Topology optimization of 3D Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan
Topology optimization has been applied to a multitude of physical systems and is now a mature technology used in industrial practice, see [1] for an overview. Borrvall and Petersson [2] introduced topology optimization of Stokes flow problems which initiated works on extending topology optimization...... to different flow problems. However, this research has focused on 2D fluid modelling, which limits the practical impact of the computed designs. The explanation of the limitation is that the finite size domain used in topology optimization problems ensures that the velocity components couples, even for Stokes...... only. The motivation for considering topology optimization in 3D Stokes flow originates from micro fluidic systems. At small scales the Stokes equations are a reasonable mathematical model to use for the fluid behavior. Physically Stokes flow is an exotic inertia free flow, which in practice...
3D Topology optimization of Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Dammann, Bernd
The present talk is concerned with the application of topology optimization to creeping flow problems in 3D. This research is driven by the fact that topology optimization has proven very successful as a tool in academic and industrial design problems. Success stories are reported from such diverse...... fields as solid mechanics and optics and is due to the method's flexibility in the (rough) parametrization of the design, see [1] and the reference therein for an overview. Borrvall and Petersson [2] is the seminal reference for topology optimization in fluid flow problems. They considered design...... of energy efficient devices for 2D Stokes flow. Creeping flow problems are described by the Stokes equations which model very viscous fluids at macro scales or ordinary fluids at very small scales. The latter gives the motivation for topology optimization problems based on the Stokes equations being a model...
Topology optimization of 3D Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Sigmund, Ole; Bendsøe, Martin P.
examples relevant for optimal micro fluidic mixer design are shown where the design is planar - compliant with micro fabrication techniques - and where the designs are 3D. In addition issues related to the parallel solution of the linear algebra problems are discussed. The implementation uses...
Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves
Lewis, M. R.; Koren, Barry; Raven, H.C.
2003-01-01
In this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems employing the so-called quasi free-surface condition. The numerical performance of this new approach is investigated for two test cases. The first test case involves the computation of the 3D gravity-wave pat...
Dual Variational Principles for 3-D Navier-Stokes Equations
Liu, G. L.
Just recently the exact variational principles (VP) of the full 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow have been successfully established for the first time by the present author by means of a systematic reversed deduction method via the undetermined function. As a continuation and further development of that - a pair of new dual (reciprocal)VP is generated herein by means of the Friedrichs involutory transformation. These VP have the advantage over the previous ones that they possess apparent physical meaning of energy, providing a new rigorous theoretical basis for the finite element analysis of 3-D viscous flow.
Young, D. L.; Tsai, C. H.; Wu, C. S.
2015-11-01
An alternative vector potential formulation is used to solve the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in 3D incompressible viscous flow problems with and without through-flow boundaries. Difficulties of the vector potential formulation include the implementation of boundary conditions for through-flow boundaries and the numerical treatment of fourth-order partial differential equations. The advantages on the other hand are the automatic satisfaction of the continuity equation; and pressure is decoupled from the velocity. The objective of this paper is to introduce the appropriate gauge and boundary conditions on the vector potential formulation by a localized meshless method. To handle the divergence-free property, a Coulomb gauge condition is enforced on the vector potential to ensure its existence and uniqueness mathematically. We further improve the algorithm to through-flow problems for the boundary conditions of vector potential by introducing the concept of Stokes' theorem. Based on this innovation, there is no need to include an additional variable to tackle the through-flow fields. This process will greatly simplify the imposition of boundary conditions by the vector potential approach. Under certain conditions, the coupled fourth-order partial differential equations can be easily solved by using this meshless local differential quadrature (LDQ) method. Due to the LDQ capability to deal with the high order differential equations, this algorithm is very attractive to solve this fourth-order vector potential formulation for the N-S equations as comparing to the conventional numerical schemes such as finite element or finite difference methods. The proposed vector potential formulation is simpler and has improved accuracy and efficiency compared to other pressure-free or pressure-coupled algorithms. This investigation can be regarded as the first complete study to obtain the N-S solutions by vector potential formulation through a LDQ method. Two classic 3D benchmark
Persistence of Steady 3D Euler Solutions for 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
Li, Y Charles
2008-01-01
In the classical plane Couette flow, certain 3D steady solution (the so-called lower branch state) of the Navier-Stokes equations has a nontrivial limit as the Reynolds number approaches infinity \\cite{WGW07}. The limit is a shear of the form ($U(y,z), 0, 0$) in velocity variables. On the other hand, all the shears of this form are solutions of the corresponding 3D Euler equations. This note derives a necessary condition for such a shear to be a limit shear. The condition is $\\int \\Dl U f(U) dy dz = 0$ for any function $f$ satisfying certain boundary condition. Similar conditions are also derived for plane Poiseuille flow and pipe Poiseuille flow, which correspond to similar limit shears as revealed in \\cite{Wal03} \\cite{Vis08}.
Quasi-3D navier-stokes model for rotating airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen Zhong Shen; Noerkaer Soerensen, J.
1999-02-01
A quasi-3D model of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in a rotating frame of reference has been developed. The equations governing the flow past a rotating blade are approximated using an order of magnitude analysis on the spanwise derivatives. The model takes into account rotational effects and spanwise outflow at computing expenses in the order of what is typical for similar 2D calculations. Results are presented for both laminar and turbulent flows past blades in pure rotation. In the turbulent case the influence of small-scale turbulence is modelled by the one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model. The computations demonstrate that the main influence of rotation is to increase the maximum lift. (au) 18 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Y.; Shiojima, T. [Idemitsu Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Daiguji, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-09-25
A numerical method for analyzing the 3-D unsteady incompressible viscous flow with complicated boundaries or irregular shaped grids is proposed. In this method, the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in terms of the primitive variables are solved using a time-splitting method and the convective-difference scheme which is stabilized by means of the TVD conception. Poisson`s equation for pressure is integrated using Gaussian Integration in order to remove the spurious errors, and solved by the iteration scheme. For irregular grids the finite-difference operators derived by the least squares polynomial approximation are used. As a numerical example, a complex recirculating flow in a three-dimensional cavity was calculated. 24 refs., 8 figs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Piotr Lampart; Andrzej Gardzilewicz; Sergey Yershov; Andrey Rusanov
2001-01-01
The effect of interaction of the main flow with root and tip leakage flows on the performance of an high pressure (HP) stage of an impulse turbine is studied numerically. The flow in blade-to-blade channels and axial gaps is computed with the aid of a 3D Navier-Stokes solver FlowER. The numerical scheme is modified to include the some/sink-type boundary conditions in places at the endwalls referring to design locations of injection of leakage and windage flows into, or extract from, the blade-to-blade passage. The turbine stage is computed in three configurations. First, computations are made without tip leakage and windage flows with source/sink slots closed.Second, tip leakage slots are open. Third, both tip leakage and windage flow slots are open, and the obtained flow characteristics including kinetic energy losses in the stage are compared so as to estimate the interaction of the main and leakage flows.
3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization
Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van
2003-01-01
We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes
The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...
On the Statistical Properties of the 3D Incompressible Navier-Stokes-Voigt Model
Levant, Boris; Titi, Edriss S
2009-01-01
The Navier-Stokes-Voigt (NSV) model of viscoelastic incompressible fluid has been recently proposed as a regularization of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for the purpose of direct numerical simulations. In this work we investigate its statistical properties by employing phenomenological heuristic arguments, in combination with Sabra shell model simulations of the analogue of the NSV model. For large values of the regularizing parameter, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale, simulations exhibit multiscaling inertial range, and the dissipation range displaying low intermittency. These facts provide evidence that the NSV regularization may reduce the stiffness of direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, with a small impact on the energy containing scales.
Popov, I. Yu.; Lobanov, I. S.; POPOV S.I.; Popov, A. I.; Gerya, T. V.
2014-01-01
Geodynamic modeling is often related with challenging computations involving solution of the Stokes and continuity equations under the condition of highly variable viscosity. Based on a new analytical approach we have developed particular analytical solutions for 2-D and 3-D incompressible Stokes flows with both linearly and exponentially variable viscosity. We demonstrate how these particular solutions can be converted into 2-D and 3-D test problems suitable for...
3-D Navier-Stokes analysis of crossing, glancing shocks/turbulent boundary layer interactions
Reddy, D. R.
1991-01-01
Three dimensional viscous flow analysis is performed for a configuration where two crossing and glancing shocks interact with a turbulent boundary layer. A time marching 3-D full Navier-Stokes code, called PARC3D, is used to compute the flow field, and the solution is compared to the experimental data obtained at the NASA Lewis Research Center's 1 x 1 ft supersonic wind tunnel facility. The study is carried out as part of the continuing code assessment program in support of the generic hypersonic research at NASA Lewis. Detailed comparisons of static pressure fields and oil flow patterns are made with the corresponding solution on the wall containing the shock/boundary layer interaction in an effort to validate the code for hypersonic inlet applications.
The 3-D Navier-Stokes analysis of crossing, glancing shocks/turbulent boundary layer interactions
Reddy, D. R.
1991-01-01
Three dimensional viscous flow analysis is performed for a configuration where two crossing and glancing shocks interact with a turbulent boundary layer. A time marching 3-D full Navier-Stokes code, called PARC3D, is used to compute the flow field, and the solution is compared to the experimental data obtained at the NASA Lewis Research Center's 1 x 1 ft supersonic wind tunnel facility. The study is carried out as part of the continuing code assessment program in support of the generic hypersonic research at NASA Lewis. Detailed comparisons of static pressure fields and oil flow patterns are made with the corresponding solution on the wall containing the shock/boundary layer interaction in an effort to validate the code for hypersonic inlet applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henandez Rosete, Alejandro; Mazur C, Zdzislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2007-11-15
The results of the simulation by CFD (Computacional Fluid Dynamics) realized to the first stage of a gas turbine GE Frame 7 are presented. The analysis includes the 3D modeling of the flow channel in the nozzle and the movable blade to know the velocities distributions, temperatures and pressures of the main hot gas flow that are developed in the Inter stage. The results are influenced by the imposed border conditions in the properties of the main flow, the rotation of the movable blade, as well as the simulation of cooling air injection in the nozzle. The present study focuses in the validation of the model of the meshes of the ensemble nozzle-blade, for later realize an analysis of conjugated heat transfer in a model with ceramic lining type heat barrier (THB) in the movable blade. The analysis is realized in a CFD commercial code oriented to turbo-machinery using the equations of unstable flows 3D of Navier Stokes. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de la simulacion por CFD (Computacional Fluid Dynamics) realizada a la primera etapa de una turbina de gas GE Frame 7. El analisis incluye la modelacion tridimensional del canal de flujo en la tobera y el alabe movil para conocer las distribuciones de las velocidades, temperaturas y presiones del flujo principal de gases calientes que se desarrollan en la inter etapa. Los resultados son influenciados por las condiciones de frontera impuestos en las propiedades del flujo principal, la rotacion del alabe movil, asi como la simulacion de inyeccion de aire de enfriamiento en la tobera. El presente estudio se enfoca en la validacion del modelo de la malla del conjunto tobera-alabe, para posteriormente realizar un analisis de transferencia de calor conjugada en un modelo con recubrimiento ceramico tipo barrera termica (TBC) en el alabe movil. El analisis es realizado en un codigo de CFD comercial orientado a turbomaquinaria utilizando las ecuaciones de flujos inestables 3D de Navier Stokes.
On a particular solution to the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for liquids with cavitation
Rabinowitch, Alexander S.
2016-08-01
The 3D Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous liquids are examined. In the axially symmetric case, they are represented in the form of three nonlinear partial differential equations. These equations are studied and their particular solution is found. In it, the velocity components are sinusoidal in the direction of their axis of symmetry. As to the pressure, it can reach a sufficiently small value at which the phenomenon of cavitation takes place in a liquid. The found solution describes some flows of viscous liquids outside vapor-filled regions in them.
SOLUTION OF 3-D TURBULENCE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS USING HYBRID GRIDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Hybrid grids are used for the solution of 3D turbulence Navier-Stokes equations. The prismatic grids are generated near the wall, and the tetrahedron grids are generated in the other field. A Navier-Stokes solver using ic Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model is adopted. The numerical tests show that the above method is very efficient.``
Study of Tip-loss Using an Inverse 3D Navier-Stokes Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Robert; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong;
2003-01-01
the 3D Navier-Stokes equations combined with the actuator line technique where blade loading is applied using an inverse method. The numerical simulations shows that the method captures the tip-correction when comparing with the theories of Prandtl and Goldstein, however, the accuracy of the obtained...... results reveal that further refinements still is needed. Keywords: Tip-loss; Actuator line; 3D Navier-Stokes methods....
Turbine Internal and Film Cooling Modeling For 3D Navier-Stokes Codes
DeWitt, Kenneth; Garg Vijay; Ameri, Ali
2005-01-01
The aim of this research project is to make use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities in order to develop, validate and apply aerodynamic, heat transfer, and turbine cooling models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as the Glenn-" code. Specific areas of effort include: Application of the Glenn-HT code to specific configurations made available under Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC), and Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) projects. Validating the use of a multi-block code for the time accurate computation of the detailed flow and heat transfer of cooled turbine airfoils. The goal of the current research is to improve the predictive ability of the Glenn-HT code. This will enable one to design more efficient turbine components for both aviation and power generation. The models will be tested against specific configurations provided by NASA Glenn.
A least-squares finite element method for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Hou, Lin-Jun; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations, and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system. An additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. The flow in a half of 3D cubic cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 52 x 25 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Gortler-like vortices are observed at Re = 1,000.
Exact Solutions on Twisted Rings for the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
Funaro, Daniele
2011-01-01
The problem of describing the behavior of the solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in three space dimensions has always been borderline. From one side, due to the viscosity term, smooth data seem to produce solutions with an everlasting regular behavior. On the other hand, the lack of a convincing theoretical analysis suggests the existence of possible counterexamples. In particular, one cannot exclude the blowing up of solutions in finite time even in presence of smooth data. Here we give examples of explicit solutions of the non-homogeneous equations. These are defined on a Hill's type vortex where the flow is rotating and swirling at the same time, inducing the flux to spiraling at a central node. Despite the appearance, the solution still remains very regular at the agglomeration point. The analysis may lead to a better understanding of the subtle problem of characterizing the solution space of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. For instance, this result makes more narrow the path to the search of counte...
Global Attractors and Determining Modes for the 3D Navier-Stokes-Voight Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Varga K.KALANTAROV; Edriss S.TITI
2009-01-01
The authors investigate the long-term dynamics of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes-Voight model of viscoelastic incompressible fluid. Specifically, upper bounds for the number of determining modes are derived for the 3D Navier-Stokes-Voight equations and for the dimension of a global attractor of a semigroup generated by these equations. Viewed from the numerical analysis point of view the authors consider the Navier-Stokes-Voight model as a non-viscous (inviscid) regulaxization of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, it is also shown that the weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes-Voight equations converge, in the appropriate norm, to the weak solutions of the inviscid simplified Bardina model, as the viscosity coefficient ν→ 0.
Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes
DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali
2005-01-01
This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.
Regularity of transition semigroups associated to a 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equation
Flandoli, F.; Romito, M.
2006-01-01
A 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with a suitable non degenerate additive noise is considered. The regularity in the initial conditions of every Markov transition kernel associated to the equation is studied by a simple direct approach. A by-product of the technique is the equivalence of all transition probabilities associated to every Markov transition kernel.
Navier-Stokes Neutral and Plasma Fluid Modelling in 3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riemann, J; Borchardt, M; Schneider, R; Mutzke, A; Rognlien, T; Umansky, M
2004-05-17
The 3D finite volume transport code BoRiS is applied to a system of coupled plasma and neutral fluid equations in a slab. Demonstrating easy implementation of new equations, a new parallel BoRiS version is tested on three different models for the neutral fluid - diffusive, parallel Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes - and the results are compared to each other. Typical effects like density enhancement by ionization of recycled neutrals in front of a target plate can be seen and differences are linked to the neutral models in use.
Direct numerical simulation of 3D transitional fluid flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: For the numerical simulation of the 2D-3D transitional homogeneous and stratified incompressible viscous fluid flows, characterizing by the full Navier-Stokes equations, the splitting on physical factors method is used. The explicit hybrid finite difference scheme of the method has the following behaviors: the second order of accuracy in space, minimum scheme viscosity and dispersion, workable in wide range of Reynolds and Froude numbers and monotonicity. The efficiency of the developed numerical method and the advanced performance of the supercomputers allowed simulating 2D-3D transitional uncompressible viscous fluid flows around the bluff bodies in particular around a cylinder. By the numerical simulation of the fluid flows around 3D circular cylinder it was found that the transition to 3D regime arrives at Re>200. At 200< Re<300 the mode A with wavelength 3.5 d<λ<4.0 d (where d is the diameter of the cylinder) for 3D structures along the axis of a cylinder was observed. At 300< Re<400 the mode B with wavelength 0.8 d<λ<0.9 d was observed. At Re=300 the both modes A and B were observed simultaneously. The regime with large dislocations previously discovered experimentally was first obtained numerically at 210< Re<260. This regime is characterized by flow phase dislocation along the axis of the cylinder and as the effect by the amplitude fall of the lift force coefficient and the variations in the drag coefficient. There was simulated numerically the initiation of the attached internal waves behind the circular cylinder and upstream disturbance area at low Froude and moderate Reynolds numbers. (author)
Numerical stability of coupling schemes in the 3d/0d modelling ofairflows and blood flows
Fouchet-Incaux, Justine; Grandmont, Céline; Martin, Sebastien
2014-01-01
We consider models which are classically used in the simulation of airflows and blood flows andinvestigate the numerical stability of some discretization strategies. The geometrical complexity of the networksin which air/blood flows leads to a classical decomposition of two areas: a truncated 3D geometry correspondingto the largest contribution of the domain and a 0D part connected to the 3D part, modelling air/blood flowsin smaller airways/vessels. The resulting Navier-Stokes system in the 3...
3-D Viscous Flow Analysis of an Axial Flow Pump Impeller
Steven M. Miner
1997-01-01
A commercial CFD code is used to compute the flow field within the first stage impeller of a two stage axial flow pump. The code solves the 3-D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations in a rotating cylindrical coordinate system using a standard k−ε turbulence model. Stage design parameters are, rotational speed 870 rpm, flow coefficient φ=0.12, head coefficient ψ=0.06, and specific speed 2.86 (8070 US). Results from the study include relative and absolute velocities, flow angles, and static...
A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice
Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.
XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.
Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp
2013-01-01
Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080
3-D numerical modelling of flow around a groin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miller, R.; Roulund, A.; Sumer, B. Mutlu;
2003-01-01
A 3-D flow code, EllipSys3D, has been implemented to simulate the 3-D flow around a groin in steady current. The k turbulence model has been used for closure. Two kinds of groins are considered: (1) A vertical-wall groin, and (2) A groin with a side slope. Steady-flow simulations were conducted...
Invariant measures for the 3D Navier-Stokes-Voigt equations and their Navier-Stokes limit
Ramos, Fabio
2009-01-01
The Navier-Stokes-Voigt model of viscoelastic incompressible fluid has been recently proposed as a regularization of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the purpose of direct numerical simulations. Besides the kinematic viscosity parameter, $\
3-D Viscous Flow Analysis of a Mixed Flow Pump Impeller
Steven M. Miner
2001-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study using a coarse grid to analyze the flow in the impeller of a mixed flow pump. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code (FLOTRAN) is used to solve the 3-D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations in a rotating cylindrical coordinate system. The standard k-ε turbulence model is used. The mesh for this study uses 26,000 nodes and the model is run on a SPARCstation 20. This is in contrast to typical analyses using in excess of 100,000 nodes that a...
Recent advances in Runge-Kutta schemes for solving 3-D Navier-Stokes equations
Vatsa, Veer N.; Wedan, Bruce W.; Abid, Ridha
1989-01-01
A thin-layer Navier-Stokes has been developed for solving high Reynolds number, turbulent flows past aircraft components under transonic flow conditions. The computer code has been validated through data comparisons for flow past isolated wings, wing-body configurations, prolate spheroids and wings mounted inside wind-tunnels. The basic code employs an explicit Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme to obtain steady state solution to the unsteady governing equations. Significant gain in the efficiency of the code has been obtained by implementing a multigrid acceleration technique to achieve steady-state solutions. The improved efficiency of the code has made it feasible to conduct grid-refinement and turbulence model studies in a reasonable amount of computer time. The non-equilibrium turbulence model of Johnson and King has been extended to three-dimensional flows and excellent agreement with pressure data has been obtained for transonic separated flow over a transport type of wing.
Anisotropic Regularity Conditions for the Suitable Weak Solutions to the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
Wang, Yanqing; Wu, Gang
2016-07-01
We are concerned with the problem, originated from Seregin (159-200, 2007), Seregin (J. Math. Sci. 143: 2961-2968, 2007), Seregin (Russ. Math. Surv. 62:149-168, 2007), what are minimal sufficiently conditions for the regularity of suitable weak solutions to the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. We prove some interior regularity criteria, in terms of either one component of the velocity with sufficiently small local scaled norm and the rest part with bounded local scaled norm, or horizontal part of the vorticity with sufficiently small local scaled norm and the vertical part with bounded local scaled norm. It is also shown that only the smallness on the local scaled L 2 norm of horizontal gradient without any other condition on the vertical gradient can still ensure the regularity of suitable weak solutions. All these conclusions improve pervious results on the local scaled norm type regularity conditions.
Simulations of soluble surfactants in 3D multiphase flow
Muradoglu, Metin; Tryggvason, Gretar
2014-10-01
A finite-difference/front-tracking method is developed for simulations of soluble surfactants in 3D multiphase flows. The interfacial and bulk surfactant concentration evolution equations are solved fully coupled with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A non-linear equation of state is used to relate interfacial surface tension to surfactant concentration at the interface. Simple test cases are designed to validate different parts of the numerical algorithm and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with the analytical solutions. The numerical algorithm is parallelized using a domain-decomposition method. It is then applied to study the effects of soluble surfactants on the motion of buoyancy-driven bubbles in a straight square channel in nearly undeformable (spherical) and deformable (ellipsoidal) regimes. Finally the method is used to examine the effects of soluble surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles in a pressure-driven channel flow. It is found that surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses counteract the shear-induced lift force and can reverse the lateral bubble migration completely, i.e., the contaminated bubble drifts away from the channel wall and stabilizes at the center of the channel when the surfactant-induced Marangoni stresses are sufficiently large.
3D Flow reconstruction using ultrasound PIV
Poelma, C.; Mari, J. M.; Foin, N.; Tang, M.-X.; Krams, R; Caro, C.G.; Weinberg, P.D.; Westerweel, J.
2009-01-01
Ultrasound particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be used to obtain velocity fields in non-transparent geometries and/or fluids. In the current study, we use this technique to document the flow in a curved tube, using ultrasound contrast bubbles as flow tracer particles. The performance of the technique is first tested in a straight tube, with both steady laminar and pulsatile flows. Both experiments confirm that the technique is capable of reliable measurements. A number of adaptations are int...
3D Flow reconstruction using ultrasound PIV
Poelma, C.; Mari, J.M.; Foin, N.; Tang, M.-X.; Krams, R.; Caro, C.G.; Weinberg, P.D.; Westerweel, J.
2009-01-01
Ultrasound particle image velocimetry (PIV) can be used to obtain velocity fields in non-transparent geometries and/or fluids. In the current study, we use this technique to document the flow in a curved tube, using ultrasound contrast bubbles as flow tracer particles. The performance of the techniq
Anomalous dissipation and energy cascade in 3D inviscid flows
Dascaliuc, Radu
2011-01-01
Adopting the setting for the study of existence and scale locality of the energy cascade in 3D viscous flows in physical space introduced in [arXiv:1101.2193] to 3D inviscid flows, it is shown that the anomalous dissipation is indeed capable of triggering the cascade which then continues ad infinitum, confirming Onsager's predictions.
The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)
1996-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)
Regimes of nonlinear depletion and regularity in the 3D Navier–Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The periodic 3D Navier–Stokes equations are analyzed in terms of dimensionless, scaled, L2m-norms of vorticity Dm (1 ⩽ m < ∞). The first in this hierarchy, D1, is the global enstrophy. Three regimes naturally occur in the D1 − Dm plane. Solutions in the first regime, which lie between two concave curves, are shown to be regular, owing to strong nonlinear depletion. Moreover, numerical experiments have suggested, so far, that all dynamics lie in this heavily depleted regime [1]; new numerical evidence for this is presented. Estimates for the dimension of a global attractor and a corresponding inertial range are given for this regime. However, two more regimes can theoretically exist. In the second, which lies between the upper concave curve and a line, the depletion is insufficient to regularize solutions, so no more than Leray's weak solutions exist. In the third, which lies above this line, solutions are regular, but correspond to extreme initial conditions. The paper ends with a discussion on the possibility of transition between these regimes. (paper)
Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC
Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester
1998-01-01
Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.
Analysis of wall shear stress around a competitive swimmer using 3D Navier-Stokes equations in CFD.
Popa, C V; Zaidi, H; Arfaoui, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Fohanno, S
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the flow dynamics around a competitive swimmer during underwater glide phases occurring at the start and at every turn. The influence of the head position, namely lifted up, aligned and lowered, on the wall shear stress and the static pressure distributions is analyzed. The problem is considered as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. Three velocities (1.4 m/s, 2.2 m/s and 3.1 m/s) that correspond to inter-regional, national and international swimming levels are studied. The flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with the standard k-ω turbulent model by using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical method based on a volume control approach. Numerical simulations are carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT® CFD code. The results show that the wall shear stress increases with the velocity and consequently the drag force opposing the movement of the swimmer increases as well. Also, high wall shear stresses are observed in the areas where the body shape, globally rigid in form, presents complex surface geometries such as the head, shoulders, buttocks, heel and chest.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Zhi-guo; Mao Gen-hai; Yuan Xing-ming
2003-01-01
The 3-D turbulent flows in a valve pipe were described by the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with an RNG k-ε turbulence model. With the finite volume method and a body-fitted coordinate system, the discretised equations were solved by the SIMPLEST algorithm. The numerical result of a cut-off valve with curved inlet shows the flow characteristics and the main cause of energy loss when fluid flows through a valve. And then, the boundaries of valve were modified in order to reduce the energy loss. The computational results of modified valve show that the numerical value of turbulent kinetic energy is lower, and that the modified design of the 3-D valve boundaries is much better. The analysis of the result also shows that RNG k-ε turbulence model can successfully be used to predict the 3-D turbulent separated flows and the secondary flow inside valve pipes.
Parallel Processor for 3D Recovery from Optical Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano
2009-01-01
Full Text Available 3D recovery from motion has received a major effort in computer vision systems in the recent years. The main problem lies in the number of operations and memory accesses to be performed by the majority of the existing techniques when translated to hardware or software implementations. This paper proposes a parallel processor for 3D recovery from optical flow. Its main feature is the maximum reuse of data and the low number of clock cycles to calculate the optical flow, along with the precision with which 3D recovery is achieved. The results of the proposed architecture as well as those from processor synthesis are presented.
Preliminary examples of 3D vector flow imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev;
2013-01-01
ultrasound scanner SARUS on a flow rig system with steady flow. The vessel of the flow-rig is centered at a depth of 30 mm, and the flow has an expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic prole with a peak velocity of 1 m/s. Ten frames of 3D vector flow images are acquired in a cross-sectional plane orthogonal......This paper presents 3D vector flow images obtained using the 3D Transverse Oscillation (TO) method. The method employs a 2D transducer and estimates the three velocity components simultaneously, which is important for visualizing complex flow patterns. Data are acquired using the experimental...... to the velocity magnitude this yields standard deviations of (9.1, 6.4, 0.88) %, respectively. Volumetric flow rates were estimated for all ten frames yielding 57.92.0 mL/s in comparison with 56.2 mL/s measured by a commercial magnetic flow meter. One frame of the obtained 3D vector flow data is presented...
Effect of vorticity coherence on energy-enstrophy bounds for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations
Dascaliuc, Radu; Jolly, Michael S
2015-01-01
Bounding curves in the energy,enstrophy-plane are derived for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations under an assumption on coherence of the vorticity direction. The analysis in the critical case where the direction is H\\"older continuous with exponent $r=1/2$ results in a curve with extraordinarily large maximal enstrophy (exponential in Grashof), in marked contrast to the subcritical case, $r>1/2$ (algebraic in Grashof).
Numerical analysis of 3-D potential flow in centrifugal turbomachines
Daiguji, H.
1983-09-01
A numerical method is developed for analysing a three-dimensional steady incompressible potential flow through an impeller in centrifugal turbomachines. The method is the same as the previous method which was developed for the axial flow turbomachines, except for some treatments in the downstream region. In order to clarify the validity and limitation of the method, a comparison with the existing experimental data and numerical results is made for radial flow compressor impellers. The calculated blade surface pressure distributions almost coincide with the quasi-3-D calculation by Krimerman and Adler (1978), but are different partly from the quasi-3-D calculation using one meridional flow analysis. It is suggested from this comparison that the flow through an impeller with high efficiency near the design point can be predicted by this fully 3-D numerical method.
On the Coupling of Incompressible Stokes or Navier–Stokes and Darcy Flows Through Porous Media
Girault, V.
2012-11-03
In this chapter, we present the theoretical analysis of coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes (or Stokes) flows and Darcy flows with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. We discuss alternative interface and porous media models. We review some finite element methods used by several authors in this coupling and present numerical experiments.
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
Calculations of High-Temperature Jet Flow Using Hybrid Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes Formulations
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Giriamaji, Sharath S.
2008-01-01
Two multiscale-type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations. The first scheme is a hybrid Reynolds-averaged- Navier Stokes/large-eddy-simulation model using the two-equation k(epsilon) model with a Reynolds-averaged-Navier Stokes/large-eddy-simulation transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier Stokes model in which the unresolved kinetic energy parameter f(sub k) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. This parameter is estimated based on a novel two-stage procedure to efficiently estimate the level of scale resolution possible for a given flow on a given grid for partially averaged Navier Stokes. It has been found that the prescribed scale resolution can play a major role in obtaining accurate flow solutions. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and is equal to one in the viscous sublayer and when the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the large-eddy-simulation viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate turbulence modeling capabilities. The accurate simulations of flow and turbulent quantities will provide a valuable tool for accurate jet noise predictions. Solutions from these models are compared with Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes results and experimental data for high-temperature jet flows. The current results show promise for the capability of hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes and large eddy simulation and partially averaged Navier Stokes in simulating such flow phenomena.
Large Time Behavior for Weak Solutions of the 3D Globally Modified Navier-Stokes Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junbai Ren
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the large time behavior of the weak solutions for three-dimensional globally modified Navier-Stokes equations. With the aid of energy methods and auxiliary decay estimates together with Lp-Lq estimates of heat semigroup, we derive the optimal upper and lower decay estimates of the weak solutions for the globally modified Navier-Stokes equations as C1(1+t-3/4≤uL2≤C2(1+t-3/4, t>1. The decay rate is optimal since it coincides with that of heat equation.
ON THE REGULARITY CRITERIA OF THE 3D NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS IN CRITICAL SPACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Boqing; Sadek Gala; Chen Zhimin
2011-01-01
Regularity criteria of Leray-Hopf weak solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in some critical spaces such as Lorentz space, Morrey space and multiplier space are derived in terms of two partial derivatives, 1u1, 2u2, of velocity fields.
3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.
Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T
2016-08-01
The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively. PMID:27377354
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaviaropoulos, P.K. [CRES-Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi Attiki (Greece)
1997-08-01
The blade element codes provide surprisingly accurate predictions of the aerodynamic loads provided that they are `fed` with proper lift and drag - incidence curves for the profiles mounted on the rotor blades. The evident question is how one can obtain such data. It is common experience that the use of the mostly available steady two-dimensional profile data may lead to serious discrepancies between measured and simulated loads. Although several correction techniques have been proposed as a remedy during the last years, from simplified dynamic stall models suitably tuned for wind turbines to 3-D correction schemes for profile data, the problem is by no means over-passed. Especially for the three-dimensional effects it seems that part of the difficulty is due to our limited understanding of the physical mechanism which is responsible for the extra loading of the inner part of the blades. Recognizing the importance of the above aspects two relevant Joule projects have been launched, the concluded `Dynamic Stall and 3-D Effects` JOU2-CT93-0345 and the ongoing `VISCWIND` JOR3-CT95-0007 project. Part of the activities in the first and all the activities in the second project are devoted to the identification and quantification of the dynamic stall and three-dimensional effects experienced by the wind turbine blades using Navier-Stokes computations. The contribution of CRES in these two projects is briefly presented in this paper. (EG)
Vertical Flow Lithography for Fabrication of 3D Anisotropic Particles.
Habasaki, Shohei; Lee, Won Chul; Yoshida, Shotaro; Takeuchi, Shoji
2015-12-22
A microfluidics-based method for the 3D fabrication of anisotropic particles is reported. The method uses a vertical microchannel where tunable light patterns solidify photocurable resins for stacking multiple layers of the resins, thus enabling an application of stereolithography concepts to conventional flow lithography. Multilayered, tapered, and angular compartmental microparticles are demonstrated. PMID:26551590
The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet
Fung, Jeffrey; Wu, Yanqin
2015-01-01
Understanding the 3D flow topology around a planet embedded in its natal disk is crucial to the study of planet formation. 3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology have the potential to resolve longstanding problems in both planet migration and accretion. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our high-resolution multi-GPU hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We show that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends and converges rapidly toward the planet, enters its Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow gathers enough speed to exit the horseshoe region altogether. We call this newly identified feature the "transient" horseshoe flow. As the flow conti...
An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization
Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.
1995-01-01
Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.
Formation of coherent structures in 3D laminar mixing flows
Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman
2009-11-01
Mixing under laminar flow conditions is key to a wide variety of industrial systems of size extending from microns to meters. Examples range from the traditional (and still very relevant) mixing of viscous fluids via compact processing equipment down to emerging micro-fluidics applications. Profound insight into laminar mixing mechanisms is imperative for further advancement of mixing technology (particularly for complex micro-fluidics systems) yet remains limited to date. The present study concentrates on a fundamental transport phenomenon of potential relevance to laminar mixing: the formation of coherent structures in the web of 3D fluid trajectories due to fluid inertia. Such coherent structures geometrically determine the transport properties of the flow and better understanding of their formation and characteristics may offer ways to control and manipulate the mixing properties of laminar flows. The formation of coherent structures and its impact upon 3D transport properties is demonstrated by way of examples.
The 3D Flow Field Around an Embedded Planet
Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel; Wu, Yanqin
2015-10-01
3D modifications to the well-studied 2D flow topology around an embedded planet have the potential to resolve long-standing problems in planet formation theory. We present a detailed analysis of the 3D isothermal flow field around a 5 Earth-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, simulated using our graphics processing unit hydrodynamics code PEnGUIn. We find that, overall, the horseshoe region has a columnar structure extending vertically much beyond the Hill sphere of the planet. This columnar structure is only broken for some of the widest horseshoe streamlines, along which high altitude fluid descends rapidly into the planet’s Bondi sphere, performs one horseshoe turn, and exits the Bondi sphere radially in the midplane. A portion of this flow exits the horseshoe region altogether, which we refer to as the “transient” horseshoe flow. The flow continues as it rolls up into a pair of up-down symmetric horizontal vortex lines shed into the wake of the planet. This flow, unique to 3D, affects both planet accretion and migration. It prevents the planet from sustaining a hydrostatic atmosphere due to its intrusion into the Bondi sphere, and leads to a significant corotation torque on the planet, unanticipated by 2D analysis. In the reported simulation, starting with a {{Σ }}˜ {r}-3/2 radial surface density profile, this torque is positive and partially cancels with the negative differential Lindblad torque, resulting in a factor of three slower planet migration rate. Finally, we report 3D effects can be suppressed by a sufficiently large disk viscosity, leading to results similar to 2D.
3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise
Romander, Ethan
2006-01-01
The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.
On the physics of shear flows in 3D geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent experiments have shown the importance of multi-scale (long-range) mechanisms in the transition to improved confinement regimes and the key role of electric fields to amplify them. Flows driven by turbulence might explain such experimental observation, which would imply to consider the importance of 3-D effects on the energy transfer between flows and turbulence. Comparative studies in different magnetic configurations (tokamaks vs stellarators), diagnostic development and large-scale simulation are needed to assess the importance of multi-scale physics in the development of sheared flows. (author)
Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D for neutral atmospheric flow over complex terrain
Cavar, Dalibor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Martinez, Benjamin, Jr; Zahle, Frederik; Berg, Jacob; Kelly, Mark C.
2016-01-01
The flow solvers OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D are compared in the case of neutral atmospheric flow over terrain using the test cases of Askervein and Bolund hills. Both solvers are run using the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes k– turbulence model. One of the main modeling differences between the two solvers is the wall-function approach. The Open-FOAM v.1.7.1 uses a Nikuradse’s sand roughness model, while EllipSys3D uses a model based on the atmosphericroughness length. It is found th...
Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows
Was, Loic
2014-01-01
Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds number, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propul...
Numerical Investigation of 3D Flow Around Two Tandem Cylinders
Kalvig, Ragnhild Birgitte Hidle
2015-01-01
Circular cylinders in tandem arrangement are used in many marine applications like dual pipelines and dual risers. Turbulent flow in 3D around two tandem cylinders is simulated numerically using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter of 1 meter and free stream velocity of $U=1.31$ m/s is 13100, which is in the subcritical flow regime. The center-to-center spacing between the cylinders is $S/D=5$. The software used...
A Computational Model for Suspended Large Rigid Bodies in 3D Unsteady Viscous Flows
Xiao, Feng
1999-11-01
A 3D numerical model for computing large rigid objects suspended in fluid flow has been developed. Rather than calculating the surface pressure upon the solid body, we evaluate the net force and torque based on a volume force formulation. The total effective force is obtained by summing up the forces at the Eulerian grids occupied by the rigid body. The effects of the moving bodies are coupled to the fluid flow by imposing the velocity field of the bodies to the fluid. A Poisson equation is used to compute the pressure over the whole domain. The objects are identified by color functions and calculated by the PPM scheme and a tangent function transformation which scales the transition region of the computed interface to a compact thickness. The model is then implemented on a parallel computer of distributed memory and validated with Stokes and low Reynolds number flows.
STOKES FLOW DUE TO FUNDAMENTAL SINGULARITIES BEFORE A PLANE BOUNDARY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N.Aktar; F. Rahman; S.K. Sen
2004-01-01
A representation for the velocity and pressure fields in three-dimensional Stokes flow was presented in terms of a biharmonic function A and a harmonic function B. This representation was used to establish a general theorem for the calculation of Stokes flow due to fundamental singularities in a region bounded by a stationary no-slip plane boundary.Collins' s theorem for axisymmetric Stokes flow before a rigid plane follows as a special case of the theorem. A few illustrative examples are given to show its usefulness.
Mesh Resolution Effect on 3D RANS Turbomachinery Flow Simulations
Yershov, Sergiy
2016-01-01
The paper presents the study of the effect of a mesh refinement on numerical results of 3D RANS computations of turbomachinery flows. The CFD solver F, which based on the second-order accurate ENO scheme, is used in this study. The simplified multigrid algorithm and local time stepping permit decreasing computational time. The flow computations are performed for a number of turbine and compressor cascades and stages. In all flow cases, the successively refined meshes of H-type with an approximate orthogonalization near the solid walls were generated. The results obtained are compared in order to estimate their both mesh convergence and ability to resolve the transonic flow pattern. It is concluded that for thorough studying the fine phenomena of the 3D turbomachinery flows, it makes sense to use the computational meshes with the number of cells from several millions up to several hundred millions per a single turbomachinery blade channel, while for industrial computations, a mesh of about or less than one mil...
Challenges in Lagrangian transport and predictability in 3D flows
Branicki, M.; Wiggins, S.; Kirwan, A. D.; Malek-Madani, R.
2011-12-01
The interplay between the geometrical theory of dynamical systems and the trajectory-based description of aperiodically time-dependent fluid flows has led to significant advances in understanding the role of chaotic transport in geophysical flows at scales dominated by advection. Lagrangian transport analysis utilizing either the time-dependent geometry of intersecting stable and unstable manifolds of the so-called Distinguished Hyperbolic Trajectories (DHT), or ridges of finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields (LCS), provide a much needed and complementary insight into ephemeral mechanisms responsible for the existence of `leaky' transport barriers and 'leaky' mesoscale eddies. However, to date most oceanic applications have been confined to 2D analysis of near surface regions in 'perfect' flows not accounting for model or measurement error, and with the tacit assumption of negligible vertical velocities. I will systematically address issues concerning the regimes of applicability of two-dimensional analysis in 3D aperiodically time-dependent flows, as well as outstanding challenges in fully 3D Lagrangian transport analysis. Even for perfect horizontal velocities, little is known about the vertical extent of stable/unstable manifolds associated with DHTs and/or other special structures relevant to stratified 3D flows. In particular, their sensitivity to errors in the vertical velocities and data assimilation methods has been little studied. Rigorous results regarding the above issues will be illustrated by revealing and mathematically tractable toy models, as well as examples from a detailed study in an eddy-rich region from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean. New ways of quantifying the uncertainty in Lagrangian predictions will also be presented.
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF FLOW LOSS IN HELICAL CHANNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ling-zhi; PENG Yan; LU Fang; LI Jian; LI Ran; LIU Bao-lin
2012-01-01
The flow loss of a helical channel Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thruster without MHD effect was numerically studied with 3-D simulations,and a flow loss coefficient ξ was defined to quantify the flow loss and its influencing factors were studied.The results show that ξ decreases in a first-order exponential manner with the pitch of a helical wall and the Reynolds number,and it declines slowly when t / T ＞ 0.2 and Re ＞ 105,a flow guide makes the flow more smooth and uniform,especially in the flow guide and helical wall sub-regions and thus reduces the flow loss greatly,by about 30％ with the averaged value of ξ from 0.0385to 0.027,a rectifier weakens the helical flow and strengthens the axial one in the rectifier and outlet sub-regions,thus reduces the rotational kinetic pressure with the averaged value of ξ declining about 4％ from 0.0385 to 0.037,and ξ decreases with a rectifier's axial length when Re ＞ 105.
Laminar Validation Cases for the Incompressible Flow Model in ALE3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega, J
2002-07-16
To benchmark the incompressible flow model in ALE3D, two test cases are conducted. The first case of two-dimensional flow over a flat plate is selected because it provides a straightforward example to determine whether or not ALE3D can grow a boundary layer by viscous diffusion. The benefit of the flat plate problem is that under certain conditions, the governing Navier-Stokes equations can be simplified and solved with numerical techniques, providing an independent result that can be compared with the solution from ALE3D. The second test case is that of two-dimensional, laminar flow about a circular cylinder. This test case is selected because it provides the complexity of an unsteady bluff-body wake in which vorticity is periodically shed from the surface of the cylinder. Since this canonical flow problem has been studied extensively both experimentally and computationally, the results from ALE3D can be compared with those presented in the literature. The results for the flat plate case demonstrate that the implicit time integration scheme results in an approximate twenty-four-fold reduction of the simulation time over that of the explicit time integration scheme. On the other hand, a problematic trend is observed in the explicit time integration scheme used in the flat plate case. The errors in both the velocity and shear stress are not reduced through grid refinement as one might expect. Another trend that raises concern with the flat plate problem is the sensitivity of the velocity and shear stress to the outlet zero natural boundary condition. In all of the flat plate simulations, at least one of the calculated quantities varies quite noticeably near the outlet of the flow domain. For the case of a circular cylinder in which an explicit time integration scheme is employed, both the drag coefficient and Strouhal number demonstrate trends of converging to a solution that compares favorably with results from other studies in the literature.
