate was 94.3%(33/35).The median overall survival was 21.2 months.The 1-,2- and 3-year survival rates were 54.3%,37.1% and 22.8%,respectively.The life qualities of the patients were improved,without any treatment related death.Conclusion:Radiotherapy is effective and well-tolerated for recurrent cervical cancers,and it can promote regional control of the disease and prolong survival time.

  16. Treatment with Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Increases the Proinvasive Nature of SW620 Cells on 3D Collagen Type 1 Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vishnubhotla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using tissue density as a mechanism to diagnose a tumor has been around for centuries. However, this concept has not been sufficiently explored in a laboratory setting. Therefore, in this paper, we observed the effects of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM density on colon cancer invasion and proliferation using SW620 cells. We also attempted to inhibit ROCK-I to determine its effect on cell invasion and proliferation using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. Increasing cell seeding density resulted in a 2-fold increase in cell invasion as well as cell proliferation independent of treatment with Y-27632. Increasing collagen I scaffold density resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in cell proliferation while treatment with Y-27632 attenuated this effect although 1.5 fold increase in cell invasion was observed in ROCK inhibited samples. Intriguingly, ROCK inhibition also resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in cell invasion within 3D collagen scaffolds for cells seeded at lower densities. We show in this paper that ROCK-I inhibition leads to increased invasion within 3D collagen I microenvironments. This data suggests that although ROCK inhibitors have been used clinically to treat several medical conditions, its effect largely depends on the surrounding microenvironment.

  17. KPG Index versus OPG Measurements: A Comparison between 3D and 2D Methods in Predicting Treatment Duration and Difficulty Level for Patients with Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between orthopantomography (OPG based 2D measurements and the KPG index, a new index based on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images, in predicting orthodontic treatment duration and difficulty level of impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods. OPG and CBCT images of 105 impacted canines were independently scored by three orthodontists at t0 and after 1 month (t1, using the KPG index and the following 2D methods: distance from cusp tip and occlusal plane, cusp tip position in relation to the lateral incisor, and canine inclination. Pearson’s coefficients were used to evaluate the degree of agreement and the χ2 with Yates correction test was used to assess the independence between them. Results. Inter- and intrarater reliability were higher with KPG compared to 2D methods. Pearson’s coefficients showed a statistically significant association between all the indexes, while the χ2 with Yates correction test resulted in a statistically significant rejection of independency only for one 2D index. Conclusions. 2D indexes for predicting impacted maxillary canines treatment duration and difficulty sometimes are discordant; a 3D index like the KPG index could be useful in solving these conflicts.

  18. Monitoring Hazardous Fuels Treatments: Southeast Regional Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this document is to provide technical guidance on monitoring activities to refuge staff involved in planning and conducting hazardous fuel treatments....

  19. ISO land administration domain model and LandXML, in the development of digital survey plan lodgement for 3D cadastre in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karki, S.; Thompson, R.J.; McDougall, K.; Cumerford, N.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the implementation issues of 3D Cadastre in Queensland, Australia, which is presently moving towards a full digital lodgement of surveying information, with a focus on validation rules. In Queensland the Electronic Access for Registry Lodgement (EARL) project has

  20. A novel implementation of mARC treatment for non-dedicated planning systems using converted IMRT plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Nuesken, Frank; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian

    2013-08-03

    The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced by Siemens as an analogue to VMAT treatment. However, up to now only one certified treatment planning system supports mARC planning. We therefore present a conversion algorithm capable of converting IMRT plans created by any treatment planning system into mARC plans, with the hope of expanding the availability of mARC to a larger range of clinical users and researchers. As additional advantages, our implementation offers improved functionality for planning hybrid arcs and provides an equivalent step-and-shoot plan for each mARC plan, which can be used as a back-up concept in institutions where only one linac is equipped with mARC. We present a feasibility study to outline a practical implementation of mARC plan conversion using Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther. We present examples for three different kinds of prostate and head-and-neck plans, for 6 MV and flattening-filter-free (FFF) 7 MV photon energies, which are dosimetrically verified. It is generally more difficult to create good quality IMRT plans in Pinnacle using a large number of beams and few segments. We present different ways of optimization as examples. By careful choosing the beam and segment arrangement and inversion objectives, we achieve plan qualities similar to our usual IMRT plans. The conversion of the plans to mARC format yields functional plans, which can be irradiated without incidences. Absolute dosimetric verification of both the step-and-shoot and mARC plans by point dose measurements showed deviations below 5% local dose, mARC plans deviated from step-and-shoot plans by no more than 1%. The agreement between GafChromic film measurements of planar dose before and after mARC conversion is excellent. The comparison of the 3D dose distribution measured by PTW Octavius 729 2D-Array with the step-and-shoot plans and with the TPS is well above the pass criteria of 90% of the points falling within 5% local dose and 3

  1. Markov Game Based 3D Path Planning for Palletizing Robot%基于Markov对策的码垛机器人三维路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘久富; 陈魁; 苏青琴; 梁娟娟; 王志胜

    2012-01-01

    On account of complex application environments and large number of uncertain conditions for a palletizing robot,a path-planning method for multiple joints robot was presented by the algorithm based on Markov game.At first,according to the actual working environment,the range of the robot's motion was set and the conventional movement combination was selected as the basic set of the robot's behaviors.The possible reward of various situations would be obtained.Then the reward of each joint can be updated by multi-agent Q-learning algorithm and inverse the movement combination corresponding with the best reward.Selection of the movement combination parts can reduce the coordination among each joints and the complexity of the algorithm.The best motion trail will be shown,including the 3D motion trail when it's barrier-free and there was a spherical obstacle,and determination of the trail errors.At last,after experimental verification,the algorithm has been proved to control the compatible movements of each joint effectively and keep the errors within the allowed ranges.The experiments meet the requirements well.%针对码垛机器人应用环境状况较复杂、不确定条件较多的问题,使用基于Markov对策的算法对多关节码垛机器人进行路径规划。首先根据实际的工作环境设定机器人的运动范围,并选择经常出现的动作组合作为机器人运动的基本行为集,给出各种情况可能获得的报酬值,依据多智能体Q值学习算法更新每个关节的报酬值,反解出对应最大报酬值的动作组合,选择部分动作组合可以减少各关节之间的协调关系,降低算法的复杂度。仿真绘制出最佳动作组合时的运动轨迹,以及机器人运动环境中无障碍与放置球形障碍物时的三维运动轨迹,并确定轨迹的误差。最后经过实验验证表明,多智能体Q值算法能有效地控制各个关节的协调运动,实际运动的误差在允许的范围内,满足使用要求。

  2. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  3. Improving treatment plan evaluation with automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Elizabeth L; Chen, Xiaoping; Younge, Kelly C; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M; Kessler, Marc L; Keranen, Wayne; Acosta, Eduardo; Dougherty, Ashley M; Filpansick, Stephanie E; Moran, Jean M

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Plan-Checker Tool (PCT) which was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase the efficiency of our electronic workflow, and standardize and automate the physics plan review in the treatment planning system (TPS). PCT uses an application programming interface to check and compare data from the TPS and treatment management system (TMS). PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user as part of a plan readiness check for treatment. Prior to and during PCT development, errors identified during the physics review and causes of patient treatment start delays were tracked to prioritize which checks should be automated. Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated, with data extracted with PCT. There was a 60% reduction in the number of patient delays in the six months after PCT release. PCT was successfully implemented for use on all external beam treatment plans in our clinic. While the number of errors found during the physics check did not decrease, automation of checks increased visibility of errors during the physics check, which led to decreased patient delays. The methods used here can be applied to any TMS and TPS that allows queries of the database. PACS number(s): 87.55.-x, 87.55.N-, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.tm, 89.20.Bb.

