WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d signed distance

  1. Regularisation of 3D Signed Distance Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Signed 3D distance fields are used a in a variety of domains. From shape modelling to surface registration. They are typically computed based on sampled point sets. If the input point set contains holes, the behaviour of the zero-level surface of the distance field is not well defined...... Cholesky factorisation. It is demonstrated that the zero-level surface will act as a membrane after the proposed regularisation. This effectively closes holes in a predictable way. Finally, the performance of the method is tested with a set of synthetic point clouds of increasing complexity....

  2. Regularisation of 3D Signed Distance Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Cholesky factorisation. It is demonstrated that the zero-level surface will act as a membrane after the proposed regularisation. This effectively closes holes in a predictable way. Finally, the performance of the method is tested with a set of synthetic point clouds of increasing complexity....

  3. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  4. 3D Distance Fields: A Survey of Techniques and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mark; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Sramek, Milos

    2006-01-01

    the distance field is signed, we may also determine if the point is internal or external to objects within the domain. The distance field has been found to be a useful construction within the areas of Computer Vision, Physics and Computer Graphics. This paper serves as a timely exposition of methods...

  5. Design of crossed-mirror array to form floating 3D LED signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Bando, Hiroki; Kujime, Ryousuke; Suyama, Shiro

    2012-03-01

    3D representation of digital signage improves its significance and rapid notification of important points. Our goal is to realize floating 3D LED signs. The problem is there is no sufficient device to form floating 3D images from LEDs. LED lamp size is around 1 cm including wiring and substrates. Such large pitch increases display size and sometimes spoils image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop optical device to meet the three requirements and to demonstrate floating 3D arrays of LEDs. We analytically investigate image formation by a crossed mirror structure with aerial aperture, called CMA (crossed-mirror array). CMA contains dihedral corner reflectors at each aperture. After double reflection, light rays emitted from an LED will converge into the corresponding image point. We have fabricated CMA for 3D array of LEDs. One CMA unit contains 20 x 20 apertures that are located diagonally. Floating image of LEDs was formed in wide range of incident angle. The image size of focused beam agreed to the apparent aperture size. When LEDs were located three-dimensionally (LEDs in three depths), the focused distances were the same as the distance between the real LED and the CMA.

  6. Large distance 3D imaging of hidden objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Levanon, Assaf

    2014-06-01

    Imaging systems in millimeter waves are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is low compared to that of infrared and optical rays. The lack of an inexpensive room temperature detector makes it difficult to give a suitable real time implement for the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA of plasma based detectors) using heterodyne detection. The intensity at each pixel in the GDD FPA yields the usual 2D image. The value of the I-F frequency yields the range information at each pixel. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of inexpensive detectors. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  7. 3D Distance Fields: A Survey of Techniques and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mark; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Sramek, Milos

    2006-01-01

    A distance field is a representation where at each point within the field we know the distance from that point to the closest point on any object within the domain. In addition to distance, other properties may be derived from the distance field, such as the direction to the surface, and when the...... simple are they to implement? - What is the complexity and run-time of such methods?...

  8. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    undertake showing that the angle weighted pseudo--normal has an important property, namely that it allows us to discriminate between points that are inside and points that are outside the mesh. This result is used for proposing a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance field from...... a mesh. Moreover, our result is an additional argument for the angle weighted pseudo--normals being the natural extension of the face normals....

  9. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  10. Three Dimensional Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (3D-FEED) Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2006-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. Recently, the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation was launched. In this paper, we present the three dimensional (3D) version of

  11. Efficient generation of 3D hologram for American Sign Language using look-up table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Sup; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2010-02-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the languages giving the greatest help for communication of the hearing impaired person. Current 2-D broadcasting, 2-D movies are used the ASL to give some information, help understand the situation of the scene and translate the foreign language. These ASL will not be disappeared in future three-dimensional (3-D) broadcasting or 3-D movies because the usefulness of the ASL. On the other hands, some approaches for generation of CGH patterns have been suggested like the ray-tracing method and look-up table (LUT) method. However, these methods have some drawbacks that needs much time or needs huge memory size for look-up table. Recently, a novel LUT (N-LUT) method for fast generation of CGH patterns of 3-D objects with a dramatically reduced LUT without the loss of computational speed was proposed. Therefore, we proposed the method to efficiently generate the holographic ASL in holographic 3DTV or 3-D movies using look-up table method. The proposed method is largely consisted of five steps: construction of the LUT for each ASL images, extraction of characters in scripts or situation, call the fringe patterns for characters in the LUT for each ASL, composition of hologram pattern for 3-D video and hologram pattern for ASL and reconstruct the holographic 3D video with ASL. Some simulation results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method in efficient generation of CGH patterns for ASL.