A numerical study of the transition to oscillatory flow in 3D lid-driven cubic cavity flows
Chiu, Shang-Huan; He, Jiwen; Guo, Aixia; Glowinski, Roland
2016-01-01
In this article, three dimensional (3D) lid-driven cubic cavity flows have been studied numerically for various values of Reynolds number ($Re$). The numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations modeling incompressible viscous fluid flow in a cubic cavity is obtained via a methodology combining a first order accurate operator-splitting, $L^2$-projection Stokes solver, a wave-like equation treatment of the advection and finite element methods. The numerical results obtained for Re$=$400, 1000, and 3200 show a good agreement with available numerical and experimental results in literature. Simulation results predict that the critical Re$_{cr}$ for the transition from steady flow to oscillatory (a Hopf bifurcation) is somewhere in [1870, 1875] for the mesh size $h=1/96$. Via studying the flow field distortion of fluid flow at Re before and after Re$_{cr}$, the occurrence of the first pair of Taylor-G\\"ortler-like vortices is connected to the flow field distortion at the transition from steady flow to oscilla...
Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel
Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.
2004-01-01
The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2010-01-01
FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.
Slip flow through a converging microchannel: experiments and 3D simulations
Varade, Vijay; Agrawal, Amit; Pradeep, A. M.
2015-02-01
An experimental and 3D numerical study of gaseous slip flow through a converging microchannel is presented in this paper. The measurements reported are with nitrogen gas flowing through the microchannel with convergence angles (4°, 8° and 12°), hydraulic diameters (118, 147 and 177 µm) and lengths (10, 20 and 30 mm). The measurements cover the entire slip flow regime and a part of the continuum and transition regimes (the Knudsen number is between 0.0004 and 0.14); the flow is laminar (the Reynolds number is between 0.5 and 1015). The static pressure drop is measured for various mass flow rates. The overall pressure drop increases with a decrease in the convergence angle and has a relatively large contribution of the viscous component. The numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with Maxwell’s slip boundary condition explore two different flow behaviors: uniform centerline velocity with linear pressure variation in the initial and the middle part of the microchannel and flow acceleration with nonlinear pressure variation in the last part of the microchannel. The centerline velocity and the wall shear stress increase with a decrease in the convergence angle. The concept of a characteristic length scale for a converging microchannel is also explored. The location of the characteristic length is a function of the Knudsen number and approaches the microchannel outlet with rarefaction. These results on gaseous slip flow through converging microchannels are observed to be considerably different than continuum flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the simulation of 3D free surface flows by the two-phase least-squares finite element method (LSFEM). It is believed that this is the first time the LSFEM be extended from a 2D model to a 3D one and applied to investigate the 3D free surface flow phenomena. The dynamic and kinematic boundary conditions of free surface are described in an Eulerian coordinate system. The governing 3D Navier-Stokes equations in association with the color function are solved by the element-by-element scheme. In this simulation, the volume of fluid (VOF) method and continuous stress force (CSF) models are applied for the determination of the interface between the two phases of liquid and gas. The free surface position at each time step is determined by the distribution of the color function. The formation of the 3D model is carefully examined; and the quantitative comparisons of the 3D numerical simulations with experimental measurements and previous 2D numerical results are verified in good agreement. For the partial dam-break flows, it is shown that the two-phase LSFEM can effectively simulate the 3D flows. The unsteady water surface profiles of dam-break flow moving over an obstacle and the liquid drop are also simulated in this study. A 3D two-phase LSFEM has been established and carefully justified by some benchmark free surface flows. The method will be useful for the actual application to the two-phase flows with two immiscible fluids, such as liquid-gas flow, and metallurgic flow.
3D couette flow of dusty fluid with transpiration cooling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GOVINDARAJAN A.; RAMAMURTHY V.; SUNDARAMMAL K.
2007-01-01
The couette dusty flow between two horizontal parallel porous flat plates with transverse sinusoidal injection of the dusty fluid at the stationary plate and its corresponding removal by constant suction through the plate in uniform motion was analyzed. Due to this type of injection velocity the dusty flow becomes 3D. Perturbation method is used to obtain the expressions for the velocity and temperature fields of both the fluid and dust. It was found that the velocity profiles of both the fluid and dust in the main flow direction decrease with the increase of the mass concentration of the dust panicles, and those in cross flow direction increase with an increase in the mass concentration of the dust particles up to the middle of the channel and thereafter decrease with increase in mass concentration of the dust particles. The skin friction components Tx and Tz in the main flow and transverse directions respectively increase with an increase in the mass concentration of the dust particles (or) injection parameter. The heat transfer coefficient decreases with the increase of the injection parameter and increases with the increase in the mass concentration of the dust particles.
Discretizations in isogeometric analysis of Navier-Stokes flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Nørtoft; Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Gravesen, Jens;
2011-01-01
This paper deals with isogeometric analysis of 2-dimensional, steady state, incompressible Navier-Stokes flow subjected to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We present a detailed description of the numerical method used to solve the boundary value problem. Numerical inf-sup stability tests for the s......This paper deals with isogeometric analysis of 2-dimensional, steady state, incompressible Navier-Stokes flow subjected to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We present a detailed description of the numerical method used to solve the boundary value problem. Numerical inf-sup stability tests...... for the simplified Stokes problem confirm the existence of many stable discretizations of the velocity and pressure spaces, and in particular show that stability may be achieved by means of knot refinement of the velocity space. Error convergence studies for the full Navier-Stokes problem show optimal convergence...
Modeling Electric Current Flow in 3D Fractured Media
Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.
2014-12-01
The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for modeling electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity model where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to 3D remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost modeling approach adapted to 3D simulations in fractured media, our model is (i) validated and compared to existing modeling approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on
Multilevel local refinement and multigrid methods for 3-D turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, C.; Liu, C. [UCD, Denver, CO (United States); Sung, C.H.; Huang, T.T. [David Taylor Model Basin, Bethesda, MD (United States)
1996-12-31
A numerical approach based on multigrid, multilevel local refinement, and preconditioning methods for solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is presented. 3-D turbulent flow around an underwater vehicle is computed. 3 multigrid levels and 2 local refinement grid levels are used. The global grid is 24 x 8 x 12. The first patch is 40 x 16 x 20 and the second patch is 72 x 32 x 36. 4th order artificial dissipation are used for numerical stability. The conservative artificial compressibility method are used for further improvement of convergence. To improve the accuracy of coarse/fine grid interface of local refinement, flux interpolation method for refined grid boundary is used. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data. The local refinement can improve the prediction accuracy significantly. The flux interpolation method for local refinement can keep conservation for a composite grid, therefore further modify the prediction accuracy.
An explicit Runge-Kutta method for 3D turbulent incompressible flows
Sung, Chao-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Hung, C. M.
1988-01-01
A computer code has been developed to solve for the steady-state solution of the 3D incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The approach is based on the cell-center, central-difference, finite-volume formulation and an explicit one-step, multistage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model is used. Techniques to accelerate the rate of convergence to a steady-state solution include the preconditioned method, the local time stepping, and the implicit residual smoothing. Improvements in computational efficiency have been demonstrated in several areas. This numerical procedure has been used to simulate the turbulent horseshoe vortex flow around an airfoil/flat-plate juncture.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Puria, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)
2015-12-31
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles
2015-12-01
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.
Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations
Reynolds-stress model prediction of 3-D duct flows
Gerolymos, G A
2014-01-01
The paper examines the impact of different modelling choices in second-moment closures by assessing model performance in predicting 3-D duct flows. The test-cases (developing flow in a square duct [Gessner F.B., Emery A.F.: {\\em ASME J. Fluids Eng.} {\\bf 103} (1981) 445--455], circular-to-rectangular transition-duct [Davis D.O., Gessner F.B.: {\\em AIAA J.} {\\bf 30} (1992) 367--375], and \\tsn{S}-duct with large separation [Wellborn S.R., Reichert B.A., Okiishi T.H.: {\\em J. Prop. Power} {\\bf 10} (1994) 668--675]) include progressively more complex strains. Comparison of experimental data with selected 7-equation models (6 Reynolds-stress-transport and 1 scale-determining equations), which differ in the closure of the velocity/pressure-gradient tensor $\\Pi_{ij}$, suggests that rapid redistribution controls separation and secondary-flow prediction, whereas, inclusion of pressure-diffusion modelling improves reattachment and relaxation behaviour.
Navier-Stokes Flow in Cylindrical Elastic Tubes
Taha Sochi
2015-01-01
Analytical expressions correlating the volumetric flow rate to the inlet and outlet pressures are derived for the time-independent flow of Newtonian fluids in cylindrically-shaped elastic tubes using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model with two pressure-area constitutive relations. These expressions for elastic tubes are the equivalent of Poiseuille and Poiseuille-type expressions for rigid tubes which were previously derived for the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids under var...
Flow of Navier-Stokes Fluids in Cylindrical Elastic Tubes
Sochi, Taha
2013-01-01
Analytical expressions correlating the volumetric flow rate to the inlet and outlet pressures are derived for the time-independent flow of Newtonian fluids in cylindrically-shaped elastic tubes using a one-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow model with two pressure-area constitutive relations. These expressions for elastic tubes are the equivalent of Poiseuille and Poiseuille-type expressions for rigid tubes which were previously derived for the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids under var...
Large-eddy simulation of 3D turbulent flow past a complete marine hydrokinetic turbine
Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
A high-resolution computational framework was recently developed by Kang et al (Adv. Water Resour., submitted) for simulating three-dimensional (3D), turbulent flow past real-life, complete marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine configurations. In this model the complex turbine geometry is resolved by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method, which solves the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear domains with embedded arbitrarily complex, moving and/or stationary immersed boundaries (Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007). Turbulence is simulated using the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach adapted in the context of the CURVIB method, with a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations used to reconstruct boundary conditions near all solid surfaces (Kang et al., 2011). The model can resolve the flow patterns generated by the rotor and all stationary components of the turbine as well as the interactions of the flow structures with the channel bed. We apply this model to carry out LES of the flow past the model-size hydrokinetic turbine deployed in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory main channel. The mean velocities and second-order turbulence statistics measured in the downstream wake using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) are compared with the LES results. The comparisons show that the computed mean velocities and turbulent stresses are in good agreement with the measurements. The high-resolution LES data are used to explore physically important downstream flow characteristics such as the time-averaged wake structure, recovery of cross-sectionally averaged power potential, near-bed scour potential, etc. This work is supported by Verdant Power.
Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.
2016-03-01
Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.
Finite element solution of 3-D turbulent Navier-Stokes equations for propeller-driven slender bodies
Thomas, Russell Hicks
1987-12-01
Three-dimensional turbulent flow over the aft end of a slender propeller driven body with the wake from a slender, planar appendage was calculated for 4 configurations. The finite element method in the form of the weak Galerkin formulation with the penalty method was used to solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The actual code was FIDAP, modified with a propeller body force and turbulence model, used for the solution. The turbulence model included an Inner Layer Integrated TKE model, and Outer Layer mixing length model, and a Planar Wake model. No separate boundary layer method was used for the body, rather modifications to the Integrated TKE model were made to account for the primary effects of the surface boundary layer on the flow. The flow was calculated at two levels of thrust and corresponding swirl, selfpropelled and 100 percent overthrust, as well as with selfpropelled thrust but no torque simulating an ideal rotor stator combination. Also, the selfpropelled case was calculated with a simplified turbulence model using only the Inner Layer and Planar Wake model. The results compared favorably with experiments.
Gerke, Kirill
2015-04-01
In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy\\'s equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes\\' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software\\'s applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.
Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Khirevich, Siarhei; Karsanina, Marina; Collins, Daniel; Korost, Dmitry; Mallants, Dirk
2015-04-01
In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy's equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software's applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.
Ewald summation for the rotlet singularity of Stokes flow
Klinteberg, Ludvig af
2016-01-01
Ewald summation is an efficient method for computing the periodic sums that appear when considering the Green's functions of Stokes flow together with periodic boundary conditions. We show how Ewald summation, and accompanying truncation error estimates, can be easily derived for the rotlet, by considering it as a superposition of electrostatic force calculations.
Shear-free boundary in Stokes flow
Amaranath, T.; S. D. Nigam; Palaniappan, D.
1996-01-01
A theorem of Harper for axially symmetric flow past a sphere which is a stream surface, and is also shear-free, is extended to flow past a doubly-body Ã°ÂÂ”Â… consisting of two unequal, orthogonally intersecting spheres. Several illustrative examples are given. An analogue of Faxen's law for a double-body is observed.
Generalized Method of Variational Analysis for 3-D Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
兰伟仁; 黄思训; 项杰
2004-01-01
The generalized method of variational analysis (GMVA) suggested for 2-D wind observations by Huang et al. is extended to 3-D cases. Just as in 2-D cases, the regularization idea is applied. But due to the complexity of the 3-D cases, the vertical vorticity is taken as a stable functional. The results indicate that wind observations can be both variationally optimized and filtered. The efficiency of GMVA is also checked in a numerical test. Finally, 3-D wind observations with random disturbances are manipulated by GMVA after being filtered.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu.V. STARODUBTSEV; I.G. GOGOLEV; V.G. SOLODOV
2005-01-01
@@ The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account.This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.
Navier-Stokes predictions of multifunction nozzle flows
Wilmoth, Richard G.; Leavitt, Laurence D.
1987-10-01
A two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes code developed by Imlay based on the implicit, finite-volume method of MacCormack has been applied to the prediction of the flow fields and performance of several nonaxisymmetric, convergent-divergent nozzles with and without thrust vectoring. Comparisons of predictions with experiment show that the Navier-Stokes code can accurately predict both the flow fields and performance for nonaxisymmetric nozzles where the flow is predominantly two-dimensional and at nozzle pressure ratios at or above the design values. Discrepancies between predictions and experiment are noted at lower nozzle pressure ratios where separation typically occurs in portions of the nozzle. The overall trends versus parameters such as nozzle pressure ratio, flap angle, and vector angle were generally predicted correctly.
Coupling nonlinear Stokes and Darcy flow using mortar finite elements
Ervin, Vincent J.
2011-11-01
We study a system composed of a nonlinear Stokes flow in one subdomain coupled with a nonlinear porous medium flow in another subdomain. Special attention is paid to the mathematical consequence of the shear-dependent fluid viscosity for the Stokes flow and the velocity-dependent effective viscosity for the Darcy flow. Motivated by the physical setting, we consider the case where only flow rates are specified on the inflow and outflow boundaries in both subdomains. We recast the coupled Stokes-Darcy system as a reduced matching problem on the interface using a mortar space approach. We prove a number of properties of the nonlinear interface operator associated with the reduced problem, which directly yield the existence, uniqueness and regularity of a variational solution to the system. We further propose and analyze a numerical algorithm based on mortar finite elements for the interface problem and conforming finite elements for the subdomain problems. Optimal a priori error estimates are established for the interface and subdomain problems, and a number of compatibility conditions for the finite element spaces used are discussed. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the algorithm and to compare two treatments of the defective boundary conditions. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of IMACS.
Loh, Ching Y.; Himansu, Ananda; Hultgren, Lennart S.
2003-01-01
A 3-D space-time CE/SE Navier-Stokes solver using an unstructured hexahedral grid is described and applied to a circular jet screech noise computation. The present numerical results for an underexpanded jet, corresponding to a fully expanded Mach number of 1.42, capture the dominant and nonaxisymmetric 'B' screech mode and are generally in good agreement with existing experiments.
Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment
Compton, William B, III
2015-01-01
Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.
Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences
Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz
2009-02-01
In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.
Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert
2012-01-01
Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...... — suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures...... the rotational components and is suitable for controlling liquid animations where tangential motion is pronounced, such as in a breaking wave...
On the emergence of the Navier-Stokes-α model for turbulent channel flows
Foias, Ciprian; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Bingsheng
2016-08-01
In a series of papers (see Foias et al. [J. Dyn. Differ. Equations 14(1), 1-35 (2002)] and the pertinent references therein), the 3D Navier-Stokes-α model was shown to be a useful complement to the 3D Navier-Stokes equations, and in particular, to be a good Reynolds version of the latter equations. In this work, we introduce a simple Reynolds averaging which, due to the wall roughness, transforms the Navier-Stokes equations into the Navier-Stokes-α model.
Effects of Presence, Copresence, and Flow on Learning Outcomes in 3D Learning Spaces
Hassell, Martin D.; Goyal, Sandeep; Limayem, Moez; Boughzala, Imed
2012-01-01
The level of satisfaction and effectiveness of 3D virtual learning environments were examined. Additionally, 3D virtual learning environments were compared with face-to-face learning environments. Students that experienced higher levels of flow and presence also experienced more satisfaction but not necessarily more effectiveness with 3D virtual…
Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.
2007-01-01
Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess 3-D slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation model (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, 3-D strength variations, and 3-D pore pressures. Initially, we use our 3-D analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the
Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack
2016-01-01
In this paper, we develop a spatio-temporal modeling approach to describe blood and drug flow, as well as drug uptake and elimination, on an approximation of the liver. Extending on previously developed computational approaches, we generate an approximation of a liver, which consists of a portal and hepatic vein vasculature structure, embedded in the surrounding liver tissue. The vasculature is generated via constrained constructive optimization, and then converted to a spatial grid of a selected grid size. Estimates for surrounding upscaled lobule tissue properties are then presented appropriate to the same grid size. Simulation of fluid flow and drug metabolism (hepatic clearance) are completed using discretized forms of the relevant convective-diffusive-reactive partial differential equations for these processes. This results in a single stage, uniformly consistent method to simulate equations for blood and drug flow, as well as drug metabolism, on a 3D structure representative of a liver. PMID:27649537
3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragni, D.; Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)
2012-02-15
The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data. (orig.)
Stereo Scene Flow for 3D Motion Analysis
Wedel, Andreas
2011-01-01
This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot
Stokes Flow with Slip and Kuwabara Boundary Conditions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sunil Datta; Satya Deo
2002-08-01
The forces experienced by randomly and homogeneously distributed parallel circular cylinder or spheres in uniform viscous flow are investigated with slip boundary condition under Stokes approximation using particle-in-cell model technique and the result compared with the no-slip case. The corresponding problem of streaming flow past spheroidal particles departing but little in shape from a sphere is also investigated. The explicit expression for the stream function is obtained to the first order in the small parameter characterizing the deformation. As a particular case of this we considered an oblate spheroid and evaluate the drag on it.
On Approximation and Computation of Navier-Stokes Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
VARNHORN Werner; ZANGER Florian
2013-01-01
We present an approximation method for the non-stationary nonlinear incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical domain (0,T)×G,where G （C） IR3is a smoothly bounded domain.Our method is applicable to general three-dimensional flow without any symmetry restrictions and relies on existence,uniqueness and representation results from mathematical fluid dynamics.After a suitable time delay in the nonlinear convective term v·▽v we obtain globally (in time) uniquely solvable equations,which-by using semi-implicit time differences-can be transformed into a finite number of Stokes-type boundary value problems.For the latter a boundary element method based on a corresponding hydrodynamical potential theory is carried out.The method is reported in short outlines ranging from approximation theory up to numerical test calculations.
Analytical Solution For Navier-Stokes Equations In Two Dimensions For Laminar Incompressible Flow
Otarod, Saeed.; Otarod, Davar
2006-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations describing laminar flow of an incompressible fluid will be solved. Different group of general solutions for Navier stokes equations governing Laminar incompressible fluids will be derived.
Implementation for blow up of tornado-type solutions for complex version of 3D Navier-Stokes system
Arnold, M D
2008-01-01
We consider Cauchy problem for Fourier transformation of 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes system with zero external force. Using initial data purposed by Dong Li and Ya.G.Sinai we implement self-similar regime producing fast growing behavior of the energy of solution while time tends to critical value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
An implementation of the LHCb level 0 muon trigger using the 3D-Flow ASIC
Corti, G; Crosetto, D; Nelson, K
1998-01-01
The implementation of the LHCb level 0 muon trigger using the 3D-flow technique is discussed. The connection of the LHCb muon detector front-end electronics to the L0 3D-flow processor is also discussed.1
Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐宇; 吴玉林
2003-01-01
Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.
Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows
Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.
2001-01-01
A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.
Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program
Crawford, R. A.
1984-01-01
The experimental contract objective is to provide a complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow within a large rectangular turning duct. The data are to be used to evaluate and verify three-dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical contract objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.
Laser direct writing 3D structures for microfluidic channels: flow meter and mixer
Lin, Chih-Lang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lin, Zheng-Da; Wu, Bo-Long; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Shin, Chow-Shing; Baldeck, Patrice L.
2015-03-01
The 3D laser direct-writing technology is aimed at the modeling of arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) complex microstructures by scanning a laser-focusing point along predetermined trajectories. Through the perspective technique, the details of designed 3D structures can be properly fabricated in a microchannel. This study introduces a direct reading flow meter and a 3D passive mixer fabricated by laser direct writing for microfluidic applications. The flow meter consists of two rod-shaped springs, a pillar, an anchor, and a wedge-shaped indicator, installed inside a microfluidic channel. The indicator is deflected by the flowing fluid while restrained by the spring to establish an equilibrium indication according to the flow rate. The measurement is readily carried out by optical microscopy observation. The 3D passive Archimedes-screw-shaped mixer is designed to disturb the laminar flow 3D direction for enhancing the mixing efficiency. The simulation results indicate that the screw provides 3D disturbance of streamlines in the microchannel. The mixing demonstration for fluids flowing in the micrchannel approximately agrees with the simulation result. Thanks to the advantage of the laser direct writing technology, this study performs the ingenious applications of 3D structures for microchannels.
Soliton metrics for two-loop renormalization group flow on 3D unimodular Lie groups
Glickenstein, David; Wu, Liang
2015-01-01
The two-loop renormalization group flow is studied via the induced bracket flow on 3D unimodular Lie groups. A number of steady solitons are found. Some of these steady solitons come from maximally symmetric metrics that are steady, shrinking, or expanding solitons under Ricci flow, while others are not obviously related to Ricci flow solitons.
Simulation of 3D Flow in Turbine Blade Rows including the Effects of Coolant Ejection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-Jun LIU; Bai-Tao AN; Yun-Tao ZENG
2008-01-01
This paper describes the numerical simulation of three-dimensional viscous flows in air-cooled turbine blade rows with the effects of coolant ejection. A TVD Navier-Stokes flow solver incorporated with Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and multi-grid convergence acceleration algorithm are used for the simulation. The influences of coolant ejection on the main flow are accounted by volumetric coolant source terms. Numerical results for a four-stage turbine are presented and discussed.
Are the incompressible 3d Navier-Stokes equations locally ill-posed in the natural energy space?
Jia, Hao; Šverák, Vladimír
2013-01-01
An important open problem in the theory of the Navier-Stokes equations is the uniqueness of the Leray-Hopf weak solutions with $L^2$ initial data. In this paper we give sufficient conditions for non-uniqueness in terms of spectral properties of a natural linear operator associated to scale-invariant solutions recently constructed in \\cite{JiaSverak}. If the spectral conditions are satisfied, non-uniqueness and ill-posedness can appear for quite benign compactly supported data, just at the bor...
Numerical simulation of 3D backward facing step flows at various Reynolds numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louda Petr
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The work deals with the numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flow over backward facing step in a narrow channel. The mathematical model is based on the RANS equations with an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM. The numerical method uses implicit finite volume upwind discretization. While the eddy viscosity models fail in predicting complex 3D flows, the EARSM model is shown to provide results which agree well with experimental PIV data. The reference experimental data provide the 3D flow field. The simulations are compared with experiment for 3 values of Reynolds number.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF 3-D TURBULENT BEND FLOWS IN OPEN CHANNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yue-qin; ZHENG Shao-wen; WU Qiang
2005-01-01
A generalized bend flow model, treating a 90° single bend and 60° continuous bends, was designed to quantitatively describe 3-D turbulence mechanism of circulating not-fully-developed flow in open channels with bends.The 3-D fluctuating velocities of turbulent flow were measured and analyzed with a 3-D acoustic-Doppler velocimeter.Formula for 3-D turbulent intensity was derived using the dimension analysis approach.Expressions of vertical turbulent-intensity distributions were obtained with the multivariant-regression theory, which agree with experiment data.Distributions of turbulent intensity and turbulent stress were characterized, and their relationships were concluded.In the bend-turbulent-flow core region, longitudinal and lateral turbulent-intensity distributions are coincident with linear distribution, but in near-wall region are coincident with the Gamma distribution.Vertical turbulent intensity distributions are coincident with the Rayleigh distribution.Herein, it is concluded that the bend turbulence is anisotropic.
Axisymmetric and 3D calculations of melt flow during VCz growth
Bänsch, E.; Davis, D.; Langmach, H.; Miller, W.; Rehse, U.; Reinhardt, G.; Uhle, M.
2004-05-01
Axisymmetric and 3D calculations of melt flow have been performed for a configuration used at the vapour-pressure-controlled Czochalski growth of GaAs single crystals. Thermal boundary conditions were adapted from a global simulation of the temperature field. The axisymmetric calculations with the code NAVIER confirmed the ones previously perfomed with FIDAP TM. The 3D calculations showed that the flow exhibits an asymmetric transient behaviour beyond a certain critical Reynolds number.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for simulating incompressible, imiscible, unsteady, Newtonian, multi-fluid flows with free surfaces is described. A sharp interface separates fluids of different density and viscosity. Surface and interfacial tensions are also considered and the required curvature is geometrically approximated at the fronts by a least squares quadratic fitting. To remove small undulations at the fronts, a mass-conserving filter is employed. The numerical method employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations is based on the GENSMAC-3D front-tracking method. The velocity field is computed using a finite-difference scheme on an Eulerian grid. The free-surface and the interfaces are represented by an unstructured Lagrangian grid moving through an Eulerian grid. The method was validated by comparing the numerical results with analytical results for a number of simple problems. Complex numerical simulations show the capability and emphasize the robustness of this new method
Multi-GPU three dimensional Stokes solver for simulating glacier flow
Licul, Aleksandar; Herman, Frédéric; Podladchikov, Yuri; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel
2016-04-01
Here we present how we have recently developed a three-dimensional Stokes solver on the GPUs and apply it to a glacier flow. We numerically solve the Stokes momentum balance equations together with the incompressibility equation, while also taking into account strong nonlinearities for ice rheology. We have developed a fully three-dimensional numerical MATLAB application based on an iterative finite difference scheme with preconditioning of residuals. Differential equations are discretized on a regular staggered grid. We have ported it to C-CUDA to run it on GPU's in parallel, using MPI. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our developed model by manufactured analytical solution test for three-dimensional Stokes ice sheet models (Leng et al.,2013) and by comparison with other well-established ice sheet models on diagnostic ISMIP-HOM benchmark experiments (Pattyn et al., 2008). The results show that our developed model is capable to accurately and efficiently solve Stokes system of equations in a variety of different test scenarios, while preserving good parallel efficiency on up to 80 GPU's. For example, in 3D test scenarios with 250000 grid points our solver converges in around 3 minutes for single precision computations and around 10 minutes for double precision computations. We have also optimized the developed code to efficiently run on our newly acquired state-of-the-art GPU cluster octopus. This allows us to solve our problem on more than 20 million grid points, by just increasing the number of GPU used, while keeping the computation time the same. In future work we will apply our solver to real world applications and implement the free surface evolution capabilities. REFERENCES Leng,W.,Ju,L.,Gunzburger,M. & Price,S., 2013. Manufactured solutions and the verification of three-dimensional stokes ice-sheet models. Cryosphere 7,19-29. Pattyn, F., Perichon, L., Aschwanden, A., Breuer, B., de Smedt, B., Gagliardini, O., Gudmundsson,G.H., Hindmarsh, R
Determining 3D flow fields via multi-camera light field imaging.
Truscott, Tadd T; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L
2013-03-06
In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture (1). Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet.
Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces
Wang, Chi R.
2005-01-01
This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one
The application of a 3D PTV algorithm to a mixed convection flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kieft, R.N.; Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Van der Plas, G.A.J.; Rindt, C.C.M. [Energy Technology Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2002-10-01
A 3D particle-tracking velocimetry (PTV) algorithm is applied to the wake flow behind a heated cylinder. The method is tested in advance with respect to its accuracy and performance. In the accuracy tests, its capability to locate particles in 3D space is tested. It appears that the algorithm can determine the particle position with an accuracy of less than 0.5 camera pixels, equivalent to 0.3 mm in the present test situation. The performance tests show that for particles located in a 2D plane, the algorithm can track the particles with a vector yield reaching 100%, which means that a velocity vector can be determined for almost all particles detected. The calculated velocity vectors for this situation have a standard deviation of less than 1%. The performance is also tested on a mixed convection flow behind a heated cylinder in which the 2D flow transits into a 3D flow. As there is no exact solution of such a flow available, the 3D PTV results are compared with visualisation results. The results show that the 3D PTV method can capture the main features of the 3D transition of the 2D vortex street. (orig.)
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D CORNER FLOWS IN A CIRCULATING WATER CHANNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In this paper, a Navier-stokes procedure was developed based on a finite volume method to simulate corner flows in circulating water channel (CWC). The standard 2nd-order central scheme together with a deferred correction method was applied for the convective terms. All the other terms wrer discretized using 2nd order central differencing. The standard k-ε model was used for the approximation of turbulent flows. First. this method used to calculate the trubulent flows in a 90° bend and the computed results are in good agreements with the experiment. This method was also employed to calculate the flows in a model CWC corner.
Propulsion of micro-structures in Oscillatory Stokes Flow
Jo, Ikhee; Huang, Yangyang; Zimmerman, Walter; Kanso, Eva
2015-11-01
Drug delivery often necessitates specific site-targeting within the human body. The use of micro and/or nano devices swimming through the bloodstream provides an attractive mechanism for targeted drug targeting, however the design and practical implementation of such devices remain very challenging. Inspired by flapping wings, we construct a two-dimensional wedge-like device, consisting of two links connected by a linear torsional spring and released in an oscillatory Stokes flow. We vary the stiffness and rest angle of the linear spring and the oscillation amplitude and frequency of the background flow to explore the behavior of the device. We find that the device achieves a net displacement, or propulsion, in oscillatory flows even when no elastic energy is stored initially, thus breaking Purcell's scallop's theorem. More importantly, the vehicle tends to align with the background flow under perturbations. We conclude by commenting on how to control the parameters of the device and the fluid to achieve desired behavior of the device. These findings may have significant implications on the design of micro devices in viscous fluids.
On Arithmetic Means for the Navier-Stokes Flows%关于Navier-Stokes流的算术均值
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张余
2003-01-01
证明了可以选出具有相同的外部条件的三维Navier-Stokes流{u(n)},使其算术均值N=(u(1)+…+u(N))/N有极限并且此极限是Navier-Stokes流,从而部分地为统计流体动力学提供了数学的根据.%It is proved that a sequence {u(n)}of the 3D NavierStokes flows with the same extern al condition can be selected so that the arithmetic means u- N=(u(1)+…+u(N))/Nhas a limit which is a Navier-Stokes flow.This supplies partly a mathematical basis to the statistical fluid mechanics.
Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2015-11-01
This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.
Stokes Flow over Composite Sphere: Liquid Core with Permeable Shell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
bharat raj jaiswal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of an infinite expanse of uniform flow of steady axisymmetric Stokes flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid around the spherical drop of Reiner-Rivlin liquid coated with the permeable layer with the assumption that the liquid located outside the capsule penetrates into the permeable layer, but it is not mingled with the liquid located in the internal concave of capsule. The flow inside the permeable layer is described by the Brinkman equation. The viscosity of the permeable medium is assumed to be same as pure liquid. The stream function solution for the outer flow field is obtained in terms of modified Bessel functions and Gegenbauer functions, and for the inner flow field, the stream function solution is obtained by expanding the stream function in terms of S. The flow fields are determined explicitly by matching the boundary conditions at the pure liquid-porous interface, porous-Reiner-Rivlin liquid interface, and uniform velocity at infinity. The drag force experienced by the capsule is evaluated, and its variation with regard to permeability parameter a, dimensionless parameter S, ratio of viscosities l2, and thickness of permeable layer d is studied and graphs plotted against these parameters. Several cases of interest are deduced from the present analysis. It is observed that the cross-viscosity increases the drag force, whereas the thickness d decreases the drag on capsule. It is also observed that the drag force is increasing or decreasing function of permeability parameter for l2 < 1.
3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry
Vincenza Dragone; Victor Sans; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J.; Leroy Cronin
2013-01-01
We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and im...
3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry
Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Rosnes, Mali H; Kitson, Philip J
2013-01-01
Summary We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products. PMID:23766811
3D-printed devices for continuous-flow organic chemistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenza Dragone
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We present a study in which the versatility of 3D-printing is combined with the processing advantages of flow chemistry for the synthesis of organic compounds. Robust and inexpensive 3D-printed reactionware devices are easily connected using standard fittings resulting in complex, custom-made flow systems, including multiple reactors in a series with in-line, real-time analysis using an ATR-IR flow cell. As a proof of concept, we utilized two types of organic reactions, imine syntheses and imine reductions, to show how different reactor configurations and substrates give different products.
PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klank, Henning; Goranovic, Goran; Kutter, Jörg Peter;
2002-01-01
. The structures are often of complex geometry and include strongly three-dimensional flow behaviour, which poses a challenge for the micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique. The flow in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure has been measured throughout the volume using micro-PIV. In addition...
The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models
Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.
2016-06-01
Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2000-01-01
The 3D-LIM has as yet been used to simulate the following two three-dimensional problems. First, the method has been used to simulete for viscoelastic end-plate instability that occurs under certain conditions in the transient filament stretching apparatus for pressure sensitive adhesives...... (polymeric melts) and polymeric solutions. Secondly, the 3D-LIM has also been applied to calculate the inflation of a thick sheet of a polymer melt into an elliptic cylinder. These problems all include free surfaces. As the governing equations are solved for the particle positions, the motion of surfaces can...... be followed easily even in 3D viscoelastic flow....
Ultrarapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria Using a 3D Immunomagnetic Flow Assay
Lee, Wonjae; Kwon, Donghoon; Chung, Boram; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Au, Anthony; Folch, Albert; Jeon, Sangmin
2014-01-01
We developed a novel 3D immunomagnetic flow assay for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in a large-volume food sample. Antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle clusters (AbMNCs) were magnetically immobilized on the surfaces of a 3D-printed cylindrical microchannel. The injection of a Salmonella-spiked sample solution into the microchannel produced instant binding between the AbMNCs and the Salmonella bacteria due to their efficient collisions. Nearly perfect capture of the AbMNC...
Completion of PCFLOW3D Model for Simulation of Flow and Dispersion of Pollutants
Kovšca, Jasna
2007-01-01
An upgrade of the three-dimensional baroclinic mathematical model PCFLOW3D with a new turbulence model Smagorinsky-vertical is presented. Several test cases were made to compare this new turbulence model with other turbulence models already built in the PCFLOW3D model. Additional verifications of the test results were performed using the commercial software CORMIX of which main purpose is to simulate the near field areas of pollution inflows. CORMIX is restricted to steady flow...
Computational studies of hard-body and 3-D effects in plume flows
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feiereisen, William J.; Obayashi, Shigeru
1989-01-01
Axisymmetric and three-dimensional, multi-nozzle plume flows around generic rocket geometries are investigated with a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver to study the interactive effects between hard body and the plume. Time-asymptotic, laminar, ideal-gas solutions obtained with a two-factor, flux-split scheme and a diagonal, upwind scheme are presented. Computed solutions to three-dimensional, multi-nozzle problems and single-nozzle, axisymmetric problems demonstrate flow field features including three-dimensionality and hard-body effects. Geometry and three-dimensional effects are shown to be significant in multi-nozzle flows.
Quantification of blood perfusion using 3D power Doppler: an in-vitro flow phantom study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raine-Fenning, N J [School of Human Development, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ramnarine, K V [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom); Nordin, N M [School of Human Development, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Campbell, B K [School of Human Development, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2004-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler data is increasingly used to assess and quantify blood flow and tissue perfusion. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of common 3D power Doppler 'vascularity' indices by quantification in well characterised in-vitro flow models. A computer driven gear pump was used to circulate a steady flow of a blood mimicking fluid through various well characterised flow phantoms to investigate the effect of the number of flow channels, flow rate, depth dependent tissue attenuation, blood mimic scatter particle concentration and ultrasound settings. 3D Power Doppler data were acquired with a Voluson 530D scanner and 7.5 MHz transvaginal transducer (GE Kretz). Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis software (VOCAL) was used to quantify the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-flow index (VFI). The vascular indices were affected by many factors, some intuitive and some with more complex or unexpected relationships (e.g. VI increased linearly with an increase in flow rate, blood mimic scatter particle concentration and number of flow channels, and had a complex dependence on pulse repetition frequency). Use of standardised settings and appropriate calibration are required in any attempt at relating 'vascularity indices' with flow.
Numerical simulation of complex 3D compressible viscous flows through rotating blade passage
Despotović M.; Babić Milun; Milovanović D.; Šušteršič Vanja
2003-01-01
This paper describes a three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes code, which has been developed for analysis of turbocompressor blade rows and other internal flows. Despite numerous numerical techniques and statement that Computational Fluid Dynamics has reached state of the art, issues related to successful simulations represent valuable database of how particular technique behave for a specifie problem. This paper deals with rapid numerical method accurate enough to be used as a design ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
裴吉; 袁寿其; 李晓俊; 袁建平
2014-01-01
Numerical simulation and 3-D periodic flow unsteadiness analysis for a centrifugal pump with volute are carried out in whole flow passage, including the impeller with twisted blades, the volute and the side chamber channels under a part-load condition. The pressure fluctuation intensity coefficient (PFIC) based on the standard deviation method, the time-averaged velocity unsteadi-ness intensity coefficient (VUIC) and the time-averaged turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC) are defined by averaging the results at each grid node for an entire impeller revolution period. Therefore, the strength distributions of the periodic flow unsteadiness based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations can be analyzed directly and in detail. It is shown that under the des.0.6Q condition, the pressure fluctuation intensity is larger near the blade pressure side than near the suction side, and a high fluctuation intensity can be observed at the beginning section of the spiral of the volute. The flow velocity unsteadiness intensity is larger near the blade suction side than near the pressure side. A strong turbulence intensity can be found near the blade suction side, the impeller shroud side as well as in the side chamber. The leakage flow has a significant effect on the inflow of the impeller, and can increase both the flow velocity unsteadiness intensity and the turbulence intensity near the wall. The accumulative flow unstea-diness results of an impeller revolution can be an important aspect to be considered in the centrifugal pump optimum design for ob-taining a more stable inner flow of the pump and reducing the flow-induced vibration and noise in certain components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Wilkens
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier is one of the fastest changing glaciers in the Antarctic Ice Sheet and therefore in scientific focus. The glacier holds enough ice to raise global sea level significantly (∼0.5 m, when fully melted. The question addressed by numerous modelling studies of the glacier focuses on whether the observed changes are a start for an uncontrolled and accelerating retreat. The movement of the glacier is, in the fast flowing areas, dominated by basal motion. In modelling studies the parametrisation of the basal motion is therefore crucial. Inversion methods are commonly applied to reproduce the complex surface flow structure at Pine Island Glacier, which use information of the observed surface velocity field, to constrain basal sliding. We introduce two different approaches of combining a physical parameter, the basal roughness, with basal sliding parametrisations. This way basal sliding is connected again to its original formulation. We show that the basal roughness is an important and helpful parameter to consider and that many features of the flow structure could be reproduced with these approaches.
Effects of Texture Component Orientation on Orientation Flow Visibility for 3-D Shape Perception
Michelle L Fowler; Andrea Li
2013-01-01
In images of textured 3-D surfaces, orientation flows created by the texture components parallel to the surface slant play a critical role in conveying the surface slant and shape. This study examines the visibility of these orientation flows in complex patterns. Specifically, we examine the effect of orientation of neighboring texture components on orientation flow visibility. Complex plaids consisting of gratings equally spaced in orientation were mapped onto planar and curved surfaces. The...
High fidelity digital inline holographic method for 3D flow measurements.
Toloui, Mostafa; Hong, Jiarong
2015-10-19
Among all the 3D optical flow diagnostic techniques, digital inline holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DIH-PTV) provides the highest spatial resolution with low cost, simple and compact optical setups. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, and expensive computations. These limitations prevent this technique from being widely used for high resolution 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present a novel holographic particle extraction method with the goal of overcoming all the major limitations of DIH-PTV. The proposed method consists of multiple steps involving 3D deconvolution, automatic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement and thresholding, and inverse iterative particle extraction. The entire method is implemented using GPU-based algorithm to increase the computational speed significantly. Validated with synthetic particle holograms, the proposed method can achieve particle extraction rate above 95% with fake particles less than 3% and maximum position error below 1.6 particle diameter for holograms with particle concentration above 3000 particles/mm3. The applicability of the proposed method for DIH-PTV has been further validated using the experiment of laminar flow in a microchannel and the synthetic tracer flow fields generated using a DNS turbulent channel flow database. Such improvements will substantially enhance the implementation of DIH-PTV for 3D flow measurements and enable the potential commercialization of this technique. PMID:26480377
Parallel Finite Element Solution of 3D Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni Flows
Carey, G. F.; McLay, R.; Bicken, G.; Barth, B.; Pehlivanov, A.
1999-01-01
A domain decomposition strategy and parallel gradient-type iterative solution scheme have been developed and implemented for computation of complex 3D viscous flow problems involving heat transfer and surface tension effects. Details of the implementation issues are described together with associated performance and scalability studies. Representative Rayleigh-Benard and microgravity Marangoni flow calculations and performance results on the Cray T3D and T3E are presented. The work is currently being extended to tightly-coupled parallel "Beowulf-type" PC clusters and we present some preliminary performance results on this platform. We also describe progress on related work on hierarchic data extraction for visualization.
A moving mesh algorithm for 3-D regional groundwater flow with water table and seepage face
Knupp, P.
A numerical algorithm is described for solving the free-surface groundwater flow equations in 3-D large-scale unconfined aquifers with strongly heterogeneous conductivity and surface recharge. The algorithm uses a moving mesh to track the water-table as it evolves according to kinematic and seepage face boundary conditions. Both steady-state and transient algorithms are implemented in the SECO-Flow 3-D code and demonstrated on stratigraphy based on the Delaware Basin of south-eastern New Mexico.