  4. Planning for mARC treatments with the Eclipse treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Vikren; Huang, Long; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Jessica; Szegedi, Martin; Salter, Bill J

    2015-03-08

    While modulated arc (mARC) capabilities have been available on Siemens linear accelerators for almost two years now, there was, until recently, only one treatment planning system capable of planning these treatments. The Eclipse treatment planning system now offers a module that can plan for mARC treatments. The purpose of this work was to test the module to determine whether it is capable of creating clinically acceptable plans. A total of 23 plans were created for various clinical sites and all plans delivered without anomaly. The average 3%/3 mm gamma pass rate for the plans was 98.0%, with a standard deviation of 1.7%. For a total of 14 plans, an equivalent static gantry IMRT plan was also created to compare delivery time. In all but two cases, the mARC plans delivered significantly faster than the static gantry plan. We have confirmed the successful creation of mARC plans that are deliverable with high fidelity on an ARTISTE linear accelerator, thus demonstrating the successful implementation of the Eclipse mARC module.

  5. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  6. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery.

  7. Pediatric radiotherapy planning and treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Olch, Arthur J

    2013-01-01

    "This is a very well-written and -organized book covering the planning and delivery aspects unique to pediatric radiotherapy. The author is a respected and well-known medical physicist with extensive pediatric radiotherapy experience. … a very useful book for any clinical physicist treating pediatric cases and seeking contextual and historical perspective. … a great reference for medical physicists who may not see many pediatric cases and can look to this text as a one-stop shop for not only a comprehensive overview, but detailed explanation for specific pediatric disease sites. Overall, it is a great addition to the reference library of any radiation therapy physicist."-Medical Physics, April 2014.

  8. Intense post-accelerated 11C beams for hadrontherapy: Treatment and at the same time 3D dose mapping by PET imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonca, T; Stora, T; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    Hadrontherapy was introduced in the USA some decades ago and has by now widespread throughout the world, as seen with the construction of CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN, MedAustron and Etoile treatment centers. Accelerator laboratories, such as GANIL, CERN-ISOLDE and SPES, producing post-accelerated radioactive ion beams for fundamental research have in parallel been also multiplied. Here we propose to fully replace or combine carbon therapy treatments based on 12C ions with treatments using a post-accelerated 11C PET radioactive ion. This has the advantage to provide a beam for treatment and at the same time, to collect informations during or just after, on the 3D distribution of the implanted ions by PET imaging using, i.e. PET-CT scanners in the treatment rooms. This approach has already been tested at NIRS in Japan and can be seriously envisaged, notably because of the recent progresses made on 11C ion production and post-acceleration techniques. Furthermore, it presents a much higher sensitivity and flexibility than...

  9. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  10. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  11. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  12. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  13. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the proposed concept is to develop a methodology to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operation with a path planning and scheduling system in 3D environments. The proposed 3D path-planning and scheduling allows the system to schedule UAVs routing to perform tasks in 3D indoor...

  14. Dosimetric influence of hyaluronic acid in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT3D; Influencia dosimetrica del acido hialuronico en pacientes cancer de prostata tratados con RT3D externa+HDR braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.; Vazquez, J. A.; Garcia Blanco, A. S.; Gomez, F.; Montejo, A.; Raba, J. I.; Pacheco, M. T.; Cardenal Carro, J.; Mendigueren, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to assess the influence on dosimetry by the introduction of hyaluronic acid and assess the need for the realization of a second CT scan and consequent re-planning of RT3D treatment. (Author)

  15. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  16. Auditory and visual 3D virtual reality therapy as a new treatment for chronic subjective tinnitus: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinvaud, D; Londero, A; Niarra, R; Peignard, Ph; Warusfel, O; Viaud-Delmon, I; Chatellier, G; Bonfils, P

    2016-03-01

    Subjective tinnitus (ST) is a frequent audiologic condition that still requires effective treatment. This study aimed at evaluating two therapeutic approaches: Virtual Reality (VR) immersion in auditory and visual 3D environments and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). This open, randomized and therapeutic equivalence trial used bilateral testing of VR versus CBT. Adult patients displaying unilateral or predominantly unilateral ST, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were included after giving their written informed consent. We measured the different therapeutic effect by comparing the mean scores of validated questionnaires and visual analog scales, pre and post protocol. Equivalence was established if both strategies did not differ for more than a predetermined limit. We used univariate and multivariate analysis adjusted on baseline values to assess treatment efficacy. In addition of this trial, purely exploratory comparison to a waiting list group (WL) was provided. Between August, 2009 and November, 2011, 148 of 162 screened patients were enrolled (VR n = 61, CBT n = 58, WL n = 29). These groups did not differ at baseline for demographic data. Three month after the end of the treatment, we didn't find any difference between VR and CBT groups either for tinnitus severity (p = 0.99) or tinnitus handicap (p = 0.36). VR appears to be at least as effective as CBT in unilateral ST patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D打印技术在下颌骨缺损治疗中的应用%3D Printing Technology in Application of Mandibular Defects Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新凤; 董智伟; 刘璐; 鲍海宏; 曹志强; 柳云恩; 张力; 侯明晓

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨数字化3D打印技术在下颌骨缺损治疗中的应用。方法沈阳军区总医院口腔颌面外科2014年9月—2015年8月收治5例下颌骨缺损患者,术前行CT扫描采集数据后,导入计算机辅助设计软件进行模拟病变切除和移植骨重建手术,并设计数字化导板,通过3D打印技术制造出重建后的下颌骨模型和辅助手术的数字化3D导板,术后对手术效果进行评价。结果5例均顺利完成手术,平均随访6.0个月。修复评价分级:Ⅰ级4例,Ⅱ级1例;1例术后半个月颌下区切口感染,张口度2.5 cm,其余4例无并发症;供区切口均恢复良好。结论3D打印技术应用于下颌骨缺损可直观演示手术过程,简化手术过程,缩短手术时间,修复效果满意。%Objective To investigate the application of digital 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology in man-dibular defect treatment. Methods Data of 5 inpatients with mandibular defects during September 2014 and August 2015 was collected by CT scanning, and then the data was put into computer aided design software for simulated lesion re-section and bone graft reconstruction, and guiding plates were also designed. The reconstructed mandibular models and 3D digital guiding plates were manufactured with 3D printing technology. The postoperative effect was evaluated. Results All the 5 patients successfully underwent operations, and the average follow-up time was 6. 0 months. The repair classi-fication was 4 patients with grade I and 1 with grade Ⅱ. The postoperative infection in submaxillary region with 2. 5 cm gape was found in 1 patient half a month after the operation, and the other 4 patients had no complications. Donor area incisions recovered well. Conclusion 3D printing technology in application of mandibular defect treatment may directly show the operative process, simplify operative process and shorten the operation time with satisfactory repair effect.

  18. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...... previous algorithms since it uses delineations of structures in order to include and/or exclude certain media in various anatomical regions. This method has the potential to reduce anatomically irrelevant media assignment. In house MATLAB scripts translating the treatment plan parameters to Monte Carlo...