  12. Adaptation of Zerotrees Using Signed Binary Digit Representations for 3D Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Christophe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Zerotrees of wavelet coefficients have shown a good adaptability for the compression of three-dimensional images. EZW, the original algorithm using zerotree, shows good performance and was successfully adapted to 3D image compression. This paper focuses on the adaptation of EZW for the compression of hyperspectral images. The subordinate pass is suppressed to remove the necessity to keep the significant pixels in memory. To compensate the loss due to this removal, signed binary digit representations are used to increase the efficiency of zerotrees. Contextual arithmetic coding with very limited contexts is also used. Finally, we show that this simplified version of 3D-EZW performs almost as well as the original one.

  13. Adaptation of Zerotrees Using Signed Binary Digit Representations for 3D Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailhes Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerotrees of wavelet coefficients have shown a good adaptability for the compression of three-dimensional images. EZW, the original algorithm using zerotree, shows good performance and was successfully adapted to 3D image compression. This paper focuses on the adaptation of EZW for the compression of hyperspectral images. The subordinate pass is suppressed to remove the necessity to keep the significant pixels in memory. To compensate the loss due to this removal, signed binary digit representations are used to increase the efficiency of zerotrees. Contextual arithmetic coding with very limited contexts is also used. Finally, we show that this simplified version of 3D-EZW performs almost as well as the original one.

  14. Assessing the Applicability of 3D Holographic Technology as an Enhanced Technology for Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kalansooriya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning has provided an excellent platform for students in geographically remote locations while enabling them to learn at their own pace and convenience. A number of technologies are currently being utilized to conceptualize, design, enhance and foster distance learning. Teleconferences, electronic field trips, podcasts, webinars, video conferencing and online courses are among such technologies used in providing distance learning opportunities. However limitations in those existing technologies have affected to the increase of distance learners dropout rates. As an attempt to overcome the limitations in the currently adopted distance learning practices, the study aims to utilize 3D Hologram Technology (3DHT in the Engineering discipline. 3D hologram facilitates live and life size 3D telepresence that can interact with remote audiences. A survey had been conducted, using Delphi Technique to gather data from the experts in the field to evaluate the potential of 3DHT over existing technologies. Results of the survey suggested that 3DHT as a good distance learning technology and have the potential of overcoming existing limitations. Lack of infrastructure, High initial cost of infrastructure and Lack of technical know how are the main encounters identified by the experts in the sample. It is expected to develop a classroom environment with 3DHT and to evaluate its effectiveness for the distance learning in the next stage of the study.

  15. 3D cluster members and near-infrared distance of open cluster NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Hua; Xu, Shou-Kun; Chen, Li

    2015-12-01

    In order to obtain clean members of the open cluster NGC 6819, the proper motions and radial velocities of 1691 stars are used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) velocity space. Based on the DBSCAN clustering algorithm, 537 3D cluster members are obtained. From the 537 3D cluster members, the average radial velocity and absolute proper motion of the cluster are Vr = +2.30 ± 0.04 km s-1 and (PMRA, PMDec) = (-2.5 ± 0.5, -4.3 ± 0.5) mas yr-1, respectively. The proper motions, radial velocities, spatial positions and color-magnitude diagram of the 537 3D members indicate that our membership determination is effective. Among the 537 3D cluster members, 15 red clump giants can be easily identified by eye and are used as reliable standard candles for the distance estimate of the cluster. The distance modulus of the cluster is determined to be (m - M)0 = 11.86 ± 0.05 mag (2355 ± 54 pc), which is quite consistent with published values. The uncertainty of our distance modulus is dominated by the intrinsic dispersion in the luminosities of red clump giants (˜ 0.04 mag).