3-D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE SPILL-WAY TUNNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approachbased on the weakly compressible hydrodynamic equation with a single-plase fluid model for the cavitation flow has been de-veloped and employed in simulating 3-D unsteady viscous flowthrough an orifice type spillwy tunnel. The finite volume ap-proach in space and the predictor-corrector method in timehave been used to the numerical discretization, and the "Lawof wall" is applied at the solid boundary. The velocity, pres-sure fields and the cavitation phenomenon are obtained, thecomputational results show that 3-D LES approach can givemore realistic flow field prediction of the orifice type spillwaytunnel.
3-D Vector Flow Using a Row-Column Addressed CMUT Array
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holbek, Simon; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Engholm, Mathias;
2016-01-01
This paper presents an in-house developed 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) appliedfor 3-D blood flow estimation. The probe breaks with conventional transducers in two ways; first, the ultrasonicpressure field is generated from thousands of small vibrating micromachined...... cells, and second, elements areaccessed by row and/or column indices. The 62+62 2-D row-column addressed prototype CMUT probe was usedfor vector flow estimation by transmitting focused ultrasound into a flow-rig with a fully developed parabolicflow. The beam-to-flow angle was 90◦. The received data...... was beamformed and processed offline. A transverseoscillation (TO) velocity estimator was used to estimate the 3-D vector flow along a line originating from thecenter of the transducer. The estimated velocities in the lateral and axial direction were close to zero as expected.In the transverse direction...
3-D model of a radial flow sub-watt methanol fuel processor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holladay, J. D.; Wang, Y.
2015-10-01
A 3-D model is presented for a novel sub-watt packed bed reactor. The reactor uses an annular inlet flow combined with a radial flow packed bed reactor. The baseline reactor is compared to a reactor with multiple outlets and a reactor with 3 internal fins. Increasing the outlets from 1 to 4 did improve the flow distribution, but did not increase the performance in the simulation. However, inserting fins allowed a decrease in temperature with same inlet flow of approximately 35K. Or the inlet flow rate could be increased by a factor of 2.8x while maintaining >99% conversion.
New P3D Hydraulic Fracturing Model Based on the Radial Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲁连军; 孙逢春; 肖海华; 安申法
2004-01-01
Pseudo three-dimension (P3D) hydraulic fracturing models often overpredict the fracture height for a poorly contained fracture. To solve this problem, a new method is presented in shaping the P3D fracture geometry on the basis of the fundamental theory and the original 1D fluid flow is replaced with a more representatively radial flow. The distribution of the fluid in the modified fluid field is analyzed and a sound explanation to the problem is given. Due to the consideration of the fluid flow in the vertical direction, the modified model can predict the fracture height much better. To validate the rationality of the radial fluid flow assumption, the distribution of the fluid in the modified fluid field is simulated with the plane potential flow by using finite element method. And the results agree effectively with those from the assumption. Through comparing with the full 3D model, the results show that this new P3D model can be used to aid the fracturing design and predict the fracture height under poorly contained situation.
One-layer microfluidic device for hydrodynamic 3D self-flow-focusing operating in low flow speed
Daghighi, Yasaman; Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Tsai, Scott S. H.; Kolios, Michael C.
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic 3D flow-focusing techniques in microfluidics are categorized as (a) sheathless techniques which require high flow rates and long channels, resulting in high operating cost and high flow rates which are inappropriate for applications with flow rate limitations, and (b) sheath-flow based techniques which usually require excessive sheath flow rate to achieve hydrodynamic 3D flow-focusing. Many devices based on these principles use complicated fabrication methods to create multi-layer microchannels. We have developed a sheath-flow based microfluidic device that is capable of hydrodynamic 3D self-flow-focusing. In this device the main flow (black ink) in a low speed, and a sheath flow, enter through two inlets and enter a 180 degree curved channel (300 × 300 μm cross-section). Main flow migrates outwards into the sheath-flow due to centrifugal effects and consequently, vertical focusing is achieved at the end of the curved channel. Then, two other sheath flows horizontally confine the main flow to achieve horizontal focusing. Thus, the core flow is three-dimensionally focused at the center of the channel at the downstream. Using centrifugal force for 3D flow-focusing in a single-layer fabricated microchannel has been previously investigated by few groups. However, their demonstrated designs required high flow speed (>1 m/s) which is not suitable for many applications that live biomedical specie are involved. Here, we introduce a new design which is operational in low flow speed (microfluidic device can be used in detecting, counting and isolating cells in many biomedical applications.
Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E
2011-01-01
We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645
Implementation and testing of the CFDS-FLOW3D code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FLOW3D is a multi-purpose, transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer code developed by Computational Fluid Dynamics Services (CFDS), a branch of AEA Technology, based at Harwell. The code is supplied with a SUN-based operating environment consisting of an interactive grid generator SOPHIA and a post-processor JASPER for graphical display of results. Both SOPHIA and JASPER are extensions of the support software originally written for the ASTEC code, also promoted by CFDS. The latest release of FLOW3D contains well-tested turbulence and combustion models and, in a less-developed form, a multi-phase modelling potential. This document describes briefly the modelling capabilities of FLOW3D (Release 3.2) and outlines implementation procedures for the VAX, CRAY and CONVEX computer systems. Additional remarks are made concerning the in-house support programs which have been specially written in order to adapt existing ASTEC input data for use with FLOW3D; these programs operate within a VAX-VMS environment. Three sample calculations have been performed and results compared with those obtained previously using the ASTEC code, and checked against other available data, where appropriate. (author) 35 figs., 3 tabs., 42 refs
A Closed Form Solution to Segment 3D Motion Using Straight-line Optical Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jing; SHI Fan-huai; MA Wen-juan; LIU Yun-cai
2008-01-01
A closed form solution to the problem of segmenting multiple 3D motion models was proposed fromstraight-line optical flow. It introduced the multibody line optical flow constraint (MLOFC), a polynomial equation relating motion models and line parameters. The motion models can be obtained analytically as the derivative of the MLOFC at the corresponding line measurement, without knowing the motion model associated with that line. Experiments on real and synthetic sequences were also presented.
Comparison of Tomo-PIV and 3D-PTV for microfluidic flows
Kim, Hyoungsoo; Westerweel, Jerry; Elsinga, Gerrit E.
2013-02-01
Two 3D-3C velocimetry techniques for micro-scale measurements are compared: tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) and 3D particle-tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). Both methods are applied to experimental data from a confined shear-driven liquid droplet over a moving surface. The droplet has 200 μm height and 2 mm diameter. Micro 3D-PTV and Tomo-PIV are used to obtain the tracer particle distribution and the flow velocity field for the same set of images. It is shown that the reconstructed particle distributions are distinctly different, where Tomo-PIV returns a nearly uniform distribution over the height of the volume, as expected, and PTV reveals a clear peak in the particle distribution near the plane of focus. In Tomo-PIV, however, the reconstructed particle peak intensity decreases in proportion to the distance from the plane of focus. Due to the differences in particle distributions, the measured flow velocities are also different. In particular, we observe Tomo-PIV to be in closer agreement with mass conservation. Furthermore, the random noise level is found to increase with distance to the plane of focus at a higher rate for 3D-PTV as compared to Tomo-PIV. Thus, for a given noise threshold value, the latter method can measure reliably over a thicker volume.
3D Flow in the Axial—Radial Exhaust Hood of a Steam Turbine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
STASTNYM．，SKODA; KOLARP．，
1997-01-01
The computation model of the 3D viscous flow is used for the analysis of the flow conditions in the model of steam turbine exhaust hood,that was in previous time investigated experimentally,The computation method and the obtained results are described.The calculation is concentrated on the finding of the influence of inlet velocity field and on the influence of compressibility of the flow medium.Especially it followed the fluid motion in the outlte vortex and the occurrence of the areas with flow separation.
Numerical simulation of a combined oxidation ditch flow using 3D k-εturbulence model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Lin; LI Wei-min; DENG Yong-sen; WANG Tao
2005-01-01
The standard three dimensional(3D) k-ε turbulence model was applied to simulate the flow field of a small scale combined oxidation ditch. The moving mesh approach was used to model the rotor of the ditch. Comparison of the computed and the measured data is acceptable. A vertical reverse flow zone in the ditch was found, and it played a very important role in the ditch flow behavior. The flow pattern in the ditch is discussed in detail, and approaches are suggested to improve the hydrodynamic performance in the ditch.
In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Baeuerle, Jochen; Harloff, Andreas [University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Anastasopoulos, Constantin [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine and McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Valdueza, Jose M. [Neurological Center, Segeberger Kliniken, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mader, Irina [University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany)
2015-08-15
To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stadlbauer, Andreas [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); Brenneis, Christian [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurology, St. Poelten (Austria); Ungersboeck, Karl [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurosurgery, St. Poelten (Austria); Riet, Wilma van der [European MRI Consultancy (EMRIC), Strasbourg (France); Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)
2012-01-15
To investigate the detectability of CSF flow alterations in the ventricular system of patients with hydrocephalus using time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping. MR velocity mapping was performed in 21 consecutive hydrocephalus patients and 21 age-matched volunteers using a 3D phase-contrast (PC) sequence. Velocity vectors and particle path lines were calculated for visualisation of flow dynamics. CSF flow was classified as ''hypomotile flow'' if it showed attenuated dynamics and as ''hypermotile flow'' if it showed increased dynamics compared with volunteers. Diagnostic efficacy was compared with routine 2D cine PC-MRI. Seven patients showed hypomotile CSF flow: six had non-communicating hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. One showed oscillating flow between the lateral ventricles after craniotomy for intracranial haemorrhage. Seven patients showed normal flow: six had hydrocephalus ex vacuo due to brain atrophy. One patient who underwent ventriculostomy 10 years ago showed a flow path through the opening. Seven patients showed hypermotile flow: three had normal pressure hydrocephalus, three had dementia, and in one the diagnosis remained unclear. The diagnostic efficacy of velocity mapping was significantly higher except for that of aqueductal stenosis. Our approach may be useful for diagnosis, therapy planning, and follow-up of different kinds of hydrocephalus. (orig.)
Navier-Stokes solver using Green's functions I: channel flow and plane Couette flow
Viswanath, Divakar
2012-01-01
Numerical solvers of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have reproduced turbulence phenomena such as the law of the wall, the dependence of turbulence intensities on the Reynolds number, and experimentally observed properties of turbulence energy production. In this article, we begin a sequence of investigations whose eventual aim is to derive and implement numerical solvers that can reach higher Reynolds numbers than is currently possible. Every time step of a Navier-Stokes solver in effect solves a linear boundary value problem. The use of Green's functions leads to numerical solvers which are highly accurate in resolving the boundary layer, which is a source of delicate but exceedingly important physical effects at high Reynolds numbers. The use of Green's functions brings with it a need for careful quadrature rules and a reconsideration of time steppers. We derive and implement Green's function based solvers for the channel flow and plane Couette flow geometries. The solvers are validated by repro...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. Li; W. Liu; Y.Q. Lai; Q.Y. Li; Y.X. Liu
2006-01-01
Two full 3D steady mathematical models are developed by finite element method (FEM) to calculate coupled physics fields: the electro-magnetic model is built and solved first and so is the fluid motion model with the acquired electromagnetic force as source body forces in Navier-Stokes equations. Effects caused by the ferromagnetic shell, busbar system around, and open boundary problem as well as inside induced current were considered in terms of the magnetic field. Furthermore, a new modeling method is found to set up solid models and then mesh them entirely with so-called structuralized grids, namely hex-mesh. Examples of 75kA prebaked cell with two kinds of busbar arrangements are presented. Results agree with those disclosed in the literature and confirm that the coupled simulation is valid. It is also concluded that the usage of these models facilitates the consistent analysis of the electric field to magnetic field and then flow motion to the greater extent, local distributions of current density and magnetic flux density are very much dependent on the cell structure, the steel shell is a shield to reduce the magnetic field and flow pattern is two dimensional in the main body of the metal pad.
An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows
Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.
Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S;
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid...... approach in regularizing 3D flow fields is evaluated. METHODS: The proposed algorithm incorporates both a Newtonian fluid physics model and a linear PC-MRI signal model. The model equations are solved numerically using a modified CFD algorithm. The numerical solution corresponds to the optimal solution of...... dynamics (CFD) calculations. CFD provides arbitrarily high resolution, but its accuracy hinges on model assumptions, while velocity fields measured with PC-MRI generally do not satisfy the equations of fluid dynamics, provide limited resolution, and suffer from partial volume effects. The purpose of this...
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model
Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.
2008-11-01
Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.
Shrewsbury, George D.; Vadyak, Joseph; Schuster, David M.; Smith, Marilyn J.
1989-01-01
A computer analysis was developed for calculating steady (or unsteady) three-dimensional aircraft component flow fields. This algorithm, called ENS3D, can compute the flow field for the following configurations: diffuser duct/thrust nozzle, isolated wing, isolated fuselage, wing/fuselage with or without integrated inlet and exhaust, nacelle/inlet, nacelle (fuselage) afterbody/exhaust jet, complete transport engine installation, and multicomponent configurations using zonal grid generation technique. Solutions can be obtained for subsonic, transonic, or hypersonic freestream speeds. The algorithm can solve either the Euler equations for inviscid flow, the thin shear layer Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flow, or the full Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flow. The flow field solution is determined on a body-fitted computational grid. A fully-implicit alternating direction implicit method is employed for the solution of the finite difference equations. For viscous computations, either a two layer eddy-viscosity turbulence model or the k-epsilon two equation transport model can be used to achieve mathematical closure.
Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.
Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri
2013-04-01
PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North
Wavelet-based adaptive numerical simulation of unsteady 3D flow around a bluff body
de Stefano, Giuliano; Vasilyev, Oleg
2012-11-01
The unsteady three-dimensional flow past a two-dimensional bluff body is numerically simulated using a wavelet-based method. The body is modeled by exploiting the Brinkman volume-penalization method, which results in modifying the governing equations with the addition of an appropriate forcing term inside the spatial region occupied by the obstacle. The volume-penalized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved by means of the adaptive wavelet collocation method, where the non-uniform spatial grid is dynamically adapted to the flow evolution. The combined approach is successfully applied to the simulation of vortex shedding flow behind a stationary prism with square cross-section. The computation is conducted at transitional Reynolds numbers, where fundamental unstable three-dimensional vortical structures exist, by well-predicting the unsteady forces arising from fluid-structure interaction.
Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.
Selecting 3D Chaotic Flow States for Accelerated DNA Replication in Micro Scale Convective PCR
Priye, Aashish; Hassan, Yassin; Ugaz, Victor
2016-01-01
Micro-scale flow in cylindrical geometries can harness chaotic advection to perform complex thermally activated biochemical reactions such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have applied a 3D computational fluid dynamics model to resolve the complex flow patterns in such geometries. The resulting 3D flow trajectories are then used as input to a kinetic model to resolve the time evolution of DNA replication process. A simple mass action kinetic model was developed to couple these biochemical reactions with the intricate flow. Residence time analysis of virtual particles in the flow revealed that the flow has a strong chaotic component in wider geometries in comparison with taller geometries (quasi periodic motion). This work shows, for the first time that the chaotic aspect of the flow field plays a key role in determining the strength of the coupling between the reactions and the flow. Our model can quantify the doubling times of these reactions capturing the lag, exponential and plateau phases of PCR...
3D mathematical model for suspended load transport by turbulent flows and its applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Yongjun; DOU Guoren; HAN Longxi; SHAO Xuejun; YANG Xianghua
2004-01-01
This paper presents a 3D mathematical model for suspended load transport in turbulent flows. Based on Dou's stochastic theory of turbulent flow, numerical schemes of Reynolds stresses for anisotropic turbulent flows were obtained. A refined wall function was employed to treat solid wall boundaries. The equations for 2D suspended load motion and sorting of bed material have been expanded into 3D cases. Numerical results are validated by the measured data of the Gezhouba Project, and proved to be in good agreement with the experimental. The present method has been employed to simulate sediment erosion and deposition in the dam area of Three Gorges Project, and for the operation of the project, siltation process and deposition pattern in the near-dam area of the reservoir, size distribution of the deposits and bed material, and flow fields and sediment concentration fields at different time and elevations are predicted. The predicted results are close to the experimental observations in physical model studies. Thus, a new method is established for 3D simulation of sediment motion in dam areas of multi-purpose water projects.
Numerical simulation of complex 3D compressible viscous flows through rotating blade passage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Despotović M.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes code, which has been developed for analysis of turbocompressor blade rows and other internal flows. Despite numerous numerical techniques and statement that Computational Fluid Dynamics has reached state of the art, issues related to successful simulations represent valuable database of how particular technique behave for a specifie problem. This paper deals with rapid numerical method accurate enough to be used as a design tool. The mathematical model is based on System of Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations that are written in relative frame of reference, which rotates with constant angular velocity around axis of rotation. The governing equations are solved using finite volume method applied on structured grids. The numerical procedure is based on the explicit multistage Runge-Kutta scheme that is coupled with modem numerical procedures for convergence acceleration. To demonstrate the accuracy of the described numerical method developed software is applied to numerical analysis of flow through impeller of axial turbocompressor, and obtained results are compared with available experimental data.
3D Particle image velocimetry test of inner flow in a double blade pump impeller
Liu, Houlin; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Shouqi; Tan, Minggao; Wang, Yong; Ru, Weimin
2012-05-01
The double blade pump is widely used in sewage treatment industry, however, the research on the internal flow characteristics of the double blade pump with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technology is very little at present. To reveal inner flow characteristics in double blade pump impeller under off-design and design conditions, inner flows in a double blade pump impeller, whose specific speed is 111, are measured under the five off-design conditions and design condition by using 3D PIV test technology. In order to ensure the accuracy of the 3D PIV test, the external trigger synchronization system which makes use of fiber optic and equivalent calibration method are applied. The 3D PIV relative velocity synthesis procedure is compiled by using Visual C++ 2005. Then absolute velocity distribution and relative velocity distribution in the double blade pump impeller are obtained. Test results show that vortex exists in each condition, but the location, size and velocity of vortex core are different. Average absolute velocity value of impeller outlet increases at first, then decreases, and then increases again with increase of flow rate. Again average relative velocity values under 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 design condition are higher than that under 1.0 design condition, while under 0.6 and 1.4 design condition it is lower. Under low flow rate conditions, radial vectors of absolute velocities at impeller outlet and blade inlet near the pump shaft decrease with increase of flow rate, while that of relative velocities at the suction side near the pump shaft decreases. Radial vectors of absolute velocities and relative velocities change slightly under the two large flow rate conditions. The research results can be applied to instruct the hydraulic optimization design of double blade pumps.
Nonlinear analysis of chaotic flow in a 3D closed-loop pulsating heat pipe
Pouryoussefi, S M
2016-01-01
Numerical simulation has been conducted for the chaotic flow in a 3D closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP). Heat flux and constant temperature boundary conditions were applied for evaporator and condenser sections, respectively. Water and ethanol were used as working fluids. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method has been employed for two-phase flow simulation. Spectral analysis of temperature time series was carried out using Power Spectrum Density (PSD) method. Existence of dominant peak in PSD diagram indicated periodic or quasi-periodic behavior in temperature oscillations at particular frequencies. Correlation dimension values for ethanol as working fluid was found to be higher than that for water under the same operating conditions. Similar range of Lyapunov exponent values for the PHP with water and ethanol as working fluids indicated strong dependency of Lyapunov exponent to the structure and dimensions of the PHP. An O-ring structure pattern was obtained for reconstructed 3D attractor at periodic or quasi-peri...
INTRINSIC FEATURES OF TURBULENT FLOW IN STRONGLY 3-D SKEW BLADE PASSAGE OF A FRANCIS TURBINE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li-xiang; WANG Wen-quan; GUO Yakun
2007-01-01
The turbulent flow, with the Reynolds number of 5.9 105, in the strongly 3-D skew blade passage of a true Francis hydro turbine was simulated by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of the fully developed turbulence in the passage with strongly 3-D complex geometry. The simulations show that the strong three-dimensionality of the passage has a great amplification effect on the turbulence in the passage, and the distributions of the turbulence are diversely nonuniform, for instance, the rise of turbulent kinetic energy in the lower 1/3 region of the passage is more than 45%, whereas its rise in the upper 1/3 region is less than 1%. With the LES approach, the details of the flow structures at the near-wall surfaces of the blades could be obtained. Several turbulent spots were captured.
Sand transverse dune aerodynamics: 3D Coherent Flow Structures from a computational study
Bruno, Luca
2015-01-01
The engineering interest about dune fields is dictated by the their interaction with a number of human infrastructures in arid environments. The aerodynamic behaviour of sand dunes in atmospheric boundary layer belongs to the class of bluff bodies. Because of their simple geometry and their frequent occurrence in desert area, transverse sand dunes are usually adopted in literature as a benchmark to investigate dune aerodynamics by means of both computational or experimental approach, usually in nominally 2D setups. The writers suspect the flow in the wake is characterised by 3D features and affected by wind tunnel setup - e.g. blockage effect, duct side wall boundary layer, incoming velocity profile - when experimental studies are carried out. The present study aims at evaluating the 3D flow features of an idealised transverse dune under different setup conditions by means of computational simulations and to compare the obtained results with experimental measurements.
Numerical Calculation of the Flow Inside Pump Impellers Using 3D Euler Equations
SARIOĞLU, Kemal; Ayder, Erkan
1999-01-01
The flow pattern inside an impeller should be determined for maximum efficiency and performance. The effects of the design parameters on the pump performance can be determined using numerical calculations instead of empirical equations. Incompressible 3D time-dependent Euler equations, written in a conservative form, are used. An artificial pressure term is added to preserve the hyperbolic character of the equations. A finite-volume technique is used for space discretization. A fou...
Rotary slanted single wire CTA – a useful tool for 3D flows investigations
Jonáš P.
2013-01-01
The procedure is described of experimental investigation of a statistically stationary generally nonisothermal 3D flow by means of a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) using single slanted heated wire, rotary round the fixed axis. The principle of this procedure is quite clear. The change of the heated wire temperature modifies ratio of CTA sensitivities to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Turning the heated wire through a proper angle changes the sensitivity to components of the ins...
3D-printing of Redox flow batteries for energy storage: a rapid prototype laboratory cell
Arenas-Martinez, L.F.; Walsh, F.C.; Ponce de Leon, C.
2015-01-01
Although interest in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for energy storage has grown over the last few years, implementation of RFB technology has been slow and challenging. Recent developments in 3D-printing of materials enable a transforming technology for fast, reproducible and documented cell manufacture. This technology can give an improved engineering approach to cell design and fabrication, needed to fulfil requirements for lower cost, longer lifetime hardware capable of efficient reliable pe...
Ultrarapid detection of pathogenic bacteria using a 3D immunomagnetic flow assay.
Lee, Wonjae; Kwon, Donghoon; Chung, Boram; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Au, Anthony; Folch, Albert; Jeon, Sangmin
2014-07-01
We developed a novel 3D immunomagnetic flow assay for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in a large-volume food sample. Antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle clusters (AbMNCs) were magnetically immobilized on the surfaces of a 3D-printed cylindrical microchannel. The injection of a Salmonella-spiked sample solution into the microchannel produced instant binding between the AbMNCs and the Salmonella bacteria due to their efficient collisions. Nearly perfect capture of the AbMNCs and AbMNCs-Salmonella complexes was achieved under a high flow rate by stacking permanent magnets with spacers inside the cylindrical separator to maximize the magnetic force. The concentration of the bacteria in solution was determined using ATP luminescence measurements. The detection limit was better than 10 cfu/mL, and the overall assay time, including the binding, rinsing, and detection steps for a 10 mL sample took less than 3 min. To our knowledge, the 3D immunomagnetic flow assay described here provides the fastest high-sensitivity, high-capacity method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24856003
Flow structure of the solids in a 3-D gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larachi, F.; Cassanello, M.; Chaouki, J.; Guy, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
1996-09-01
Gas-liquid-solid fluidized systems have made inroads into a variety of industrial applications from heavy oil, petroleum resid, and synthetic crude processing to fermentation and aerobic biological wastewater treatment. Local and macroscopic solids flow structure and kinematics in a 3-D gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed were studied using a noninvasive radioactive-particle tracking (RPT) technique. Based on the multisite detection of {gamma} radiations emitted from a single radiolabeled tracer particle freely moving in the fluidized bed, RPT permitted the authors to obtain fast sampling of 3-D trajectories of the tracer, whose physical properties were similar to those of the solids inventory. These trajectories showed the detailed motion sequences of the solid particles as entrained in the bubble wakes, fluctuating randomly or sinking deterministically in the liquid-solid emulsion. Based on measurements done in the vortical-spiral flow regime, the dynamic solids flow structure inside a three-phase fluidized bed can be viewed as a three-zone core-annulus-annulus structure: a central fast-bubble flow region with the particles swirling upward; a vortical flow region around the velocity inversion point with the particles momentarily captured in emulsion vortices; and a relatively bubble-free descending flow region where the particles spiral down between the velocity inversion point and vessel walls. The flow structure of dense fluidized beds are similar to the flow structure of liquid and/or solid in lean fluidized beds. Measured distributions of local ensemble-averaged particle velocities and turbulence intensities were consistent with the existence of a toroidal recirculatory solids flow pattern in the bed. Measured mean circumferential ensemble-averaged radial velocity was essentially zero throughout most of the bed. The solids flow turbulence field was nonisotropic, as radial turbulence intensities were generally lower than longitudinal turbulence intensities.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D FLOW FIELD IN ARCIFORM PLUNGE POOL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The 3-D complex turbulent flow fields in aplunge pool with arciform bottom are simulated by using thek-ε model in body-fitted coordinates. The calculated results re-veal the flow characteristics in the arciform plunge pool underthe different flood discharge conditions, which can not be easi-ly obtained in the physical model test because the measure-ment of the complex velocity is very difficult. The calculatedflow fields are helpful to understand in depth the hydrauliccharacteristics of plunge pool. The calculated and the meas-ured pressure distributions on the pool bottom are comparedand in good agreement.
Nonhydrostatic granular flow over 3-D terrain: New Boussinesq-type gravity waves?
Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Hutter, Kolumban; Giraldez, Juan V.; Hager, Willi H.
2015-01-01
granular mass flow is a basic step in the prediction and control of natural or man-made disasters related to avalanches on the Earth. Savage and Hutter (1989) pioneered the mathematical modeling of these geophysical flows introducing Saint-Venant-type mass and momentum depth-averaged hydrostatic equations using the continuum mechanics approach. However, Denlinger and Iverson (2004) found that vertical accelerations in granular mass flows are of the same order as the gravity acceleration, requiring the consideration of nonhydrostatic modeling of granular mass flows. Although free surface water flow simulations based on nonhydrostatic depth-averaged models are commonly used since the works of Boussinesq (1872, 1877), they have not yet been applied to the modeling of debris flow. Can granular mass flow be described by Boussinesq-type gravity waves? This is a fundamental question to which an answer is required, given the potential to expand the successful Boussinesq-type water theory to granular flow over 3-D terrain. This issue is explored in this work by generalizing the basic Boussinesq-type theory used in civil and coastal engineering for more than a century to an arbitrary granular mass flow using the continuum mechanics approach. Using simple test cases, it is demonstrated that the above question can be answered in the affirmative way, thereby opening a new framework for the physical and mathematical modeling of granular mass flow in geophysics, whereby the effect of vertical motion is mathematically included without the need of ad hoc assumptions.
Flow measurements in a model centrifugal pump by 3-D PIV
Yang, H.; Xu, H. R.; Liu, C.
2012-11-01
PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), as an non-intrusive flow measurements technology, is widely used to investigate the flow fields in many areas. 3-D (three Dimensional) PIV has seldom been used to measure flow field in rotational impeller of centrifugal pump due to the difficulty of calibration in samll space. In this article, a specially manufactured water tank was used to perform the calibration for 3-D PIV measurement. The instantaneous absolute velocity in one impeller passage was obtained by merging of three sub zones and the relative velocity was acquired by velocity decomposition. The result shows that, when the pump runs at the condition of design flow rate, the radial component velocity Wr appears a concave distribution except the condition of R=45 mm. With the increase of radius, the circumference location of the minimum radial component velocity Wr moves from the pressure side to the suction side. At the same time, the tangential component velocity Wθ on the suction side decreases gradually with the increase of radius, while the component on the pressure side increases gradually. The secondary flow in different radius section has also been shown. At last, the error of PIV measurements was analyzed, which shows that the test results are accurate and the measured data is reliable.
3D MHD free surface fluid flow simulation based on magnetic-field induction equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is to present our recent efforts on 3D MHD model development and our results based on the technique derived from induced-magnetic-field equations. Two important features are utilized in our numerical method to obtain convergent solutions. First, a penalty factor is introduced in order to force the local divergence free condition of the magnetic fields. The second is that we extend the insulating wall thickness to ensure that the induced magnetic field at its boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium film free surface flows under NSTX outboard mid-plane magnetic field configurations have shown that 3D MHD effects from a surface normal field gradient cause return currents to interact with surface normal fields and produce unfavorable MHD forces. This leads to a substantial change in flow pattern and a reduction in flow velocity, with most of the flow spilling over one side of the chute. These critical phenomena can not be revealed by 2D models. Additionally, a design which overcomes these undesired flow characteristics is obtained
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Flener
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP for measuring streamflow and discharge is becoming increasingly widespread. The spatial distribution of flow patterns is useful data in studying riverine habitats and geomorphology. Until now, most flow mapping has focused on measurements along a series of transects in a channel. Here, we set out to measure, model and analyze the 3D flow characteristics of a natural river over a continuous areal extent, quantifying flow velocity, 3D flow directions, volumes, water depth and their changes over time. We achieved multidimensional spatial flow measurements by deploying an ADCP on a remotely-controlled boat, combined with kinematic GNSS positioning and locally-monitored water level data. We processed this data into a 3D point cloud of accurately positioned individual 3D flow measurements that allows the visual analysis of flow velocities, directions and channel morphology in 3D space. We demonstrate how this allows monitoring changes of flow patterns with a time series of flow point clouds measured over the period of a spring flood in Finnish Lapland. Furthermore, interpolating the raw point cloud onto a 3D matrix allows us to quantify volumetric flow while reducing noise in the data. We can now quantify the volumes of water moving at certain velocities in a given reach and their location in 3D space, allowing, for instance, the monitoring of the high-velocity core and its changes over time.
Incorporating preferential flow into a 3D model of a forested headwater catchment
Glaser, Barbara; Jackisch, Conrad; Hopp, Luisa; Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian
2016-04-01
Preferential flow plays an important role for water flow and solute transport. The inclusion of preferential flow, for example with dual porosity or dual permeability approaches, is a common feature in transport simulations at the plot scale. But at hillslope and catchment scales, incorporation of macropore and fracture flow into distributed hydrologic 3D models is rare, often due to limited data availability for model parameterisation. In this study, we incorporated preferential flow into an existing 3D integrated surface subsurface hydrologic model (HydroGeoSphere) of a headwater region (6 ha) of the forested Weierbach catchment in western Luxembourg. Our model philosophy was a strong link between measured data and the model setup. The model setup we used previously had been parameterised and validated based on various field data. But existing macropores and fractures had not been considered in this initial model setup. The multi-criteria validation revealed a good model performance but also suggested potential for further improvement by incorporating preferential flow as additional process. In order to pursue the data driven model philosophy for the implementation of preferential flow, we analysed the results of plot scale bromide sprinkling and infiltration experiments carried out in the vicinity of the Weierbach catchment. Three 1 sqm plots were sprinkled for one hour and excavated one day later for bromide depth profile sampling. We simulated these sprinkling experiments at the soil column scale, using the parameterisation of the base headwater model extended by a second permeability domain. Representing the bromide depth profiles was successful without changing this initial parameterisation. Moreover, to explain the variability between the three bromide depth profiles it was sufficient to adapt the dual permeability properties, indicating the spatial heterogeneity of preferential flow. Subsequently, we incorporated the dual permeability simulation in the
RV functional imaging: 3-D echo-derived dynamic geometry and flow field simulations.
Pasipoularides, Ares D; Shu, Ming; Womack, Michael S; Shah, Ashish; Von Ramm, Olaf; Glower, Donald D
2003-01-01
We describe a novel functional imaging approach for quantitative analysis of right ventricular (RV) blood flow patterns in specific experimental animals (or humans) using real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography (RT3D). The method is independent of the digital imaging modality used. It comprises three parts. First, a semiautomated segmentation aided by intraluminal contrast medium locates the RV endocardial surface. Second, a geometric scheme for dynamic RV chamber reconstruction applies a time interpolation procedure to the RT3D data to quantify wall geometry and motion at 400 Hz. A volumetric prism method validated the dynamic geometric reconstruction against simultaneous sonomicrometric canine measurements. Finally, the RV endocardial border motion information is used for mesh generation on a computational fluid dynamics solver to simulate development of the early RV diastolic inflow field. Boundary conditions (tessellated endocardial surface nodal velocities) for the solver are directly derived from the endocardial geometry and motion information. The new functional imaging approach may yield important kinematic information on the distribution of instantaneous velocities in the RV diastolic flow field of specific normal or diseased hearts. PMID:12388220
3D Simulation of Flow with Free Surface Based on Adaptive Octree Mesh System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Shaowu; Zhuang Qian; Huang Xiaoyun; Wang Dong
2015-01-01
The technique of adaptive tree mesh is an effective way to reduce computational cost through automatic adjustment of cell size according to necessity. In the present study, the 2D numerical N-S solver based on the adaptive quadtree mesh system was extended to a 3D one, in which a spatially adaptive octree mesh system and multiple parti-cle level set method were adopted for the convenience to deal with the air-water-structure multiple-medium coexisting domain. The stretching process of a dumbbell was simulated and the results indicate that the meshes are well adaptable to the free surface. The collapsing process of water column impinging a circle cylinder was simulated and from the results, it can be seen that the processes of fluid splitting and merging are properly simulated. The interaction of sec-ond-order Stokes waves with a square cylinder was simulated and the obtained drag force is consistent with the result by the Morison’s wave force formula with the coefficient values of the stable drag component and the inertial force component being set as 2.54.
Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method
Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping
2004-09-01
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.
Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerrero, Thomas [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zhang, Geoffrey [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Huang Tzungchi [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lin Kaping [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Yuan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
2004-09-07
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction.
Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction
Surfactant-induced migration of a spherical drop in Stokes flow
Hanna, James A.; Vlahovska, Petia M.
2009-01-01
In Stokes flows, symmetry considerations dictate that a neutrally-buoyant spherical particle will not migrate laterally with respect to the local flow direction. We show that a loss of symmetry due to flow-induced surfactant redistribution leads to cross-stream drift of a spherical drop in Poiseuille flow. We derive analytical expressions for the migration velocity in the limit of small non-uniformities in the surfactant distribution, corresponding to weak-flow conditions or a high-viscosity ...
Bifurcations and degenerate periodic points in a 3D chaotic fluid flow
Smith, Lachlan D; Lester, Daniel R; Metcalfe, Guy
2016-01-01
Analysis of the periodic points of a conservative periodic dynamical system uncovers the basic kinematic structure of the transport dynamics, and identifies regions of local stability or chaos. While elliptic and hyperbolic points typically govern such behaviour in 3D systems, degenerate (parabolic) points play a more important role than expected. These points represent a bifurcation in local stability and Lagrangian topology. In this study we consider the ramifications of the two types of degenerate periodic points that occur in a model 3D fluid flow. (1) Period-tripling bifurcations occur when the local rotation angle associated with elliptic points is reversed, creating a reversal in the orientation of associated Lagrangian structures. Even though a single unstable point is created, the bifurcation in local stability has a large influence on local transport and the global arrangement of manifolds as the unstable degenerate point has three stable and three unstable directions, similar to hyperbolic points, ...
A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Mehmet A., E-mail: mehmet.sen@mathworks.com [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kowalski, Gregory J., E-mail: gkowal@coe.neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fiering, Jason, E-mail: jfiering@draper.com [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larson, Dale, E-mail: dlarson@draper.com [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2015-03-10
Highlights: • A co-flow microreactor is modeled in flow, reaction/diffusion, and thermal domains. • Analysis shows how arrayed temperature sensors can provide enthalpy of reaction. • Optical plasmonic temperature sensors could be arrayed suitably for calorimetry. • The reactor studied has a volume of 25 nL. - Abstract: A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
Pipe Flow and Wall Turbulence Using a Modified Navier-Stokes Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L. Jirkovsky; A. Muriel
2012-01-01
We use a derived incompressible modified Navier-Stokes equation to model pipe flow and wall turbulence. We reproduce the observed flattened paraboloid velocity profiles of turbulence that cannot be obtained directly using standard incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions found are in harmony with multi-valued velocity fields as a definition of turbulence. Repeating the procedure for the flow of turbulent fluid between two parallel flat plates we find similar flattened velocity profiles. We extend the analysis to the turbulent flow along a single wall and compare the results with experimental data and the established controversial yon Karman logarithmic law of the wall.
Simulation of 3D material flow in friction stir welding of AA6061-T6
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Zhao; Zhang Hongwu
2008-01-01
This paper reports the numerical simulation of the 3D material flow in friction stir welding process by using finite element methods based on solid mechanics. It is found that the material flow behind the pin is much faster than that in front of the pin. The material in front of the pin moves upwards and then rotates with the pin due to the effect of the rotating tool. Behind of the pin, the material moves downwards. This process of material movement is the real cause to make the friction stir welding process continuing successfully. With the increase of the translational velocity or the rotational velocity of the pin, the material flow becomes faster.
Costa, J E R
2009-01-01
Polars (or AM Her systems) are cataclysmic variables without a disc due to the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. Most of their emission comes from the region where the accretion column impacts the white dwarf and cools through cyclotron and bremsstrahlung processes. We present a new code, CYCLOPS, to model the optical emission from these systems including the four Stokes parameters. It considers a three-dimensional region with the electronic density and temperature varying following a \\textit{shock-like} profile and a dipolar magnetic field. The radiative transfer is solved in steps considering the solution with non-null input radiation. The footprint of the column in the white-dwarf surface is determined by the threading region in the equatorial plane, i.e., the region from where the flow follows the magnetic lines. The extinction caused by Thomson scattering above the emitting region is optionally included. The fittings of observational data are done using a hybrid approach: a genetic algorithm is u...
3D visualization of the material flow in friction stir welding process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Yanhua; Lin Sanbao; Shen Jiajie; Wu Lin
2005-01-01
The material flow in friction stir welded 2014 Al alloy has been investigated using a marker insert technique (MIT). Results of the flow visualization show that the material flow is asymmetrical during the friction stir welding(FSW)process and there are also significant differences in the flow patterns observed on advancing side and retreating side. On advancing side, some material transport forward and some move backward, but on retreating side, material only transport backward. At the top surface of the weld, significant material traasport forward due to the action of the rotating tool shoulder.Combining the data from all the markers, a three-dimensional flow visualization, similar to the 3D image reconstruction technique, was obtained. The three-dimensional plot gives the tendency chart of material flow in friction stir welding process and from the plot it can be seen that there is a vertical, circular motion around the longitudinal axis of the weld. On the advancing side of the weld, the material is pushed downward but on the retreating side, the material is pushed toward the crown of the weld. The net result of the two relative motions in both side of the advancing and the retreating is that a circular motion comes into being. Comparatively, the material flow around the longitudinal axis is a secondary motion.
Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil
Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.
2015-01-01
At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.
Matching-index-of-refraction of transparent 3D printing models for flow visualization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matching-index-of-refraction (MIR) has been used for obtaining high-quality flow visualization data for the fundamental nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches. By this method, distortions of the optical measurements such as PIV and LDV have been successfully minimized using various combinations of the model materials and the working fluids. This study investigated a novel 3D printing technology for manufacturing models and an oil-based working fluid for matching the refractive indices. Transparent test samples were fabricated by various rapid prototyping methods including selective layer sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), and vacuum casting. As a result, the SLA direct 3D printing was evaluated to be the most suitable for flow visualization considering manufacturability, transparency, and refractive index. In order to match the refractive indices of the 3D printing models, a working fluid was developed based on the mixture of herb essential oils, which exhibit high refractive index, high transparency, high density, low viscosity, low toxicity, and low price. The refractive index and viscosity of the working fluid range 1.453–1.555 and 2.37–6.94 cP, respectively. In order to validate the MIR method, a simple test using a twisted prism made by the SLA technique and the oil mixture (anise and light mineral oil) was conducted. The experimental results show that the MIR can be successfully achieved at the refractive index of 1.51, and the proposed MIR method is expected to be widely used for flow visualization studies and CFD validation for the nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches
Matching-index-of-refraction of transparent 3D printing models for flow visualization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Seong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr
2015-04-01
Matching-index-of-refraction (MIR) has been used for obtaining high-quality flow visualization data for the fundamental nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches. By this method, distortions of the optical measurements such as PIV and LDV have been successfully minimized using various combinations of the model materials and the working fluids. This study investigated a novel 3D printing technology for manufacturing models and an oil-based working fluid for matching the refractive indices. Transparent test samples were fabricated by various rapid prototyping methods including selective layer sintering (SLS), stereolithography (SLA), and vacuum casting. As a result, the SLA direct 3D printing was evaluated to be the most suitable for flow visualization considering manufacturability, transparency, and refractive index. In order to match the refractive indices of the 3D printing models, a working fluid was developed based on the mixture of herb essential oils, which exhibit high refractive index, high transparency, high density, low viscosity, low toxicity, and low price. The refractive index and viscosity of the working fluid range 1.453–1.555 and 2.37–6.94 cP, respectively. In order to validate the MIR method, a simple test using a twisted prism made by the SLA technique and the oil mixture (anise and light mineral oil) was conducted. The experimental results show that the MIR can be successfully achieved at the refractive index of 1.51, and the proposed MIR method is expected to be widely used for flow visualization studies and CFD validation for the nuclear thermal-hydraulic researches.
Quasi 3D refined simulation of flow and pollutant transport in a meandering River Reach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-ren Yu
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a quasi 3D numerical simulation in a meandering river reach of the Yellow River, aiming to develop a tool for modeling turbulent flows and pollutant transport in complex natural waters. The recently built depth-averaged two-equation turbulence model, together with and models, were used to close non-simplified quasi 3D hydrodynamic fundamental governing equations. The discretized equations were solved by advanced multi-grid iterative method under non-orthogonal body-fitted coarse and fine two-levels’ grids with collocated variable arrangement. Except for steady flow and transport computation, the processes of contaminant inpouring and plume development, caused by the side-discharge from a tribytary, also have been investigated numerically. The used three closure approaches are suitable for modeling strong mixing turbulence. The established model with higher order of magnitude of transported variable provides a possibility to elevate the computational precision. Based on the developed mathematical model, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics software, namely Q3drm1.0, was developed. This numerical tool focuses on the refined simulations of the steady and unsteady problems of flow and temperature/contaminant transports in complicated computational domains with the strong ability to deal with different discharge situations: side-discharge, point-source discharge/point-sink, and area-source discharge from the slope along bank. In this article, the study of side-discharge is presented only.