  19. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2016-01-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+ TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+ TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+ TFT admits a topological bou...

  20. A computational implementation and comparison of several intensity modulated proton therapy treatment planning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisen S; Romeijn, H Edwin; Fox, Christopher; Palta, Jatinder R; Dempsey, James F

    2008-03-01

    The authors present a comparative study of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment planning employing algorithms of three-dimensional (3D) modulation, and 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) modulation, and intensity modulated distal edge tracking (DET) [A. Lomax, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 185-205 (1999)] applied to the treatment of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. These three approaches were also compared with 6 MV photon intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). All algorithms were implemented in the University of Florida Optimized Radiation Therapy system using a finite sized pencil beam dose model and a convex fluence map optimization model. The 3D IMPT and the DET algorithms showed considerable advantages over the photon IMRT in terms of dose conformity and sparing of organs at risk when the beam number was not constrained. The 2.5D algorithm did not show an advantage over the photon IMRT except in the dose reduction to the distant healthy tissues, which is inherent in proton beam delivery. The influences of proton beam number and pencil beam size on the IMPT plan quality were also studied. Out of 24 cases studied, three cases could be adequately planned with one beam and 12 cases could be adequately planned with two beams, but the dose uniformity was often marginally acceptable. Adding one or two more beams in each case dramatically improved the dose uniformity. The finite pencil beam size had more influence on the plan quality of the 2.5D and DET algorithms than that of the 3D IMPT. To obtain a satisfactory plan quality, a 0.5 cm pencil beam size was required for the 3D IMPT and a 0.3 cm size was required for the 2.5D and the DET algorithms. Delivery of the IMPT plans produced in this study would require a proton beam spot scanning technique that has yet to be developed clinically.

  1. Prolene hernia system, ultrapro hernia system and 3D patch devices in the treatment of inguinal, femoral, umbilical and small incisional hernias in outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabić, D; Cerović, S; Azanjaç, B; Marić, B; Kostić, I

    2010-01-01

    The employment of a diversity of prosthetic materials and several types of mesh different in construction is opening a new chapter in hernia surgery and tension-free techniques are becoming a "golden standard" for repairing abdominal wall defects, whereas the conventional methods, i.e., the tension techniques are performed on young patients having small direct, indirect, or femoral hernias. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the results of using Prolene Hernia System (PHS), Ultrapro Hernia System (UHS) and 3D Patch (3DP) devices in the treatment of inguinal, femoral, umbilical and small incisional hernias in outpatient surgery. From January 2006 to January 2009, 70 patients were operated on for abdominal wall hernias (54 inguinal, 4 femoral, 8 umbilical and 4 small incisional hernias) using PHS, UHS and 3DP devices. All the patients underwent surgery under local infiltrative anaesthesia. All the surgical operations were performed by a single surgeon, 19 of them in the General Hospital and 51 in a private polyclinic. The mean size of the hernia defect in the inguinal, femoral and umbilical hernias was 2.5 cm (1-4 cm), while in the incisional hernias it was 4.5 cm (3-6 cm). The mean operating time was 2.4 hrs (2-6 hrs). There were no requirement for urinary drains. The mean follow-up was 18 months (0-36 months). The incidence of infection, chronic pain and recurrence was 0%. Three of the patients had complications: seroma in one patient with an incisional hernia and hematoma in two patients after inguinal hernia repair. The employment of PHS, UHS and 3DP devices, which have not yet been widely accepted in our hospitals, has had outstanding results in outpatient surgery. In addition, the type of anaesthesia and the 3D mesh construction prepare the way for a short hospital stay, smooth recovery and a swift return to normal activity.

  2. Modelling of linear accelerator table for use in the design of 3D and VMAT radiotherapy treatments; Modelizacion de mesa de acelerador lineal para aplicacion en los disenos de tratamientos radioterapicos 3D y VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Jimenez Domingiuez, M.; Mateos Perez, J. C.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2011-07-01

    The new design of carbon treatment tables for rotational IMRT application is being submitted in multiple publications, all dosimetric test to determine their influence on treatment. In most publications can be concluded that their influence is not negligible, especially in near-horizontal angles. In the case of IMRT its influence becomes non-intuitive and therefore difficult to estimate. These publications can not consider all the possibilities of clinical practice, so that its applicability is limited. We propose, therefore, a role-table with the exact geometry of the treatment and density adjusted to the experimental data, to resolve the estimation of their influence in each clinical case.

  3. Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.

  4. Exploratory study of 3D printing technique in the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation%3D打印技术在颅底凹陷合并寰枢椎脱位手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹一恒; 余新光; 佟怀宇; 徐弢; 王鹏; 乔广宇

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨3D打印技术在颅底凹陷合并寰枢椎脱位手术中的临床应用价值.方法 2013年1至9月解放军总医院神经外科对10例行后路固定手术的颅底凹陷合并寰枢椎脱位患者进行3D模型打印,打印范围为颅底到C4椎体,对骨质结构和椎动脉进行颜色区分制作1∶1大小的模型.在模型上进行术前模拟置钉,探讨固定方式和最佳进钉点以避开椎动脉,获得个性化置钉数据后进行手术操作,对3D打印模型的置钉数据和实际临床结果进行对比分析.结果 3D打印模型模拟手术发现,10例均有C1后弓发育不良或与枕骨融合,无法行C1后弓螺钉,进钉点选择在C1侧块;C2螺钉根据模型个体化设计:3例椎动脉异常或C2椎弓根宽度<3.5 mm无法行椎弓根螺钉固定,其中1例行C2椎板螺钉,1例行C2~3经关节螺钉,1例因合并C2~3椎体融合行C3椎弓根螺钉;2例椎弓根宽度在3.5~4.0 mm,经评估后设计钉道仍行椎弓根螺钉固定;1例单侧C1侧块垂直脱位于C2前方,采用寰枢椎经关节螺钉固定;其余均行椎弓根螺钉.10例手术方案均与3D打印模拟方案一致,术后随访12~18个月,随访时患者临床症状均有改善,植骨融合率100%.结论 3D打印模型可全面评估骨性结构异常和椎动脉走向,有助于制定手术策略、设计置钉点和置钉角度,避免椎动脉和脊髓损伤,值得推广.%Objective To investigate the clinical application value of the 3D printing technique in the treatment of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation.Methods From January 2013 to September 2013,10 patients with basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation needing posterior fixation undertook 3D printing modes at the Department of Neurosurgery in PLA General Hospital.The 1 ∶ 1 size models were established from skull base to C4 level with different colors between bone structures and vertebral arteries.The simulation of screw insertion was made to

  5. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  6. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong

    2005-04-01

    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  7. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  8. 3D-CT imaging processing for qualitative and quantitative analysis of maxillofacial cysts and tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odotologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate spiral-computed tomography (3D-CT) images of 20 patients presenting with cysts and tumors in the maxillofacial complex, in order to compare the surface and volume techniques of image rendering. The qualitative and quantitative appraisal indicated that the volume technique allowed a more precise and accurate observation than the surface method. On the average, the measurements obtained by means of the 3D volume-rendering technique were 6.28% higher than those obtained by means of the surface method. The sensitivity of the 3D surface technique was lower than that of the 3D volume technique for all conditions stipulated in the diagnosis and evaluation of lesions. We concluded that the 3D-CT volume rendering technique was more reproducible and sensitive than the 3D-CT surface method, in the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of maxillofacial lesions, especially those with intra-osseous involvement. (author)