  16. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1, then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2 and with orthodontic arch wires (T3 inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  17. Determining optimum red filter slide distance on creating 3D electron microscope images using anaglyph method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresna, W. P.; Isnaeni

    2017-04-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a proven instrument for analyzing material in which a 2D image of an object is produced. However, the optimization of a 3D image in the SEM system is usually difficult and costly. There is a simple method to produce a 3D image by using two light sources with a red and a blue filter combined in a certain angle. In this experiment, the authors conducted a simulation of the 3D image formation using anaglyph method by finding the optimum point of shifting the red and blue filters in an SEM image. The method used in this experiment was an image processing that employed a digital manipulation on a certain deviation distance of the central point of the main object. The simulation result of an SEM image with a magnification of 5000 times showed an optimal 3D effect that was achieved when the red filter was shifted by 1 μm to the right and the blue filter was shifted by 1 µm to the left from the central position. The result of this simulation can be used to understand better the viewing angle and the optimal position of the two light sources, i.e. red and blue filter pairs. The produced 3D image can be clearly seen using 3D glasses.

  18. Thickness and clearance visualization based on distance field of 3D objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Inui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for visualizing the thickness and clearance of 3D objects in a polyhedral representation. The proposed method uses the distance field of the objects in the visualization. A parallel algorithm is developed for constructing the distance field of polyhedral objects using the GPU. The distance between a voxel and the surface polygons of the model is computed many times in the distance field construction. Similar sets of polygons are usually selected as close polygons for close voxels. By using this spatial coherence, a parallel algorithm is designed to compute the distances between a cluster of close voxels and the polygons selected by the culling operation so that the fast shared memory mechanism of the GPU can be fully utilized. The thickness/clearance of the objects is visualized by distributing points on the visible surfaces of the objects and painting them with a unique color corresponding to the thickness/clearance values at those points. A modified ray casting method is developed for computing the thickness/clearance using the distance field of the objects. A system based on these algorithms can compute the distance field of complex objects within a few minutes for most cases. After the distance field construction, thickness/clearance visualization at a near interactive rate is achieved.

  19. Persian Sign Language Recognition Using Radial Distance and Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahare Jalilian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel hand gesture recognition method to recognize 32 static signs of the Persian Sign Language (PSL alphabets. Accurate hand segmentation is the first and important step in sign language recognition systems. Here, we propose a method for hand segmentation that helps to build a better vision based sign language recognition system. The proposed method is based on YCbCr color space, single Gaussian model and Bayes rule. It detects region of hand in complex background and non-uniform illumination. Hand gesture features are extracted by radial distance and Fourier transform. Finally, the Euclidean distanceis used to compute the similarity between the input signs and all training feature vectors in the database. The system is tested on 480 posture images of the PSL, 15 images for each 32 signs. Experimental results show that our approach is capable to recognize all 32 PSL alphabets with 95.62% recognition rate.

  20. Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    is then used to convert the binary volume into a distance field. The method is robust and handles holes, spurious triangles and ambiguities. Moreover, the method lends itself to Boolean operations between solids. Since a point cloud as well as a signed distance is generated, it is possible to extract an iso......-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....

  1. ROAD SIGNS DETECTION AND RECOGNITION UTILIZING IMAGES AND 3D POINT CLOUD ACQUIRED BY MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS, it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1 detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2 filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3 road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  2. 2D/3D registration for X-ray guided bronchoscopy using distance map classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Xu, Sheng; Herzka, Daniel A; Yung, Rex C; Bergtholdt, Martin; Gutierrez, Luis F; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2010-01-01