Simulation of the 3D viscoelastic free surface flow by a parallel corrected particle scheme
Jin-Lian, Ren; Tao, Jiang
2016-02-01
In this work, the behavior of the three-dimensional (3D) jet coiling based on the viscoelastic Oldroyd-B model is investigated by a corrected particle scheme, which is named the smoothed particle hydrodynamics with corrected symmetric kernel gradient and shifting particle technique (SPH_CS_SP) method. The accuracy and stability of SPH_CS_SP method is first tested by solving Poiseuille flow and Taylor-Green flow. Then the capacity for the SPH_CS_SP method to solve the viscoelastic fluid is verified by the polymer flow through a periodic array of cylinders. Moreover, the convergence of the SPH_CS_SP method is also investigated. Finally, the proposed method is further applied to the 3D viscoelastic jet coiling problem, and the influences of macroscopic parameters on the jet coiling are discussed. The numerical results show that the SPH_CS_SP method has higher accuracy and better stability than the traditional SPH method and other corrected SPH method, and can improve the tensile instability. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130436 and BK20150436) and the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB110025).
3D Numerical Simulation of Overbank Flow in Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ming-liang; SHEN Yong-ming; WU Xiu-guang
2005-01-01
The velocity field in meandering compound channels with overbank flow is highly three dimensional. To date, its features have been investigated experimentally and little research has been undertaken to investigate the feasibility of reproducing these velocity fields with computer models. If computer modeling were to prove successful in this context, it could become a useful prediction technique and research tool to enhance our understanding of natural river dynamics. A 3-D k-ε turbulence hydrodynamic model in curvilinear coordinates is established to simulate the overbank flow. The body-fitted coordinate is adopted in the horizontal plane, the part grid is adopted in the vertical direction, and the wall-function method is employed to simulate the bed resistance. The model is applied to the simulation of the meandering channel with straight flood plain banks, and the main velocities and secondary velocities for both the longitudinal and cross sections are presented. Comparison and analysis show that the results of simulation are fit to reflect the results of experiment. These results show the application value of the model to 3D overbank flow.
Biedron, Robert T.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Atkins, Harold L.
2005-01-01
We apply an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver for unstructured grids to unsteady flows on moving and stationary grids. Example problems considered are relevant to active flow control and stability and control. Computational results are presented using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model and are compared to experimental data. The effect of grid and time-step refinement are examined.
Complex 3D Blood Flow Pathways in Two Cases of Aorta to Right Heart Fistulae: a 4D Flow MRI study
Thakrar, Darshit; Popescu, Andrada; Gupta, Suraj; de Freitas, Andrew; Russell, Hyde; Carr, James; Markl, Michael
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of 3D blood flow in two cases of Sinus of Valsalva to right heart fistulae based on 4D flow MRI. Despite similar underlying pathology, 3D visualization revealed intricate differences in flow patterns connecting the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The cases illustrates the potential of 4D flow MRI to complement the evaluation of complex structural heart disease by assessing complex flow dynamics and providing quantitative information of flow ratios and flow rates.
Slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow.
Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Mackenzie, Mark D; Pal, Parama; Kar, Ajoy K; Gorthi, Sai Siva
2016-09-19
Three-dimensional cellular imaging techniques have become indispensable tools in biological research and medical diagnostics. Conventional 3D imaging approaches employ focal stack collection to image different planes of the cell. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow. The approach employs slanted microfluidic channels fabricated in glass using ultrafast laser inscription. The slanted nature of the microfluidic channels ensures that samples come into and go out of focus, as they pass through the microscope imaging field of view. This novel approach enables the collection of focal stacks in a straight-forward and automated manner, even with off-the-shelf microscopes that are not equipped with any motorized translation/rotation sample stages. The presented approach not only simplifies conventional focal stack collection, but also enhances the capabilities of a regular widefield fluorescence microscope to match the features of a sophisticated confocal microscope. We demonstrate the retrieval of sectioned slices of microspheres and cells, with the use of computational algorithms to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the collected raw images. The retrieved sectioned images have been used to visualize fluorescent microspheres and bovine sperm cell nucleus in 3D while using a regular widefield fluorescence microscope. We have been able to achieve sectioning of approximately 200 slices per cell, which corresponds to a spatial translation of ∼ 15 nm per slice along the optical axis of the microscope.
Quantification of smoothing requirement for 3D optic flow calculation of volumetric images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Tennakoon, Ruwan B.; de Bruijne, Marleen
2013-01-01
Complexities of dynamic volumetric imaging challenge the available computer vision techniques on a number of different fronts. This paper examines the relationship between the estimation accuracy and required amount of smoothness for a general solution from a robust statistics perspective. We show...... that a (surprisingly) small amount of local smoothing is required to satisfy both the necessary and sufficient conditions for accurate optic flow estimation. This notion is called 'just enough' smoothing, and its proper implementation has a profound effect on the preservation of local information in processing 3D...
Rotary slanted single wire CTA - a useful tool for 3D flows investigations
Jonáš, P.
2013-04-01
The procedure is described of experimental investigation of a statistically stationary generally nonisothermal 3D flow by means of a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) using single slanted heated wire, rotary round the fixed axis. The principle of this procedure is quite clear. The change of the heated wire temperature modifies ratio of CTA sensitivities to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Turning the heated wire through a proper angle changes the sensitivity to components of the instantaneous velocity vector. Some recommendations are presented based on long time experiences, e.g. on the choice of probe, on the probe calibration, to the measurement organization and to the evaluation of results.
Rotary slanted single wire CTA – a useful tool for 3D flows investigations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonáš P.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The procedure is described of experimental investigation of a statistically stationary generally nonisothermal 3D flow by means of a constant temperature anemometer (CTA using single slanted heated wire, rotary round the fixed axis. The principle of this procedure is quite clear. The change of the heated wire temperature modifies ratio of CTA sensitivities to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Turning the heated wire through a proper angle changes the sensitivity to components of the instantaneous velocity vector. Some recommendations are presented based on long time experiences, e.g. on the choice of probe, on the probe calibration, to the measurement organization and to the evaluation of results.
Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Geometry Effect on Turbulent 3-D Water Offset Jet Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Negar Mohammad Aliha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using the Yang-Shih low Reynolds k-ε turbulence model, the mean flow field of a turbulent offset jet issuing from a long circular pipe was numerically investigated. The experimental results were used to verify the numerical results such as decay rate of streamwise velocity, locus of maximum streamwise velocity, jet half width in the wall normal and lateral directions, and jet velocity profiles. The present study focused attention on the influence of nozzle geometry on the evolution of a 3D incompressible turbulent offset jet. Circular, square-shaped, and rectangular nozzles were considered here. A comparison between the mean flow characteristics of offset jets issuing from circular and square-shaped nozzles, which had equal area and mean exit velocity, were made numerically. Moreover, the effect of aspect ratio of rectangular nozzles on the main features of the flow was investigated. It was shown that the spread rate, flow entrainment, and mixing rate of an offset jet issuing from circular nozzle are lower than square-shaped one. In addition, it was demonstrated that the aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzles only affects the mean flow field of the offset jet in the near field (up to 15 times greater than equivalent diameter of the nozzles. Furthermore, other parameters including the wall shear stress, flow entrainment and the length of potential core were also investigated.
Study on 3-D simulation of flow and turbidity in an oxbow lake in tidal compartment
Yokoyama, H.; Momonoe, H.; Hamamoto, S.
2010-12-01
We aimed to make flow and turbidity simulation model for an oxbow lake in tidal compartment. The oxbow has two bottle-necks and inflow river from urban district. Bed topography of the oxbow is former meandering channel of large-basin river. Therefore characteristic of flow and water quality is complex. First, field observation was conducted to clarify the characteristics of flow and water quality in the oxbow. From observation results, flow and resuspension phenomena in the oxbow were affected by wind and tide, and the balance of the two factors changed longitudinally. Next, we built 3-D simulation model of flow which took account of the field observation results. In order to investigate effective water quality improvement, we set some test cases: condition of wind, inflow river were changed. From the simulation results, tide was the most important factor, however at the upper part of the oxbow, where the tidal power seemed to be weaker, flow and turbidity were clearly affected by the wind.
Method of internal 3D flow field numerical simulation for hydrodynamic torque converter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao SHANG; Dingxuan ZHAO; Yuankun ZHANG; Xiangen GUO; Xiangzhong SHI
2008-01-01
To enhance the performance of a hydrody-namic torque converter and thoroughly understand the trait of inside flow, a numerical simulation method of internal 3D flow for the three-element centrifugal hydrodynamic torque converter was systematically researched and expatiated in this paper. First, the internal flow field of each impeller was calculated. The curves that illustrate the relationships between the pressure differences of the inlet and outlet versus flux were drawn. Second, the concurrent working point of each impeller was approximately estimated. Finally, a calculation was performed considering the influence on each impeller. The flow field of a working point was solved by multiple calculations and the actual working condition was gradually determined. The pressure and velocity distributions of the flow field were proposed. The performance parameters of the hydrodynamic torque converter were predicted. The calculation method, and the proposed pressure and velocity distribution of the flow field, have practical significance for the design and improvement of a hydrodynamic torque converter.
Pressure moderation and effective pressure in Navier-Stokes flows
Tran, Chuong V.; Yu, Xinwei
2016-10-01
We study the Cauchy problem of the Navier-Stokes equations by both semi-analytic and classical energy methods. The former approach provides a physical picture of how viscous effects may or may not be able to suppress singularity development. In the latter approach, we examine the pressure term that drives the dynamics of the velocity norms \\parallel u{{\\parallel}{{Lq}}} , for q≥slant 3 . A key idea behind this investigation is due to the fact that the pressure p in this term is determined up to a function of both space and |u| , say P(x,|u|) , which may assume relatively broad forms. This allows us to use P as a pressure moderator in the evolution equation for \\parallel u{{\\parallel}{{Lq}}} , whereby optimal regularity criteria can be sought by varying P within its admissible classes. New regularity criteria are derived with and without making use of the moderator. The results obtained in the absence of the moderator feature some improvement over existing criteria in the literature. Several criteria are derived in terms of the moderated (effective) pressure p+P . A simple moderation scheme and the plausibility of the present approach to the problem of Navier-Stokes regularity are discussed.
Method of coupling 1-D unsaturated flow with 3-D saturated flow on large scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan ZHU
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A coupled unsaturated-saturated water flow numerical model was developed. The water flow in the unsaturated zone is considered the one-dimensional vertical flow, which changes in the horizontal direction according to the groundwater table and the atmospheric boundary conditions. The groundwater flow is treated as the three-dimensional water flow. The recharge flux to groundwater from soil water is considered the bottom flux for the numerical simulation in the unsaturated zone, and the upper flux for the groundwater simulation. It connects and unites the two separated water flow systems. The soil water equation is solved based on the assumed groundwater table and the subsequent predicted recharge flux. Then, the groundwater equation is solved with the predicted recharge flux as the upper boundary condition. Iteration continues until the discrepancy between the assumed and calculated groundwater nodal heads have a certain accuracy. Illustrative examples with different water flow scenarios regarding the Dirichlet boundary condition, the Neumann boundary condition, the atmospheric boundary condition, and the source or sink term were calculated by the coupled model. The results are compared with those of other models, including Hydrus-1D, SWMS-2D, and FEFLOW, which demonstrate that the coupled model is effective and accurate and can significantly reduce the computational time for the large number of nodes in saturated-unsaturated water flow simulation.
Real-time tracking with a 3D-Flow processor array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of real-time track-finding has been performed to date with CAM (Content Addressable Memories) or with fast coincidence logic, because the processing scheme was thought to have much slower performance. Advances in technology together with a new architectural approach make it feasible to also explore the computing technique for real-time track finding thus giving the advantages of implementing algorithms that can find more parameters such as calculate the sagitta, curvature, pt, etc., with respect to the CAM approach. The report describes real-time track finding using new computing approach technique based on the 3D-Flow array processor system. This system consists of a fixed interconnection architecture scheme, allowing flexible algorithm implementation on a scalable platform. The 3D-Flow parallel processing system for track finding is scalable in size and performance by either increasing the number of processors, or increasing the speed or else the number of pipelined stages. The present article describes the conceptual idea and the design stage of the project
Coupled Aeroelastic Oscillations of a Turbine Blade Row in 3D Transonic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Vitaly Gnesin; Lyubov Kolodyazhnaya; Romuald Rzadkowski
2001-01-01
This paper presents the mutual time - marching method to predict the aeroelastic stability of an oscillating blade row in 3D transonic flow. The ideal gas flow through a blade row is governed by the time dependent Euler equations in conservative form which are integrated by using the explicit monotonous second order accurate Godunov-Kolgan finite volume scheme and moving hybrid H-O grid. The structure analysis uses the modal approach and 3D finite element dynamic model of blade. The blade movement is assumed as a linear combination of the fast modes of blade natural oscillations with the modal coefficients depending on time. To demonstrate the capability and correctness of the method, two experimentally investigated test cases have been selected, in which the blades had performed tuned harmonic bending or torsional vibrations (The 1th and 4th standard configurations of the "Workshop on Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines" by Bolcs and Fransson, 1986). The calculated results of aeroelastic behaviour of the blade row (4th standard configuration), are presented over a wide frequency range under different start regimes of interblade phase angle.
LHCb base-line level-0 trigger 3D-flow implementation
Crosetto, D
1999-01-01
The LHCb Level-0 trigger implementation with the 3D-Flow system offers full programmability, allowing it to adapt to unexpected operating conditions and enabling new, unpredicted physics. The implementation is described in detail and refers to components and technology available today. The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on the replication of a single type of circuit of 100 k gates, which communicates in six directions: bi-directional with North, East, West, and South neighbors, unidirectional from Top to Bottom, the system offers full programmability, modularity, ease of expansion and adaptation to the latest technology. A complete study of its applicability to the LHCb calorimeter triggers is presented. Full description of the input data handling, either in digital or mixed digital-analog form, of the data processing, and the transmission of results to the global level-0 trigger decision unit are provided. Any level-0 trig...
3D conformation of a flexible fiber in a turbulent flow
Verhille, Gautier; Bartoli, Adrien
2016-07-01
A growing number of studies is devoted to anisotropic particles in turbulent flows. In most cases, the particles are assumed to be rigid and their deformations are neglected. We present an adaptation of classical computer vision tools to reconstruct from two different images the 3D conformation of a fiber distorted by the turbulent fluctuations in a von Kármán flow. This technique allows us notably to characterize the fiber deformation by computing the correlation function of the orientation of the tangent vector. This function allows us to tackle the analogy between polymers and flexible fibers proposed by Brouzet et al. (Phys Rev Lett 112(7):074501, 2014). We show that this function depends on an elastic length ℓ _e which characterizes the particle flexibility, as is the case for polymers, but also on the fiber length L, contrary to polymers.
A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D INNER FLOW IN UP-STREAM PUMPING MECHANICAL SEAL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jin-feng; YUAN Shou-qi; FU Yong-hong; FANG Yu-jian
2006-01-01
Numerical simulation of 3-D inner flow between Up-stream Pumping Mechanical Face Seals (UPMFS) faces was initially done by CFD software, which made the flow visualization come true.Simulation results directly discover the action of hydrodynamic lubrication, and by comparison with that of Conventional Mechanic Face Seals (CMFS), the advantage over bigger bearing capability, less friction and much less leakage are explained clearly.Otherwise there are also some different ideas and results from precedent analysis and computational research results: dynamic and static pressure profiles can be obtained respectively instead of the analytic total pressure distribution only, pressure distribution is nonlinear, while always be solved as linear, lower pressure is observed at the area of inner diameter caused by the grooves, but its possible cavitations effects to the performance of UPMFS still need further study.
Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sirviö
2009-01-01
Full Text Available ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are today old fashioned and predicting just shrinkage porosity. Flow Science, VTT and Simtech have developed new software called FLOW-3D Cast ® , whichcan simulate surface defects, air entrainment, filters, core gas problems and even a cavitation.
3D FLOW INSIDE BUBBLE-TYPE VORTEX BREAKDOWN: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION VIA LDV
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Ying-zheng; Chen Han-ping; Koyama Hide S.
2003-01-01
Bubble-type vortex breakdown of the swirling flow inside a closed cylindrical container with a rotating upper endwall was experimentally investigated via LDV.3D measurement of the steady bubble at H/R=1.5 was firstly carried out with very fine grid arrangement.Flow details inside the bubble and its Re-dependent structure were made clear.Abrupt waves of the azimuthal velocity component were always found to be between the bottom stationary endwall and the upstream stagnation point, which might be the reason of bubble formation.Variation of bubble structure and bubble center with the increasing Re gives the explanation for the disappearance of the breakdown region.
CFD SIMULATION OF 3D FLOW IN LARGE-BORE AXIAL-FLOW PUMP WITH HALF-ELBOW SUCTION SUMP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Fu-jun; LI Yao-jun; CONG Guo-hui; WANG Wen-e; WANG Hai-song
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations of 3D turbulent flow in a large-bore axial-flow pump coupled with half-elbow suction sump were performed by using CFD approach. The numerical model and velocity and pressure distributions in entire flow passage were presented. The obvious backflow in half-elbow suction sump and strong flow nonuniformity at suction sump outlet were observed, whereas these phenomena were not observed in existing studies performed for a separate suction sump by either experimental or numerical approach. This result indicates that the interaction between half-elbow suction sump and impeller has significant effect on the flow distribution in the pump passage. The change of pump efficiency caused by the interaction was discussed.
Negara, Ardiansyah
2013-01-01
Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to petroleum reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on the pressure gradient direction but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Furthermore, in complex systems involving the flow of multiphase fluids in which the gravity and the capillarity play an important role, anisotropy can also have important influences. Therefore, there has been great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy when solving the governing conservation laws numerically. Unfortunately, the two-point flux approximation of finite difference approach is not capable of handling full tensor permeability fields. Lately, however, it has been possible to adapt the multipoint flux approximation that can handle anisotropy to the framework of finite difference schemes. In multipoint flux approximation method, the stencil of approximation is more involved, i.e., it requires the involvement of 9-point stencil for the 2-D model and 27-point stencil for the 3-D model. This is apparently challenging and cumbersome when making the global system of equations. In this work, we apply the equation-type approach, which is the experimenting pressure field approach that enables the solution of the global problem breaks into the solution of multitude of local problems that significantly reduce the complexity without affecting the accuracy of numerical solution. This approach also leads in reducing the computational cost during the simulation. We have applied this technique to a variety of anisotropy scenarios of 3-D subsurface flow problems and the numerical results demonstrate that the experimenting pressure field technique fits very well with the multipoint flux approximation
Effect of span length and temperature on the 3-D confined flow around a vortex promoter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, E. [Fluid Mechanics Area, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Velazquez, A., E-mail: angel.velazquez@upm.es [Aerospace Propulsion and Fluid Mechanics Department, School of Aeronautics, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza del Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article deals with study of vortex promoter flow in a 3-D micro-channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aspects studied are: channel aspect ratio and prism surface temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flow is classified into three different regimes depending on different parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results could be used for practical engineering design purposes. - Abstract: This article presents a numerical study on the influence of span length and wall temperature on the 3-D flow pattern around a square section vortex promoter located inside a micro-channel in the low Reynolds number regime. The first objective of the work is to quantify the critical Reynolds number that defines the onset of vortex shedding and to identify the different regimes that appear as a function of the channel aspect ratio (span to height ratio). We found that the critical Reynolds number for the onset of the Karman street regime increases as the aspect ratio decreases. In particular, for the aspect ratio of 1/2 the critical Reynolds number is nearly six times the critical Reynolds number of the 2-D problem. An intermediate oscillating regime between the steady and the Karman street solutions was also found to exist within a rather wide range of Reynolds numbers for small channel aspect ratios. The second objective was to investigate the influence of the vortex promoter wall temperature on both vortex shedding and flow pattern. This has practical engineering implications because the working fluid considered in the article is water that has a viscosity that depends significantly on temperature and promotes a strong coupling between the momentum and energy equations that influences the system behaviour. Results indicate that high surface temperature on the prism promotes the onset of the Karman street, suggesting design guidelines for micro-channel based heat sinks that make use of vortex promoters.
Surface-tension-driven Stokes flow: A numerical method based on conformal geometry
Buchak, Peter; Crowdy, Darren G.
2016-07-01
A novel numerical scheme is presented for solving the problem of two dimensional Stokes flows with free boundaries whose evolution is driven by surface tension. The formulation is based on a complex variable formulation of Stokes flow and use of conformal mapping to track the free boundaries. The method is motivated by applications to modelling the fabrication process for microstructured optical fibres (MOFs), also known as "holey fibres", and is therefore tailored for the computation of multiple interacting free boundaries. We give evidence of the efficacy of the method and discuss its performance.
DeJong, Andrew
Numerical models of fluid-structure interaction have grown in importance due to increasing interest in environmental energy harvesting, airfoil-gust interactions, and bio-inspired formation flying. Powered by increasingly powerful parallel computers, such models seek to explain the fundamental physics behind the complex, unsteady fluid-structure phenomena. To this end, a high-fidelity computational model based on the high-order spectral difference method on 3D unstructured, dynamic meshes has been developed. The spectral difference method constructs continuous solution fields within each element with a Riemann solver to compute the inviscid fluxes at the element interfaces and an averaging mechanism to compute the viscous fluxes. This method has shown promise in the past as a highly accurate, yet sufficiently fast method for solving unsteady viscous compressible flows. The solver is monolithically coupled to the equations of motion of an elastically mounted 3-degree of freedom rigid bluff body undergoing flow-induced lift, drag, and torque. The mesh is deformed using 4 methods: an analytic function, Laplace equation, biharmonic equation, and a bi-elliptic equation with variable diffusivity. This single system of equations -- fluid and structure -- is advanced through time using a 5-stage, 4th-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Message Passing Interface is used to run the coupled system in parallel on up to 240 processors. The solver is validated against previously published numerical and experimental data for an elastically mounted cylinder. The effect of adding an upstream body and inducing wake galloping is observed.
Pelton turbine Needle erosion prediction based on 3D three- phase flow simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelton turbine, which applied to the high water head and small flow rate, is widely used in the mountainous area. During the operation period the sediment contained in the water does not only induce the abrasion of the buckets, but also leads to the erosion at the nozzle which may damage the needle structure. The nozzle and needle structure are mainly used to form high quality cylindrical jet and increase the efficiency of energy exchange in the runner to the most. Thus the needle erosion will lead to the deformation of jet, and then may cause the efficiency loss and cavitation. The favourable prediction of abrasion characteristic of needle can effectively guide the optimization design and maintenance of needle structure. This paper simulated the unsteady three-dimensional multi-phase flow in the nozzle and injected jet flow. As the jet containing water and sediment is injected into the free atmosphere air with high velocity, the VOF model was adopted to predict the water and air flow. The sediment is simplified into round solid particle and the discrete particle model (DPM) was employed to predict the needle abrasion characteristic. The sand particle tracks were analyzed to interpret the mechanism of sand erosion on the needle surface. And the numerical result of needle abrasion was obtained and compared with the abrasion field observation. The similarity of abrasion pattern between the numerical results and field observation illustrated the validity of the 3D multi-phase flow simulation method
Thermoelectric DC conductivities and Stokes flows on black hole horizons
Banks, Elliot; Gauntlett, Jerome P
2015-01-01
We consider a general class of electrically charged black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory that are holographically dual to conformal field theories at finite charge density which break translation invariance explicitly. We examine the linearised perturbations about the solutions that are associated with the thermoelectric DC conductivity. We show that there is a decoupled sector at the black hole horizon which must solve generalised Stokes equations for a charged fluid. By solving these equations we can obtain the DC conductivity of the dual field theory. For one-dimensional lattices we solve the fluid equations to obtain closed form expressions for the DC conductivity in terms of the solution at the black hole horizon. We also determine the leading order DC conductivity for lattices that can be expanded as a perturbative series about translationally invariant solutions.
Elliptic function representation of doubly periodic two-dimensional Stokes flows
Peterson, M A; Ding, M; Chen, Danti; Ding, Mengqi; Peterson, Mark A.
2006-01-01
We construct doubly periodic Stokes flows in two dimensions using elliptic functions. This method has advantages when the doubly periodic lattice of obstacles has less than maximal symmetry. We find the mean flow through an arbitrary lattice in response to a pressure gradient in an arbitrary direction, and show in a typical example that the shorter of the two period lattice vectors is an "easy direction" for the flow, an eigenvector of the conductance tensor corresponding to maximal conductance.
Cosmic dynamo analogue and decay of magnetic fields in 3D Ricci flows
de Andrade, Garcia
2009-01-01
Magnetic curvature effects, investigated by Barrow and Tsagas (BT) [Phys Rev D \\textbf{77},(2008)],as a mechanism for magnetic field decay in open Friedmann universes (${\\Lambda}<0$), are applied to dynamo geometric Ricci flows in 3D curved substrate in laboratory. By simple derivation, a covariant three-dimensional magnetic self-induced equation, presence of these curvature effects, indicates that de Sitter cosmological constant (${\\Lambda}\\ge{0}$), leads to enhancement in the fast kinematic dynamo action which adds to stretching of plasma flows. From the magnetic growth rate, the strong shear case, anti-de Sitter case (${\\Lambda}<0$) BT magnetic decaying fields are possible while for weak shear, fast dynamos are possible. The self-induced equation in Ricci flows is similar to the equation derived by BT in $(3+1)$-spacetime continuum. Lyapunov-de Sitter metric is obtained from Ricci flow eigenvalue problem. In de Sitter analogue there is a decay rate of ${\\gamma}\\approx{-{\\Lambda}}\\approx{-10^{-35}s^{-...
Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard
2015-11-01
We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.
Ren, Dandan; Ou, Yaobin
2016-08-01
In this paper, we prove the incompressible limit of all-time strong solutions to the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Here the velocity field and temperature satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition and convective boundary condition, respectively. The uniform estimates in both the Mach number {ɛin(0,overline{ɛ}]} and time {tin[0,∞)} are established by deriving a differential inequality with decay property, where {overline{ɛ} in(0,1]} is a constant. Based on these uniform estimates, the global solution of full compressible Navier-Stokes equations with "well-prepared" initial conditions converges to the one of isentropic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations as the Mach number goes to zero.
Computer Simulation of Flow in CSO “OK3D Evropská”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Pollert
2000-01-01
Full Text Available During the last 30 years, a number of devices has been developed for dynamic separation of settle able solids in wastewaters. Initially, these separators were used for control of Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO pollution by retaining the bulk of solids in the underflow, directed to the sewage treatment plant (STP, and allowing combined sewage with reduced pollutant loads to overflow from the sewer systém. This paper is describing CSO “OK 3D Evropská” in Prague 6 on Evropská Street. Inlet to CSO is 3 m diameter tube collecting water from location of Oepy, Vokovice, Liboc and Ruzyně. The outflow throttle pipe is 1.1 m in diameter and continues to central wastewater treatment plant and overflow is ending in Šárecký creek. Šárecký creek flows through the Šárka valley which is environmentally protected area. CSO “OK 3D Evropská" has high overflow crest and probability of the function is 0.44 per year.
Potential for 3-D hyporheic exchange flow along a succession of pool-riffle sequences
Käser, Daniel; Binley, Andrew; Krause, Stefan; Heathwaite, Louise
2010-05-01
Pool-riffle sequences are key geomorphological features that can influence the ecology of streams by inducing a flow exchange between surface water and groundwater - a process called hyporheic exchange flow (HEF). The objective of this research was to test the suitability of a simple 3-D groundwater model for characterizing HEF induced by pool-riffle sequences that had been the focus of experimental study. Three reaches of 20 m were modelled separately. While the bed topography was surveyed and represented at a high resolution, the permeability distribution referred to a simple conceptual model consisting of two superposed layers. One hypothesis was that, despite its simplicity, the calibrated model would produce an acceptable fit between observed and simulated heads because its permeability structure resembled the natural system. The potential complexity of hyporheic flow patterns is well-known, yet this study highlights the usefulness of a simple conceptual model coupled to mechanistic flow equations for describing HEF in 3-D. The error structure of the calibrated model provides insight into various site-specific features. The root mean square error between computed and observed hydraulic heads (relative to the head drop over the structure) is comparable to other studies with more elaborate permeability structures. After calibration, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to determine the influence of permeability contrast between the layers, depth of the permeability interface, and basal flux on three HEF characteristics: residence time, lateral and vertical extent, and total flux. Results indicate that permeability characteristics can affect HEF in different ways. For example, the vertical extent is deepest in homogeneous conditions, whereas the lateral extent is not significantly affected by permeability contrast, or by the depth of the interface between the two layers. Thus bank piezometers may be insufficient to calibrate groundwater models of HEF
Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes Computations for Flows past the Yawed MEXICO Rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Yang, H.
2011-01-01
In the paper the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes model has been used to simulate flows past the yawed MEXICO rotor. The computed loads as well as the velocity field behind the yawed rotor are compared to detailed pressure and PIV measurements which were carried out in the EU funded MEXICO project...
A Novel Flow-Perfusion Bioreactor Supports 3D Dynamic Cell Culture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander M. Sailon
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Bone engineering requires thicker three-dimensional constructs than the maximum thickness supported by standard cell-culture techniques (2 mm. A flow-perfusion bioreactor was developed to provide chemotransportation to thick (6 mm scaffolds. Methods. Polyurethane scaffolds, seeded with murine preosteoblasts, were loaded into a novel bioreactor. Control scaffolds remained in static culture. Samples were harvested at days 2, 4, 6, and 8 and analyzed for cellular distribution, viability, metabolic activity, and density at the periphery and core. Results. By day 8, static scaffolds had a periphery cell density of 67%±5.0%, while in the core it was 0.3%±0.3%. Flow-perfused scaffolds demonstrated peripheral cell density of 94%±8.3% and core density of 76%±3.1% at day 8. Conclusions. Flow perfusion provides chemotransportation to thick scaffolds. This system may permit high throughput study of 3D tissues in vitro and enable prefabrication of biological constructs large enough to solve clinical problems.
FLOW3D model for below-core thermal mixing in the Oconee pressurised water reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computational fluid dynamics code FLOW3D is being used to develop a model for calculating the mixing of cold leg flows inside the vessel of a pressurised water reactor. To assess the capabilities of the model, a simulation was made of a thermal mixing test at the Oconee-1 Nuclear Station. The test measured temperature deviations at the core inlet produced by an imposed temperature difference between cold legs. Both the tests results and the simulation showed that most of the cold leg flows arrive unmixed at the core inlet. However, the simulation was unable to reproduce the asymmetric irregularities observed in the core inlet temperature distribution, and consequently the degree of mixing was under-predicted. Various sensitivity studies were carried out on the model, but these did not reveal the source of the asymmetry. It was therefore concluded that the asymmetry source was outside the scope of the model, but the model was nevertheless able to make plausible but pessimistic estimates of mixing. (author)
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aizat Abas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT, multiple relaxation time (MRT, and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV- based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Zhuan, E-mail: yezhuan815@126.com; Xu, Xiaojing [Beijing Normal University, Laboratory of Mathematics and Complex Systems, Ministry of Education, School of Mathematical Sciences (China)
2015-12-15
In this paper, we study the three-dimensional inhomogeneous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and establish several regularity criteria in terms of only velocity which allow the initial density to contain vacuum. Therefore, our results can be considered as further improvement to the previous results.
Global smooth flows for compressible Navier-Stokes-Maxwell equations
Xu, Jiang; Cao, Hongmei
2016-08-01
Umeda et al. (Jpn J Appl Math 1:435-457, 1984) considered a rather general class of symmetric hyperbolic-parabolic systems: A0zt+sum_{j=1}nAjz_{xj}+Lz=sum_{j,k=1}nB^{jk}z_{xjxk} and showed optimal decay rates with certain dissipative assumptions. In their results, the dissipation matrices {L} and {B^{jk}(j,k=1,ldots,n)} are both assumed to be real symmetric. So far there are no general results in case that {L} and {B^{jk}} are not necessarily symmetric, which is left open now. In this paper, we investigate compressible Navier-Stokes-Maxwell (N-S-M) equations arising in plasmas physics, which is a concrete example of hyperbolic-parabolic composite systems with non-symmetric dissipation. It is observed that the Cauchy problem for N-S-M equations admits the dissipative mechanism of regularity-loss type. Consequently, extra higher regularity is usually needed to obtain the optimal decay rate of {L1({mathbb{R}}^3)}-{L^2({mathbb{R}}^3)} type, in comparison with that for the global-in-time existence of smooth solutions. In this paper, we obtain the minimal decay regularity of global smooth solutions to N-S-M equations, with aid of {L^p({mathbb{R}}^n)}-{Lq({mathbb{R}}^n)}-{Lr({mathbb{R}}^n)} estimates. It is worth noting that the relation between decay derivative orders and the regularity index of initial data is firstly found in the optimal decay estimates.
Development of seismic anisotropy during subduction-induced 3D mantle flow
Faccenda, M.; capitanio, F. A.
2012-12-01
Subduction zones are convergent margins where the rigid lithosphere sinks into the Earth's mantle inducing complex 3D flow patterns. Seismic anisotropy generated by strain-induced lattice/crystal preferred orientation (LPO/CPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals is commonly used to study flow in the mantle and its relations with plate motions. As the development of seismic anisotropy due to upper and lower plate motions occurs at depths and timescales such that it is not directly observable, numerical modelling provides a useful tool to investigate these processes. We computed the seismic anisotropy of dry olivine-enstatite aggregates due to strain-induced LPO in 3D mechanical models of dynamic subduction by using, respectively, D-Rex and Underworld. Subsequently, FSTRACK was used to compute seismogram synthetics and SKS splitting patterns. We found that for relatively narrow subducting plates, retreat motions are maximized producing strong subslab trench-parallel anisotropy. Here, synthetic data reproduce quite well the observations in analogous subduction systems like Calabria and South Sandwich, where the fast azimuths orients parallel to the trench in the forearc and follow the toroidal flow patterns on the slab edges. Furthermore, we found that the amount of anisotropy is proportional to the amount of subduction, while it does not depend on the rate at which the plate subducts. On the other hand, larger subducting plates subducts mainly by plate advance, favoring poloidal motions and trench-perpendicular anisotropy. Additional Earth-like plate geometries involving along-trench variation of the subducting plate age that induces differential slab retreat motions are considered. We also tested different olivine fabrics (A, B, C, E type), yielding distinct SKS splitting patterns that may help to constrain the composition of the upper mantle. Although more sophisticated numerical modelling taking into account temperature-dependent mantle rock rheologies and P
A strongly conservative finite element method for the coupling of Stokes and Darcy flow
Kanschat, G.
2010-08-01
We consider a model of coupled free and porous media flow governed by Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. This model is discretized using divergence-conforming finite elements for the velocities in the whole domain. Discontinuous Galerkin techniques and mixed methods are used in the Stokes and Darcy subdomains, respectively. This discretization is strongly conservative in Hdiv(Ω) and we show convergence. Numerical results validate our findings and indicate optimal convergence orders. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Carlsohn, Matthias F.; Kemmling, André; Petersen, Arne; Wietzke, Lennart
2016-04-01
Cerebral aneurysms require endovascular treatment to eliminate potentially lethal hemorrhagic rupture by hemostasis of blood flow within the aneurysm. Devices (e.g. coils and flow diverters) promote homeostasis, however, measurement of blood flow within an aneurysm or cerebral vessel before and after device placement on a microscopic level has not been possible so far. This would allow better individualized treatment planning and improve manufacture design of devices. For experimental analysis, direct measurement of real-time microscopic cerebrovascular flow in micro-structures may be an alternative to computed flow simulations. An application of microscopic aneurysm flow measurement on a regular basis to empirically assess a high number of different anatomic shapes and the corresponding effect of different devices would require a fast and reliable method at low cost with high throughout assessment. Transparent three dimensional 3D models of brain vessels and aneurysms may be used for microscopic flow measurements by particle image velocimetry (PIV), however, up to now the size of structures has set the limits for conventional 3D-imaging camera set-ups. On line flow assessment requires additional computational power to cope with the processing large amounts of data generated by sequences of multi-view stereo images, e.g. generated by a light field camera capturing the 3D information by plenoptic imaging of complex flow processes. Recently, a fast and low cost workflow for producing patient specific three dimensional models of cerebral arteries has been established by stereo-lithographic (SLA) 3D printing. These 3D arterial models are transparent an exhibit a replication precision within a submillimeter range required for accurate flow measurements under physiological conditions. We therefore test the feasibility of microscopic flow measurements by PIV analysis using a plenoptic camera system capturing light field image sequences. Averaging across a sequence of
Efficient numerical solution of steady free-surface Navier-Stokes flow
Brummelen, van, Einar; Raven, H.C.; Koren, Barry
2001-01-01
Numerical solution of flows that are partially bounded by a freely moving boundary is of great importance in practical applications such as ship hydrodynamics. The usual method for solving steady viscous free-surface flow subject to gravitation is alternating time integration of the kinematic condition, and the Navier-Stokes equations with the dynamic conditions imposed, until steady state is reached. This paper shows that at subcritical Froude numbers this time integration approach is necess...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KOUKOUVINIS P.; BERGELES G.; GAVAISES M
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a methodology within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers for cavitating flows capable of predicting the flow regions of bubble collapse and the potential aggressiveness to material damage. An aggressiveness index is introduced, called cavitation aggressiveness index (CAI) based on the total derivative of pressure which identifies surface areas exposed to bubble collapses, the index is tested in two known cases documented in the open literature and seems to identify regions of potential cavitation damage.
Accurate computation of Stokes flow driven by an open immersed interface
Li, Yi; Layton, Anita T.
2012-06-01
We present numerical methods for computing two-dimensional Stokes flow driven by forces singularly supported along an open, immersed interface. Two second-order accurate methods are developed: one for accurately evaluating boundary integral solutions at a point, and another for computing Stokes solution values on a rectangular mesh. We first describe a method for computing singular or nearly singular integrals, such as a double layer potential due to sources on a curve in the plane, evaluated at a point on or near the curve. To improve accuracy of the numerical quadrature, we add corrections for the errors arising from discretization, which are found by asymptotic analysis. When used to solve the Stokes equations with sources on an open, immersed interface, the method generates second-order approximations, for both the pressure and the velocity, and preserves the jumps in the solutions and their derivatives across the boundary. We then combine the method with a mesh-based solver to yield a hybrid method for computing Stokes solutions at N2 grid points on a rectangular grid. Numerical results are presented which exhibit second-order accuracy. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we use the method to simulate fluid dynamics induced by the beating motion of a cilium. The method preserves the sharp jumps in the Stokes solution and their derivatives across the immersed boundary. Model results illustrate the distinct hydrodynamic effects generated by the effective stroke and by the recovery stroke of the ciliary beat cycle.
Framework system and research flow of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Uncertainty in 3D geological structure models has become a bottleneck that restricts the development and application of 3D geological modeling.In order to solve this problem during periods of accuracy assessment,error detection and dynamic correction in 3D geological structure models,we have reviewed the current situation and development trends in 3D geological modeling.The main context of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models is discussed.Major research issues and a general framework system of unce...
Regularized image system for Stokes flow outside a solid sphere
Wróbel, Jacek K.; Cortez, Ricardo; Varela, Douglas; Fauci, Lisa
2016-07-01
The image system for a three-dimensional flow generated by regularized forces outside a solid sphere is formulated and implemented as an extension of the method of regularized Stokeslets. The method is based on replacing a point force given by a delta distribution with a smooth localized function and deriving the exact velocity field produced by the forcing. In order to satisfy zero-flow boundary conditions at a solid sphere, the image system for singular Stokeslets is generalized to give exact cancellation of the regularized flow at the surface of the sphere. The regularized image system contains the same elements as the singular counterpart but with coefficients that depend on a regularization parameter. As this parameter vanishes, the expressions reduce to the image system of the singular Stokeslet. The expression relating force and velocity can be inverted to compute the forces that generate a given velocity boundary condition elsewhere in the flow. We present several examples within the context of biological flows at the microscale in order to validate and highlight the usefulness of the image system in computations.
A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics
Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme
2016-06-01
In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.
3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time.
Ko, Eunjeong; Ahn, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun Yi
2016-01-01
Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1) a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2) the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further. PMID:26821025
3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eunjeong Ko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1 a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2 the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Panic
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The results of experimental investigations concerning radial distribution of powder accumulation in bed and static pressure were presented in this paper. To realize this research physical model of gas-powder two phase flow with descending bed was projected and constructed. Amounts of “dynamic” and “static” powder accumulated in bed, in dependence on gas velocity and of bed particles were investigated. In 3D model “static” powder (with its radial distribution at the tuyere level and in the higher part of bed was measured. The influence of bed particles, powder and gas radial distribution on values of interaction forces between flow phases in investigated system was defined.
Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charles R. Tolle; Timothy A. White; Karen S. Miller; Denis E. Clark; Herschel B. Smartt
2008-06-01
There exists significant prior work using tracers or pre-placed hardened markers within friction stir welding (FSWing) to experimentally explore material flow within the FSW process. Our experiments replaced markers with a thin sheet of copper foil placed between the 6061 aluminum lap and butt joints that were then welded. The absorption characteristics of x-rays for copper and aluminum are significantly different allowing for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods such as x-ray computed tomography (CT) to be used to demonstrate the material movement within the weldment on a much larger scale than previously shown. 3D CT reconstruction of the copper components of the weldment allows for a unique view into the final turbulent state of the welding process as process parameters are varied. The x-ray CT data of a section of the weld region was collected using a cone-beam x-ray imaging system developed at the INL. Six-hundred projections were collected over 360-degrees using a 160-kVp Bremsstrahlung x-ray generator (25-micrometer focal spot) and amorphoussilicon x-ray detector. The region of the object that was imaged was about 3cm tall and 1.5cm x 1cm in cross section, and was imaged at a magnification of about 3.6x. The data were reconstructed on a 0.5x0.5x0.5 mm3 voxel grid. After reconstruction, the aluminum and copper could be easily discriminated using a gray level threshold allowing visualization of the copper components. Fractal analysis of the tomographic reconstructed material topology is investigated as a means to quantify macro level material flow based on process parameters. The results of multi-pass FSWs show increased refinement of the copper trace material. Implications of these techniques for quantifying process flow are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2000-01-01
A new technique for the numerical 3D simulation of time dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. The fluid is described by the Rivlin Sawyer integral constitutive equation. The method (referred to as the 3D...... Lagrangian Integral Method) is a finite element method where Galerkons method is used for solving the governing equation in rectangular coordinates numerically. In the present implementation the velocity and pressure fields are approximated with tri-linear and constant shape functions, respectivly.The 3D LIM......) and polymeric solutions. Secondly, the 3D-LIM has also been applied to calculate the inflation of a thick sheet of a polymeric melt into a elliptic cylinder. These problems all include free surfaces. As the governing equations are solved for the particle positions, the motion of surfaces can be followed easily...
Shock waves in Stokes flows down an inclined plate.