  9. Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, James L. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a specific type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in which the gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, and dose rate vary continuously during delivery. A treatment planning system for VMAT is presented. Methods: Arc control points are created uniformly throughout one or more arcs. An iterative least-squares algorithm is used to generate a fluence profile at every control point. The control points are then grouped and all of the control points in a given group are used to approximate the fluence profiles. A direct-aperture optimization is then used to improve the solution, taking into account the allowed range of leaf motion of the MLC. Dose is calculated using a fast convolution algorithm and the motion between control points is approximated by 100 interpolated dose calculation points. The method has been applied to five cases, consisting of lung, rectum, prostate and seminal vesicles, prostate and pelvic lymph nodes, and head and neck. The resulting plans have been compared with segmental (step-and-shoot) IMRT and delivered and verified on an Elekta Synergy to ensure practicality. Results: For the lung, prostate and seminal vesicles, and rectum cases, VMAT provides a plan of similar quality to segmental IMRT but with faster delivery by up to a factor of 4. For the prostate and pelvic nodes and head-and-neck cases, the critical structure doses are reduced with VMAT, both of these cases having a longer delivery time than IMRT. The plans in general verify successfully, although the agreement between planned and measured doses is not very close for the more complex cases, particularly the head-and-neck case. Conclusions: Depending upon the emphasis in the treatment planning, VMAT provides treatment plans which are higher in quality and/or faster to deliver than IMRT. The scheme described has been successfully introduced into clinical use.

  10. Radiotherapy treatment planning linear-quadratic radiobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J Donald

    2015-01-01

    Understand Quantitative Radiobiology from a Radiation Biophysics PerspectiveIn the field of radiobiology, the linear-quadratic (LQ) equation has become the standard for defining radiation-induced cell killing. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning: Linear-Quadratic Radiobiology describes tumor cell inactivation from a radiation physics perspective and offers appropriate LQ parameters for modeling tumor and normal tissue responses.Explore the Latest Cell Killing Numbers for Defining Iso-Effective Cancer TreatmentsThe book compil

  11. 3D and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  12. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  13. Three dimensional intensity modulated brachytherapy (IMBT): Dosimetry algorithm and inverse treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Cheng, Chih-Yao; Esquivel, Carlos; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Niko [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104 (United States); Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of intensity modulated brachytherapy (IMBT) to improve dose conformity for irregularly shaped targets has been previously investigated by researchers by means of using partially shielded sources. However, partial shielding does not fully explore the potential of IMBT. The goal of this study is to introduce the concept of three dimensional (3D) intensity modulated brachytherapy and solve two fundamental issues regarding the application of 3D IMBT treatment planning: The dose calculation algorithm and the inverse treatment planning method. Methods: A 3D IMBT treatment planning system prototype was developed using the MATLAB platform. This system consists of three major components: (1) A comprehensive IMBT source calibration method with dosimetric inputs from Monte Carlo (EGSnrc) simulations; (2) a ''modified TG-43'' (mTG-43) dose calculation formalism for IMBT dosimetry; and (3) a physical constraint based inverse IMBT treatment planning platform utilizing a simulated annealing optimization algorithm. The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source developed by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), was simulated in this application. Ten intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) cases were studied. For each case, an ''isotropic plan'' with only optimized source dwell time and a fully optimized IMBT plan were generated and compared to the original plan in various dosimetric aspects, such as the plan quality, planning, and delivery time. The issue of the mechanical complexity of the IMBT applicator is not addressed in this study. Results: IMBT approaches showed superior plan quality compared to the original plans and the isotropic plans to different extents in all studied cases. An extremely difficult case with a small breast and a small distance to the ribs and skin, the IMBT plan minimized the high dose volume V{sub 200} by 16.1% and 4.8%, respectively, compared to the original and the

  14. Automatic treatment planning facilitates fast generation of high-quality treatment plans for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christian Rønn; Nielsen, Morten; Bertelsen, Anders Smedegaard; Hazell, Irene; Holtved, Eva; Zukauskaite, Ruta; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Brink, Carsten; Bernchou, Uffe

    2017-08-25

    The quality of radiotherapy planning has improved substantially in the last decade with the introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the plan quality and efficacy of automatically (AU) generated VMAT plans for inoperable esophageal cancer patients. Thirty-two consecutive inoperable patients with esophageal cancer originally treated with manually (MA) generated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were retrospectively replanned using an auto-planning engine. All plans were optimized with one full 6MV VMAT arc giving 60 Gy to the primary target and 50 Gy to the elective target. The planning techniques were blinded before clinical evaluation by three specialized oncologists. To supplement the clinical evaluation, the optimization time for the AU plan was recorded along with DVH parameters for all plans. Upon clinical evaluation, the AU plan was preferred for 31/32 patients, and for one patient, there was no difference in the plans. In terms of DVH parameters, similar target coverage was obtained between the two planning methods. The mean dose for the spinal cord increased by 1.8 Gy using AU (p = .002), whereas the mean lung dose decreased by 1.9 Gy (p plans were more modulated as seen by the increase of 12% in mean MUs (p = .001). The median optimization time for AU plans was 117 min. The AU plans were in general preferred and showed a lower mean dose to the lungs. The automation of the planning process generated esophageal cancer treatment plans quickly and with high quality.

  15. Interpolation of 3D slice volume data for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littley, Samuel; Voiculescu, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Medical imaging from CT and MRI scans has become essential to clinicians for diagnosis, treatment planning and even prevention of a wide array of conditions. The presentation of image data volumes as 2D slice series provides some challenges with visualising internal structures. 3D reconstructions of organs and other tissue samples from data with low scan resolution leads to a `stepped' appearance. This paper demonstrates how to improve 3D visualisation of features and automated preparation for 3D printing from such low resolution data, using novel techniques for morphing from one slice to the next. The boundary of the starting contour is grown until it matches the boundary of the ending contour by adapting a variant of the Fast Marching Method (FMM). Our spoke based approach generates scalar speed field for FMM by estimating distances to boundaries with line segments connecting the two boundaries. These can be regularly spaced radial spokes or spokes at radial extrema. We introduce clamped FMM by running the algorithm outwards from the smaller boundary and inwards from the larger boundary and combining the two runs to achieve FMM growth stability near the two region boundaries. Our method inserts a series of uniformly distributed intermediate contours between each pair of consecutive slices from the scan volume thus creating smoother feature boundaries. Whilst hard to quantify, our overall results give clinicians an evidently improved tangible and tactile representation of the tissues, that they can examine more easily and even handle.

  16. The Effect of Sensory Uncertainty Due to Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) on the Planning and Execution of Visually-Guided 3D Reaching Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Goltz, Herbert C.; Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. Methods Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50–100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2) which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. Results Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. Conclusion Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which could be due to their

  17. The effect of sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia (lazy eye on the planning and execution of visually-guided 3D reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairment of spatiotemporal visual processing in amblyopia has been studied extensively, but its effects on visuomotor tasks have rarely been examined. Here, we investigate how visual deficits in amblyopia affect motor planning and online control of visually-guided, unconstrained reaching movements. METHODS: Thirteen patients with mild amblyopia, 13 with severe amblyopia and 13 visually-normal participants were recruited. Participants reached and touched a visual target during binocular and monocular viewing. Motor planning was assessed by examining spatial variability of the trajectory at 50-100 ms after movement onset. Online control was assessed by examining the endpoint variability and by calculating the coefficient of determination (R(2 which correlates the spatial position of the limb during the movement to endpoint position. RESULTS: Patients with amblyopia had reduced precision of the motor plan in all viewing conditions as evidenced by increased variability of the reach early in the trajectory. Endpoint precision was comparable between patients with mild amblyopia and control participants. Patients with severe amblyopia had reduced endpoint precision along azimuth and elevation during amblyopic eye viewing only, and along the depth axis in all viewing conditions. In addition, they had significantly higher R(2 values at 70% of movement time along the elevation and depth axes during amblyopic eye viewing. CONCLUSION: Sensory uncertainty due to amblyopia leads to reduced precision of the motor plan. The ability to implement online corrections depends on the severity of the visual deficit, viewing condition, and the axis of the reaching movement. Patients with mild amblyopia used online control effectively to compensate for the reduced precision of the motor plan. In contrast, patients with severe amblyopia were not able to use online control as effectively to amend the limb trajectory especially along the depth axis, which

  18. Automated radiotherapy treatment plan integrity verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Deshan; Moore, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: In our clinic, physicists spend from 15 to 60 min to verify the physical and dosimetric integrity of radiotherapy plans before presentation to radiation oncology physicians for approval. The purpose of this study was to design and implement a framework to automate as many elements of this quality control (QC) step as possible. Methods: A comprehensive computer application was developed to carry out a majority of these verification tasks in the Philips PINNACLE treatment planning system (TPS). This QC tool functions based on both PINNACLE scripting elements and PERL sub-routines. The core of this technique is the method of dynamic scripting, which involves a PERL programming module that is flexible and powerful for treatment plan data handling. Run-time plan data are collected, saved into temporary files, and analyzed against standard values and predefined logical rules. The results were summarized in a hypertext markup language (HTML) report that is displayed to the user. Results: This tool has been in clinical use for over a year. The occurrence frequency of technical problems, which would cause delays and suboptimal plans, has been reduced since clinical implementation. Conclusions: In addition to drastically reducing the set of human-driven logical comparisons, this QC tool also accomplished some tasks that are otherwise either quite laborious or impractical for humans to verify, e.g., identifying conflicts amongst IMRT optimization objectives.

  19. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  20. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  1. A study of the plan dosimetric evaluation on the rectal cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Hak; An, Beom Seok; Kim, Dae Il; Lee, Yang Hoon; Lee, Je Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In order to minimize the dose of femoral head as an appropriate treatment plan for rectal cancer radiation therapy, we compare and evaluate the usefulness of 3-field 3D conformal radiation therapy(below 3fCRT), which is a universal treatment method, and 5-field 3D conformal radiation therapy(below 5fCRT), and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). The 10 cases of rectal cancer that treated with 21EX were enrolled. Those cases were planned by Eclipse(Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3(Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28) and AAA(Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28). 3fCRT and 5fCRT plan has 0 degrees, 270 degrees, 90 degrees and 0 degrees, 95 degrees, 45 degrees, 315 degrees, 265 degrees gantry angle, respectively. VMAT plan parameters consisted of 15MV coplanar 360 degrees 1 arac. Treatment prescription was employed delivering 54Gy to recum in 30 fractions. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, VMAT plans were optimized and calculated twice, and normalized to the target V100%=95%. The indexes of evaluation are D of Both femoral head and aceta fossa, total MU, H.I.(Homogeneity index) and C.I.(Conformity index) of the PTV. All VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with portal dosimetry using EPID. D of Rt. femoral head was 53.08 Gy, 50.27 Gy, and 30.92 Gy, respectively, in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. Likewise, Lt. Femoral head showed average 53.68 Gy, 51.01 Gy and 29.23 Gy in the same order. D of Rt. aceta fossa was 54.86 Gy, 52.40 Gy, 30.37 Gy, respectively, in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. Likewise, Lt. Femoral head showed average 53.68 Gy, 51.01 Gy and 29.23 Gy in the same order. The maximum dose of both femoral head and aceta fossa was higher in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. C.I. showed the lowest VMAT treatment plan with an average of 1.64, 1.48, and 0.99 in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. There was no significant difference on H

  2. Dosimetric characterization of 3D printed bolus at different infill percentage for external photon beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Rosalinda; Ciardo, Delia; Pansini, Floriana; Bazani, Alessia; Comi, Stefania; Spoto, Ruggero; Noris, Samuele; Cattani, Federica; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto; Vavassori, Andrea; Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    3D printing is rapidly evolving and further assessment of materials and technique is required for clinical applications. We evaluated 3D printed boluses with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactide (PLA) at different infill percentage. A low-cost 3D printer was used. The influence of the air inclusion within the 3D printed boluses was assessed thoroughly both with treatment planning system (TPS) and with physical measurements. For each bolus, two treatment plans were calculated with Monte Carlo algorithm, considering the computed tomography (CT) scan of the 3D printed bolus or modelling the 3D printed bolus as a virtual bolus structure with a homogeneous density. Depth dose measurements were performed with Gafchromic films. High infill percentage corresponds to high density and high homogeneity within bolus material. The approximation of the bolus in the TPS as a homogeneous material is satisfying for infill percentages greater than 20%. Measurements performed with PLA boluses are more comparable to the TPS calculated profiles. For boluses printed at 40% and 60% infill, the discrepancies between calculated and measured dose distribution are within 5%. 3D printing technology allows modulating the shift of the build-up region by tuning the infill percentage of the 3D printed bolus in order to improve superficial target coverage. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinole treatment on gonadal micro-vascularization and affected fertility examined by SEM and 3D-morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlbacher, K. M. T.; Minnich, B.

    2015-10-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the reproductive system in nude rats with special emphasis on how Δ9-THC impacts the vascularization of testes which in turn indirectly influences fertility. Basically, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes not only negative (psychoactive) effects in the human body as cannabinole administration in medical use (dose-dependent) offers multiple new treatment opportunities such as pain relief or containment of various cancers. Concerning the reproductive system it strongly influences CB-receptors along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis resulting in reduced plasma testosterone levels. There is also altered sperm quality parameters reported such as sperm motility or sperm count. On the other hand Δ9-THC effects endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1 etc.) respectively acts on their specific receptors which in turn modify angiogenesis and vascularization of tissues and organs (e.g. tumorous tissues). This leads to new therapeutical strategies in the suppression of various cancers by inhibiting (neo-)vascularization and in turn famishment of tumorous tissues (lack of nutrition supply). Here we studied the micro-vascularization of gonads in a long-term THC-treated nude rat model by vascular corrosion casting, SEM and 3D-morphometry.