Benilov, E S; Lapin, V N
2011-06-01
We consider a viscous flow on an inclined plate, such that the liquid's depth far upstream is larger than that far downstream, resulting in a "smoothed-shock wave" steadily propagating downstream. Our numerical simulations show that in a large section of the problem's parameter space all initial conditions overturn (i.e., the liquid's surface becomes vertical at some point) and thus no steady solution exists. The overturning can only be stopped by a sufficiently strong surface tension. PMID:21797491
A comparative analysis of 3D flow fields between straight and bowed blades in a steam turbine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.HASSANVAND; WANG Zhong-qi 王仲奇; WANG Song-tao 王松涛
2004-01-01
A commercial Navier-Stokes flow solver has been employed tor simulating steady subsonic flow characteristics and analyzing the comparative features of flow fields between straight and bowed blades applied to the stator of a high pressure steam turbine. For comparison, we have studied the effects of bowed blades on the wakes of stator trailing edge and horse shoe vortex in the rotor. It was found that the position of wakes for bowed blades is shifted toward the blade suction side. Also, we have discussed and compared the entropy generation and energy loss caused by dissipation mechanism within the boundary layers on the hub and shroud; and temperature gradient in meridional plane.
Bubble breakup in two-dimensional Stokes flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new class of exact solutions is reported for an evolving bubble in a two-dimensional slow viscous flow. It is observed that for an expanding bubble the interface grows smoother with time, whereas the contracting-bubble solutions display a tendency to form sharp corners (''near cusps'') for small values of surface tension. In the latter case, we also obtain analytic solutions that describe bubble breakup: For a large class of initial shapes, the interface will eventually develop a thin ''neck'' whose width goes to zero before the bubble is completely removed from the liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flow sensing is an essential technique required for a wide range of application environments ranging from liquid dispensing to utility monitoring. A number of different methodologies and deployment strategies have been devised to cover the diverse range of potential application areas. The ability to easily create new bespoke sensors for new applications is therefore of natural interest. Fused deposition modelling is a 3D printing technology based upon the fabrication of 3D structures in a layer-by-layer fashion using extruded strands of molten thermoplastic. The technology was developed in the late 1980s but has only recently come to more wide-scale attention outside of specialist applications and rapid prototyping due to the advent of low-cost 3D printing platforms such as the RepRap. Due to the relatively low-cost of the printers and feedstock materials, these printers are ideal candidates for wide-scale installation as localized manufacturing platforms to quickly produce replacement parts when components fail. One of the current limitations with the technology is the availability of functional printing materials to facilitate production of complex functional 3D objects and devices beyond mere concept prototypes. This paper presents the formulation of a simple magnetite nanoparticle-loaded thermoplastic composite and its incorporation into a 3D printed flow-sensor in order to mimic the function of a commercially available flow-sensing device. Using the multi-material printing capability of the 3D printer allows a much smaller amount of functional material to be used in comparison to the commercial flow sensor by only placing the material where it is specifically required. Analysis of the printed sensor also revealed a much more linear response to increasing flow rate of water showing that 3D printed devices have the potential to at least perform as well as a conventionally produced sensor. (paper)
Leigh, S. J.; Purssell, C. P.; Billson, D. R.; Hutchins, D. A.
2014-09-01
Flow sensing is an essential technique required for a wide range of application environments ranging from liquid dispensing to utility monitoring. A number of different methodologies and deployment strategies have been devised to cover the diverse range of potential application areas. The ability to easily create new bespoke sensors for new applications is therefore of natural interest. Fused deposition modelling is a 3D printing technology based upon the fabrication of 3D structures in a layer-by-layer fashion using extruded strands of molten thermoplastic. The technology was developed in the late 1980s but has only recently come to more wide-scale attention outside of specialist applications and rapid prototyping due to the advent of low-cost 3D printing platforms such as the RepRap. Due to the relatively low-cost of the printers and feedstock materials, these printers are ideal candidates for wide-scale installation as localized manufacturing platforms to quickly produce replacement parts when components fail. One of the current limitations with the technology is the availability of functional printing materials to facilitate production of complex functional 3D objects and devices beyond mere concept prototypes. This paper presents the formulation of a simple magnetite nanoparticle-loaded thermoplastic composite and its incorporation into a 3D printed flow-sensor in order to mimic the function of a commercially available flow-sensing device. Using the multi-material printing capability of the 3D printer allows a much smaller amount of functional material to be used in comparison to the commercial flow sensor by only placing the material where it is specifically required. Analysis of the printed sensor also revealed a much more linear response to increasing flow rate of water showing that 3D printed devices have the potential to at least perform as well as a conventionally produced sensor.
Thermocapillary bubble flow and coalescence in a rotating cylinder: A 3D study
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, A.; Al-mazidi, M.
2015-12-01
The process of thermocapillary bubbles rising in a rotating 3D cylinder in zero gravity was analysed and presented numerically with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by means of the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Calculations were carried out to investigate in detail the effect of the rotational speed of the hosted liquid on the trajectory of both single and group bubbles driven by the Marangoni force in zero-gravity conditions. For rotational speeds from 0.25 to 2 rad/s, bubble displacement with angular motion was found to be directed between the hotter surface and the rotational axis. This is contrary to the conventional bubble flow from areas of high pressure to low pressure, radial direction, or from cold to hot regions, axial direction. The results demonstrate that for the ratio of rotational speeds to the thermocapillary bubble velocity larger than unity, the surface tension gradient is the dominant force and the bubble motion towards the hotter. On the other hand, for ratio less than 1, the bubble motion is dominated and is significantly affected by centrifugal force. As rotation speed increases, the amount of deflection increases and the Marangoni effect vanishes. The current study is novel in the sense that single- and multi-bubble motion incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment has never been numerically investigated.
Stability of 3D Gaussian vortices in rotating stratified Boussinesq flows: Linear analysis
Mahdinia, Mani; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang
2016-01-01
The linear stability of three-dimensional (3D) vortices in rotating, stratified flows has been studied by analyzing the non-hydrostatic inviscid Boussinesq equations. We have focused on a widely-used model of geophysical and astrophysical vortices, which assumes an axisymmetric Gaussian structure for pressure anomalies in the horizontal and vertical directions. For a range of Rossby number ($-0.5 < Ro < 0.5$) and Burger number ($0.02 < Bu < 2.3$) relevant to observed long-lived vortices, the growth rate and spatial structure of the most unstable eigenmodes have been numerically calculated and presented as a function of $Ro-Bu$. We have found neutrally-stable vortices only over a small region of the $Ro-Bu$ parameter space: cyclones with $Ro \\sim 0.02-0.05$ and $Bu \\sim 0.85-0.95$. However, we have also found that anticyclones in general have slower growth rates compared to cyclones. In particular, growth rate of the most unstable eigenmode for anticyclones in a large region of the parameter space ...
Turbulence and Steady Flows in 3D Global Stratified MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks
Flock, M; Klahr, H; Turner, N J; Henning, Th
2011-01-01
We present full 2 Pi global 3-D stratified MHD simulations of accretion disks. We interpret our results in the context of proto-planetary disks. We investigate the turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) using the PLUTO Godunov code in spherical coordinates with the accurate and robust HLLD Riemann solver. We follow the turbulence for more than 1500 orbits at the innermost radius of the domain to measure the overall strength of turbulent motions and the detailed accretion flow pattern. We find that regions within two scale heights of the midplane have a turbulent Mach number of about 0.1 and a magnetic pressure two to three orders of magnitude less than the gas pressure, while outside three scale heights the magnetic pressure equals or exceeds the gas pressure and the turbulence is transonic, leading to large density fluctuations. The strongest large-scale density disturbances are spiral density waves, and the strongest of these waves has m=5. No clear meridional circulation appears in t...
Quasi-periodic non-stationary solutions of 3D Euler equations for incompressible flow
Ershkov, Sergey V
2015-01-01
A novel derivation of non-stationary solutions of 3D Euler equations for incompressible inviscid flow is considered here. Such a solution is the product of 2 separated parts: - one consisting of the spatial component and the other being related to the time dependent part. Spatial part of a solution could be determined if we substitute such a solution to the equations of motion (equation of momentum) with the requirement of scale-similarity in regard to the proper component of spatial velocity. So, the time-dependent part of equations of momentum should depend on the time-parameter only. The main result, which should be outlined, is that the governing (time-dependent) ODE-system consist of 2 Riccati-type equations in regard to each other, which has no solution in general case. But we obtain conditions when each component of time-dependent part is proved to be determined by the proper elliptical integral in regard to the time-parameter t, which is a generalization of the class of inverse periodic functions.
Stokes flow paths separation and recirculation cells in X-junctions of varying angle
Cachile, Mario; Gomba, Juan M; Hulin, Jean-Pierre; Auradou, Harold
2012-01-01
Fluid and solute transfer in X-junctions between straight channels is shown to depend critically on the junction angle in the Stokes flow regime. Experimentally, water and a water-dye solution are injected at equal flow rates in two facing channels of the junction: Planar Laser Induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements show that the largest part of each injected fluid "bounces back" preferentially into the outlet channel at the lowest angle to the injection; this is opposite to the inertial case and requires a high curvature of the corresponding streamlines. The proportion of this fluid in the other channel decreases from 50% at 90\\degree to zero at a threshold angle. These counterintuitive features reflect the minimization of energy dissipation for Stokes flows. Finite elements numerical simulations of a 2D Stokes flow of equivalent geometry con rm these results and show that, below the threshold angle 33.8\\degree recirculation cells are present in the center part of the junction and separate the two injected...
PARTIALLY AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES METHOD FOR TIME DEPENDENT TURBULENT CAVITATING FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Biao; WANG Guo-yu
2011-01-01
Cavitation typically occurs when the fluid pressure is lower than the vapor pressure in a local thermodynamic state, and the flow is frequently unsteady and turbulent. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach has been popular for turbulent flow computations. The most widely used ones, such as the standard k-ε model, have well-recognized deficiencies when treating time dependent flow field. To identify ways to improve the predictive capability of the current RANS-based engineering turbulence closures, conditional averaging is adopted for the Navier-Stokes equation, and one more parameter, based on the filter size, is introduced into the k-ε model. In the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model, the filter width is mainly controlled by the ratio of unresolved-to-total kinetic energy f1. This model is assessed in unsteady cavitating flows over a Clark-Y hydrofoil. From the experimental validations regarding the forces, frequencies, cavity visualizations and velocity distributions, the PANS model is shown to improve the predictive capability considerably, in comparison to the standard k-ε model, and also, it is observed the value of f1 in the PANS model has substantial influence on the predicting result. As the filter width f1 is decreased, the PANS model can effectively reduce the eddy viscosity near the closure region which can significantly influence the capture of the detach cavity, and this model can reproduce the time-averaged velocity quantitatively around the hydrofoil.
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Analysis of Zero Efflux Flow Control over a Hump Model
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2006-01-01
The unsteady flow over a hump model with zero efflux oscillatory flow control is modeled computationally using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three different turbulence models produce similar results, and do a reasonably good job predicting the general character of the unsteady surface pressure coefficients during the forced cycle. However, the turbulent shear stresses are underpredicted in magnitude inside the separation bubble, and the computed results predict too large a (mean) separation bubble compared with experiment. These missed predictions are consistent with earlier steady-state results using no-flow-control and steady suction, from a 2004 CFD validation workshop for synthetic jets.
Nearly Interactive Parabolized Navier-Stokes Solver for High Speed Forebody and Inlet Flows
Benson, Thomas J.; Liou, May-Fun; Jones, William H.; Trefny, Charles J.
2009-01-01
A system of computer programs is being developed for the preliminary design of high speed inlets and forebodies. The system comprises four functions: geometry definition, flow grid generation, flow solver, and graphics post-processor. The system runs on a dedicated personal computer using the Windows operating system and is controlled by graphical user interfaces written in MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc.). The flow solver uses the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations to compute millions of mesh points in several minutes. Sample two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations are demonstrated in the paper.
ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT OF STOKES LAYER FLOWS IN AN OSCILLATING NARROW CHANNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The velocities of boundary layer flows between two parallel oscillating plates separated by small distance, i.e., in so called narrow channel, were theoretically and experimentally studied. The focus was on the laminar case where the Reynolds number is much smaller than the transition value. The theoretical analysis of the Stokes layer in oscillating flow over a narrow channel was made first. Then Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) was employed to measure the Stokes boundary layer above an oscillating flat plate and inside the oscillating narrow channel at various numbers. At the same time, the phase angle difference along the vertical direction in both analysis and experiment were provided. The good agreements are shown between the measured results and the theoretical solution.
Stokes flow between eccentric rotating spheres with slip regime
Faltas, M. S.; Saad, E. I.
2012-10-01
The steady axisymmetric flow problem of a viscous fluid contained between two eccentric spheres that rotate about an axis joining their centers with different angular velocities is considered. A linear slip of Basset-type boundary condition at both surfaces of the spherical particle and the container is used. Under the Stokesian assumption, a general solution is constructed from the superposition of basic solutions in the spherical coordinate systems based on the inner solid particle and the spherical container. The boundary conditions on the particle's surface and spherical container are satisfied by a collocation technique. Numerical results for the coupling coefficient acting on the particle are obtained with good convergence for various values of the ratio of particle-to-container radii, the relative distance between the centers of the particle and container, the slip coefficients and the relative angular velocity. In the limiting cases, the numerical values of the coupling coefficient for the solid sphere in concentric position with the container and when the particle is near the inner surface of the container are obtained, and the results are in good agreement with the available values in the literature. The variation of the coupling coefficient with respect the parameters considered are tabulated and displayed graphically.
Design, Analysis, and Initial Testing of a Fiber-Optic Shear Gage for 3D, High-Temperature Flows
Orr, Matthew William
2004-01-01
Design, Analysis, and Initial Testing of a Fiber-Optic Shear Gage for 3D, High-Temperature Flows Matthew W. Orr Dr. Joseph A. Schetz, Chairman Aerospace Engineering Abstract This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the flo...
Quasi-steady Stokes flow of multiphase fluids with shear-dependent viscosity
Ebmeyer, Carsten; Urbano, José Miguel
2006-01-01
The quasi–steady power–law Stokes flow of a mixture of incompressible fluids with shear–dependent viscosity is studied. The fluids are immiscible and have constant densities. Existence results are presented for both the no–slip and the no–stick boundary value conditions. Use is made of Schauder’s fixed–point theorem, compactness arguments, and DiPerna-Lions renormalized solutions.
Chojnicki, K. N.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.
2015-12-01
Understanding reactive flow in geomaterials is important for optimizing geologic carbon storage practices, such as using pore space efficiently. Flow paths can be complex in large degrees of geologic heterogeneities across scales. In addition, local heterogeneity can evolve as reactive transport processes alter the pore-scale morphology. For example, dissolved carbon dioxide may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in heterogeneous cementation (and/or dissolution) and evolving flow conditions. Both path and flow complexities are important and poorly characterized, making it difficult to determine their evolution with traditional 2-D transport models. Here we characterize the development of 3-D pore-scale flow with an evolving pore configuration due to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation and dissolution. A simple pattern of a microfluidic pore network is used initially and pore structures will become more complex due to precipitation and dissolution processes. At several stages of precipitation and dissolution, we directly visualize 3-D velocity vectors using micro particle image velocimetry and a laser scanning confocal microscope. Measured 3-D velocity vectors are then compared to 3-D simulated flow fields which will be used to simulate reactive transport. Our findings will highlight the importance of the 3-D flow dynamics and its impact on estimating reactive surface area over time. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.
Zhu, Liang-sheng; Yu, Long-fei
2016-10-01
Aimed at the hydrodynamic response for marine structures slamming into water, based on the mechanism analysis to the slamming process, and by combining 3D N-S equation and k- ɛ turbulent kinetic equation with structure fully 6DOF motion equation, a mathematical model for the wind-fluid-solid interaction is established in 3D marine structure slamming wave at free poses and wind-wave-flow complex environments. Compared with the results of physical model test, the numerical results from the slamming wave well correspond with the experimental results. Through the mathematical model, the wave-making issue of 3D marine structure at initial pose falls into water in different complex wind, wave and flow environments is investigated. The research results show that various kinds of natural factors and structure initial poses have different influence on the slamming wave, and there is an obvious rule in this process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗志强; 陈志敏
2013-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) predictor-corrector finite difference method for standing wave is developed. It is applied to solve the 3D nonlinear potential flow equa-tions with a free surface. The 3D irregular tank is mapped onto a fixed cubic tank through the proper coordinate transform schemes. The cubic tank is distributed by the staggered meshgrid, and the staggered meshgrid is used to denote the variables of the flow field. The predictor-corrector finite difference method is given to develop the difference equa-tions of the dynamic boundary equation and kinematic boundary equation. Experimental results show that, using the finite difference method of the predictor-corrector scheme, the numerical solutions agree well with the published results. The wave profiles of the standing wave with different amplitudes and wave lengths are studied. The numerical solutions are also analyzed and presented graphically.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project proposes to develop a gas-kinetic Navier-Stokes solver for simulation of hypersonic flows in thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. The...
Mao, Mingxu; Ye, Jiamin; Wang, Haigang; Yang, Wuqiang
2016-09-01
The hydrodynamics of gas-solids flow in the bottom of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) are complicated. Three-dimensional (3D) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been used to investigate the hydrodynamics in risers of different shapes. Four different ECT sensors with 12 electrodes each are designed according to the dimension of risers, including two circular ECT sensors, a square ECT sensor and a rectangular ECT sensor. The electrodes are evenly arranged in three planes to obtain capacitance in different heights and to reconstruct the 3D images by linear back projection (LBP) algorithm. Experiments were carried out on the four risers using sands as the solids material. The capacitance and differential pressure are measured under the gas superficial velocity from 0.6 m s-1 to 3.0 m s-1 with a step of 0.2 m s-1. The flow regime is investigated according to the solids concentration and differential pressure. The dynamic property of bubbling flows is analyzed theoretically and the performance of the 3D ECT sensors is evaluated. The experimental results show that 3D ECT can be used in the CFB with different risers to predict the hydrodynamics of gas-solids bubbling flows.
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
TRIO a general computer code for reactor 3-D flows analysis. Application to a LMFBR hot plenum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TRIO is a code developed at CEA to investigate general incompressible 2D and 3D viscous flows. Two calculations are presented: the lid driven cubic cavity at Re=400; steady state (velocity and temperature field) of a LMFBR hot plenum, carried out in order to prepare the calculation of a cold shock consecutive to a reactor scram. 8 refs., 26 figs.
Axial Green’s function method for steady Stokes flow in geometrically complex domains
Jun, Sukky; Kim, Do Wan
2011-03-01
Axial Green's function method (AGM) is developed for the simulation of Stokes flow in geometrically complex solution domains. The AGM formulation systematically decomposes the multidimensional steady-state Stokes equations into 1D forms. The representation formula for the solution variables can then be derived using the 1D Green's functions only, from which a system of 1D integral equations is obtained. Furthermore, the explicit representation formula for the pressure variable enable the unique AGM approach to facilitating the stabilization issue caused by the saddle structure between velocity and pressure. The convergence of numerical solutions, the simple axial discretization of complex solution domains, and the nature of integral schemes are demonstrated through a variety of numerical examples.
Well-Posed Stokes/Brinkman and Stokes/Darcy Problems for Coupled Fluid-Porous Viscous Flows
Angot, Philippe
2010-09-01
We present a well-posed model for the Stokes/Brinkman problem with a family of jump embedded boundary conditions (J.E.B.C.) on an immersed interface with weak regularity assumptions. It is issued from a general framework recently proposed for fictitious domain problems. Our model is based on algebraic transmission conditions combining the stress and velocity jumps on the interface Σ separating the fluid and porous domains. These conditions, well chosen to get the coercivity of the operator, are sufficiently general to get the usual immersed boundary conditions on Σ when fictitious domain methods are concerned: Stefan-like, Robin (Fourier), Neumann or Dirichlet… Moreover, the general framework allows to prove the global solvability of some models with physically relevant stress or velocity jump boundary conditions for the momentum transport at a fluid-porous interface. The Stokes/Brinkman problem with Ochoa-Tapia & Whitaker (1995) interface conditions and the Stokes/Darcy problem with Beavers & Joseph (1967) conditions are both proved to be well-posed by an asymptotic analysis. Up to our knowledge, only the Stokes/Darcy problem with Saffman (1971) approximate interface conditions was known to be well-posed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazani, A., E-mail: ali.ramazani@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr.1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Mukherjee, K.; Quade, H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr.1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)
2013-01-10
A microstructure-based approach by means of representative volume elements (RVEs) is employed to evaluate the flow curve of DP steels using virtual tensile tests. Microstructures with different martensite fractions and morphologies are studied in two- and three-dimensional approaches. Micro sections of DP microstructures with various amounts of martensite have been converted to 2D RVEs, while 3D RVEs were constructed statistically with randomly distributed phases. A dislocation-based model is used to describe the flow curve of each ferrite and martensite phase separately as a function of carbon partitioning and microstructural features. Numerical tensile tests of RVE were carried out using the ABAQUS/Standard code to predict the flow behaviour of DP steels. It is observed that 2D plane strain modelling gives an underpredicted flow curve for DP steels, while the 3D modelling gives a quantitatively reasonable description of flow curve in comparison to the experimental data. In this work, a von Mises stress correlation factor {sigma}{sub 3D}/{sigma}{sub 2D} has been identified to compare the predicted flow curves of these two dimensionalities showing a third order polynomial relation with respect to martensite fraction and a second order polynomial relation with respect to equivalent plastic strain, respectively. The quantification of this polynomial correlation factor is performed based on laboratory-annealed DP600 chemistry with varying martensite content and it is validated for industrially produced DP qualities with various chemistry, strength level and martensite fraction.
Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner
Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki
The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.
Assessment of RELAP5-3D{copyright} using data from two-dimensional RPI flow tests
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, C.B.
1998-07-01
The capability of the RELAP5-3D{copyright} computer code to perform multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis was assessed using data from steady-state flow tests conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The RPI data were taken in a two-dimensional test section in a low-pressure air/water loop. The test section consisted of a thin vertical channel that simulated a two-dimensional slice through the core of a pressurized water reactor. Single-phase and two-phase flows were supplied to the test section in an asymmetric manner to generate a two-dimensional flow field. A traversing gamma densitometer was used to measure void fraction at many locations in the test section. High speed photographs provided information on the flow patterns and flow regimes. The RPI test section was modeled using the multi-dimensional component in RELAP5-3D Version BF06. Calculations of three RPI experiments were performed. The flow regimes predicted by the base code were in poor agreement with those observed in the tests. The two-phase regions were observed to be in the bubbly and slug flow regimes in the test. However, nearly all of the junctions in the horizontal direction were calculated to be in the stratified flow regime because of the relatively low velocities in that direction. As a result, the void fraction predictions were also in poor agreement with the measured values. Significantly improved results were obtained in sensitivity calculations with a modified version of the code that prevented the horizontal junctions from entering the stratified flow regime. These results indicate that the code`s logic in the determination of flow regimes in a multi-dimensional component must be improved. The results of the sensitivity calculations also indicate that RELAP5-3D will provide a significant multi-dimensional hydraulic analysis capability once the flow regime prediction is improved.
3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries
Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2015-10-01
Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not
Bruno, Oscar
2015-01-01
This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples $(h,\\Delta t)$ of spatial and t...
Wang, ChengYue; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Li, Tian; Wang, JinJun
2016-06-01
Volumetric measurement for the leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown of a delta wing has been conducted by three-dimensional (3D) flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). The 3D flow visualization is employed to show the vortex structures, which was recorded by four cameras with high resolution. 3D dye streaklines of the visualization are reconstructed using a similar way of particle reconstruction in TPIV. Tomographic PIV is carried out at the same time using same cameras with the dye visualization. Q criterion is employed to identify the LEV. Results of tomographic PIV agree well with the reconstructed 3D dye streaklines, which proves the validity of the measurements. The time-averaged flow field based on TPIV is shown and described by sections of velocity and streamwise vorticity. Combining the two measurement methods sheds light on the complex structures of both bubble type and spiral type of breakdown. The breakdown position is recognized by investigating both the streaklines and TPIV velocity fields. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to extract a pair of conjugated helical instability modes from TPIV data. Therefore, the dominant frequency of the instability modes is obtained from the corresponding POD coefficients of the modes based on wavelet transform analysis.
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models
Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva
2014-07-01
To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.
Pore-Scale Modeling of Navier-Stokes Flow in Distensible Networks and Porous Media
Sochi, Taha
2013-01-01
In this paper, a pore-scale network modeling method, based on the flow continuity residual in conjunction with a Newton-Raphson non-linear iterative solving technique, is proposed and used to obtain the pressure and flow fields in a network of interconnected distensible ducts representing, for instance, blood vasculature or deformable porous media. A previously derived analytical expression correlating boundary pressures to volumetric flow rate in compliant tubes for a pressure-area constitutive elastic relation has been used to represent the underlying flow model. Comparison to a preceding equivalent method, the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element, was made and the results were analyzed. The advantages of the new method have been highlighted and practical computational issues, related mainly to the rate and speed of convergence, have been discussed.
Molecular-detailed simulation of red blood cells in Stokes flows
Peng, Zhangli; Zhu, Qiang
2010-11-01
The red blood cell (RBC) membrane consists of a lipid bilayer and a cytoskeleton. By coupling a multiscale approach of RBC membranes with a boundary element method (BEM) for the exterior and interior fluids, we developed a numerical capacity to relate the fluid-structure interaction of RBCs in Stokes flows with detailed mechanical loads inside its molecular architecture. Our multiscale approach includes three models: in the whole cell level, a finite element method (FEM) is employed to model the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton as two distinct layers of continuum shells; the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton are obtained from a molecular-based model; the spectrin, a major protein of the cytoskeleton, is simulated using a constitutive model. BEM is applied to predict the exterior and interior Stokes flows, and is coupled with the FEM of the membrane through a staggered coupling algorithm. Using this method, we simulated the tumbling and tank-treading behaviors of RBCs in shear flows, and investigated the RBC dynamics in capillary flows. The structural deformation of the cytoskeleton and the interaction force between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton are predicted.
Navier-Stokes flow in the weighted Hardy space with applications to time decay problem
Okabe, Takahiro; Tsutsui, Yohei
2016-08-01
The asymptotic expansions of the Navier-Stokes flow in Rn and the rates of decay are studied with aid of weighted Hardy spaces. Fujigaki and Miyakawa [12], Miyakawa [28] proved the nth order asymptotic expansion of the Navier-Stokes flow if initial data decays like (1 + | x |)-n-1 and if nth moment of initial data is finite. In the present paper, it is clarified that the moment condition for initial data is essential in order to obtain higher order asymptotic expansion of the flow and to consider the rapid time decay problem. The second author [39] established the weighted estimates of the strong solutions in the weighted Hardy spaces with small initial data which belongs to Ln and a weighed Hardy space. Firstly, the refinement of the previous work [39] is achieved with alternative proof. Then the existence time of the solution in the weighted Hardy spaces is characterized without any Hardy norm. As a result, in two dimensional case the smallness condition on initial data is completely removed. As an application, the rapid time decay of the flow is investigated with aid of asymptotic expansions and of the symmetry conditions introduced by Brandolese [3].
Mixed mimetic spectral element method for Stokes flow: A pointwise divergence-free solution
Kreeft, Jasper; Gerritsma, Marc
2013-05-01
In this paper we apply the recently developed mimetic discretization method to the mixed formulation of the Stokes problem in terms of vorticity, velocity and pressure. The mimetic discretization presented in this paper and in Kreeft et al. [51] is a higher-order method for curvilinear quadrilaterals and hexahedrals. Fundamental is the underlying structure of oriented geometric objects, the relation between these objects through the boundary operator and how this defines the exterior derivative, representing the grad, curl and div, through the generalized Stokes theorem. The mimetic method presented here uses the language of differential k-forms with k-cochains as their discrete counterpart, and the relations between them in terms of the mimetic operators: reduction, reconstruction and projection. The reconstruction consists of the recently developed mimetic spectral interpolation functions. The most important result of the mimetic framework is the commutation between differentiation at the continuous level with that on the finite dimensional and discrete level. As a result operators like gradient, curl and divergence are discretized exactly. For Stokes flow, this implies a pointwise divergence-free solution. This is confirmed using a set of test cases on both Cartesian and curvilinear meshes. It will be shown that the method converges optimally for all admissible boundary conditions.
Temporal Evolution of the 3-D Flow Field In a Mixing Tank with a Two-Bladed Impeller
Choi, Woong-Chul; Guezennec, Yann G.
1998-11-01
The evolution of the 3-D flow field inside a cylindrical mixing vessel was measured using 3-D Cinematic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The mixing vessel consisted of a cylindrical chamber with a two-bladed impeller axially centered in the vessel. The impeller was a simple paddle wheel-type and its height in the vessel could be externally adjusted. The fluid inside the chamber was seeded by small neutrally buoyant particles. The entire vessel volume was illuminated by a high-power, collimated strobe light located under the vessel and the particle motion was imaged by a pair of synchronized high-speed (up to 500 fps) digital cameras. Prior to the actual experiments, an in situ calibration of the cameras was performed to automatically account for the optical distortion resulting from the curved vessel boundaries and index of refraction mismatch. The long, high-speed video sequences were analyzed using the FloDyne(tm) 3-D Particle Tracking software. This typically resulted in 500-600 instantaneous 3-D velocity vectors over the entire vessel. The image sequences were then processed for a large number of impeller rotations (50, typically). The resulting velocity fields were then post-processed to obtain the evolution of the phase-averaged 3-D velocity field as well as estimates of the intrinsic turbulence intensities. Animation of the reconstructed 3-D flow fields will be shown. Under some geometrical configurations of the impeller at low Reynolds numbers, the results show the presence of quasi-stable recirculating regions inhibiting the overall mixing.
Massively Parallel Linear Stability Analysis with P_ARPACK for 3D Fluid Flow Modeled with MPSalsa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehoucq, R.B.; Salinger, A.G.
1998-10-13
We are interested in the stability of three-dimensional fluid flows to small dkturbances. One computational approach is to solve a sequence of large sparse generalized eigenvalue problems for the leading modes that arise from discretizating the differential equations modeling the flow. The modes of interest are the eigenvalues of largest real part and their associated eigenvectors. We discuss our work to develop an effi- cient and reliable eigensolver for use by the massively parallel simulation code MPSalsa. MPSalsa allows simulation of complex 3D fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer with detailed bulk fluid and surface chemical reaction kinetics.
Accurate calculation of Stokes drag for point-particle tracking in two-way coupled flows
Horwitz, J. A. K.; Mani, A.
2016-08-01
In this work, we propose and test a method for calculating Stokes drag applicable to particle-laden fluid flows where two-way momentum coupling is important. In the point-particle formulation, particle dynamics are coupled to fluid dynamics via a source term that appears in the respective momentum equations. When the particle Reynolds number is small and the particle diameter is smaller than the fluid scales, it is common to approximate the momentum coupling source term as the Stokes drag. The Stokes drag force depends on the difference between the undisturbed fluid velocity evaluated at the particle location, and the particle velocity. However, owing to two-way coupling, the fluid velocity is modified in the neighborhood of a particle, relative to its undisturbed value. This causes the computed Stokes drag force to be underestimated in two-way coupled point-particle simulations. We develop estimates for the drag force error as function of the particle size relative to the grid size. Because the disturbance field created by the particle contaminates the surrounding fluid, correctly calculating the drag force cannot be done solely by direct interpolation of the fluid velocity. Instead, we develop a correction method that calculates the undisturbed fluid velocity from the computed disturbed velocity field by adding an estimate of the velocity disturbance created by the particle. The correction scheme is tested for a particle settling in an otherwise quiescent fluid and is found to reduce the error in computed settling velocity by an order of magnitude compared with common interpolation schemes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
V.I. GNESIN; L.V. KOLODYAZHNAYA; R. RZADKOWSKI
2005-01-01
Fiszera st., 14, Gdansk, 80 952 PolandIn this study presented the algorithm proposed involves the coupled solution of 3-D unsteady flow through a turbine stage and the dynamics problem for rotor-blade motion by the action of aerodynamic forces, without separating the outer and inner flow fluctuations. The partially integrated method involves the solution of the fluid and structural equations separately, but information is exchanged at each time step, so that solution from one domain is used as a boundary condition for the other domain. 3-D transonic gas flow through the stator and rotor blades in relative motion with periodicity on the whole annulus is described by the unsteady Euler conservation equations, which are integrated using the explicit monotonous finite-volume difference scheme of GodunovKolgan. The structural analysis uses the modal approach and a 3-D finite element model of a blade. A calculation has been done for the last stage of the steam turbine, under design and off-design regimes. It is shown that the amplitude-frequency spectrum of blade oscillations contains the high frequency harmonics, corresponding to the rotor moving past one stator blade pitch, and low frequency harmonics caused by blade oscillations and flow nonunifonnity downstream from the blade row; moreover, the spectrum involves the harmonics which are not multiples of the rotation frequency.
NON-STATIONARY STOKES FLOWS UNDER LEAK BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF FRICTION TYPE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hiroshi Fujita
2001-01-01
This paper is concerned with the initial value problem for non-stationary Stokes flows,under a certain non-linear boundary condition which can be called the leak boundarycondition of friction type. Theoretically, our main purpose is to show the strong solvability(i.e.,the unique existence of the L2-strong solution) of this initial value problem by meansof the non-linear semi-group theory originated with Y. Komura. The method of analysiscan be applied to other boundary or interface conditions of friction type. It should benoted that the result yields a sound basis of simulation methods for evolution problemsinvolving these conditions.
Stokes coupling method for the exterior flowPart III: regularity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Based on the Stokes coupling method for solving the two-dimensional exterior unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the existence of the strong solution of the Stokes coupling equations is proven. And the regularity of the solution for the reduced Stokes coupling equations is discussed.
A Stokes-residual backflow stabilization method applied to physiological flows
Bertoglio, Cristóbal; Caiazzo, Alfonso
2016-05-01
In computational fluid dynamics, the presence of incoming flow at open boundaries (backflow) might often yield unphysical oscillations and instabilities issues, even for moderate Reynolds numbers. It is widely accepted that this problem is caused by the incoming convective energy at the open boundary, which cannot be controlled a priori when the velocity at the boundary is unknown. In this work, we propose a stabilized finite element formulation for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in which the stabilization term is based on the residual of a weak Stokes problem normal to the open boundary, driven by an approximated boundary pressure gradient. In particular, the viscous term introduces additional dissipation which controls the incoming convective energy. This method has the advantage as it does not require modifications or extensions of the computational domain. Moreover, it does not require a priori assumptions on the shape of the boundary velocity field. We illustrate our approach through several numerical examples relevant to blood and respiratory flows, including Womersley flows and realistic geometries coming from medical imaging. The performance of the simulations is compared to recently reported approaches.
Efficient computation of steady, 3D water-wave patterns, application to hovercraft-type flows
Lewis, M. R.; Koren, Barry
2002-01-01
Numerical methods for the computation of stationary free surfaces is the subject of much current research in computational engineering. The present report is directed towards free surfaces in maritime engineering. Of interest here are the long steady waves generated by hovercraft and ships, the gravity waves. In the present report an existing 2D iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is extended to 3D, numerically investigated, and improved. The method emplo...
Numerical Modeling of 2-D and 3-D Flows using Artificial Compressibility Method and Collocated Mesh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasin Aghaee-Shalmani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, applications of a numerical model on simulation of two and three-dimensional ﬂows are presented. This model solves Navier-Stokes equations using ﬁnite volume method and large eddy simulation (LES in a collocated mesh. Artiﬁcial compressibility method with dual t ime stepping is used to solve the time dependent equations. Also a modiﬁed m omentum i nterpolation method (MIM based on the unsteady ﬂows i s deployed t o overcome t he non-physical pressure oscillation. Capability of the presented numerical code for ﬂow s imulation, i s a ssessed by a pplication f or twodimensional square and three-dimensional lid-driven cavity ﬂows. Numerical r esults of cavity ﬂow presents very good agreement with the numerical and experimental data of other existent researches.
Bhattacharya, Amitabh
2013-11-01
An efficient algorithm for simulating Stokes flow around particles is presented here, in which a second order Finite Difference method (FDM) is coupled to a Boundary Integral method (BIM). This method utilizes the strong points of FDM (i.e. localized stencil) and BIM (i.e. accurate representation of particle surface). Specifically, in each iteration, the flow field away from the particles is solved on a Cartesian FDM grid, while the traction on the particle surface (given the the velocity of the particle) is solved using BIM. The two schemes are coupled by matching the solution in an intermediate region between the particle and surrounding fluid. We validate this method by solving for flow around an array of cylinders, and find good agreement with Hasimoto's (J. Fluid Mech. 1959) analytical results.
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of 3-D Separated Flow Field around a Blunt Body
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
@@Motivated by re-designing a fuselage in engineering application, the numerical and experimental investigation of the separated flow field around a special blunt body is described in this thesis. The aerodynamic response of the blunt body is successively studied. The thesis consists of four parts: the numerical simulation of the flow field around a two-dimensional blunt body; the numerical simulation of the flow field around a three-dimensional blunt body; the flow
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of 2D and 3D non-Brownian suspensions in Couette flow
Kromkamp, J.; Ende, van den D.; Kandhai, D.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boom, R.M.
2006-01-01
In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is applied for computer simulation of suspension flow in Couette systems. Typical aspects of Couette flow such as wall effects and non-zero Reynolds numbers can be studied well with the LB method because of its time-dependent character. Couette flow o
3D flows near a HAWT rotor: A dissection of blade and wake contributions
Micallef, D.
2012-01-01
Investigating the flow physics in the vicinity of the wind turbine blade is a challenging endeavour. In the past, focus was placed on the understanding of near wake flows arising from wake vorticity and the rotor loading. In this work, a different approach is taken by considering the flow field in t
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kallinderis, Yannis, E-mail: kallind@otenet.gr [Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Patras, Rio Patras 26504 (Greece); Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope [Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Patras, Rio Patras 26504 (Greece)
2012-07-15
A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to design and define appropriate dimensions for a supercritical oxidation reactor, a comparative 2D and 3D simulation of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer during an oxidation process has been performed. The solver used is a commercial code, Fluent 6.2 (R). The turbulent flow field in the reactor, created by the stirrer, is taken into account with a k-omega model and a swirl imposed to the fluid. In the 3D case the rotation of the stirrer can be modelled using the sliding mesh model and the moving reference frame model. This work allows comparing 2D and 3D velocity and heat transfer calculations. The predicted values (mainly species concentrations and temperature profiles) are of the same order in both cases. The reactivity of the system is taken into account with a classical Eddy Dissipation Concept combustion model. Comparisons with experimental temperature measurements validate the ability of the CFD modelling to simulate the supercritical water oxidation reactive medium. Results indicate that the flow can be considered as plug flow-like and that heat transfer is strongly enhanced by the stirring. (authors)
Validation of Wall Friction Model in SPACE-3D Module with Two-Phase Cross Flow Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Chi-Jin; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cher [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In this study, SPACE-3D was used to simulate the Yang's experiment, and obtained the local variables. Then, the wall friction model used in SPACE-3D was validated by comparing the two-phase cross flow experimental results with the calculated local variables. In this study, the two-phase cross flow experiment was modeled by SPACE-3D to validate the wall friction model in multi-dimensional module. Considering the realistic phenomena in the reactor, however, recent trends in safety analysis codes have tended to adopt multi-dimensional module to simulate the complex flow more accurately. Even though the module was applied to deal the multi-dimensional phenomena, implemented models in that are one-dimensional empirical models. Therefore, prior to applying the multi-dimensional module, the constitutive models implemented in the codes need to be validated. In the downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) which has direct vessel injection (DVI) lines as an emergency core cooling system, multi-dimensional two-phase flow may occur due to the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). The accurate prediction about that is high relevance to evaluation of the integrity of the reactor core. For this reason, Yang performed an experiment that was to investigate the two-dimensional film flow which simulated the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer, and obtained the local liquid film velocity and thickness data. From these data, it could be possible to validate the friction models in multi-dimensional module of system analysis codes. Compared with the experiment, SPACE-3D underestimated the liquid film velocity and overestimated the liquid film thickness. From these results, it was clarified that the Wallis correlation which is used as a wall friction model in SPACE-3D overestimates the wall friction. On the other hand, H.T.F.S. correlation which is used as the wall friction in MARS-multiD underestimates the wall friction.
3-D hybrid LES-RANS model for simulation of open-channel T-diversion flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie ZHOU; Cheng ZENG
2009-01-01
The study of flow diversions in open channels plays an important practical role in the design and management of open-channel networks for irrigation or drainage.To accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of open-channel dividing flows,a hybrid LES-RANS model,which combines the large eddy simulation (LES) model with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model,is proposed in the present study.The unsteady RANS model was used to simulate the upstream and downstream regions of a main channel,as well as the downstream region of a branch channel.The LES model was used to simulate the channel diversion region,where turbulent flow characteristics ate complicated.Isotropic velocity fluctuations were added at the inflow interface of the LES region to trigger the generation of resolved turbulence.A method based on the virtual body force is proposed to impose Reynolds-averaged velocity fields near the outlet of the LES region in order to take downstream flow effects computed by the RANS model into account and dissipate the excessive turbulent fluctuations.This hybrid approach saves computational effort and makes it easier to properly specify inlet and outlet boundary conditions.Comparison between computational results and experimental data indicates that this relatively new modeling approach can accurately predict open-channel T-diversion flows.
3-D hybrid LES-RANS model for simulation of open-channel T-diversion flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie ZHOU
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The study of flow diversions in open channels plays an important practical role in the design and management of open-channel networks for irrigation or drainage. To accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of open-channel dividing flows, a hybrid LES-RANS model, which combines the large eddy simulation (LES model with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS model, is proposed in the present study. The unsteady RANS model was used to simulate the upstream and downstream regions of a main channel, as well as the downstream region of a branch channel. The LES model was used to simulate the channel diversion region, where turbulent flow characteristics are complicated. Isotropic velocity fluctuations were added at the inflow interface of the LES region to trigger the generation of resolved turbulence. A method based on the virtual body force is proposed to impose Reynolds-averaged velocity fields near the outlet of the LES region in order to take downstream flow effects computed by the RANS model into account and dissipate the excessive turbulent fluctuations. This hybrid approach saves computational effort and makes it easier to properly specify inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Comparison between computational results and experimental data indicates that this relatively new modeling approach can accurately predict open-channel T-diversion flows.
Computer Simulation of Flow in CSO “OK3D Evropská”
Pollert, J
2000-01-01
During the last 30 years, a number of devices has been developed for dynamic separation of settle able solids in wastewaters. Initially, these separators were used for control of Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) pollution by retaining the bulk of solids in the underflow, directed to the sewage treatment plant (STP), and allowing combined sewage with reduced pollutant loads to overflow from the sewer systém. This paper is describing CSO “OK 3D Evropská” in Prague 6 on Evropská Street. Inlet...