  4. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  5. VMAT to arclet plan conversion in a treatment planning system. Feasibility and dosimetric relationship between VMAT, arclet, and stationary fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Licht, Norbert; Nuesken, Frank; Ruebe, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jochen [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Norton, Ian [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to make dynamic rotation treatment with mARC available for the non-dedicated Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system by converting SmartArc plans, offering insight into the relationship between SmartArc, mARC, and stationary field irradiation. A scripting solution is presented that can be run in the Pinnacle system. This allows for the conversion of SmartArc plans into mARC format. The dose distribution of the converted mARC plan can be evaluated both in the form of a ''real'' mARC plan with arclets and - as is generally done in treatment planning systems certified for mARC planning - by approximating the arclets as stationary fields. We present the proof of principle and dosimetric comparisons. The converted plans were irradiated without problems. For the measured 3D dose distributions, on average over 90 % points agreed with the calculated dose distributions (mARC and stationary field plans) within the gamma criteria of 3 % deviation in the local dose, 3-mm distance to agreement, for all dose values above 10 % of the maximum. The agreement between the three calculated dose distributions (SmartArc with both converted plans) was above 87 % (above 92 % when comparing mARC with stationary fields). Our solution offers the possibility of mARC planning in Pinnacle. The dose comparisons furthermore prove that the dosimetric differences between SmartArc and mARC, when appropriately translated, are minor. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie praesentiert die Konversion von SmartArc-Plaenen in mARC-Format innerhalb des Philips Pinnacle Bestrahlungsplanungssystems und vergleicht SmartArc, mARC und Stehfeldbestrahlungstechniken. Innerhalb des Pinnacle-Systems wird die Konversion von SmartArc- zu mARC-Plaenen skriptbasiert durchgefuehrt. Die resultierenden Dosisverteilungen werden sowohl mit einem Plan mit Arclet-Abstrahlung als auch mit angenaeherten Stehfelder-Plaenen verglichen. Die konvertierten Plaene koennen problemlos

  6. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleson, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z [Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies.

  7. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  8. 3D-kompositointi

    OpenAIRE

    Piirainen, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi yleisimpiä 3D-kompositointiin liittyviä tekniikoita sekä kompositointiin käytettyjä ohjelmia ja liitännäisiä. Työssä esitellään myös kompositoinnin juuret 1800-luvun lopulta aina nykyaikaiseen digitaaliseen kompositointiin asti. Kompositointi on yksinkertaisimmillaan usean kuvan liittämistä saumattomasti yhdeksi uskottavaksi kokonaisuudeksi. Vaikka prosessi vaatii visuaalista silmää, vaatii se myös paljon teknistä osaamista. Tämän lisäksi perusymmärrys kamera...

  9. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  10. 3D augmented reality mirror visual feedback therapy applied to the treatment of persistent, unilateral upper extremity neuropathic pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouraux, Dominique; Brassinne, Eric; Sobczak, Stéphane; Nonclercq, Antoine; Warzée, Nadine; Sizer, Phillip S; Tuna, Turgay; Penelle, Benoît

    2017-07-01

    Objective: We assessed whether or not pain relief could be achieved with a new system that combines 3D augmented reality system (3DARS) and the principles of mirror visual feedback. Methods: Twenty-two patients between 18 and 75 years of age who suffered of chronic neuropathic pain. Each patient performed five 3DARS sessions treatment of 20 mins spread over a period of one week. The following pain parameters were assessed: (1) visual analogic scale after each treatment session (2) McGill pain scale and DN4 questionnaire were completed before the first session and 24 h after the last session. Results: The mean improvement of VAS per session was 29% (p < 0.001). There was an immediate session effect demonstrating a systematic improvement in pain between the beginning and the end of each session. We noted that this pain reduction was partially preserved until the next session. If we compare the pain level at baseline and 24 h after the last session, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) of pain of 37%. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) on the McGill Pain Questionnaire and DN4 questionnaire (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results indicate that 3DARS induced a significant pain decrease for patients who presented chronic neuropathic pain in a unilateral upper extremity. While further research is necessary before definitive conclusions can be drawn, clinicians could implement the approach as a preparatory adjunct for providing temporary pain relief aimed at enhancing chronic pain patients' tolerance of manual therapy and exercise intervention. Level of Evidence: 4.

  11. Tridimensional Treatment Planning and Rapid Prototyping for Maxillofacial Prosthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGWen-qiang; YUANJian-bing; YEMing; HUANGXue-mei; WANGCheng-tao

    2004-01-01

    The currert stmulation planing systmes for maxillofacial prosthesis surgery were used to extrapolate 3D surgical movements and outcomes based on the 2D radiographs,which were inadequate for complex surgical movements A 3D treatmenl planning system based on the computerized tomography(CT)data was presented A 3D data field was costructed out of the sectional image stack through linear interpolation after objectire tissue segmentation and using the marching cubes algorithm method,the triangular mesh model and 3D geometric model of diseased facial skeleton were reconstructed then the model was cut,the segments were moved or totated to their predicted positions,and angles and distances were measured after triangular mesh model was decimaled a RP model was manufactured for surgical simulation and prosthesis design The system was used in clinic with more than fifty cases and technically wilidated with success.

  12. Three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry of kidneys for treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Boubaker, Ariane; Buchegger, Franz; He Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) delivers high absorbed doses to kidneys and may lead to permanent nephropathy. Reliable dosimetry of kidneys is thus critical for safe and effective PRRT. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of planning PRRT based on 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) in order to optimize both the amount of activity to administer and the fractionation scheme, while limiting the absorbed dose and the biological effective dose (BED) to the renal cortex. Methods: Planar and SPECT data were available for a patient examined with {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide at 0.5 (planar only), 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection. Absorbed dose and BED distributions were calculated for common therapeutic radionuclides, i.e., {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu, using the 3D-RD methodology. Dose-volume histograms were computed and mean absorbed doses to kidneys, renal cortices, and medullae were compared with results obtained using the MIRD schema (S-values) with the multiregion kidney dosimetry model. Two different treatment planning approaches based on (1) the fixed absorbed dose to the cortex and (2) the fixed BED to the cortex were then considered to optimize the activity to administer by varying the number of fractions. Results: Mean absorbed doses calculated with 3D-RD were in good agreement with those obtained with S-value-based SPECT dosimetry for {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu. Nevertheless, for {sup 111}In, differences of 14% and 22% were found for the whole kidneys and the cortex, respectively. Moreover, the authors found that planar-based dosimetry systematically underestimates the absorbed dose in comparison with SPECT-based methods, up to 32%. Regarding the 3D-RD-based treatment planning using a fixed BED constraint to the renal cortex, the optimal number of fractions was found to be 3 or 4, depending on the radionuclide administered and the value of the fixed BED. Cumulative activities obtained using the proposed simulated

  13. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  14. Developing a treatment planning process and software for improved translation of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J.; Zheng, Z.; Xu, Y.; Betz, V.; Lilge, L.

    2017-04-01

    Background: The majority of de novo cancers are diagnosed in low and middle-income countries, which often lack the resources to provide adequate therapeutic options. None or minimally invasive therapies such as Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) or photothermal therapies could become part of the overall treatment options in these countries. However, widespread acceptance is hindered by the current empirical training of surgeons in these optical techniques and a lack of easily usable treatment optimizing tools. Methods: Based on image processing programs, ITK-SNAP, and the publicly available FullMonte light propagation software, a work plan is proposed that allows for personalized PDT treatment planning. Starting with, contoured clinical CT or MRI images, the generation of 3D tetrahedral models in silico, execution of the Monte Carlo simulation and presentation of the 3D fluence rate, Φ, [mWcm-2] distribution a treatment plan optimizing photon source placement is developed. Results: Permitting 1-2 days for the installation of the required programs, novices can generate their first fluence, H [Jcm-2] or Φ distribution in a matter of hours. This is reduced to 10th of minutes with some training. Executing the photon simulation calculations is rapid and not the performance limiting process. Largest sources of errors are uncertainties in the contouring and unknown tissue optical properties. Conclusions: The presented FullMonte simulation is the fastest tetrahedral based photon propagation program and provides the basis for PDT treatment planning processes, enabling a faster proliferation of low cost, minimal invasive personalized cancer therapies.

  15. An Improved D*Lite Algorithm Based 3D Path Planning for UAVs When Target is Moving%应用 D*Lite 算法的目标移动时无人机三维航迹规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈侠; 刘冬

    2013-01-01

      With respect to the problem of 3D path planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAV) under uncertain environments when the target is moving,a method of fast 3D path planning was designed based on the improved D*Lite algorithm .By use of the improved cost evaluating function and the real-time information of unanticipated threats and moving targets,and based on the constraints together with the improved search algorithm,a method of 3D path planning for UAVs was given .The simulation results demonstrated that the algorithm can not only meet the real-time path planning demands,avoid the unanticipated threats and attack the moving targets,but also reduce the search space,improve the search efficiency and optimizing capability,which is a good method for path planning of UAV under uncertain environments .%  针对不确定环境下目标移动时的无人飞行器三维航迹规划问题,采用改进的D*Lite搜索算法,设计了一种三维航迹快速规划方法。利用改进的代价评估函数,根据突发威胁和移动目标的实时信息,将航迹规划约束条件和改进的搜索算法相结合,给出了地面目标移动时的无人飞行器三维航迹规划方法。仿真结果表明,该算法不但可以满足实时在线的航迹规划要求,能够有效躲避突发威胁,打击移动目标,还能有效地缩小搜索空间,提高搜索效率及寻优能力,能较好地解决不确定环境下目标移动时的航迹规划问题。

  16. The Method of Urban Planning Polygon Data Convert to GIS Data Based on Map3 D%基于Map3 D的规划图斑数据转换为系统数据的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宓; 舒滨; 杨钊

    2016-01-01

    At current,the urban planning polygon data is represented by the filling object ( Hatch) of AutoCAD. The filling objects cannot be converted directly to SHP data. This paper discusses the method of urban planning polygon data convert to GIS data based on Map3D and gives the corresponding solutions for the problems of conversion.%规划数据中的图斑多是以AutoCAD中的填充对象(Hatch)来表示的,这些填充对象无法直接转换为shp数据。本文讨论了基于Map3D平台将规划图斑数据转换为shp的方法,并对转换过程中出现的各种问题提出了相应的解决办法。

  17. Advanced Treatment Planning in Cancer Thermal Therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros SAMARAS; Esra NEUFELD; Niels KUSTER

    2016-01-01

    CEM43 thermal dose is a very common concept in thermal oncology. Thermal dose is the maximum amount of energy that can be transmitted during hyperthermia therapy conducted on temperature-sensitive tissue. Thermal dose is also the maximum value of local energy accumulation in human bodies, which can lead to tissue injury and pain. Thermal dose can also decrease the ifnishing temperature and reduce the energy to the tolerable range. There are two functions of the individualized hyperthermia treatment plan: it determines the setting and location that can realize the best tumor hyperthermia therapy; at the same time, it can decrease the effect of hyperthermia therapy on healthy tissues. There are four steps in the treatment plan of hyperthermia therapy for tumors: the ifrst step is to establish a three dimensional human body model and its corresponding an atomical structure that can be used in numerical algorithmvia medical imaging resources; the second step is to determine the volume of the electromagnetic energy accumulation. Based on the peculiarity of frequency and materials, even full-wave electromagnetic wave or quasi-static technique can be used to determine the tissue distribution. Evaluation of the therapy can be conducted based on thermal dose and the corresponding tissue damage model; the third step is to use Arrhenius model to provide direct evaluation of tissues in the thermal ablation zone, solidiifcation zone, as well as the necrotic area; the last step is the optimization of the treatment plan.

  18. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  19. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  1. Computer-assisted and patient-specific 3-D planning and evaluation of a single-cut rotational osteotomy for complex long-bone deformities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbe, J.G.G.; du Pré, K.J.; Kloen, P.; Blankevoort, L.; Streekstra, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Malunion after long bone fracture results in an incorrect position of the distal bone segment. This misalignment may lead to reduced function of the limb, early osteoarthritis and chronic pain. An established treatment option is a corrective osteotomy. For complex malunions, a single-cut rotational

  2. Computer-assisted and patient-specific 3-D planning and evaluation of a single-cut rotational osteotomy for complex long-bone deformities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbe, J.G.G.; du Pré, K.J.; Kloen, P.; Blankevoort, L.; Streekstra, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Malunion after long bone fracture results in an incorrect position of the distal bone segment. This misalignment may lead to reduced function of the limb, early osteoarthritis and chronic pain. An established treatment option is a corrective osteotomy. For complex malunions, a single-cut rotational

  3. Three-Dimensional Dose Optimization for Noncoplanar Treatment Planning with Conformal Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Chang L.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging techniques, especially three dimensional reconstruction of CT images, have made precision tumor localization feasible. These imaging techniques along with developments in computer controlled radiation treatment machines have provided an important thrust in developing better techniques for cancer treatment. This often requires a complex noncoplanar beam arrangements and elaborate treatment planning, which, unfortunately, are time consuming, costly and dependent on operator expertise and experience. A reliable operator-independent dose optimization tool is therefore desirable, especially for 3D treatment planning. In this dissertation, several approaches (linear programming, quadratic programming, and direct search methods) of computer optimization using various criteria including least sire fitting on the 90% isodose to target periphery, dose uniformity, and integral dose are presented. All of these methods are subject to restrictions on the upper limit of the dose to critical organs. In the quadratic programming approach, Kuhn-Tucker theory was employed to convert the quadratic problem into one which permits application of the very powerful, revised simplex method. Several examples are used to analyze the effectiveness of these dose optimization approaches. The studies show that the quadratic programming approach with the criteria of least square fitting and critical organ constraints is superior in efficiency for dose optimization in 3D treatment planning, particularly for cases with a large number of beams. Use of least square fitting allows one to deduce optimized plans for irregularly shaped targets by employing a multi-isocentric technique. Our studies also illustrate the advantages of using irregular conformal fields, optimized beam energy, and noncoplanar beam arrangements in contrast to the conventional treatment which uses a symmetrical rectangular collimator, fixed beam energy, and coplanar beam arrangements. Optimized plans can

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  5. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m.ghoreishian.1985@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badii, Khashayar [Department of Environmental Researches, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Mohammad [Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malek, Kaveh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  6. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  7. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  8. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Li-Xin; Huang, Shao-Min; Sun, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    To ensure the accuracy of dose calculation for radiation treatment plans is an important part of quality assurance (QA) procedures for radiotherapy. This study evaluated the Monitor Units (MU) calculation accuracy of a third-party QA software and a 3-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS), to investigate the feasibility and reliability of independent verification for radiation treatment planning. Test plans in a homogenous phantom were designed with 3-D TPS, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report No. 430, including open, blocked, wedge, and multileaf collimator (MLC) fields. Test plans were delivered and measured in the phantom. The delivered doses were input to the QA software and the independent calculated MUs were compared with delivery. All test plans were verified with independent calculation and phantom measurements separately, and the differences of the two kinds of verification were then compared. The deviation of the independent calculation to the measurements was (0.1 +/- 0.9)%, the biggest difference fell onto the plans that used block and wedge fields (2.0%). The mean MU difference between the TPS and the QA software was (0.6 +/- 1.0)%, ranging from -0.8% to 2.8%. The deviation in dose of the TPS calculation compared to the measurements was (-0.2 +/- 1.7)%, ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. MU accuracy of the third-party QA software is clinically acceptable. Similar results were achieved with the independent calculations and the phantom measurements for all test plans. The tested independent calculation software can be used as an efficient tool for TPS plan verification.