Application of A Fast Multipole BIEM for Flow Diffraction from A 3D Body
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
滕斌; 宁德志
2004-01-01
A Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is developed as a numerical approach to the reduction of the computational cost and requirement memory capacity for a large in solving large-scale problems. In this paper it is applied to the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) for current diffraction from arbitrary 3D bodies. The boundary integral equation is discretized by higher order elements, the FMM is applied to avoid the matrix/vector product, and the resulting algebraic equation is solved by the Generalized Conjugate Residual method (GCR). Numerical examination shows that the FMM is more efficient than the direct evaluation method in computational cost and storage of computers.
Optic flow-based vision system for autonomous 3D localization and control of small aerial vehicles
Kendoul, Farid; Fantoni, Isabelle; Nonami, Kenzo
2009-01-01
International audience; The problem considered in this paper involves the design of a vision-based autopilot for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed autopilot is based on an optic flow-based vision system for autonomous localization and scene mapping, and a nonlinear control system for flight control and guidance. This paper focusses on the development of a real-time 3D vision algorithm for estimating optic flow, aircraft self-motion and depth map, using a low-resolu...
3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River
Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.
2011-01-01
Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.
3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow
Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.
2015-11-01
We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.
Water flow prediction for Membranes using 3D simulations with detailed morphology
Shi, Meixia
2015-04-01
The membrane morphology significantly influences membrane performance. For osmotically driven membrane processes, the morphology strongly affects the internal concentration polarization. Different membrane morphologies were generated by simulation and their influence on membrane performance was studied, using a 3D model. The simulation results were experimentally validated for two classical phase-inversion membrane morphologies: sponge- and finger-like structures. Membrane porosity and scanning electron microscopy image information were used as model input. The permeance results from the simulation fit well the experimentally measured permeances. Water permeances were predicted for different kinds of finger-like cavity membranes with different finger-like cavity lengths and various finger-like cavity sets, as well as for membranes with cylindrical cavities. The results provide realistic information on how to increase water permeance, and also illustrate that membrane’s complete morphology is important for the accurate water permeance evaluation. Evaluations only based on porosity might be misleading, and the new 3D simulation approach gives a more realistic representation.
Experimental study on the confined 3D laminar flow past a square prism with a high blockage ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Experimental study of the flow past a confined square section prism. • Flow regime is 3D and laminar. • Different regimes are identified depending on the Reynolds number. • Results could be used for practical engineering design purposes. -- Abstract: An experimental PIV study is presented that addresses the confined 3D laminar flow behaviour past a square prism. The Reynolds number (Re), based on prism cross-section height varies between 100 and 256. The channel aspect ratio is 1/1 and the blockage ratio is 1/2.5. This geometry is representative of a passive method to enhance mixing in otherwise highly ordered laminar channel flow. It is found that the lateral walls exert a strong effect on the flow behaviour with two main consequences: (a) the onset of vortex shedding is delayed to a Re in the vicinity of 170, as opposed to the unconfined case where the critical Re is reported to be between 50 and 60 and (b) transition from the steady closed recirculation bubble regime to the vortex shedding regime is not abrupt. In particular, there is a range of Re for which the closed recirculation bubble pulsates with increasing amplitude prior to the onset of the Karman street regime. The experimental results are supported by numerical computations, and the relation of the results with the practical design of engineering systems is also discussed
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D TURBULENT FLOW IN THE MULTI- INTAKES SUMP OF THE PUMP STATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hong-xun; GUO Jia-hong
2007-01-01
In this article, a numerical model for three-dimensional turbulent flow in the sump of the pump station was presented. A reasonable boundary condition for the flow in the sump with several water intakes at different flow rates was proposed. The finite volume method was employed to solve the governing equations with the body fitted grid generated by the multi-block grid technique. By using the Fluent software, the fluid flow in a model sump of the pump station was calculated. Compared with the experimental result, the numerical result of the example is fairly good.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavitation is one of the most demanding physical phenomena influencing the performance of hydraulic machines. It is therefore important to predict correctly its inception and development, in order to quantify the performance drop it induces, and also to characterize the resulting flow instabilities. The aim of this work is to develop an unsteady 3D algorithm for the numerical simulation of cavitation in an industrial CFD solver 'Code Saturne'. It is based on a fractional step method and preserves the minimum/maximum principle of the void fraction. An implicit solver, based on a transport equation of the void fraction coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. A specific numerical treatment of the cavitation source terms provides physical values of the void fraction (between 0 and 1) without including any artificial numerical limitation. The influence of RANS turbulence models on the simulation of cavitation on 2D geometries (Venturi and Hydrofoil) is then studied. It confirms the capability of the two-equation eddy viscosity models, k-epsilon and k-omega-SST, with the modification proposed by Reboud et al. (1998) to reproduce the main features of the unsteady sheet cavity behavior. The second order model RSM-SSG, based on the Reynolds stress transport, appears able to reproduce the highly unsteady flow behavior without including any arbitrary modification. The three-dimensional effects involved in the instability mechanisms are also analyzed. This work allows us to achieve a numerical tool, validated on complex configurations of cavitating flows, to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the three-dimensional unsteady effects involved in the mechanisms of instability. (author)
Exact Solutions for Stokes' Flow of a Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Model: A Lie Similarity Approach
Aziz, Taha; Aziz, A.; Khalique, C. M.
2016-07-01
The fully developed time-dependent flow of an incompressible, thermodynamically compatible non-Newtonian third-grade nanofluid is investigated. The classical Stokes model is considered in which the flow is generated due to the motion of the plate in its own plane with an impulsive velocity. The Lie symmetry approach is utilised to convert the governing nonlinear partial differential equation into different linear and nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced ordinary differential equations are then solved by using the compatibility and generalised group method. Exact solutions for the model equation are deduced in the form of closed-form exponential functions which are not available in the literature before. In addition, we also derived the conservation laws associated with the governing model. Finally, the physical features of the pertinent parameters are discussed in detail through several graphs.
Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565
2010-01-01
The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Validation of the TRACR3D code in a one-dimensional form was obtained for flow of soil water in three experiments. In the first experiment, a pulse of water entered a crushed-tuff soil and initially moved under conditions of saturated flow, quickly followed by unsaturated flow. In the second experiment, steady-state unsaturated flow took place. In the final experiment, two slugs of water entered crushed tuff under field conditions. In all three experiments, experimentally measured data for volumetric water content agreed, within experimental errors, with the volumetric water content predicted by the code simulations. The experiments and simulations indicated the need for accurate knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, amount and duration of moisture input, and relevant material properties as input into the computer code. During the validation experiments, limitations on monitoring of water movement in waste burial sites were also noted. 5 references, 34 figures, 9 tables
3D CFD computations of trasitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Zahle, Frederik
2011-01-01
The present article describes the application of the correlation based transition model of Menter et al. in combination with the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methodology to two cases with large degree of flow separation typically considered difficult to compute. Firstly, the flow is computed over...
LDA measurement of the passage flow field in a 3-D airfoil cascade
Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
Three-dimensional internal flow computational models are currently being developed to predict the flow through turbomachinery blade rows. For these codes to be of quantitative value, they must be verified with data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental flow phenomena. In this paper, the complete three-dimensional flow field through a subsonic annular cascade of cambered airfoils is experimentally quantified. In particular, detailed three-dimensional data are obtained to quantify the inlet velocity profile, the cascade passage velocity field, and the exit region flow field. The primary instrumentation for acquiring these data is a single-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer operating in the backscatter mode, with chordwise distributions of airfoil surface static pressure taps also utilized. Appropriate data are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL/TSONIC codes.
Packing, alignment and flow of shape-anisotropic grains in a 3D silo experiment
Börzsönyi, Tamás; Somfai, Ellák; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Mier, Pascal; Rose, Georg; Stannarius, Ralf
2016-09-01
Granular material flowing through bottlenecks, like the openings of silos, tend to clog and thus inhibit further flow. We study this phenomenon in a three-dimensional hopper for spherical and shape-anisotropic particles by means of x-ray tomography. The x-ray tomograms provide information on the bulk of the granular filling, and allows us to determine the particle positions and orientations inside the silo. In addition, it allows us to calculate local packing densities in different parts of the container. We find that in the flowing zone of the silo particles show a preferred orientation and thereby a higher order. Similarly to simple shear flows, the average orientation of the particles is not parallel to the streamlines but encloses a certain angle with it. In most parts of the hopper, the angular distribution of the particles did not reach the one corresponding to stationary shear flow, thus the average orientation angle in the hopper deviates more from the streamlines than in stationary shear flows. In the flowing parts of the silo, shear induced dilation is observed, which is more pronounced for elongated grains than for nearly spherical particles. The clogged state is characterized by a dome, i.e. the geometry of the layer of grains blocking the outflow. The shape of the dome depends on the particle shape.
The NCOREL computer program for 3D nonlinear supersonic potential flow computations
Siclari, M. J.
1983-01-01
An innovative computational technique (NCOREL) was established for the treatment of three dimensional supersonic flows. The method is nonlinear in that it solves the nonconservative finite difference analog of the full potential equation and can predict the formation of supercritical cross flow regions, embedded and bow shocks. The method implicitly computes a conical flow at the apex (R = 0) of a spherical coordinate system and uses a fully implicit marching technique to obtain three dimensional cross flow solutions. This implies that the radial Mach number must remain supersonic. The cross flow solutions are obtained by using type dependent transonic relaxation techniques with the type dependency linked to the character of the cross flow velocity (i.e., subsonic/supersonic). The spherical coordinate system and marching on spherical surfaces is ideally suited to the computation of wing flows at low supersonic Mach numbers due to the elimination of the subsonic axial Mach number problems that exist in other marching codes that utilize Cartesian transverse marching planes.
Niederer, P. G.; Mihora, D. J.
1972-01-01
The current design and hardware components of the patented 14 sqm Stokes flow parachute are described. The Stokes-flow parachute is a canopy of open mesh material, which is kept deployed by braces. Because of the light weight of its mesh material, and the high drag on its mesh elements when they operate in the Stokes-flow flight regime, this parachute has an extremely low ballistic coefficient. It provides a stable aerodynamic platform superior to conventional nonporous billowed parachutes, is exceptionally packable, and is easily contained within the canister of the Sidewinder Arcas or the RDT and E rockets. Thus, it offers the potential for gathering more meteorological data, especially at high altitudes, than conventional billowed parachutes. Methods for packaging the parachute are also recommended. These methods include schemes for folding the canopy and for automatically releasing the pressurizing fluid as the packaged parachute unfolds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electrophoretic mobility of particles dispersed in an electrolyte solution induces the particles to lag behind a Poiseuille flow in a rectangular microchannel, which causes bidirectional inward migration of particles to the central axis of the channel. As a result, in the present theoretical and experimental study, three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing is clearly realized in such a manner that the particles are aligned in a single file along the axis of the channel as they are transported downstream. Theoretical prediction on the particle migration time provides an excellent assessment of the experimental results. The method proposed in the present study has potential for development of low-cost rapid manufacturing process of sheathless monolayer microchips for 3D particle focusing. (technical note)
Simulation of 3-D viscous flow within a multi-stage turbine
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
This work outlines a procedure for simulating the flow field within multistage turbomachinery which includes the effects of unsteadiness, compressibility, and viscosity. The associated modeling equations are the average passage equation system which governs the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. The results from a simulation of a low aspect ratio stage and a one-half turbine will be presented and compared with experimental measurements. It will be shown that the secondary flow field generated by the rotor causes the aerodynamic performance of the downstream vane to be significantly different from that of an isolated blade row.
Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.
2012-01-01
Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.
Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian
2016-01-01
Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars. PMID:27353632
Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian
2016-06-01
Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars.
Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Castillo, Luciano; Sheng, Jian
2016-01-01
Understanding how fluid flow interacts with micro-textured surfaces is crucial for a broad range of key biological processes and engineering applications including particle dispersion, pathogenic infections, and drag manipulation by surface topology. We use high-speed digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in combination with a correlation based de-noising algorithm to overcome the optical interference generated by surface roughness and to capture a large number of 3D particle trajectories in a microfluidic channel with one surface patterned with micropillars. It allows us to obtain a 3D ensembled velocity field with an uncertainty of 0.06% and 2D wall shear stress distribution at the resolution of ~65 μPa. Contrary to laminar flow in most microfluidics, we find that the flow is three-dimensional and complex for the textured microchannel. While the micropillars affect the velocity flow field locally, their presence is felt globally in terms of wall shear stresses at the channel walls. These findings imply that micro-scale mixing and wall stress sensing/manipulation can be achieved through hydro-dynamically smooth but topologically rough micropillars. PMID:27353632
Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž
2014-01-01
The parallel straight channel PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper extends the innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical (HAN) approach previously published by the authors with capabilities to address ternary diffusion systems and counter-flow configurations. The model's core principle is modelling species transport by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the cannel gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical pipe-flow model. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. The latter is also the core of the counter-flow computation algorithm. A HAN model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D CFD simulation tool showing very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at moderate computational times, which is owed to the semi-analytic nature and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport. PMID:25125112
Using the UM dynamical cores to reproduce idealised 3D flows
Mayne, N J; Acreman, David M; Smith, Chris; Wood, Nigel; Amundsen, David Skålid; Thuburn, John; Jackson, David R
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that both the current (New Dynamics), and next generation (ENDGame) dynamical cores of the UK Met Office global circulation model, the UM, reproduce consistently, the long-term, large-scale flows found in several published idealised tests. The cases presented are the Held-Suarez test, a simplified model of Earth (including a stratosphere), and a hypothetical tidally locked Earth. Furthermore, we show that using simplifications to the dynamical equations, which are expected to be justified for the physical domains and flow regimes we have studied, and which are supported by the ENDGame dynamical core, also produces matching long-term, large-scale flows. Finally, we present evidence for differences in the detail of the planetary flows and circulations resulting from improvements in the ENDGame formulation over New Dynamics.
3D CFD computations of transitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.
process can be important for the aerodynamic performance. Today, the most widespread approach is to use fully turbulent computations, where the transitional process is ignored and the entire boundary layer on the wings or airfoils is handled by the turbulence model. The correlation based transition model......The report describes the application of the correlation based transition model of of Menter et. al. [1, 2] to the cylinder drag crisis and the stalled flow over an DU-96-W-351 airfoil using the DES methodology. When predicting the flow over airfoils and rotors, the laminar-turbulent transition...... has lately shown promising results, and the present paper describes the application of the model to predict the drag and shedding frequency for flow around a cylinder from sub to super-critical Reynolds numbers. Additionally, the model is applied to the flow around the DU-96 airfoil, at high angles...
Using the UM dynamical cores to reproduce idealised 3-D flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. J. Mayne
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that both the current (New Dynamics, and next generation (ENDGame dynamical cores of the UK Met Office global circulation model, the UM, reproduce consistently, the long-term, large-scale flows found in several published idealised tests. The cases presented are the Held–Suarez test, a simplified model of Earth (including a stratosphere, and a hypothetical tidally locked Earth. Furthermore, we show that using simplifications to the dynamical equations, which are expected to be justified for the physical domains and flow regimes we have studied, and which are supported by the ENDGame dynamical core, also produces matching long-term, large-scale flows. Finally, we present evidence for differences in the detail of the planetary flows and circulations resulting from improvements in the ENDGame formulation over New Dynamics.
Numerical research on the 3D fiber orientation distribution in arbitrary planar flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The fiber orientation distribution in a fiber suspension flow was investigated by a finite difference scheme in spherical coordinates. The diffusivity was transformed between Cartesian and spherical coordinates through tensor analysis to obtain efficiency. It is found that under simple shear flow condition the diffusivity in the azimuthal direction, Dry, has greater effect on the orientation distribution than that in the colatitude direction, Drθθ.
Sea-surface temperature effects on 3D bora-like flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraljevic, L. [Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Grisogono, B. [Dept. of Geophysics, Zagreb (Croatia)
2006-04-15
A COAMPS (TM) nonhydrostatic numerical model with a higher order turbulence closure scheme is used to study the effect of the sea-surface temperature (SST) on the idealized nonlinear flow over an idealized mountain in the presence of rotation. The low-level jet (LLJ) that develops at both flanks of the mountain is intensified by the Coriolis effect on the northern flank for a westerly flow. Shooting flow develops down the slope ending over the sea while resembling a hydraulic jump. This is considered as bora (bura) like flow. The front is related to the abrupt slowdown of the shooting flow through the hydraulic jump. Seven different idealized cases are addressed, the control run, nearly linear case with Fr = 1.2, and the cases with the SST 10 K colder, and 2.5 K, 5 K, 7.5 K and 10 K warmer than the control run. The maximum wind speeds in the shooting flow and the LLJs are around two times higher than the background wind speeds. The interplay of SST effects and the effects of the asymmetric lee-side vortices modify the location and the shape of the bora front which is found not to be parallel with the shoreline. The front is not stationary in time but exhibits vibrations which are more pronounced at the southern flank associated with the weaker LLJ. (orig.)
Secondary flow structure in a model curved artery: 3D morphology and circulation budget analysis
Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2015-11-01
In this study, we examined the rate of change of circulation within control regions encompassing the large-scale vortical structures associated with secondary flows, i.e. deformed Dean-, Lyne- and Wall-type (D-L-W) vortices at planar cross-sections in a 180° curved artery model (curvature ratio, 1/7). Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed independently, under the same physiological inflow conditions (Womersley number, 4.2) and using Newtonian blood-analog fluids. The MRV-technique performed at Stanford University produced phase-averaged, three-dimensional velocity fields. Secondary flow field comparisons of MRV-data to PIV-data at various cross-sectional planes and inflow phases were made. A wavelet-decomposition-based approach was implemented to characterize various secondary flow morphologies. We hypothesize that the persistence and decay of arterial secondary flow vortices is intrinsically related to the influence of the out-of-plane flow, tilting, in-plane convection and diffusion-related factors within the control regions. Evaluation of these factors will elucidate secondary flow structures in arterial hemodynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-0828903, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE). The MRV data were acquired at Stanford University in collaboration with Christopher Elkins and John Eaton.
Investigation of seasonal thermal flow in a real dam reservoir using 3-D numerical modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Üneş Fatih
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Investigations indicate that correct estimation of seasonal thermal stratification in a dam reservoir is very important for the dam reservoir water quality modeling and water management problems. The main aim of this study is to develop a hydrodynamics model of an actual dam reservoir in three dimensions for simulating a real dam reservoir flows for different seasons. The model is developed using nonlinear and unsteady continuity, momentum, energy and k-ε turbulence model equations. In order to include the Coriolis force effect on the flow in a dam reservoir, Coriolis force parameter is also added the model equations. Those equations are constructed using actual dimensions, shape, boundary and initial conditions of the dam and reservoir. Temperature profiles and flow visualizations are used to evaluate flow conditions in the reservoir. Reservoir flow’s process and parameters are determined all over the reservoir. The mathematical model developed is capable of simulating the flow and thermal characteristics of the reservoir system for seasonal heat exchanges. Model simulations results obtained are compared with field measurements obtained from gauging stations for flows in different seasons. The results show a good agreement with the field measurements.
Development of 3-D Flow Analysis Code for Fuel Assembly using Unstructured Grid System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myong, Hyon Kook; Kim, Jong Eun; Ahn, Jong Ki; Yang, Seung Yong [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2007-03-15
The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes are very complex and required a suitable turbulence model to be predicted accurately. Final objective of this study is to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system. In order to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system, the following researches are made: - Development of numerical algorithm for CFD code's solver - Grid and geometric connectivity data - Development of software(PowerCFD code) for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system - Modulation of software(PowerCFD code) - Development of turbulence model - Development of analysis module of RANS/LES hybrid models - Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer - Basic study on LES analysis - Development of main frame on pre/post processors based on GUI - Algorithm for fully-developed flow.
Reflux venous flow in dural sinus and internal jugular vein on 3D time-of-flight MR angiography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jang, Jinhee; Kim, Bum-soo; Kim, Bom-yi; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Byun, Jae Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
Reflux venous signal on the brain and neck time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) is thought to be related to a compressed left brachiocephalic vein. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of venous reflux flow in internal jugular vein (IJV), sigmoid sinus/transverse sinus (SS/TS), and inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) on the brain and neck TOF MRA and its pattern. From the radiology database, 3,475 patients (1,526 men, 1,949 women, age range 19-94, median age 62 years) with brain and neck standard 3D TOF MRA at 3 T and 1.5 T were identified. Rotational maximal intensity projection images of 3D TOF MRA were assessed for the presence of reflux flow in IJV, IPS, and SS/TS. Fifty-five patients (1.6 %) had reflux flow, all in the left side. It was more prevalent in females (n = 43/1,949, 2.2 %) than in males (n = 12/1,526, 0.8 %) (p = 0.001). The mean age of patients with reflux flow (66 years old) was older than those (60 years old) without reflux flow (p = 0.001). Three patients had arteriovenous shunt in the left arm for hemodialysis. Of the remaining 52 patients, reflux was seen on IJV in 35 patients (67.3 %). There were more patients with reflux flow seen on SS/TS (n = 34) than on IPS (n = 25). Venous reflux flow on TOF MRA is infrequently observed, and reflux pattern is variable. Because it is exclusively located in the left side, the reflux signal on TOF MRA could be an alarm for an undesirable candidate for a contrast injection on the left side for contrast-enhanced imaging study. (orig.)
Brown, Donald L.
2011-09-11
In this paper we establish corrector estimates for Stokes flow in slowly varying perforated media via two scale asymptotic analysis. Current methods and techniques are often not able to deal with changing geometries prevalent in applied problems. For example, in a deformable porous medium environment, the geometry does not remain periodic under mechanical deformation and if slow variation in the geometry occurs. For such problems, one cannot use classical homogenization results directly and new homogenization results and estimates are needed. Our work uses asymptotic techniques of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) where the authors constructed a downscaled velocity which converges to the fine-scale velocity at a rate of ε1/6 where ε is the characteristic length scale. We assume a slowly varying porous medium and study homogenization and corrector estimates for the Stokes equations. Slowly varying media arise, e. g., in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems (Popov et al. in Iterative upscaling of flows in deformable porous media, 2008), carbonation of porous concrete (Peter in C. R. Mecanique 335:357-362, 2007a; C. R. Mecanique 335:679-684, 2007b), and various other multiphysics processes. To homogenize Stokes flows in such media we restate the cell problems of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) in a moving RVE framework. Further, to recover the same convergence properties it is necessary to solve an additional cell problem and add one more corrector term to the downscaled velocity. We further extend the framework of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) to three spatial dimensions in both periodic and variable pore-space cases. Next, we also propose an efficient algorithm for computing the correctors by solving a limited number of cell problems at selected spatial locations. We present two computational examples: one for a constructed medium of elliptical perforations, and
Laughon, G. J.; Baxi, C. B.; Campbell, G. L.; Mahdavi, M. A.; Makariou, C. C.; Smith, J. P.; Schaffer, M. J.; Schaubel, K. M.; Menon, M. M.
1994-06-01
A liquid helium-cooled cryocondensation pump has been installed in the D3-D tokamak fusion energy research experiment at General Atomics. The pump is located within the tokamak vacuum chamber beneath the divertor baffle plates and is utilized for plasma density and contamination control. Two-phase helium flows through the pump at 5 to 10 g/s utilizing the heat transfer and constant temperature characteristics of boiling liquid . helium. The pump is designed for a pumping speed of 32,000 1/s. Extensive testing was performed with a prototypical pump test fixture. Several pump geometries (simple tube, coaxial flow plug, and coaxial slotted insert) were tested, in an iterative process, to determine which was the most satisfactory for stable cryocondensation pumping. Results from the different tests illustrating the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for each configuration are presented.
3D numerical simulation of gaseous flows structure in semidetached binaries
Bisikalo, D V; Chechetkin, V M; Kuznetsov, O A; Molteni, D
1998-01-01
The results of 3D hydrodynamic simulation of mass transfer in semidetached binaries of different types (cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries) are presented. We find that taking into account of a circumbinary envelope leads to significant changes in the stream-disc morphology. In particular, the obtained steady-state self-consistent solutions show an absence of impact between gas stream from the inner Lagrangian point L1 and forming accretion disc. The stream deviates under the action of gas of circumbinary envelope, and does not cause the shock perturbation of the disc boundary (traditional `hotspot'). At the same time, the gas of circumbinary envelope interacts with the stream and causes the formation of an extended shock wave, located on the stream edge. We discuss the implication of this model without `hotspot' (but with a shock wave located outside the disc) for interpretation of observations. The comparison of synthetic light curves with observations proves the validity of the discussed hydr...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perron, Sebastien [ARDC, Alcan, Applied Science Research Group, 1955 Mellon Blvd, P.O. Box 1250, Quebec G7S 4K8, Jonquiere (Canada); Boivin, Sylvain [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' universite, Quebec G7H 2B1, Chicoutimi (Canada); Herard, Jean-Marc [DRD, Electricite de France, 6, quai Watier 78400, Chatou (France)
2004-09-01
We present a new method to solve incompressible thermal flows and the transport of scalar quantities. It is a finite volume scheme for unstructured meshes whose time discretization is based upon the fractional time step method. The governing equations are discretized using a collocated, cell-centered arrangement of velocity and pressure. The solution variables are stored at the cell-circum-centers. This scheme is convergent, stable and allows computing solutions that does not violate the maximum principle when it applies. Theoretical results and numerical properties of the scheme are provided. Predictions of Boussinesq fluid flow, flow past a cylinder and heat transport in a cylinder are performed to validate the method. (authors)
Numerical study of density-stratified flow past two 3D hills : aligned in tandem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a parametric study using an immersed boundary method has been carried out to investigate the effects of stable density stratification on the wakes past two identical three-dimensional hills aligned in tandem. The Reynolds number based on the uniform inlet velocity and twice the hill height was fixed at Re=300 while the Froude number based on the inlet velocity and the hill height was retained at Fr=0.2. Neutral flow without density stratification was also computed for comparison. Under a strong stratification, vertical motion of fluid particles over the three-dimensional hills is suppressed and the wake structures behind the hills become planar. Depending on the distance between the two hills, the flow pattern of each wake is significantly affected by the stratification. There is a critical hill distance at which flow characteristics drastically change. Qualitative and quantitative features of the wake interaction are reported
Siclari, Michael J.
1988-01-01
A computer code called NCOREL (for Nonconical Relaxation) has been developed to solve for supersonic full potential flows over complex geometries. The method first solves for the conical at the apex and then marches downstream in a spherical coordinate system. Implicit relaxation techniques are used to numerically solve the full potential equation at each subsequent crossflow plane. Many improvements have been made to the original code including more reliable numerics for computing wing-body flows with multiple embedded shocks, inlet flow through simulation, wake model and entropy corrections. Line relaxation or approximate factorization schemes are optionally available. Improved internal grid generation using analytic conformal mappings, supported by a simple geometric Harris wave drag input that was originally developed for panel methods and internal geometry package are some of the new features.
Brücker, Ch.
1995-08-01
Scanning-Particle-Image-Velocimetry Technique (SPIV), introduced by Brücker (1992) and Brücker and Althaus (1992), offers the quantitative investigation of three-dimensional vortical structures in unsteady flows. On principle, this technique combines classical Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) with volume scanning using a scanning light-sheet. In our previous studies, single scans obtained from photographic frame series were evaluated to show the instantaneous vortical structure of the respective flow phenomena. Here, continuous video recordings are processed to capture also the temporal information for the study of the set-up of 3D effects in the cylinder wake. The flow is continuously sampled in depth by the scanning light-sheet and in each of the parallel planes frame-to-frame cross-correlation of the video images (DPIV) is applied to obtain the 2D velocity field. Because the scanning frequency and repetition rate is high in comparison with the characteristic time-scale of the flow, the evaluation provides a complete time-record of the 3D flow during the starting process. With use of the continuity concept as described by Robinson and Rockwell (1993), we obtained in addition the out-of-plane component of the velocity in spanwise direction. This in view, the described technique enabled the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-dependent velocity and vorticity field. The visualization of the dynamical behaviour of these quantities as, e.g. by video, gave a good impression of the spanwise flow showing the “tornado-like” suction effect of the starting vortices.
Baik, Andrew D; Qiu, Jun; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X Edward
2013-02-22
Osteocytes in vivo experience complex fluid shear flow patterns to activate mechanotransduction pathways. The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons have been shown to play an important role in the osteocyte's biochemical response to fluid shear loading. The dynamic nature of physiologically relevant fluid flow profiles (i.e., 1Hz oscillatory flow) impedes the ability to image and study both actin and MT cytoskeletons simultaneously in the same cell with high spatiotemporal resolution. To overcome these limitations, a multi-channel quasi-3D microscopy technique was developed to track the actin and MT networks simultaneously under steady and oscillatory flow. Cells displayed high intercellular variability and intracellular cytoskeletal variability in strain profiles. Shear Exz was the predominant strain in both steady and oscillatory flows in the form of viscoelastic creep and elastic oscillations, respectively. Dramatic differences were seen in oscillatory flow, however. The actin strains displayed an oscillatory strain profile more often than the MT networks in all the strains tested and had a higher peak-to-trough strain magnitude. Taken together, the actin networks are the more responsive cytoskeletal networks in osteocytes under oscillatory flow and may play a bigger role in mechanotransduction pathway activation and regulation. PMID:23352617
Wall shear stress characterization of a 3D bluff-body separated flow
Fourrié, Grégoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi
2013-10-01
Efficient flow control strategies aimed at reducing the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles require a detailed knowledge of the reference flow. In this work, the flow around the rear slanted window of a generic car model was experimentally studied through wall shear stress measurements using an electrochemical method. The mean and fluctuating wall shear stress within the wall impact regions of the recirculation bubble and the main longitudinal vortex structures which develop above the rear window are presented. Correlations allow a more detailed characterization of the recirculation phenomenon within the separation bubble. In the model symmetry plane the recirculation structure compares well with simpler 2D configurations; specific lengths, flapping motion and shedding of large-scale vortices are observed, these similarities diminish when leaving the middle plane due to the strong three-dimensionality of the flow. A specific attention is paid to the convection processes occurring within the recirculation: a downstream convection velocity is observed, in accordance with 2D recirculations from the literature, and an upstream convection is highlighted along the entire bubble length which has not been underlined in some previous canonical configurations.
3D flow organization and dynamics in subsonic jets: Aeroacoustic source analysis by tomographic PIV
Violato, D.V.
2013-01-01
To meet the increasingly stringent noise regulation, aircraft manufacturers are searching for solutions to jet noise. This, which constitutes a significant amount of the total noise emitted by civil aircrafts, is generated by the mixing processes between the exhaust flow leaving the engine and the a
Rosenauer, M.; Buchegger, W.; Finoulst, I.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Vellekoop, M.
2010-01-01
In this study, the design, realization and measurement results of a novel optofluidic system capable of performing absorbance-based flow cytometric analysis is presented. This miniaturized laboratory platform, fabricated using SU-8 on a silicon substrate, comprises integrated polymer-based waveguide
Evolutionary air traffic flow management for large 3D-problems
Kemenade, C.H.M. van; Akker, J.M. van den; Kok, J.N.
1996-01-01
We present an evolutionary tool to solve free-route Air Traffic Flow Management problems within a three-dimensional air space. This is the first evolutionary tool which solves free-route planning problems involving a few hundred aircraft. We observe that the importance of the recombination operator
3D time-dependent flow computations using a molecular stress function model with constraint release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of time dependent viscoelastic flow (in three dimensions) is of interest in connection with a variety of polymer processing operations. The application of the numerical simulation techniques is in the analysis and design of polymer processing problems. This is operations...
Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects
Investigation on 3D t wake flow structures of swimming bionic fish
Shen, G.-X.; Tan, G.-K.; Lai, G.-J.
2012-10-01
A bionic experimental platform was designed for the purpose of investigating time accurate three-dimensional flow field, using digital particle image velocimetry (DSPIV). The wake behind the flapping trail of a robotic fish model was studied at high spatial resolution. The study was performed in a water channel. A robot fish model was designed and built. The model was fixed onto a rigid support framework using a cable-supporting method, with twelve stretched wires. The entire tail of the model can perform prescribed motions in two degrees of freedom, mainly in carangiform mode, by driving its afterbody and lunate caudal fin respectively. The DSPIV system was set up to operate in a translational manner, measuring velocity field in a series of parallel slices. Phase locked measurements were repeated for a number of runs, allowing reconstruction of phase average flow field. Vortex structures with phase history of the wake were obtained. The study reveals some new and complex three-dimensional flow structures in the wake of the fish, including "reverse hairpin vortex" and "reverse Karman S-H vortex rings", allowing insight into physics of this complex flow.
A continuation method for computing non-linear 3-D free surface flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersson, N.A.
1993-01-01
The subject of this paper is a pseudo-arclength continuation method for computing non-linear three-dimensional steady potential flow around a submerged body moving in a infinitely deep liquid at constant speed and distance below the free surface.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Naoto Miyama; Kazuaki Inaba; Makoto Yamamoto
2008-01-01
In these years, a lot of environmental problems such as air pollution and exhaustion of fossil fuels have been discussed intensively. In our laboratory, a hydrogen-fueled propulsion system has been researched as an alternative to conventional systems. A hydrogen-fueled propulsion system is expected to have higher power, lighter weight and lower emissions. However, for the practical use, there exist many problems that must be overcome. Considering these backgrounds, jet engines with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage have been studied. Although some studies have been made on injecting and burning hydrogen fuel from a stator surface, little is known about the interaction between a tip leakage vortex near the suction side of a rotor tip and hydrogen-fueled combustion.The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the tip leakage vortex on the characteristics of the 3-dimensional flow field with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage. Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with incorporating a k-ε turbulence and a reduced chemical mechanism models. Using the computational results, the 3-dimensional turbulent flow field with chemical reactions is numerically visualized, and the three-dimensional turbulent flow fields with hydrogen combustion and the structure of the tip leakage vortex are investigated.
Miyama, Naoto; Inaba, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Makoto
2008-06-01
In these years, a lot of environmental problems such as air pollution and exhaustion of fossil fuels have been discussed intensively. In our laboratory, a hydrogen-fueled propulsion system has been researched as an alternative to conventional systems. A hydrogen-fueled propulsion system is expected to have higher power, lighter weight and lower emissions. However, for the practical use, there exist many problems that must be overcome. Considering these backgrounds, jet engines with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage have been studied. Although some studies have been made on injecting and burning hydrogen fuel from a stator surface, little is known about the interaction between a tip leakage vortex near the suction side of a rotor tip and hydrogen-fueled combustion. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the tip leakage vortex on the characteristics of the 3-dimensional flow field with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage. Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with incorporating a k-ɛ turbulence and a reduced chemical mechanism models. Using the computational results, the 3-dimensional turbulent flow field with chemical reactions is numerically visualized, and the three-dimensional turbulent flow fields with hydrogen combustion and the structure of the tip leakage vortex are investigated.
Unsteady rotating laminar flow: analytical solution of relevant Navier-Stokes equations
Bocci, Alessio; Ritelli, Daniele
2016-01-01
We provide a integration of Navier-Stokes equations concerning the unsteady-state laminar flow of an incompressible, isothermal (newtonian) fluid in a cylindrical vessel spinning about its symmetry axis, say $z$, and inside which the liquid velocity starts with a non-zero axial component as well. Basic physical assumptions are that the pressure axial gradient keeps itself on its hydrostatic value and that no radial velocity exists. In such a way the PDEs become uncoupled and can be faced separately from each other. We succeed in computing both the unsteady velocities, i.e. the axial $v_z$ and the circumferential $v_\\theta$ as well, by means of infinite series expansions of Fourier-Bessel type under time exponential damping. Following this, we also find the unsteady surfaces of dynamical equilibrium, the wall shear stress and the Stokesian streamlines
Heat or mass transfer from a sphere in Stokes flow at low Péclet number
Bell, Christopher G.
2013-04-01
We consider the low Péclet number, Pe≪1, asymptotic solution for steady-state heat or mass transfer from a sphere immersed in Stokes flow with a Robin boundary condition on its surface, representing Newton cooling or a first-order chemical reaction. The application of Van Dyke\\'s rule up to terms of O(Pe3) shows that the O(Pe3logPe) terms in the expression for the average Nusselt/Sherwood number are twice those previously derived in the literature. Inclusion of the O(Pe3) terms is shown to increase the range of validity of the expansion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Viswanath, Divakar
2014-01-01
The Kleiser-Schumann (1980) and Kim-Moin-Moser (1987) algorithms for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been used to simulate a great variety of turbulence phenomena in plane channels and in plane Couette flow. In this article, we derive new versions of either algorithm which completely eliminate numerical differentiation in the wall-normal direction. Thanks to greater accuracy, the new versions are able to reach higher Reynolds number than currently possible. Using $10^{9}$ grid points and only $10$ compute nodes, they reach a frictional Reynolds number ($Re_{\\tau}$) of $2380$ (with bulk flow $Re=80,000$), which may be compared with the simulation of Hoyas and Jim\\'enez (2006, 2008) which reached $Re_{\\tau}=2003$. The methods derived here appear capable of going well beyond $Re_{\\tau}=2380$.
GeoFlow: 3D numerical simulation of supercritical thermal convective states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Futterer, B; Egbers, C [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Siemens-Halske-Ring 14, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Hollerbach, R [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: futterer@tu-cottbus.de
2008-11-01
'GeoFlow' is a thermal convection experiment in rotating spherical shell geometry, which is going to take place in microgravity environment of International Space Station. We present numerical preliminary studies of the spherical Rayleigh-Benard problem under an artificial central force field. Numerical simulation is done with a pseudospectral method. Special focus here is the simulation of flow states at selected parameter points of Rayleigh and Taylor number of a defined plan for experimental runs on ISS. One loop will contain thermal convection without rotation, i.e. rising temperature gradient between inner and outer sphere. Another loop investigates convection superimposed by rotation, i.e. fixing temperature gradient and then rising rotation rate. In such cases different transitions are expected to be observed. Just rising Rayleigh number shows different stable states depending on initial conditions. Fixing Rayleigh number and then rising up Taylor number leads to traverse of different convective states showing rich dynamics of the system.
Reconstructing 3D Tree Models Using Motion Capture and Particle Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Long
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recovering tree shape from motion capture data is a first step toward efficient and accurate animation of trees in wind using motion capture data. Existing algorithms for generating models of tree branching structures for image synthesis in computer graphics are not adapted to the unique data set provided by motion capture. We present a method for tree shape reconstruction using particle flow on input data obtained from a passive optical motion capture system. Initial branch tip positions are estimated from averaged and smoothed motion capture data. Branch tips, as particles, are also generated within a bounding space defined by a stack of bounding boxes or a convex hull. The particle flow, starting at branch tips within the bounding volume under forces, creates tree branches. The forces are composed of gravity, internal force, and external force. The resulting shapes are realistic and similar to the original tree crown shape. Several tunable parameters provide control over branch shape and arrangement.
Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry
Crua, Cyril
2015-01-01
In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently f...
MOTION AND DEFORMATION OF VISCOUS DROP IN STOKES FLOW NEAR RIGID WALL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Hua-jian; ZHANG Hui-sheng
2005-01-01
A boundary integral method was developed for simulating the motion and deformation of a viscous drop in an axisymmetric ambient Stokes flow near a rigid wall and for direct calculating the stress on the wall. Numerical experiments by the method were performed for different initial stand-off distances of the drop to the wall, viscosity ratios, combined surface tension and buoyancy parameters and ambient flow parameters. Numerical results show that due to the action of ambient flow and buoyancy the drop is compressed and stretched respectively in axial and radial directions when time goes. When the ambient flow action is weaker than that of the buoyancy the drop raises and bends upward and the stress on the wall induced by drop motion decreases when time advances. When the ambient flow action is stronger than that of the buoyancy the drop descends and becomes flatter and flatter as time goes. In this case when the initial stand-off distance is large the stress on the wall increases as the drop evolutes but when the stand-off distance is small the stress on the wall decreases as a result of combined effects of ambient flow, buoyancy and the stronger wall action to the flow. The action of the stress on the wall induced by drop motion is restricted in an area near the symmetric axis, which increases when the initial stand-off distance increases.When the initial stand-off distance increases the stress induced by drop motion decreases substantially. The surface tension effects resist the deformation and smooth the profile of the drop surfaces. The drop viscosity will reduce the deformation and migration of the drop.
A 3-D Euler method for internal transonic flows computation with a multi-domain approach
Veuillot, J. P.; Meauze, G.
1985-05-01
The results of calculations of three dimensional viscous flow in two centrifugal compressor impellers and in two linear turbine cascades are considered and answers to thermodynamic questions are obtained. For the impellers, the calculations give the work and the losses, the total pressure ratio and the efficiency, and show where the inefficiency arises. The results for the turbines show the increase in loss within and downstream of the cascades and allow the buildup and decay of secondary kinetic energy to be followed.
Finite-difference model for 3-D flow in bays and estuaries
Smith, Peter E.; Larock, Bruce E.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a semi-implicit finite-difference model for the numerical solution of three-dimensional flow in bays and estuaries. The model treats the gravity wave and vertical diffusion terms in the governing equations implicitly, and other terms explicitly. The model achieves essentially second-order accurate and stable solutions in strongly nonlinear problems by using a three-time-level leapfrog-trapezoidal scheme for the time integration.
On Nonlinear Stability Theorems of 3D Quasi-geostrophic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Nonlinear stability criteria for quasi-geostrophic zonally symmetric flow are improved by establishing an invariant of zonal momentum. When applied to the Eady model in a periodic channel with finite zonal length, the improved nonlinear stability criterion is identical to the linear normal-mode stability criterion provided the channel meridional width is no greater than 0.8605... times its channel length (which is the geophysically relevant case).
The 2-D and 3-D time marching transonic potential flow method for propfans
Williams, Marc H.
1988-01-01
Recent efforts concentrated on the development of aerodynamic tools for the analysis of rotors at transonic speeds and of configurations involving relative rotation. Three distinct approaches were taken: (1) extension of the lifting surface method of Williams and Hwang (1986) to relative rotation; (2) development of a time marching linear potential method for counter rotation; and (3) development of 2 and 3 dimensional finite volume potential flow schemes for single rotation. Results from each of these approaches are described.
3D FEM-BEM coupled resolution for acoustic waves propagation in potential flow
BALIN, Nolwenn; SYLVAND, Guillaume; Casenave, Fabien
2012-01-01
International audience In order to reduce the environmental impact of aircrafts, it is necessary to accurately simulate the acoustics waves propagation in complex environment. A classical method used to compute the noise propagation on large distances is the Boundary Element Method. However this method restricts the flow to a uniform one. To improve the level of modeling, we present here a coupling between Finite Element (FEM) and Boundary Element Methods (BEM) to solve the acoustic propag...