  9. mTOR-inhibitor treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: contribution of Choi and modified Choi criteria assessed in 2D or 3D to evaluate tumor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamuraglia, M. [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Paris (France); Raslan, S.; Penna, R.R.; Wagner, M. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP UPMC, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Elaidi, R.; Oudard, S. [APHP, Oncology Unit, Georges-Pompidou Hospital, Paris (France); Escudier, B. [Gustave-Roussy Institute, Medical Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); Slimane, K. [Novartis Pharma, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Lucidarme, O. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP UPMC, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Paris (France)

    2016-01-15

    To determine whether 2D or 3D Choi and modified Choi (mChoi) criteria could assess the efficacy of everolimus against metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). RECIST-1.1, Choi, and mChoi criteria were applied retrospectively to analyse baseline and 2-month contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images in 48 patients with mRCC enrolled in the everolimus arm of the French randomized double-blind multicentre phase III trial comparing everolimus versus placebo (RECORD-1). The primary endpoint was centrally reviewed progression-free survival (PFS) calculated from the initial RECORD-1 analysis. Mean attenuation was determined for 2D target lesion regions of interest drawn on CECT sections whose largest diameters had been measured, and for the 3D whole target lesion. The median PFS was 5.5 months. The median PFS for everolimus responders defined using 3D mChoi criteria was significantly longer than for non-responders (7.6 versus 5.4 months, respectively), corresponding to a hazard ratio for progression of 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22-0.92), with respective 1-year survival rates of 31 % and 9 %. No other 2D or 3D imaging criteria at 2 months identified patients who would benefit from everolimus. At 2 months, only 3D mChoi criteria were able to identify mRCC patients with a PFS benefit from everolimus. (orig.)

  10. 3D打印技术在复杂髋臼骨折治疗中的应用%3D printing used in treatment of complex acetabular fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国明; 周东生; 贺宇; 王伯珉; 李连欣; 李庆虎; 余也

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 3D printing used in the treatment of complex acetabular fractures.Methods Between January 2009 and December 2013,121 patients with complex acetabular fracture were treated at our department.3D printing was used in surgical planning in 53 of them,including 36 males and 17 females with an average age of 41.2 ± 10.4 years (3D group).The other 68 patients received conventional surgery without use of 3D printing,including 42 males and 26 females with an average age of 42.6 ± 8.9 years (conventional group).By the Judet-Letournel classification system,there were respectively 7 and 9 T-type fractures,4 and 6 posterior column with posterior wall fractures,21 and 28 transverse and posterior wall fractures,5 and 6 anterior with the second half transverse fractures,and 16 and 19 double column fractures.Surgical time,blood loss,transfusion,fluoroscopy times and complications were recorded in the 2 groups.At the final follow-ups,the clinical results were assessed by Merle D'Aubigné & Postel scoring and the radiographic results were assessed by Matta records.The 2 groups were similar in preoperative demographic data (P > 0.05).Results In the 3D and conventional groups,respectively,surgical time was 3.5 ±O.9 hours versus 4.5 ± 1.1 hours,blood loss was 1,200.2 ±232.8 mL versus 1,550.4 ±211.6 mL,transfusion was 8.9 ± 3.8 U versus 12.3 ± 2.9 U,and fluoroscopy times were 8.7 ± 2.1 versus 11.9 ± 2.4.The differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05).The 3D and conventional groups were respectively followed up for 20.3 and 37.8 months on average.All the acetabular fractures healed.The time from surgery to full-weight-bearing walking averaged 3.5 months.Iatrogenic ischiadic nerve injury occurred in 5 and 7 cases and superficial infection in 3 and 5 cases in the 3D and conventional groups,respectively.No iatrogenic vascular injury,nonunion,or implant failure occurred in the 2 groups.By the Merle D' Aubigné & Postel records

  11. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  12. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  13. 2D mapping of the MV photon fluence and 3D dose reconstruction in real time for quality assurance during radiotherapy treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowaili, Z. A.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Carolan, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Petasecca, M.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-09-01

    Summary: the photon irradiation response of a 2D solid state transmission detector array mounted in a linac block tray is used to reconstruct the projected 2D dose map in a homogenous phantom along rays that diverge from the X-ray source and pass through each of the 121 detector elements. A unique diode response-to-dose scaling factor, applied to all detectors, is utilised in the reconstruction to demonstrate that real time QA during radiotherapy treatment is feasible. Purpose: to quantitatively demonstrate reconstruction of the real time radiation dose from the irradiation response of the 11×11 silicon Magic Plate (MP) detector array operated in Transmission Mode (MPTM). Methods and Materials: in transmission mode the MP is positioned in the block tray of a linac so that the central detector of the array lies on the central axis of the radiation beam. This central detector is used to determine the conversion factor from measured irradiation response to reconstructed dose at any point on the central axis within a homogenous solid water phantom. The same unique conversion factor is used for all MP detector elements lying within the irradiation field. Using the two sets of data, the 2D or 3D dose map is able to be reconstructed in the homogenous phantom. The technique we have developed is illustrated here for different depths and irradiation field sizes, (5 × 5 cm2 to 40 × 40 cm2) as well as a highly non uniform irradiation field. Results: we find that the MPTM response is proportional to the projected 2D dose map measured at a specific phantom depth, the "sweet depth". A single factor, for several irradiation field sizes and depths, is derived to reconstruct the dose in the phantom along rays projected from the photon source through each MPTM detector element. We demonstrate that for all field sizes using the above method, the 2D reconstructed and measured doses agree to within ± 2.48% (2 standard deviation) for all in-field MP detector elements. Conclusions: a

  14. Accelerated 3D Monte Carlo light dosimetry using a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Chun Yip; Lilge, Lothar

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a basic computational framework for real-time, 3-D light dosimetry on graphics processing unit (GPU) clusters. The GPU-based approach offers a direct solution to overcome the long computation time preventing Monte Carlo simulations from being used in complex optimization problems such as treatment planning, particularly if simulated annealing is employed as the optimization algorithm. The current multi- GPU implementation is validated using a commercial light modelling software (ASAP from Breault Research Organization). It also supports the latest Fermi GPU architecture and features an interactive 3-D visualization interface. The software is available for download at http://code.google.com/p/gpu3d.

  15. Essential components of written behavior treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2014-11-12

    For the last 25 years, the only empirically determined system to evaluate the content of written behavior analysis plans was developed by Vollmer et al. (1992). For the current study, the content of that earlier system was revised by the first author and submitted to 48 members of the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and seven (7) other acknowledged experts on the editorial boards of Behavioral Interventions and Research in Developmental Disabilities. Of 55 recipients, 36 responded. The thirty-six (36) respondents rated each of 28 items from essential to non-essential using a five-point Likert scale. After reviewing the expert panel members' evaluations, we reduced the 28 items to 20 essential components of written behavior treatment plans. The implications of the results were discussed.

  16. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  17. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, th