Numerical analysis of 3-D unsteady flow in a vaneless counter-rotating turbine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Qingjun; WANG Huishe; ZHAO Xiaolu; XU Jianzhong
2007-01-01
To reveal the unsteady flow characteristics of a vaneless counter-rotating turbine (VCRT),a threedimensional,viscous,unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed.The results show that unsteady simulation is superior to steady simulation because more flow characteristics can be obtained.The unsteady effects in upstream airfoil rows are weaker than those in downstream airfoil rows in the VCRT.The static pressure distribution along the span in the pressure surface of a high pressure turbine stator is more uniform than that in the suction surface.The static pressure distributions along the span in the pressure surfaces and the suction surfaces of a high pressure turbine rotor and a low pressure turbine rotor are all uneven.The numerical results also indicate that the load of a high pressure turbine rotor will increase with the increase of the span.The deviation is very big between the direction of air flow at the outlet of a high pressure turbine rotor and the axial direction.A similar result can also be obtained in the outlet of a low pressure turbine rotor.This means that the specific work of a high pressure turbine rotor and a low pressure turbine rotor is big enough to reach the design objectives.
Numerical simulation of 3D flow past a real-life marine hydrokinetic turbine
Kang, Seokkoo; Borazjani, Iman; Colby, Jonathan A.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2012-04-01
We simulate three-dimensional, turbulent flow past an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine mounted on the bed of a rectangular open channel by adapting a computational framework developed for carrying out high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) in arbitrarily complex domains involving moving or stationary boundaries. The complex turbine geometry, including the rotor and all stationary components, is handled by employing the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method [1,2]. Velocity boundary conditions near all solid surfaces are reconstructed using a wall model based on solving the simplified boundary layer equations [2]. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model we apply it to simulate the flow past a Gen4 axial flow MHK turbine developed by Verdant Power for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) project in the East River in New York City, USA. We carry out systematic grid refinement studies, using grids with up to 185 million nodes, for only the turbine rotor placed in an infinite free stream to show that the computed torque converges to a grid insensitive value, which is in good agreement with field measurements. We also carry out LES for the complete turbine configuration, including the pylon, nacelle and rotor, mounted on the bed of a straight rectangular open channel. The computed results illustrate the complexity of the flow and show that the power output of the complete turbine is primarily dependent on the rotor geometry and tip speed ratio, and is not affected by the stationary components of the turbine and the presence of the channel bed. The complete turbine simulation also reveals that the downstream wake of the turbine consists of three main regions: (1) the outer layer with the spiral blade tip vortices rotating in the same direction as the blades; (2) the counter-rotating inner layer surrounded by the spiral tip vortices; and (3) the core layer co-rotating with respect to the tip vortices. This study is the first to report the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Wu
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve high efficiency and low cost cathode designing, improve stability of process in NC precision electrochemical machining of integer impeller, a method of applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD to aid designing flow field structure of cathode and parameters for NC-ECM has been proposed in this study. The designing of flow field is the key point in cathode design and a suitable flow field design guarantees the process stability in electrochemical machining. A numerical model of the three-dimension flow field was built according to the geometrical model of interelectrode gap and cathode outline. Then the numerical simulation of 3-D flow field was performed by using the standard k-, turbulence model when the turbulence state in electrochemical machining had been determined. The effect of cathode’s structure and initial electrolyte pressure on the electrolyte flow field was analyzed according to the results of numerical simulation. A series of results similar to the actual experimental results are obtained. The method deduced in this paper could be used to achieve high efficiency and low cost cathode design, select of initial electrolyte pressure, and consequently a lot of “trial and error” cycles will be deduced.
Decay of the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-06-01
We establish the optimal {Lp-L2(1 ≤ p damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. Compared with the viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model (Zhang and Zhu in J Differ Equ 258:2315-2338, 2015), our results imply that the friction effect of the damping is stronger than the dissipation effect of the viscosities and enhances the decay rate of the velocity. Our proof is based on Hodge decomposition technique, the {Lp-L2} estimates for the linearized equations and an elaborate energy method.
Farrell, C.; Adamczyk, J.
1981-01-01
The three-dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row was approximated by correcting for streamtube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. The method is a fully conservative solution of the full potential equation incorporating the finite volume technique on body fitted periodic mesh, with an artificial density imposed in the transonic region to insure stability and the capture of shock waves. Comparison of results for several supercritical blades shows good agreement with their hodograph solutions. Other calculations for these profiles as well as standard NACA blade sections indicate that this is a useful scheme analyzing both the design and off-design performance of turbomachinery blading.
Reconstruction of 3D flow structures in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik
will also be based on time-resolved stereoscopic PIV measurements in a vertical plane through the cylinder axis as shown in figure 1. Compared to Meyer et al (2008) the measurements will be expanded by adding measurements in several points outside the PIV data plane with a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA......). LDA has a very good time resolution and the synchronized PIV and LDA measurements will therefore resolve the ambiguity in the interpretation of PIV data with respect to whether the flow variations are caused by rotation of a three-dimensional structure or is a real transient phenomenon....
Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit
2015-07-01
Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed.
3D CFD simulation of flashing flows in a converging-diverging nozzle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Yixiang, E-mail: y.liao@hzdr.de; Lucas, Dirk
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Flashing flow in a converging-diverging nozzle simulated. • Three-dimensional CFD simulation using two-fluid model used. • Satisfactory agreement in cross-section averaged parameters. • Reasons for discrepancies in radial profiles discussed. • Obvious improvement in comparison to 1D calculations. - Abstract: Flashing of initially sub-cooled water in a vertical circular converging-diverging nozzle is simulated with two-fluid model incorporating drag and non-drag forces. Phase change is assumed to be induced only by interphase heat transfer while pressure jump across the interface is ignored. The reliability of CFD simulations is confirmed by comparison with experimental data and one-dimensional results basing on a drift-flux model. Satisfactory prediction of mass flow rate and cross-section averaged parameters is achieved. The predicted radial distribution of void fraction is however much more flat than the measured one. The discrepancy is found to be caused by the effect of lift force and the reversal of relative velocity. Cases characterised with large pressure-undershoot exhibit significant pressure non-equilibrium effect in form of a pressure recovery process. Sensitivity tests on bubble number density, heat transfer coefficient as well as nucleation are performed.
Guidelines in the experimental validation of a 3D heat and fluid flow model of keyhole laser welding
Courtois, Mickael; Carin, Muriel; Le Masson, Philippe; Gaied, Sadok; Balabane, Mikhaël
2016-04-01
During the past few years, numerous sophisticated models have been proposed to predict in a self-consistent way the dynamics of the keyhole, together with the melt pool and vapor jet. However, these models are only partially compared to experimental data, so the reliability of these models is questionable. The present paper aims to propose a more complete experimental set-up in order to validate the most relevant results calculated by these models. A complete heat transfer and fluid flow three-dimensional (3D) model is first proposed in order to describe laser welding in keyhole regimes. The interface is tracked with a level set method and fluid flows are calculated in liquid and gas. The mechanisms of recoil pressure and keyhole creation are highlighted in a fusion line configuration chosen as a reference. Moreover, a complete validation of the model is proposed with guidelines on the variables to observe. Numerous comparisons with dedicated experiments (thermocouples, pyrometry, high-speed camera) are proposed to estimate the validity of the model. In addition to traditional geometric measurements, the main variables calculated, temperatures, and velocities in the melt pool are at the center of this work. The goal is to propose a reference validation for complex 3D models proposed over the last few years.
Moortgat, Joachim; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza
2016-01-01
We present a new implicit higher-order finite element (FE) approach to efficiently model compressible multicomponent fluid flow on unstructured grids and in fractured porous subsurface formations. The scheme is sequential implicit: pressures and fluxes are updated with an implicit Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) method, and the transport of each species is approximated with an implicit second-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) FE method. Discrete fractures are incorporated with a cross-flow equilibrium approach. This is the first investigation of all-implicit higher-order MHFE-DG for unstructured triangular, quadrilateral (2D), and hexahedral (3D) grids and discrete fractures. A lowest-order implicit finite volume (FV) transport update is also developed for the same grid types. The implicit methods are compared to an Implicit-Pressure-Explicit-Composition (IMPEC) scheme. For fractured domains, the unconditionally stable implicit transport update is shown to increase computational efficiency by orders of mag...
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-01-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide ...
Quasi 3D modelling of water flow in the sandy soil
Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim
2016-04-01
Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. Spatial interpolation is required for analyzing the effects of soil hydraulic parameters, soil layer thickness and groundwater level on irrigation management using hydrological models at field scale. We used non-invasive soil sensor, a crop growth (LINGRA-N) and a soil hydrological model (Hydrus-1D) to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. In the first step, the sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models at one soil column. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. In the second step, to predict Ks over the whole field, the spatial distributions of Ks and its relationship between co-located soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor were investigated. Measured groundwater levels and soil layer thickness were interpolated using ordinary point kriging (OK) to a 0.5 by 0.5 m in aim of digital elevation maps. In the third step, a quasi 3D modelling approach was conducted using interpolated data as input hydraulic parameter, geometric information and boundary conditions in the integrated model. In addition, three different irrigation scenarios namely current, no irrigation and optimized irrigations were carried out to find out the most efficient irrigation regime. In this approach, detailed field scale maps of soil water stress, water storage and crop yield were produced at each specific time interval to evaluate the best and most efficient distribution of water using standard gun sprinkler irrigation. The results show that the effect of the position of the groundwater level was dominant in soil-water content prediction and associated water stress. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Liang; FU Song
2009-01-01
Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach, a laminar-turbulence transition model is proposed in this study that takes into account the effects of different instability modes associated with the variations in Mach numbers of compressible boundary layer flows. The model is based on k-ω-γ three-equation eddy-viscosity concept with k representing the fluctuating kinetic energy, ωthe specific dissipation rate and the intermittency factor γ.The particular features of the model are that: 1) k includes the non-turbulent, as well as turbulent fluctuations; 2) a transport equation for the intermittency factor γis proposed here with a source term set to trigger the transition onset; 3) through the introduction of a new length scale normal to wall, the present model employs the local variables only avoiding the use of the integral parameters, like the boundary layer thickness δ,which are often cost-ineffective with the modern CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods; 4) in the fully turbulent region, the model retreats to the well-known k-ωSST (Shear Stress Transport) model. This model is validated with a number of available experiments on boundary layer transitions including the incompressible, supersonic and hypersonic flows past flat plates, straight/flared cones at zero incidences, etc. It is demonstrated that the present model can be successfully applied to the engineering calculations of a variety of aerodynamic flow transition.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach,a laminar-turbulence transition model is proposed in this study that takes into account the effects of different instability modes associated with the variations in Mach numbers of compressible boundary layer flows.The model is based on k-ω-γ three-equation eddy-viscosity concept with k representing the fluctuating kinetic energy,ωthe specific dissipation rate and the intermittency factorγ.The particular features of the model are that:1)k includes the non-turbulent,as well as turbulent fluctuations;2)a transport equation for the intermittency factorγis proposed here with a source term set to trigger the transition onset;3)through the introduction of a new length scale normal to wall,the present model employs the local variables only avoiding the use of the integral parameters,like the boundary layer thicknessδ,which are often cost-ineffective with the modern CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)methods;4)in the fully turbulent region,the model retreats to the well-known k-ωSST(Shear Stress Transport)model.This model is validated with a number of available experiments on boundary layer transitions including the incompressible,supersonic and hypersonic flows past flat plates,straight/flared cones at zero incidences,etc.It is demonstrated that the present model can be successfully applied to the engineering calculations of a variety of aerodynamic flow transition.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yang; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2012-01-01
The flow structure of one isothermal swirling case in the Sydney swirl flame database was studied using two numerical methods. Results from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and large eddy simulation (LES) were compared with experimental measurements. The simulations were applied...
Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber
Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2014-12-01
Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on
Farrell, C.; Adamczyk, J.
1981-01-01
A reliable method is presented for calculating the flowfield about a cascade of arbitrary 2-D airfoils. The method approximates the three-dimensional flow in a turbomachinery blade row by correcting for streamtube convergence and radius change in the throughflow direction. The method is a fully conservative solution of the full potential equation incorporating the finite volume technique on a body-fitted periodic mesh, with an artificial density imposed in the transonic region to ensure stability and the capture of shock waves. Comparison of results for several supercritical blades shows good agreement with their hodograph solutions. Other calculations for these profiles as well as standard NACA blade sections indicate that this is a useful scheme for analyzing both the design and off-design performance of turbomachinery blading.
Nonlinear stability analysis of 3D Couette flow considering energy transfer conservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transition from laminar plane Couette flow to intermittency is studied within a 108-dimensional Galerkin representation of Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire modes. A distinct transient behaviour is found in the Reynolds number region 325≤R≤350. The results also confirm the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in the intermittency regime as recently found in a higher-dimensional function space. As a crucial point, the conservation of the overall energy-transfer rate is rigorously implemented by renormalizing the nonlinear coefficients of the Galerkin system. As a consequence, there are no runaway trajectories in the cut-off system considered. Surprisingly, further consistency conditions were found in the quadratic terms of the time derivative of the kinetic energy. After they have been taken into account by the renormalization, a quantitatively good fulfillment of the energy balances is achieved
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yaghobi Nakisa; Ghoreishy Mir Hamid Reza
2009-01-01
The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) over titanate perovskite catalyst has been developed by three-dimensional numerical simulations of flow field coupled with heat transfer as well as heterogeneous kinetic model.The reaction was assumed to take place both in the gas phase and on the catalytic surface.Kinetic rate constants were experimentally obtained using a ten step kinetic model.The simulation results agree quite well with the data of OCM experiments,which were used to investigate the effect of temperature on the selectivity and conversion obtained in the methane oxidative coupling process.The conversion of methane linearly increased with temperature and the selectivity of C2 was practically constant in the temperature range of 973-1073 K.The study shows that CFD tools make it possible to implement the heterogeneous kinetic model even for high exothermic reaction such as OCM.
Intercomparison of 3D pore-scale flow and solute transport simulation methods
Yang, Xiaofan; Mehmani, Yashar; Perkins, William A.; Pasquali, Andrea; Schönherr, Martin; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Parks, Michael L.; Trask, Nathaniel; Balhoff, Matthew T.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Geier, Martin; Krafczyk, Manfred; Luo, Li-Shi; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.
2016-09-01
Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing a standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that validation to include additional models of the first type based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). The PNM approach used in the current study was recently improved and demonstrated to accurately simulate solute transport in a two-dimensional experiment. While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries on solute transport in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all four approaches (FVM-based CFD, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and (for capable codes) nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The intercomparison work was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support for confidence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Millan Barrera, Cecia; Ramirez Leon, Hermilo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)
2001-12-01
A numerical analysis is applied to a flow in an open channel and deformed by a three dimensional obstacle. The proposed model solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations, to which a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is coupled. The numerical analysis was constructed using a finite difference formulation for time evaluation purposed and staggered cells for space evaluation. The main goal of the present work was to study the turbulent structures and patterns of the flow due to an obstacle at the bottom of the channel plate. Our results are according to those found in the related literature. Flow patterns allow establishing the generation of turbulent structures by means of a comparison between this study and a most recent related work that evaluates the vorticity of the flow. [Spanish] Se reportan los resultados obtenidos, mediante simulaciones numericas, del movimiento del flujo en un canal con superficie libre y un obstaculo en el fondo. El sistema ecuaciones utilizado resuelve las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes en tres dimensiones, al cual se le acoplo un modelo de turbulencia tipo {kappa}-{epsilon}. La solucion se obtiene numericamente utilizando un esquema en diferencias finitas para la evaluacion temporal de las variables y una celda escalonada para la evaluacion espacial de las mismas. El objetivo del modelo es estudiar los patrones de flujo y las estructuras turbulentas que se generan debido a la presencia del obstaculo. El estudio se realizo para un flujo en tres dimensiones. Los resultados son satisfactorios, ya que muestran concordancia con otros estudios numericos y experimentales encontrados en la literatura.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xin Shihe [Insa-Lyon, Cethil, UMR5008, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Quere, Patrick Le, E-mail: shihe.xin@insa-lyon.fr, E-mail: plq@limsi.fr [LIMSI-CNRS, BP 133, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)
2012-06-01
Following our previous two-dimensional (2D) studies of flows in differentially heated cavities filled with air, we studied the stability of 2D natural convection flows in these cavities with respect to 3D periodic perturbations. The basis of the numerical methods is a time-stepping code using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method and the direct Uzawa method for velocity-pressure coupling. Newton's iteration, Arnoldi's method and the continuation method have been used in order to, respectively, compute the 2D steady-state base solution, estimate the leading eigenmodes of the Jacobian and perform linear stability analysis. Differentially heated air-filled cavities of aspect ratios from 1 to 7 were investigated. Neutral curves (Rayleigh number versus wave number) have been obtained. It turned out that only for aspect ratio 7, 3D stationary instability occurs at slightly higher Rayleigh numbers than the onset of 2D time-dependent flow and that for other aspect ratios 3D instability always takes place before 2D time-dependent flows. 3D unstable modes are stationary and anti-centro-symmetric. 3D nonlinear simulations revealed that the corresponding pitchfork bifurcations are supercritical and that 3D instability leads only to weak flow in the third direction. Further 3D computations are also performed at higher Rayleigh number in order to understand the effects of the weak 3D fluid motion on the onset of time-dependent flow. 3D flow structures are responsible for the onset of time-dependent flow for aspect ratios 1, 2 and 3, while for larger aspect ratios they do not alter the transition scenario, which was observed in the 2D cases and that vertical boundary layers become unstable to traveling waves. (paper)
Comparison of predicting drag methods using computational fluid dynamics in 2d/3d viscous flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU; ZiQiang; WANG; XiaoLu; LIU; Jie; LIU; Zhou
2007-01-01
As a result of the necessity of aircraft engineering design and the progress of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), techniques of accurately predicting aerodynamic drag are being increasingly explored. According to the momentum balance, the drag can be represented by an integral over a cross-flow plane (called wake integration method) at an arbitrary distance behind the configuration. A formulation to reduce the size of the wake cross plane region required for calculating the drag is developed by using cutoff parameters of vorticity and entropy. This increases the calculation accuracy and decreases the computation time required. Numerical experiments are made to obtain the threshold values of these cutoff parameters. The wake integration method is applied to predict drags of some examples including airfoil, a variety of wings and wing-body combination. Numerical results are compared with those of traditional surface integration method, showing that the predicting drag values with the wake integration method are closer to the experimental data. The results also show that drag prediction within engineering accuracy is possible by using CFD and the numerical drag optimization of complex aircraft configurations is possible, too.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3D KIRLOSKER TV-1 MODEL ENGINE CYLINDER FOR COLD FLOW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. SIVA
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The definition of an efficient optimization methodology for internal combustion engine design using computational fluid dynamic simulation models is presented. This paper aims at validating the fundamental numerical and computational fluid dynamic aspects which can lead to the definition of following models. The models used for analysis of Standard k-ε model, Realizable k-ε model, V2F k-ε model, AKN k-ε model, and Standard k-ω (Wilcox model. For these reasons, both single-and multi-objective problems will be addressed, where the former are still of relevant interest (i.e. optimization of engine performances, while the later have a much wider range of applications and are often characterized by conflicting objectives.Modeling of the KIRLOSKER OIL ENGINE TV1 will be done using GAMBIT. Flow inside the engine is to be the analysis and validation various turbulence models using STARCD. This is used to find the model which predicts the engine performance better.
Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang
2016-01-12
Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude.
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
Avettand-Fènoël, Marie-Noëlle; Taillard, Roland; Laye, Julien; Odièvre, Thierry
2014-02-01
The current microstructural investigation performed at various scales deals with the three-dimensional (3-D) material flow in thick dissimilar Airware™ 2050 friction-stir butt welds (Airware, Newport Beach, CA) because of the scarcity of the results obtained with thicker than 8 mm joints and the lack of detailed interpretation of features in the longitudinal direction. An additional originality consists in the study of material flow under the probe tip. In the current case of thick plates, the variation of local temperature along the weld depth is of key importance for the material flow. Indeed, it governs the slight difference of local mechanical behavior between both materials and therefore the shift of the interface, which was clearly put into evidence by means of a difference of Mn content as small as 0.3 pct between both alloys. This importance of temperature for the malleability also entails the pear shape of the nugget as well as a change of grains orientation along the depth in the thermomechanically affected zone. Due to the modification of tool-material adhesion with temperature, a new phenomenological model of material flow for thick friction-stir welds is proposed. In accordance with their difference of origin, the coexistence of onion rings and serrated interface is also highlighted.
Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk
Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.
2010-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Majidi
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The flow field in volute and circular casings interacting with a centrifugal impeller is obtained by numerical analysis. In the present study, effects of the volute and circular casings on the flow pattern have been investigated by successively combining a volute casing and a circular casing with a single centrifugal impeller. The numerical calculations are carried out with a multiple frame of reference to predict the flow field inside the entire impeller and casings. The impeller flow field is solved in a rotating frame and the flow field in the casings in a stationary frame. The static pressure and velocity in the casing and impeller, and the static pressures and secondary velocity vectors at several cross-sectional planes of the casings are calculated. The calculations show that the curvature of the casings creates pressure gradients that cause vortices at cross-sectional planes of the casings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The application of computational fluid dynamics methods to the analysis of mixing in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site requires a demonstration that the computer codes can properly represent the behavior of fluids in the tanks. The motive force for mixing the tanks is a set of jet pumps taking suction from the tank fluid and discharging turbulent jets near the bottom of the tank. The work described here focuses on the free turbulent jet in water as the simplest case of jet behavior for which data could be found in the open literature. Calculations performed with both CFDS-FLOW3D and FLUENT were compared with data as well as classical jet theory. Results showed both codes agreed reasonably well with each other and with the data, but that results were sensitive to the computational mesh and, to a lesser degree, the selection of turbulence models
3D Flapping Trajectory of a Micro-Air-Vehicle and its Application to Unsteady Flow Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lung-Jieh Yang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A three‐dimensional (3D trajectory detection framework using two high‐speed cameras for the flapping flexible wing of a micro‐air‐vehicle (MAV is presented. This MAV, which is called the “Golden Snitch”, has a successful flight record of 8 minutes. We embed the flexible wingskin with a nine light emitting diode (LED array as the light enhancing marker and capsulate it with parylene (poly‐para‐xylylene as the protection layer. We confirm an oblique figure of eight trajectory of this MAV’s wing with time‐varying coordinate data. The corresponding aerofoil of the main wings’ profiles was subjected to the time‐varying coordinate data, yielding a resolution of a 1/70 wing beating cycle of 15Hz flapping. The trajectory information is first demonstrated as the moving boundaries of an unsteady flow simulation around a flapping flexible wing.
Nickeler, D H; Nickeler, Dieter H.; Fahr, Hans-Joerg
2005-01-01
We make some remarks on reconnection in plasmas and want to present some calculations related to the problem of finding velocity fields which conserve magnetic flux or at least magnetic field lines. Hereby we start from views and definitions of ideal and non-ideal flows on one hand, and of reconnective and non-reconnective plasma dynamics on the other hand. Our considerations give additional insights into the discussion on violations of the frozen--in field concept which started recently with the papers by Baranov & Fahr (2003a; 2003b). We find a correlation between the nonidealness which is given by a generalized form of the Ohm's law and a general transporting velocity, which is field line conserving.
A full 3D model of fluid flow and heat transfer in an E.B. heated liquid metal bath
Matveichev, A.; Jardy, A.; Bellot, J. P.
2016-07-01
In order to study the dissolution of exogeneous inclusions in the liquid metal during processing of titanium alloys, a series of dipping experiments has been performed in an Electron Beam Melting laboratory furnace. Precise determination of the dissolution kinetics requires knowing and mastering the exact thermohydrodynamic behavior of the melt pool, which implies full 3D modeling of the process. To achieve this goal, one needs to describe momentum and heat transfer, phase change, as well as the development of flow turbulence in the liquid. EB power input, thermal radiation, heat loss through the cooling circuit, surface tension effects (i.e. Marangoni-induced flow) must also be addressed in the model. Therefore a new solver dealing with all these phenomena was implemented within OpenFOAM platform. Numerical results were compared with experimental data from actual Ti melting, showing a pretty good agreement. In the second stage, the immersion of a refractory sample rod in the liquid pool was simulated. Results of the simulations showed that the introduction of the sample slightly disturbs the flow field inside the bath. The amount of such disturbance depends on the exact location of the dipping.
Study on Bubbly Two-Phase Flow Across Twisted Tube Bundles Based on Quasi 3D High Speed Video
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jicheng Zhou
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In flooded evaporators, refrigerants are boiling outside the tubes. This paper focuses on the bubbly two-phase flow characteristics in twisted tube bundles. The quasi 3-D high speed video method and computational fluid dynamics are carried out to understand the effects which angles between the major axis of the cylinder and vertical direction ( and bubble diameters have on the motion behaviours of bubbly flow. is adjusted to 0°, 30°, 45° and 60°，respectively. Bubble diameter is 4mm, 6mm and 8mm, respectively. The turbulence intensity of fluid outside the tubes which is resulted by bubble rising behaviour is also investigated. The results show that the elliptical cylinders with different s lead to bubble sliding out the surface of tubes, rising steadily and spreading widely in tube bundles. And larger bubbles have a stronger effect on turbulence intensity of liquid phase flow. It also can be concluded that the surface geometry of twisted tube plays an active role in heat transfer enhancement of the twisted tube evaporator
Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dibo Dong
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.
Miao, Sha; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad
2015-11-01
This work presents a novel and efficient Cartesian-grid based simulation capability for the study of an incompressible, turbulent gas layer over a liquid flow with disparate Reynolds numbers in two phases. This capability couples a turbulent gas-flow solver and a liquid-layer based on a second-order accurate Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM) at the deformable interface. The turbulent gas flow solver solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations via direct numerical simulation or through turbulence closure (unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Models) for Reynolds numbers O(106). In this application, a laminar liquid layer solution is obtained from depth-integrated Navier-Stokes equations utilizing shallow water wave assumptions. The immersed boundary method (BDIM) enforces the coupling at the deformable interface, the boundary conditions to turbulence closure equations and defines the domain geometry on the Cartesian grid. Validations are made for the turbulent gas channel flow over high-viscosity liquid. This simulation capability can be applied to problems in the oil and industrial sector such as channel and pipe flows with heavy oils as well as wind wave generation in shallow waters. Sponsored by the Chevron Energy Technology Company.
Numerical simulation of the stokes wave for the flow around a ship hull coupled with the VOF model
Shengtao, Chen; Jingjun, Zhong; Peng, Sun
2015-06-01
The surface wave generated by flow around a ship hull moving near free surface of water is simulated numerically in this study. The three-dimensional implicit finite volume method (FVM) is applied to solve Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. The realizable k-e turbulence model has been implemented to capture turbulent flow around the ship hull in the free surface zone. The volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with the Stokes wave theory has been used to determine the free surface effect of water. By using is a six degrees of freedom model, the ship hull's movement is numerically solved with the Stokes wave together. Under the action of Stokes waves on the sea, the interface between the air and water waves at the same regular pattern and so does the pressure and the vertical velocity. The ship hull moves in the same way as the wave. The amplitude of the ship hull's heave is less than the wave height because of the viscosity damping. This method could provide an important reference for the study of ships' movement, wave and hydrodynamics.
Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.
2014-12-01
In part I of this two-part paper, a three-dimensional Lagrangian smooth particle hydrodynamics method has been used to model the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with or without short steel fibres in the slump cone test. The constitutive behaviour of this non-Newtonian viscous fluid is described by a Bingham-type model. The 3D simulation of SCC without fibres is focused on the distribution of large aggregates (larger than or equal to 8 mm) during the flow. The simulation of self-compacting high- and ultra-high- performance concrete containing short steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The simulation results show that the fibres and/or heavier aggregates do not precipitate but remain homogeneously distributed in the mix throughout the flow.
Energy integral of the Stokes flow in a singularly perturbed exterior domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Dalla Riva
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a pair of domains \\(\\Omega ^b\\ and \\(\\Omega ^s\\ in \\(\\mathbb{R}^n\\ and we assume that the closure of \\(\\Omega ^b\\ does not intersect the closure of \\(\\epsilon \\Omega ^s\\ for \\(\\epsilon \\in (0,\\epsilon _0\\. Then for a fixed \\(\\epsilon \\in (0,\\epsilon_0\\ we consider a boundary value problem in \\(\\mathbb{R}^n \\setminus (\\Omega ^b \\cup \\epsilon \\Omega ^s\\ which describes the steady state Stokes flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past a body occupying the domain \\(\\Omega ^b\\ and past a small impurity occupying the domain \\(\\epsilon \\Omega ^s\\. The unknown of the problem are the velocity field \\(u\\ and the pressure field \\(p\\, and we impose the value of the velocity field \\(u\\ on the boundary both of the body and of the impurity. We assume that the boundary velocity on the impurity displays an arbitrarily strong singularity when \\(\\epsilon\\ tends to 0. The goal is to understand the behaviour of the strain energy of \\( (u, p\\ for \\(\\epsilon\\ small and positive. The methods developed aim at representing the limiting behaviour in terms of analytic maps and possibly singular but completely known functions of \\(\\epsilon\\, such as \\(\\epsilon ^{-1}\\, \\(\\log \\epsilon\\.
A New Approach to Sap Flow Measurement Using 3D Printed Gauges and Open-source Electronics
Ham, J. M.; Miner, G. L.; Kluitenberg, G. J.
2015-12-01
A new type of sap flow gauge was developed to measure transpiration from herbaceous plants using a modified heat pulse technique. Gauges were fabricated using 3D-printing technology and low-cost electronics to keep the materials cost under $20 (U.S.) per sensor. Each gauge consisted of small-diameter needle probes fastened to a 3D-printed frame. One needle contained a resistance heater to provide a 6 to 8 second heat pulse while the other probes measured the resultant temperature increase at two distances from the heat source. The data acquisition system for the gauges was built from a low-cost Arduino microcontroller. The system read the gauges every 10 minutes and stored the results on a SD card. Different numerical techniques were evaluated for estimating sap velocity from the heat pulse data - including analytical solutions and parameter estimation approaches . Prototype gauges were tested in the greenhouse on containerized corn and sunflower. Sap velocities measured by the gauges were compared to independent gravimetric measurements of whole plant transpiration. Results showed the system could measure daily transpiration to within 3% of the gravimetric measurements. Excellent agreement was observed when two gauges were attached the same stem. Accuracy was not affected by rapidly changing transpiration rates observed under partly cloudy conditions. The gauge-based estimates of stem thermal properties suggested the system may also detect the onset of water stress. A field study showed the gauges could run for 1 to 2 weeks on a small battery pack. Sap flow measurements on multiple corn stems were scaled up by population to estimate field-scale transpiration. During full canopy cover, excellent agreement was observed between the scaled-up sap flow measurements and reference crop evapotranspiration calculated from weather data. Data also showed promise as a way to estimate real-time canopy resistance required for model verification and development. Given the low
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Rezanezhad
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated peat soils is controlled by the peat structure which affects the air-filled porosity, pore size distribution and shape. This study investigates how the size and shape of pores affects the flow of water through peat soils. In this study we used X-ray Computed Tomography (CT, at 45 µm resolution under 5 specific soil-water pressure head levels to provide 3-D, high-resolution images that were used to detect the inner pore structure of peat samples under a changing water regime. Pore structure and configuration were found to be irregular, which affected the rate of water transmission through peat soils. The 3-D analysis suggested that pore distribution is dominated by a single large pore-space. At low pressure head, this single large air-filled pore imparted a more effective flowpath compared to smaller pores. Smaller pores were disconnected and the flowpath was more tortuous than in the single large air-filled pore, and their contribution to flow was negligible when the single large pore was active. We quantify the pore structure of peat soil that affects the hydraulic conductivity in the unsaturated condition, and demonstrate the validity of our estimation of peat unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by making a comparison with a standard permeameter-based method. Estimates of unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were made for the purpose of testing the sensitivity of pore shape and geometry parameters on the hydraulic properties of peats and how to evaluate the structure of the peat and its affects on parameterization. We also studied the ability to quantify these factors for different soil moisture contents in order to define how the factors controlling the shape coefficient vary with changes in soil water pressure head. The relation between measured and estimated unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at various heads shows that rapid initial drainage, that changes the air-filled pore properties, creates a
Effect of Catch Cup Geometry on 3D Boundary Layer Flow over the Wafer Surface in a Spin Coating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mizue MUNEKATA; Seiichi KIMURA; Hiroaki KURISHIMA; Jinsuke TANAKA; Sohei YAMAMOTO; Hiroyuki YOSHIKAWA; Kazuyoshi MATSUZAKI; Hideki OHBA
2008-01-01
Recently, development of high technology has been required for the formation of thin uniform fdm in manufacturing processes of semiconductor as the semiconductor instruments become more sophisticated. Spin coating is usually used for spreading photoresist on a wafer surface. However, since rotating speed of the disk is very high in spin coating, the dropped photoresist scatters outward and reattaches on the film surface. A catch cup is set up outside the wafer in spin coating, and scattered photoresist mist is removed from the wafer edge by the exhaust flow generated at the gap between the wafer edge and the catch cup. In the dry process of a spin coating, it is a serious concern that the film thickness increases near the wafer edge in the case of low rotating speed. The purpose of this study is to make clear the effect of the catch cup geometry on the 3D boundary layer flow over the wafer surface and the drying rate of liquid film.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C.; Liu, Z. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)
1994-12-31
A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.
Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)
2011-08-15
A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.
A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals
Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.
1994-01-01
Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.
3D NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON WATER AND AIR TWO-PHASE FLOWS OF THE STEPS AND FLARING GATE PIER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ting; WU Chao; LIAO Hua-sheng; HU Yao-hua
2005-01-01
A new-style flood discharging dam, which consolidates the flaring gate pier and the stepped spillway for discharging the flood through the dam surface, had been applied in China. The theoretical study on it is in a beginning stage at present. The three-dimensional numerical simulation has not been reported. In this paper, the 3D numerical calculation on the two-phase flow of water and air with discharge per unit width 195m3/s* m is presented . The results indicate that there is negative pressure on the juncture of the spillway surface and the first step. There forms obvious longitudinal and transverse eddies on the steps and the velocity decreases obviously compared with the smooth spillway. The figures of the velocity distributions and the water-air two-phase flows are plotted. The results calculated on the pressure are in agreement with the experimental data. Based on the position of the negative pressure obtained from calculation, measurement points of pressure are arranged in physical model. The experimental results validate the existence of the negative pressure. Being an applied and trial study, the results obtained are of theoretical and practical significance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Lin-sheng; CHENG Yong-guang; ZHOU Da-qing
2013-01-01
The 3-D characteristics of the water-air flow patterns in a corridor-shaped air-cushion surge chamber during hydraulic transients need to be considered in the shape optimization.To verify the reliability of the water-air two-phase model,namely,the volume of fluid model,the process of charging water into a closed air chamber is successfully simulated.Using the model,the 3-D flow characteristics under the load rejection and acceptance conditions within the air-cushion surge chamber of a specific hydropower station are studied.The flee surface waves,the flow patterns,and the pressure changes during the surge wave process are analyzed in detail.The longitudinal flow of water in the long corridor-shaped surge chamber is similar to the open channel flow with respect to the wave propagation,reflection and superposition characteristics.The lumped parameters of the 3-D numerical simulation agree with the results of a 1-D calculation of hydraulic transients in the whole water conveying system,which validates the 3-D method.The 3-D flow structures obtained can be applied to the shape optimization of the chamber.
Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin
2016-04-01
The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously
Navier-Stokes flow field analysis of compressible flow in a high pressure safety relief valve
Vu, Bruce; Wang, Ten-See; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat
1993-12-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the complex three-dimensional flowfield of an oxygen safety pressure relieve valve during an incident, with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Specifically, the analysis will provide a flow pattern that would lead to the expansion of the eventual erosion pattern of the hardware, so as to combine it with other findings to piece together a most likely scenario for the investigation. The CFD model is a pressure based solver. An adaptive upwind difference scheme is employed for the spatial discretization, and a predictor, multiple corrector method is used for the velocity-pressure coupling. The computational result indicated vortices formation near the opening of the valve which matched the erosion pattern of the damaged hardware.
Coupling Navier-stokes and Cahn-hilliard Equations in a Two-dimensional Annular flow Configuration
Vignal, Philippe
2015-06-01
In this work, we present a novel isogeometric analysis discretization for the Navier-Stokes- Cahn-Hilliard equation, which uses divergence-conforming spaces. Basis functions generated with this method can have higher-order continuity, and allow to directly discretize the higher- order operators present in the equation. The discretization is implemented in PetIGA-MF, a high-performance framework for discrete differential forms. We present solutions in a two- dimensional annulus, and model spinodal decomposition under shear flow.
Sneddon, Kristen W.; Powers, Michael H.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Poeter, Eileen P.
2002-01-01
Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are a pervasive and persistent category of groundwater contamination. In an effort to better understand their unique subsurface behavior, a controlled and carefully monitored injection of PCE (perchloroethylene), a typical DNAPL, was performed in conjunction with the University of Waterloo at Canadian Forces Base Borden in 1991. Of the various geophysical methods used to monitor the migration of injected PCE, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 500-MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. These data are used in determining calibration parameters for a multiphase flow simulation. GPR data were acquired over time on a fixed two-dimensional surficial grid as the DNAPL was injected into the subsurface. Emphasis is on the method of determining DNAPL saturation values from this time-lapse GPR data set. Interactive full-waveform GPR modeling of regularized field traces resolves relative dielectric permittivity versus depth profiles for pre-injection and later-time data. Modeled values are end members in recursive calculations of the Bruggeman-Hanai-Sen (BHS) mixing formula, yielding interpreted pre-injection porosity and post-injection DNAPL saturation values. The resulting interpreted physical properties of porosity and DNAPL saturation of the Borden test cell, defined on a grid spacing of 50 cm with 1-cm depth resolution, are used as observations for calibration of a 3-D multiphase flow simulation. Calculated values of DNAPL saturation in the subsurface at 14 and 22 hours after the start of injection, from both the GPR and the multiphase flow modeling, are interpolated volumetrically and presented for visual comparison.
Bancroft, Gregory N.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; van den Dolder, Juliette; Sheffield, Tiffany L.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Jansen, John A.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)
2002-01-01
Bone is a complex highly structured mechanically active 3D tissue composed of cellular and matrix elements. The true biological environment of a bone cell is thus derived from a dynamic interaction between responsively active cells experiencing mechanical forces and a continuously changing 3D matrix architecture. To investigate this phenomenon in vitro, marrow stromal osteoblasts were cultured on 3D scaffolds under flow perfusion with different rates of flow for an extended period to permit osteoblast differentiation and significant matrix production and mineralization. With all flow conditions, mineralized matrix production was dramatically increased over statically cultured constructs with the total calcium content of the cultured scaffolds increasing with increasing flow rate. Flow perfusion induced de novo tissue modeling with the formation of pore-like structures in the scaffolds and enhanced the distribution of cells and matrix throughout the scaffolds. These results represent reporting of the long-term effects of fluid flow on primary differentiating osteoblasts and indicate that fluid flow has far-reaching effects on osteoblast differentiation and phenotypic expression in vitro. Flow perfusion culture permits the generation and study of a 3D, actively modeled, mineralized matrix and can therefore be a valuable tool for both bone biology and tissue engineering.
Wu, Wenming; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon
2015-03-01
We introduce a new strategy for fabricating a seamless three-dimensional (3D) helical microreactor utilizing a silicone tube and a paraffin mold. With this method, various shapes and sizes of 3D helical microreactors were fabricated, and a complicated and laborious photolithographic process, or 3D printing, was eliminated. With dramatically enhanced portability at a significantly reduced fabrication cost, such a device can be considered to be the simplest microreactor, developed to date, for performing the flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naganawa, S.; Koshikawa, T.; Fukatsu, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Aoki, I. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology
2004-03-01
The value of MR imaging by post-contrast T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo (3D SPGR) is well established for the detection of small vestibular schwannomas in the cerebellopontine angle region. We describe a case in which a flow ghost artifact in the slice-encoding direction mimicked a vestibular schwannoma and heavily T2-weighted MR cisternography and multiplanar reconstruction images helped us to reach the correct diagnosis. In addition, we conducted a volunteer study to demonstrate that changing the k-space trajectory can reduce this artifact in post-contrast 3D SPGR images.
Krank, Benjamin; Wall, Wolfgang A; Kronbichler, Martin
2016-01-01
We present an efficient discontinuous Galerkin scheme for simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations including laminar and turbulent flow. We consider a semi-explicit high-order velocity-correction method for time integration as well as nodal equal-order discretizations for velocity and pressure. The non-linear convective term is treated explicitly while a linear system is solved for the pressure Poisson equation and the viscous term. The key feature of our solver is a consistent penalty term reducing the local divergence error in order to overcome recently reported instabilities in spatially under-resolved high-Reynolds-number flows as well as small time steps. This penalty method is similar to the grad-div stabilization widely used in continuous finite elements. We further review and compare our method to several other techniques recently proposed in literature to stabilize the method for such flow configurations. The solver is specifically designed for large-scale computations through matrix-...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experience demonstrates that fine tuning on the trigger of an experiment is often achieved only after running the experiment and analyzing the first data acquired. It is desirable that identification and, consequently, selection of interesting events be made on a more refined identification of particles. Use of an innovative parallel-processing system architecture together with an instruction set allows identification of objects (particles) among the data coming from a calorimeter in a programmable manner, utilizing the information related to their shape in two- or three-dimensional form, rather than applying only a programmable threshold proportional to their energy. The architecture is flexible, allowing execution of simple algorithms as well as complex pattern recognition algorithms. It is scalable in the sense that the same hardware can be used for small or large calorimeters having a slow or fast event rate. The simple printed circuit board (accommodating 16 x 3D-Flow processors) on a 4 in. x 4 in. board described herein uses the same hardware to build a large Level-1 programmable trigger (by interconnecting many boards in a matrix array) and is capable of implementing simple or complex pattern recognition algorithms at different event input rates (by cascading boards one on top of another). With the same hardware one can build low-cost, programmable Level-1 triggers for a small and low-event-rate calorimeter, or high-performance, programmable Level-1 triggers for a large calorimeter capable of sustaining up to 60 million events per second
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renaud Meignen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the course of a postulated severe accident in an NPP, Direct Containment Heating (DCH may occur after an eventual failure of the vessel. DCH is related to dynamical, thermal, and chemical phenomena involved by the eventual fine fragmentation and dispersal of the corium melt out of the vessel pit. It may threaten the integrity of the containment by pressurization of its atmosphere. Several simplified modellings have been proposed in the past but they require a very strong fitting which renders any extrapolation regarding geometry, material, and scales rather doubtful. With the development of multidimensional multiphase flow computer codes, it is now possible to investigate the phenomenon numerically with more details. We present an analysis of the potential of the MC3D code to support the analysis of this phenomenon, restricting our discussion to the dynamical processes. The analysis is applied to the case of French 1300 MWe PWR reactors for which we derive a correlation for the corium dispersal rate for application in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA level 2 study.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU De-chao; FAN Bei-lin; WANG Guang-qian; ZHANG Hong-wu
2011-01-01
A 3-D numerical formulation is proposed on the horizontal Cartesian, vertical sigma-coordinate grid for modeling non-hydrostatic pressure free-surface flows.The pressure decomposition technique and θ semi-implicit method are used, with the solution procedure being split into two steps.First, with the implicit parts of non-hydrostatic pressures excluded, the provisional velocity field and free surface are obtained by solving a 2-D Poisson equation.Second, the theory of the differential operator is employed to derive the 3-D Poisson equation for non-hydrostatic pressures, which is solved to obtain the non-hydrostatic pressures and to update the provisional velocity field.When the non-orthogonal sigma-coordinate transformation is introduced, additional terms come into being, resulting in a 15-diagonal, diagonally dominant but unsymmetric linear system in the 3-D Poisson equation for non-hydrostatic pressures.The Biconjugate Gradient Stabilized (BiCGstab) method is used to solve the resulting 3-D unsymmetric linear system instead of the conjugate gradient method, which can only be used for symmetric, positive-definite linear systems.Three test cases are used for validations.The successful simulations of the small-amplitude wave, a supercritical flow over a ramp and a turbulent flow in the open channel indicate that the new model can simulate well non-hydrostatic flows, supercritical flows and turbulent flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boivin, S. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada); Cayre, F. [Laval Univ., Groupe Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Elements Finis, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Dept. Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique, Groupe Recherches et Etudes en Thermohydraulique, 78 - Chatou (France); Herard, J.M. [Dept. Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique, Groupe Recherches et Etudes en Thermohydraulique, 78 - Chatou (France)
2000-09-01
A method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous flows and the convection and diffusion of a scalar is proposed in the present paper. This method is based upon a fractional time step scheme and the finite volume method on unstructured meshes. A recently proposed diffusion scheme with interesting theoretical and numerical properties is tested and integrated into the Navier-Stokes solver. Predictions of Poiseuille flows, backward-facing step flows and lid-driven cavity flows are then performed to validate the method. We finally demonstrate the versatility of the method by predicting buoyancy force driven flows of a Boussinesq fluid (natural convection of air in a square cavity with Rayleigh numbers of 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6}). (authors)
Lagrangian 3D particle tracking in high-speed flows: Shake-The-Box for multi-pulse systems
Novara, Matteo; Schanz, Daniel; Reuther, Nico; Kähler, Christian J.; Schröder, Andreas
2016-08-01
The Shake-The-Box (STB) particle tracking technique, recently introduced for time-resolved 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) images, is applied here to data from a multi-pulse investigation of a turbulent boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradient in air at 36 m/s ( Re τ = 10,650). The multi-pulse acquisition strategy allows for the recording of four-pulse long time-resolved sequences with a time separation of a few microseconds. The experimental setup consists of a dual-imaging system and a dual-double-cavity laser emitting orthogonal polarization directions to separate the four pulses. The STB particle triangulation and tracking strategy is adapted here to cope with the limited amount of realizations available along the time sequence and to take advantage of the ghost track reduction offered by the use of two independent imaging systems. Furthermore, a correction scheme to compensate for camera vibrations is discussed, together with a method to accurately identify the position of the wall within the measurement domain. Results show that approximately 80,000 tracks can be instantaneously reconstructed within the measurement volume, enabling the evaluation of both dense velocity fields, suitable for spatial gradients evaluation, and highly spatially resolved boundary layer profiles. Turbulent boundary layer profiles obtained from ensemble averaging of the STB tracks are compared to results from 2D-PIV and long-range micro particle tracking velocimetry; the comparison shows the capability of the STB approach in delivering accurate results across a wide range of scales.
HOMOGENIZATION OF A STATIONARY NAVIER-STOKES FLOW IN POROUS MEDIUM WITH THIN FILM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yao Zhengan; Zhao Hongxing
2008-01-01
The article studies the homogenization of a stationary Navier-Stokes fluid in porous medium with thin film under Dirichlet boundary condition. At the end of the article, "Darcy's law" is rigorously derived from this model as the parameter e tends to zero, which is independent of the coordinates towards the thickness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong-Dong Shi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interstitial flow directly affects cells that reside in tissues and regulates tissue physiology and pathology by modulating important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the structures that cells utilize to sense interstitial flow in a 3-dimensional (3D environment have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that interstitial flow upregulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts via activation of an ERK1/2-c-Jun pathway, which in turn promotes cell migration in collagen. Herein, we focused on uncovering the flow-induced mechanotransduction mechanism in 3D. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cleavage of rat vascular SMC surface glycocalyx heparan sulfate (HS chains from proteoglycan (PG core proteins by heparinase or disruption of HS biosynthesis by silencing N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1 suppressed interstitial flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, interstitial collagenase (MMP-13 expression, and SMC motility in 3D collagen. Inhibition or knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK also attenuated or blocked flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility. Interstitial flow induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr925, and this activation was blocked when heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs were disrupted. These data suggest that HSPGs mediate interstitial flow-induced mechanotransduction through FAK-ERK. In addition, we show that integrins are crucial for mechanotransduction through HSPGs as they mediate cell spreading and maintain cytoskeletal rigidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a conceptual mechanotransduction model wherein cell surface glycocalyx HSPGs, in the presence of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeleton organization, sense interstitial flow and activate the FAK-ERK signaling axis, leading to upregulation of MMP expression and cell motility in 3D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The surveillance program of the vessel materials of a BWR reactor requires the determination of the neutron flux in 3D in the core enveloping. To carry out these calculations of the neutron flux, the Regulatory Guide 1.190 of the NRC recommends the use of the following codes: MCNP, TORT and DORT. In the case of using the DORT code, the one which solves the transport equation in discreet coordinates and in two dimensions (xy, rθ, and rz), the regulatory guide in reference, requires to make an approach of the flow in three dimensions by means of the call Synthesis Method. It is denominated like this due to that a flow representation in 3D is achieved 'combining' or 'synthesizing' the calculated flows by DORT in rθ, rz and r. In this work the application of the Synthesis Method it is presented, according to the Regulatory Guide 1.190, to determine the 3D flows in a BWR reactor. To achieve the above mentioned it was implemented the Synthesis Method in a computer program developed in the ININ to which is denominated SYNTHESIS. This program applies the synthesis method, and is 'coupled' with the DORT code to determine by this way the neutronic fluxes in 3D on the enveloping of a BWR reactor. (Author)
Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite, Jennifer E; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F
2015-01-01
A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 μm × 800 μm square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 μL min(-1). PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 μM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660
Kweon, Jae Ryong
2016-09-01
In this paper, when the initial density has a jump across an interior curve in a bounded domain, we show unique existence, piecewise regularity and jump discontinuity dynamics for the density and the velocity vector governed by the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible viscous barotropic flows. A critical difficulty is in controlling the gradient of the pressure across the jump curve. This is resolved by constructing a vector function associated with the pressure jump value on the convecting curve and extending it to the whole domain.
Numerical Solution of Stokes Flow in a Circular Cavity Using Mesh-free Local RBF-DQ
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutanaai, S Soleimani; Roshan, Naeem; Vosoughi, A;
2012-01-01
This work reports the results of a numerical investigation of Stokes flow problem in a circular cavity as an irregular geometry using mesh-free local radial basis function-based differential quadrature (RBF-DQ) method. This method is the combination of differential quadrature approximation...... is applied on a two-dimensional geometry. The obtained results from the numerical simulations are compared with those gained by previous works. Outcomes prove that the current technique is in very good agreement with previous investigations and this fact that RBF-DQ method is an accurate and flexible method...... in solution of partial differential equations (PDEs)....
Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos
2012-08-01
Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the
On the validity of the Navier-Stokes equations for nanoscale liquid flows: The role of channel size
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Liu
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the validity of the Navier-Stokes (NS equations for nanoscale liquid flows through molecular dynamics simulations. We focus on the role of channel size by considering the fluid-wall interaction. Liquid flows between two planar parallel walls driven by an external force with channel size ranging from 2 to 80 nm are studied. The volumetric flux is computed and the dependence of the volumetric flux on the channel size is explained both qualitatively and quantitatively. It is found that the flow is sensitive to the fluid-wall binding energy and the classical fluid mechanics falls apart in small nanochannels. However, the wall effects become insignificant and the NS equations are valid when the channel size is larger than about 150 molecular diameters (∼ 50 nm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-feng Zou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of the intermediate principal stress on the stress and displacement of surrounding rock, a novel approach based on 3D Hoek-Brown (H-B failure criterion was proposed. Taking the strain-softening characteristic of rock mass into account, the potential plastic zone is subdivided into a finite number of concentric annulus and a numerical procedure for calculating the stress and displacement of each annulus was presented. Strains were obtained based on the nonassociated and associated flow rule and 3D plastic potential function. Stresses were achieved by the stress equilibrium equation and generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Using the proposed approach, we can get the solutions of the stress and displacement of the surrounding rock considering the intermediate principal stress. Moreover, the proposed approach was validated with the published results. Compared with the results based on generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion, it is shown that the plastic radius calculated by 3D Hoek-Brown failure criterion is smaller than those solved by generalized H-B failure criterion, and the influences of dilatancy effect on the results based on the generalized H-B failure criterion are greater than those based on 3D H-B failure criterion. The displacements considering the nonassociated flow rule are smaller than those considering associated flow rules.
Is the water flow more or less than that predicted by the Navier-Stokes equation in micro-orifices?
Hasegawa, Tomiichi; Ushida, Akiomi; Narumi, Takatsune; Goda, Masaki
2016-09-01
Micro-fluid mechanics is an important field in modern fluid mechanics. However, flows through microscale short tubes (micro-orifices) are not yet fully understood. Thus far, experiments on the flow through micro-orifices have been conducted by two methods: the pressure-given method (PGM), in which the pressure is given and the rate of flow is measured, and the flow-given method (FGM), in which the flow rate is given and the pressure is measured. According to conventional fluid mechanics, these two methods should give the same result; however, studies have found lower fluidity (lower flow rate) in PGM and higher fluidity (lower pressure drop) in FGM than that predicted by the Navier-Stokes equation, suggesting that the difference is caused by the method used. To clarify the cause of this difference, we examined the flow of ultra-pure water (UPW) with elapsed time by PGM. UPW was passed through Ni or Ti micro-orifices with 20-μm diameter at applied pressures of 50-1000 Pa. The difference in the shape and material of the orifices did not have a great effect on the flow property. The flow rate was frequently higher than that predicted at the start of the flow experiment; however, it subsequently fell and finally reached zero as time elapsed. This fact suggests that UPW inherently flows at velocities higher than those predicted by the Navier-Stokes equation; however, the flow is then resisted by something that develops over time. We removed an orifice in which flow had stopped from the experimental apparatus, observed it by phase contrast microscope and electron probe micro analyzer, and revealed that a visible membrane, a transparent lattice-like structure, or nothing existed in the orifice. Dissolved air was reduced by deaerating the air from UPW (deaeration), bubbling UPW with Ar (Ar-bubbling), or preventing UPW from contact with air after UPW production (air-prevention). Deaeration, Ar-bubbling, and air-prevention reduced the probability of formation of the visible
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;
2014-01-01
In the present paper, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes predictions of the flow field around the MEXICO rotor in yawed conditions are compared with measurements. The paper illustrates the high degree of qualitative and quantitative agreement that can be obtained for this highly unsteady flow...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Xinying
2012-01-01
In this paper; we prove a blow-up criterion of strong solutions to the 3-D viscous and non-resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations for compressible heat-conducting flows with initial vacuum.This blow-up criterion depends only on the gradient of velocity and the temperature,which is similar to the one for compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanchard, M., E-mail: mathieu.blanchard@ladhyx.polytechnique.fr [LadHyX, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Schuller, T. [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire d’Energétique Moléculaire et Macroscopique Combustion (EM2C), Grande Voie des Vignes, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Centrale-Supélec, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Sipp, D. [ONERA-DAFE, 8 rue des Vertugadins, 92190 Meudon (France); Schmid, P. J. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2015-04-15
The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated.
Kuiper, Logan K
2016-01-01
An approximate solution to the two dimensional Navier Stokes equation with periodic boundary conditions is obtained by representing the x any y components of fluid velocity with complex Fourier basis vectors. The chosen space of basis vectors is finite to allow for numerical calculations, but of variable size. Comparisons of the resulting approximate solutions as they vary with the size of the chosen vector space allow for extrapolation to an infinite basis vector space. Results suggest that such a solution, with the full basis vector space and which would give the exact solution, would fail for certain initial velocity configurations when initial velocity and time t exceed certain limits.
Harp, J. L., Jr.
1977-01-01
A two-dimensional time-dependent computer code was utilized to calculate the three-dimensional steady flow within the impeller blading. The numerical method is an explicit time marching scheme in two spatial dimensions. Initially, an inviscid solution is generated on the hub blade-to-blade surface by the method of Katsanis and McNally (1973). Starting with the known inviscid solution, the viscous effects are calculated through iteration. The approach makes it possible to take into account principal impeller fluid-mechanical effects. It is pointed out that the second iterate provides a complete solution to the three-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations for flow in a centrifugal impeller. The problems investigated are related to the study of a radial impeller and a backswept impeller.
Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D for neutral atmospheric flow over complex terrain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavar, Dalibor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Bechmann, Andreas;
2016-01-01
been tested and compared to the results of OpenFOAM v.1.7.1 and EllipSys3D. The numerical results obtained using the same wall-modeling approach in both EllipSys3D and Open-FOAM v.2.1.1 proved to be almost identical. Two meshing strategies are investigated using HypGrid and SnappyHexMesh. The...... performance of Open-FOAM on SnappyHexMesh-based low-aspect-ratio unstructured meshes is found to be almost an order of magnitude faster than on HypGrid-based structured and high-aspect-ratio meshes. However, proper control of boundary layer resolution is found to be very difficult when the SnappyHexMesh tool...
Guasto, Jeffrey; Schmidt, Brian; Lawrence, Michael; Breuer, Kenneth
2007-11-01
Three-dimensional total internal reflection velocimetry (3D-TIRV) is used to measure the trajectories of fluorescent tracer particles within 200 nm of a wall. Diffusion and shear-induced motion can result in mean velocity measurement errors, and by taking measurements using different particle sizes and sampling times, we quantify these effects and compare with theory. We also use 3D-TIRV to observe and characterize the adhesion, surface rolling and release dynamics of particles that can adhere to the surface through the action of biological binding proteins. Particles coated with P-Selectin are allowed to adhere to and detach from a PSGL-1-coated microchannel surface, modeling the interaction between leukocytes (white blood cells) and blood vessels, respectively. Binding affinities, bond strengths and hydrodynamic interactions are inferred from the trajectory data.
Xin, Bo; Sun, Dakun; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng
2016-07-01
Lined ducts are extensively applied to suppress noise emission from aero-engines and other turbomachines. The complex noise/flow interaction in a lined duct possibly leads to acoustic instability in certain conditions. To investigate the instability, the full linearized Navier-Stokes equations with eddy viscosity considered are solved in frequency domain using a Galerkin finite element method to compute the sound transmission in shear flow in the lined duct as well as the flow perturbation over the impedance wall. A good agreement between the numerical predictions and the published experimental results is obtained for the sound transmission, showing that a transmission peak occurs around the resonant frequency of the acoustic liner in the presence of shear flow. The eddy viscosity is an important influential factor that plays the roles of both providing destabilizing and making coupling between the acoustic and flow motions over the acoustic liner. Moreover, it is shown from the numerical investigation that the occurrence of the sound amplification and the magnitude of transmission coefficient are closely related to the realistic velocity profile, and we find it essential that the actual variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction over the liner surface be included in the computation. The simulation results of the periodic flow patterns possess the proper features of the convective instability over the liner, as observed in Marx et al.'s experiment. A quantitative comparison between numerical and experimental results of amplitude and phase of the instability is performed. The corresponding eigenvalues achieve great agreement.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Turbulent flows associated with advanced aerodynamic designs represent a considerable challenge for accurate prediction. For example, the flow past low-speed wings...
Baocheng Shi; Jinjia Wei
2014-01-01
For numerically simulating 3D solid-liquid turbulent flow in low specific speed centrifugal pumps, there exist several problems including how to design geometrical shape of the calculation model to represent the real pump and how to predict pump performance accurately to guide the design of pump. To solve these problems, four kinds of geometric models were designed. The performance of a low specific speed solid-liquid centrifugal pump was predicted, and the results showed that the improved pr...
MO, C.; Park, G.; Lee, G.; Yi, B.; Yoo, D.
2012-12-01
We processed and analyzed the 3-D seismic data from the southern central part of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (Japan Sea) to investigate the geomorphologic characteristics of the debris flows. The data processing included dip moveout, post-stack migration, and acquisition footprint removal. The curvature attributes of the seafloor show numerous bubble- or dot-like features that form a N-S to NNE-SSW trending narrow (ca. 2 km wide) zone in the western part of the area. The bubble-like features correspond to the irregular seafloor in the seismic profiles. At least nine debris flows, which advanced largely north and northeastward, were identified from the seafloor to the sub-seafloor depth of about 300 m. The debris flows are lens- or wedge-shaped in cross section, characterized by structureless or transparent to chaotic internal reflections, and elongate or lobate in plan view. The largest debris flow exceeds the 3D seismic data coverage (16 km by 25 km) and its thickness reaches about 60 m. Some debris flows are very thin and amalgamated or coalesced, making it difficult to interpret the individual flows. The similarity and curvature attributes of the basal contact of some debris flows show numerous long grooves, erosional scars, and bubble- or dot-like features similar to those seen in the seafloor. The grooves, interpreted to be caused by large clasts imbedded at the base of the debris flows, diverge and become slightly wider (decrease in the number of the bubble-like features away from the axis of the debris flows probably suggest decreasing pore fluid pressure toward the edge of the debris flows.
Self-similarity in incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent
2015-12-01
The self-similarity conditions of the 3-dimensional (3D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. It is found that the scaling exponents of length dimensions in i = 1, 2, 3 coordinates in 3-dimensions are not arbitrary but equal for the self-similarity of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is also shown that the self-similarity in this particular flow process can be achieved in different time and space scales when the viscosity of the fluid is also scaled in addition to other flow variables. In other words, the self-similarity of Navier-Stokes equations is achievable under different fluid environments in the same or different gravity conditions. Self-similarity criteria due to initial and boundary conditions are also presented. Utilizing the proposed self-similarity conditions of the 3D hydrodynamic flow process, the value of a flow variable at a specified time and space can be scaled to a corresponding value in a self-similar domain at the corresponding time and space. PMID:26723165
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Basing on the analysis of the traits of the roll forging process, a system-model of computer simulation has been established. Three-dimensional rigid-plastic FEM has been used for the simulation of the deformation process in the oval and round pass rolling, including the entering, rolling, and separating stages. The analysis was conducted using the Deform-3D ver. 5.0 code.The important information concerned with the deformation area characteristic, material fiow, and velocity field has been presented. Otherwise, the location of the neutral plane in the deformation area was shown clearly.
On Bifurcating Time-Periodic Flow of a Navier-Stokes Liquid Past a Cylinder
Galdi, Giovanni P.
2016-10-01
We provide general sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of branching out of a time-periodic family of solutions from steady-state solutions to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the exterior of a cylinder. By separating the time-independent averaged component of the velocity field from its oscillatory one, we show that the problem can be formulated as a coupled elliptic-parabolic nonlinear system in appropriate and distinct function spaces, with the property that the relevant linearized operators become Fredholm of index 0. In this functional setting, the notorious difficulty of 0 being in the essential spectrum entirely disappears and, in fact, it is even meaningless. Our approach is different and, we believe, more natural and simpler than those proposed by previous authors discussing similar questions. Moreover, the latter all fail, when applied to the problem studied here.
PREFACE: Microparticles in Stokes Flows: Symposium in Honor of François Feuillebois' 65th Birthday
Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L.
2012-12-01
Microparticles in Stokes Flows - Symposium in Honor of Françcois Feuillebois' 65th Birthday was held from 21-24 August 2011 in Warsaw, Poland. There were 43 participants from Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Tunisia, United Kingdom and the USA. They presented 5 invited lectures, 25 contributed talks and 9 posters. The abstracts can be found at microparticles2011.ippt.pan.pl. The subjects were divided into three parts and 13 sessions, listed below. Part I. A variety of particles. Sessions: sedimentation at non-Brownian time scale, Brownian and hydrodynamic interactions of non-spherical particles, active particles, permeable particles, deformable particles and biosystems. Part II. Particles and interfaces. Sessions: confined multiparticle systems, hydrodynamic interactions in confined systems, single particle under confinement, particle-interface interactions, slip at interfaces, slip in suspensions. Part III. Stokes flows and beyond. Sessions: inertial effects, texture and self-assembly. At the end of each session, presentations were followed by extensive discussions (two thirds of the presentation time). Also, two round-table general discussions took place, Methods of solving the Stokes equations - which when? and Challenges in microhydrodynamics. This volume contains both original contributions and reviews. There were at least two referees per paper: one participating in the conference, and the other not. I would like to thank all the referees for their work, the Polish Academy of Sciences, Centre national de la recherche scientifique and the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences for supporting in part the conference, Anna Myłyk, Agnieszka Słowicka and Krzysztof Zembrzycki for the weeks spent organizing the symposium, and all the conference participants for their presentations and discussions of the highest scientific quality. Conference photograph Happy Birthday
von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Epard, J.-L.
2016-05-01
The Helvetic nappe system exhibits three-dimensional (3-D) features such as the lateral variation in geometry between the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes or the Rawil depression. We perform 3-D finite element simulations of linear and power-law viscous flow to investigate fold nappe formation during shortening of a half graben with laterally varying thickness. 3-D ellipsoids and corresponding 2-D intersection ellipses are used to quantify finite strain. Fold nappes which formed above a thicker graben have (i) larger amplitudes, (ii) a less sheared and thinned overturned limb, and (iii) a larger thickness than fold nappes formed above a thinner graben. These results agree with observations for the Morcles and Doldenhorn nappes. We also perform 3-D simulations for a tectonic scenario suggested for the evolution of the Rawil depression. The basement is shortened and extended laterally and includes a graben which is oblique to the shortening direction and acts as mechanical weak zone. The graben causes laterally varying basement uplift generating a depression whose amplitude depends on the graben orientation and the stress exponent of basement and sediments. The axial plunge of the depression is smaller (approximately 10°) than the observed plunge (approximately 30°) indicating that additional processes are required to explain the geometry of the Rawil depression.
Spottke, Ina; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter
2005-09-01
A 3D geological model of the area east of Basel on the southeastern border of the Upper Rhine Graben, consisting of 47 faults and six stratigraphic horizons relevant for groundwater flow, was developed using borehole data, geological maps, geological cross sections, and outcrop data. This model provides new insight into the discussions about the kinematics of the area between the southeastern border of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Tabular Jura east of Basel. A 3D analysis showed that both thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonic elements occur in the modeled area and that the Anticline and a series of narrow graben structures developed simultaneously during an extensional stress-field varying from E W to SSE NNW, which lasted from the Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene. In a new approach the faults and horizons of the 3D geological model were transferred into discrete elements with distributed hydrogeological properties in order to simulate the 3D groundwater flow regime within the modeled aquifers. A three-layer approach with a horizontal regularly spaced grid combined with an irregular property distribution of transmissivity in depth permitted the piezometric head of the steady-state model to be automatically calibrated to corresponding measurements using more than 200 piezometers. Groundwater modeling results demonstrated that large-scale industrial pumping affected the groundwater flow field in the Upper Muschelkalk aquifer at distances of up to 2 km to the south. The results of this research will act as the basis for further model developments, including salt dissolution and solute transport in the area, and may ultimately help to provide predictions for widespread land subsidence risks.
Baik, Andrew D.; Qiu, Jun; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Dong, Cheng; Guo, X. Edward
2013-01-01
Osteocytes in vivo experience complex fluid shear flow patterns to activate mechanotransduction pathways. The actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons have been shown to play an important role in the osteocyte’s biochemical response to fluid shear loading. The dynamic nature of physiologically relevant fluid flow profiles (i.e., 1 Hz oscillatory flow) impedes the ability to image and study both actin and MT cytoskeletons simultaneously in the same cell with high spatiotemporal resolution. To ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庄宏; 严宗毅; 吴望一
2002-01-01
A new three-dimensional fundamental solution to the Stokes flow was proposedby transforming the solid harmonic functions in Lamb' s solution into expressions in terms ofthe oblate spheroidal coordinates. These fundamental solutions are advantageous in treatingflows past an arbitrary number of arbitrarily positioned and oriented oblate spheroids. Theleast squares technique was adopted herein so that the convergence difficulties oftenencountered in solving three-dimensional problems were completely avoided. The examplesdemonstrate that present approach is highly accurate, consistently stable andcomputationally efficient.The oblate spheroid may be used to model a variety of particle shapes between acircular disk and a sphere. For the first time, the effect of various geometric factors on theforces and torques exerted on two oblate spheroids were systematically studied by using theproposed fundamental solutions. The generality of this approach was illustrated by twoproblems of three spheroids.
O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.
2016-03-01
Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.
A blow-up criterion for classical solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we obtain a blow-up criterion for classical solutions to the 3-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations just in terms of the gradient of the velocity, analogous to the Beal-Kato-Majda criterion for the ideal incompressible flow. In addition, the initial vacuum is allowed in our case.
Noise figure and photon probability distribution in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS)
Dimitropoulos, D.; Solli, D. R.; Claps, R.; Jalali, B.
2006-01-01
The noise figure and photon probability distribution are calculated for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) where an anti-Stokes signal is converted to Stokes. We find that the minimum noise figure is ~ 3dB.
Schallhorn, Paul; Majumdar, Alok
2012-01-01
This paper describes a finite volume based numerical algorithm that allows multi-dimensional computation of fluid flow within a system level network flow analysis. There are several thermo-fluid engineering problems where higher fidelity solutions are needed that are not within the capacity of system level codes. The proposed algorithm will allow NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) to perform multi-dimensional flow calculation within the framework of GFSSP s typical system level flow network consisting of fluid nodes and branches. The paper presents several classical two-dimensional fluid dynamics problems that have been solved by GFSSP's multi-dimensional flow solver. The numerical solutions are compared with the analytical and benchmark solution of Poiseulle, Couette and flow in a driven cavity.
Numerical solution of steady free-surface Navier-Stokes flow
Brummelen, van, Einar
2000-01-01
Numerical solution of flows that are partially bounded by a freely moving boundary is of great practical importance, e.g., in ship hydrodynamics. The usual time integration approach for solving steady viscous free surface flow problems has several drawbacks. Instead, we propose an efficient iterative method, which relies on a different but equivalent formulation of the free surface flow problem, involving a so-called quasi free-surface condition. It is shown that the method converges if the s...
A domain decomposition method for modelling Stokes flow in porous materials
Liu, Guangli; Thompson, Karsten E.
2002-04-01
An algorithm is presented for solving the Stokes equation in large disordered two-dimensional porous domains. In this work, it is applied to random packings of discs, but the geometry can be essentially arbitrary. The approach includes the subdivision of the domain and a subsequent application of boundary integral equations to the subdomains. This gives a block diagonal matrix with sparse off-block components that arise from shared variables on internal subdomain boundaries. The global problem is solved using a biconjugate gradient routine with preconditioning. Results show that the effectiveness of the preconditioner is strongly affected by the subdomain structure, from which a methodology is proposed for the domain decomposition step. A minimum is observed in the solution time versus subdomain size, which is governed by the time required for preconditioning, the time for vector multiplications in the biconjugate gradient routine, the iterative convergence rate and issues related to memory allocation. The method is demonstrated on various domains including a random 1000-particle domain. The solution can be used for efficient recovery of point velocities, which is discussed in the context of stochastic modelling of solute transport. Copyright
Guda, Venkata Subba Sai Satish
There have been several advancements in the aerospace industry in areas of design such as aerodynamics, designs, controls and propulsion; all aimed at one common goal i.e. increasing efficiency --range and scope of operation with lesser fuel consumption. Several methods of flow control have been tried. Some were successful, some failed and many were termed as impractical. The low Reynolds number regime of 104 - 105 is a very interesting range. Flow physics in this range are quite different than those of higher Reynolds number range. Mid and high altitude UAV's, MAV's, sailplanes, jet engine fan blades, inboard helicopter rotor blades and wind turbine rotors are some of the aerodynamic applications that fall in this range. The current study deals with using dynamic roughness as a means of flow control over a NACA 0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. Dynamic 3-D surface roughness elements on an airfoil placed near the leading edge aim at increasing the efficiency by suppressing the effects of leading edge separation like leading edge stall by delaying or totally eliminating flow separation. A numerical study of the above method has been carried out by means of a Large Eddy Simulation, a mathematical model for turbulence in Computational Fluid Dynamics, owing to the highly unsteady nature of the flow. A user defined function has been developed for the 3-D dynamic roughness element motion. Results from simulations have been compared to those from experimental PIV data. Large eddy simulations have relatively well captured the leading edge stall. For the clean cases, i.e. with the DR not actuated, the LES was able to reproduce experimental results in a reasonable fashion. However DR simulation results show that it fails to reattach the flow and suppress flow separation compared to experiments. Several novel techniques of grid design and hump creation are introduced through this study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, F.; Wachem, B. G. M. van, E-mail: berend.van.wachem@gmail.com [Division of Thermofluids, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); George, W. K. [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2015-08-15
This paper investigates the effects of particle shape and Stokes number on the behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow. Although there are a number of studies concerning spherical particles in turbulent flows, most important applications occurring in process, energy, and pharmaceutical industries deal with non-spherical particles. The computation employs a unique and novel four-way coupling with the Lagrangian point-particle approach. The fluid phase at low Reynolds number (Re{sub τ} = 150) is modelled by direct numerical simulation, while particles are tracked individually. Inter-particle and particle-wall collisions are also taken into account. To explore the effects of particles on the flow turbulence, the statistics of the fluid flow such as the fluid velocity, the terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, the slip velocity between the two phases and velocity correlations are analysed considering ellipsoidal particles with different inertia and aspect ratio. The results of the simulations show that the turbulence is considerably attenuated, even in the very dilute regime. The reduction of the turbulence intensity is predominant near the turbulence kinetic energy peak in the near wall region, where particles preferentially accumulate. Moreover, the elongated shape of ellipsoids strengthens the turbulence attenuation. In simulations with ellipsoidal particles, the fluid-particle interactions strongly depend on the orientation of the ellipsoids. In the near wall region, ellipsoids tend to align predominantly within the streamwise (x) and wall-normal (y) planes and perpendicular to the span-wise direction, whereas no preferential orientation in the central region of the channel is observed. Important conclusions from this work include the effective viscosity of the flow is not affected, the direct dissipation by the particles is negligible, and the primary mechanism by which the particles affect the flow is by altering the turbulence
Zhao, F.; George, W. K.; van Wachem, B. G. M.
2015-08-01
This paper investigates the effects of particle shape and Stokes number on the behaviour of non-spherical particles in turbulent channel flow. Although there are a number of studies concerning spherical particles in turbulent flows, most important applications occurring in process, energy, and pharmaceutical industries deal with non-spherical particles. The computation employs a unique and novel four-way coupling with the Lagrangian point-particle approach. The fluid phase at low Reynolds number (Reτ = 150) is modelled by direct numerical simulation, while particles are tracked individually. Inter-particle and particle-wall collisions are also taken into account. To explore the effects of particles on the flow turbulence, the statistics of the fluid flow such as the fluid velocity, the terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, the slip velocity between the two phases and velocity correlations are analysed considering ellipsoidal particles with different inertia and aspect ratio. The results of the simulations show that the turbulence is considerably attenuated, even in the very dilute regime. The reduction of the turbulence intensity is predominant near the turbulence kinetic energy peak in the near wall region, where particles preferentially accumulate. Moreover, the elongated shape of ellipsoids strengthens the turbulence attenuation. In simulations with ellipsoidal particles, the fluid-particle interactions strongly depend on the orientation of the ellipsoids. In the near wall region, ellipsoids tend to align predominantly within the streamwise (x) and wall-normal (y) planes and perpendicular to the span-wise direction, whereas no preferential orientation in the central region of the channel is observed. Important conclusions from this work include the effective viscosity of the flow is not affected, the direct dissipation by the particles is negligible, and the primary mechanism by which the particles affect the flow is by altering the turbulence
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Greenblatt, David
2007-01-01
This is an expanded version of a limited-length paper that appeared at the 5th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena by the same authors. A computational study was performed for steady and oscillatory flow control over a hump model with flow separation to assess how well the steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations predict trends due to Reynolds number, control magnitude, and control frequency. As demonstrated in earlier studies, the hump model case is useful because it clearly demonstrates a failing in all known turbulence models: they under-predict the turbulent shear stress in the separated region and consequently reattachment occurs too far downstream. In spite of this known failing, three different turbulence models were employed to determine if trends can be captured even though absolute levels are not. Overall the three turbulence models showed very similar trends as experiment for steady suction, but only agreed qualitatively with some of the trends for oscillatory control.
Angilella, Jean-Régis
2015-01-01
The settling of inertial particles in 2D vertical flows is investigated in the limit where the particle inertia, the free-fall terminal velocity, and the flow unsteadiness can be treated as perturbations. The generic case of recirculation cells bounded by a set of separatrix streamlines forming a heteroclinic cycle of fluid points' dynamics is considered. The (weak) unsteadiness of the flow generally induces a chaotic tangle near the heteroclinic cycle, leading to the apparent diffusion of fluid elements through the boundary. For inertial particles this complex motion can also exist in spite of inertia and sedimentation, provided the Stokes number is below some critical value $St_c$. It is shown that $St_c= Pe^{-1}/|Fr^{-1}\\pm u_{0c}^2|$, where $Pe$ is an effective Peclet number related to the diffusion of fluid points through the boundary, $Fr$ is the Froude number based on the horizontal distance between the end points of the separatrix streamline, and $u_0^2$ is the non-dimensional curvature-weighted avera...
Luo, Xianwu; Huang, Renfang; Ji, Bin
2016-01-01
For accurate simulations of wall-bounded turbulent cavitating flows, the present paper proposed a partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method derived from the k-ω turbulence model. Transient cavitating vortical flows around a NACA66 hydrofoil were simulated by using the k-ω PANS model with various filter parameters (fk = 0.2, 0.5 and 1, while fω = 1/fk) and a mass transfer cavitation model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Compared with the available experimental data, the k-ω PANS model with fk = 0.2 can accurately reproduce the cavitation evolution with more complicated structures due to the reduction in the predicted eddy viscosity. Further analyses, using the vorticity transport equation, indicate that the transition of cavitation structure from two dimension to three dimension is associated with strong vortex-cavitation interaction, where vortex stretching and dilation may play a major role. Therefore, the k-ω PANS model with the filter parameter of fk = 0.2 is an effective method to numerically predict the transient cavitating vortical flows around hydrofoils. The results obtained in this paper are helpful to provide a physical insight into the mechanisms of cavitation shedding dynamics.
Gao, Feng; Kreidermacher, Adam; Fritsch, Ingrid; Heyes, Colin D
2013-05-01
Redox magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a promising technique for developing new electrochemical-based microfluidic flow devices with unique capabilities, such as easily switching flow direction and adjusting flow speeds and flow patterns as well as avoiding bubble formation. However, a detailed description of all the forces involved and predicting flow patterns in confined geometries is lacking. In addition to redox-MHD, density gradients caused by the redox reactions also play important roles. Flow in these devices with small fluid volumes has mainly been characterized by following microbead motion by optical microscopy either by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or by processing the microbead images by particle image velocimetry (PIV) software. This approach has limitations in spatial resolution and dimensionality. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to quantitatively and accurately measure flow speeds and patterns in the ~5-50 μm/s range in redox-MHD-based microfluidic devices, from which 3D flow maps are obtained with a spatial resolution down to 2 μm. The 2 μm spatial resolution flow speeds map revealed detailed flow profiles during redox-MHD in which the velocity increases linearly from above the electrode and reaches a plateau across the center of the cell. By combining FCS and video-microscopy (with PTV and PIV processing approaches), we are able to quantify a vertical flow of ~10 μm/s above the electrodes as a result of density gradients caused by the redox reactions and follow convection flow patterns. Overall, combining FCS, PIV, and PTV analysis of redox-MHD is a powerful combination to more thoroughly characterize the underlying forces in these promising microfluidic devices. PMID:23537496
Efficient numerical solution of steady free-surface Navier-Stokes flow
Brummelen, E.H. van; Raven, H.C.; Koren, B.
2001-01-01
Numerical solution of flows that are partially bounded by a freely moving boundary is of great importance in practical applications such as ship hydrodynamics. The usual method for solving steady viscous free-surface flow subject to gravitation is alternating time integration of the kinematic cond
Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method
Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji
2002-06-01
With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright
Gubchenko, V. M.
2015-12-01
In part I of the work, the physical effects responsible for the formation of low-speed flows in plasma coronas, coupled with formation of coronas magnetosphere-like structures, are described qualitatively. Coronal domain structures form if we neglect scales of spatial plasma dispersion: high-speed flows are accumulated in magnetic tubes of the open domains, while magnetic structures and low-speed flows are concentrated within boundaries of domains. The inductive electromagnetic process occurring in flows of the hot collisionless plasma is shown to underlie the formation of magnetosphere-like structures. Depending on the form of the velocity distribution function of particles (PDF), a hot flow differently reveals its electromagnetic properties, which are expressed by the induction of resistive and diamagnetic scales of spatial dispersion. These determine the magnetic structure scales and structure reconstruction. The inductive electromagnetic process located in lines of the plasma nontransparency and absorption, in which the structures of excited fields are spatially aperiodic and skinned to the magnetic field sources. The toroidal and dipole magnetic sources of different configurations are considered for describing the corona structures during the solar maximum and solar minimum.
Lagrangian finite element method for 3D time-dependent non-isothermal flow of K-BKZ fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2009-01-01
A new numerical approach for the simulation of non-isothermal three-dimensional time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is presented. The viscoelastic fluids are of the K-BKZ integral type and the method is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. The K-BKZ fluid...... utilizing an implicit variable step backwards differencing (BDF2) scheme, obtaining second order convergence of the temperature in time. A quadratic interpolation in time is applied to approximate the time integral in the K-BKZ equation. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect...
Validation of PSF-based 3D reconstruction for myocardial blood flow measurements with Rb-82 PET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Christensen, Nana Louise; Møller, Lone W.;
is not well validated and problems with both edge-effects and unphysical contrast-recovery have been reported.1 In this study, we compare myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) obtained using GEs implementation of PSF, SharpIR, with the conventional method for reconstruction of dynamic...... images, filtered backprojection (FBP). Furthermore, since myocardial segmentation might be affected by image quality, two different approaches to segmentation implemented in standard software (Carimas (Turku PET Centre) and QPET (Cedar Sinai)) are utilized. Method:14 dynamic rest-stress Rb-82 patient...
Smeets, Bart; Odenthal, Tim; Luyten, Frank P.; Ramon, Herman; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Geris, Liesbet
2016-01-01
Perfusion bioreactors regulate flow conditions in order to provide cells with oxygen, nutrients and flow-associated mechanical stimuli. Locally, these flow conditions can vary depending on the scaffold geometry, cellular confluency and amount of extra cellular matrix deposition. In this study, a novel application of the immersed boundary method was introduced in order to represent a detailed deformable cell attached to a 3D scaffold inside a perfusion bioreactor and exposed to microscopic flow. The immersed boundary model permits the prediction of mechanical effects of the local flow conditions on the cell. Incorporating stiffness values measured with atomic force microscopy and micro-flow boundary conditions obtained from computational fluid dynamics simulations on the entire scaffold, we compared cell deformation, cortical tension, normal and shear pressure between different cell shapes and locations. We observed a large effect of the precise cell location on the local shear stress and we predicted flow-induced cortical tensions in the order of 5 pN/μm, at the lower end of the range reported in literature. The proposed method provides an interesting tool to study perfusion bioreactors processes down to the level of the individual cell’s micro-environment, which can further aid in the achievement of robust bioprocess control for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27658116
Simulation of heterogeneous flow and the problem of application of the Navier-Stokes equations
Tsymbal, V. P.; Sechenov, P. A.; Olennikov, A. A.; Padalko, A. G.
2016-09-01
The article describes a dissipative structure - gravity separator in the jet-emulsion reactor. The simulation model is based on “first principles” and the Monte Carlo method of statistical tests. Dispersed particles of the charge and reaction products, their possible transformations and variants of interactions are treated as the first level. The core of this model is the process flow of the condensed particles in the vertical gas flow. Taking into account the experience of simulation and the presented considerations the concept of turbulent viscosity for heterogeneous flow is defined, the task and the direction of further investigations are defined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Zurek
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest and associated wetland (Wielkie Bloto fen. A wide range of tools (environmental tracers, geochemistry, geophysics, 3-D flow and transport modeling was used. The research was conducted along three major directions: (i quantification of the dynamics of groundwater flow in various parts of the aquifer associated with GDTE, (ii quantification of the degree of interaction between the GDTE and the aquifer, and (iii 3-D modeling of groundwater flow in the vicinity of the studied GDTE and quantification of possible impact of enhanced exploitation of the aquifer on the status of GDTE. Environmental tracer data (tritium, stable isotopes of water strongly suggest that upward leakage of the aquifer contributes significantly to the present water balance of the studied wetland and associated forest. Physico-chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, Na / Cl ratio confirm this notion. Model runs indicate that prolonged groundwater abstraction through the newly-established network of water supply wells, conducted at maximum permitted capacity (ca. 10 000 m3 d−1, may trigger drastic changes in the ecosystem functioning, eventually leading to its degradation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, Igor
2009-01-01
Time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in two perpendicular planes are used to reconstruct a flow in an axisymmetric facility in both time and space. The reconstruction is based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and is used to distinguish between spatial and temporal...
3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV
Ragni, D.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.
2011-01-01
The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes pe
The edge-based face element method for 3D-stream function and flux calculations in porous media flow
Zijl, W.; Nawalany, M.
2004-01-01
We present a velocity-oriented discrete analog of the partial differential equations governing porous media flow: the edge-based face element method. Conventional finite element techniques calculate pressures in the nodes of the grid. However, such methods do not satisfy the requirement of flux cont
Barkett, Laura Ashley
In the past, fuel elements with multiple axial coolant channels have been used in nuclear propulsion applications. A novel fuel element concept that reduces weight and increases efficiency uses a stack of grooved rings. Each fuel ring consists of a hole on the interior and grooves across the top face. Many grooved ring configurations have been modeled, and a single flow channel for each design has been analyzed. For increased efficiency, a fuel ring with a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio is ideal. When grooves are shallower and they have a lower surface area, the results show that the exit temperature is higher. By coupling the physics of fluid flow with those of heat transfer, the effects on the cooler gas flowing through the grooves of the hot, fissioning ring can be predicted. Models also show differences in velocities and temperatures after dense boundary nodes are applied. Parametric studies were done to show how a pressure drop across the length of the channels will affect the exit temperatures of the gas. Geometric optimization was done to show the temperature distributions and pressure drops that result from the manipulation of various parameters, and the effects of model scaling was also investigated. The inverse Graetz numbers are plotted against Nusselt numbers, and the results of these values suggest that the gas quickly becomes fully developed, laminar flow, rather than constant turbulent conditions.