    In X-ray guided bronchoscopy of peripheral pulmonary lesions, airways and nodules are hardly visible in X-ray images. Transbronchial biopsy of peripheral lesions is often carried out blindly, resulting in degraded diagnostic yield. One solution of this problem is to superimpose the lesions and airways segmented from preoperative 3D CT images onto 2D X-ray images. A feature-based 2D/3D registration method is proposed for the image fusion between the datasets of the two imaging modalities. Two stereo X-ray images are used in the algorithm to improve the accuracy and robustness of the registration. The algorithm extracts the edge features of the bony structures from both CT and X-ray images. The edge points from the X-ray images are categorized into eight groups based on the orientation information of their image gradients. An orientation dependent Euclidean distance map is generated for each group of X-ray feature points. The distance map is then applied to the edge points of the projected CT images whose gradient orientations are compatible with the distance map. The CT and X-ray images are registered by matching the boundaries of the projected CT segmentations to the closest edges of the X-ray images after the orientation constraint is satisfied. Phantom and clinical studies were carried out to validate the algorithm's performance, showing a registration accuracy of 4.19(± 0.5) mm with 48.39(± 9.6) seconds registration time. The algorithm was also evaluated on clinical data, showing promising registration accuracy and robustness.

  3. Towards a Transcription System of Sign Language for 3D Virtual Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Amaral, Wanessa Machado; de Martino, José Mario

    Accessibility is a growing concern in computer science. Since virtual information is mostly presented visually, it may seem that access for deaf people is not an issue. However, for prelingually deaf individuals, those who were deaf since before acquiring and formally learn a language, written information is often of limited accessibility than if presented in signing. Further, for this community, signing is their language of choice, and reading text in a spoken language is akin to using a foreign language. Sign language uses gestures and facial expressions and is widely used by deaf communities. To enabling efficient production of signed content on virtual environment, it is necessary to make written records of signs. Transcription systems have been developed to describe sign languages in written form, but these systems have limitations. Since they were not originally designed with computer animation in mind, in general, the recognition and reproduction of signs in these systems is an easy task only to those who deeply know the system. The aim of this work is to develop a transcription system to provide signed content in virtual environment. To animate a virtual avatar, a transcription system requires explicit enough information, such as movement speed, signs concatenation, sequence of each hold-and-movement and facial expressions, trying to articulate close to reality. Although many important studies in sign languages have been published, the transcription problem remains a challenge. Thus, a notation to describe, store and play signed content in virtual environments offers a multidisciplinary study and research tool, which may help linguistic studies to understand the sign languages structure and grammar.

  4. Braking Distance Prediction by Hydroplaning Analysis of 3-D Patterned Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Rae; Choi, Joo-Hyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Woo, Jong-Shik; Yoo, Wan-Suk

    In this paper, we present a wet-road braking distance estimate for the vehicles equipped with ABS (Anti-lock Brake System). In order to effectively compute the interval-wise braking times and the resulting total braking distance, we divide the entire speed interval at braking into finite number of uniform sub-intervals and apply the energy conservation law to individual sub-intervals. The proposed method is based on a numerical-analytical approach such that the frictional energy loss of the patterned tire is computed by 3-D hydroplaning analysis while the other at the disc pad is analytically derived. The hydroplaning simulation is performed by generally coupling an Eulerian finite volume method and an explicit Lagrangian finite element method. The operation of ABS is numerically implemented by controlling the tire angular velocity such that the preset tire slip ratio on the wet road is maintained. Numerical results are presented to illustrative and verify the the proposed numerical estimate.

  5. DiAna, an ImageJ tool for object-based 3D co-localization and distance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We present a new plugin for ImageJ called DiAna, for Distance Analysis, which comes with a user-friendly interface. DiAna proposes robust and accurate 3D segmentation for object extraction. The plugin performs automated object-based co-localization and distance analysis. DiAna offers an in-depth analysis of co-localization between objects and retrieves 3D measurements including co-localizing volumes and surfaces of contact. It also computes the distribution of distance...

  6. MoldaNet: a network distributed molecular graphics and modelling program that integrates secure signed applet and Java 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Rzepa, H S; Tonge, A P

    1998-06-01

    MoldaNet is a molecular graphics and modelling program that integrates several new Java technologies, including authentication as a Secure Signed Applet, and implementation of Java 3D classes to enable access to hardware graphics acceleration. It is the first example of a novel class of Internet-based distributed computational chemistry tool designed to eliminate the need for user pre-installation of software on their client computer other than a standard Internet browser. The creation of a properly authenticated tool using a signed digital X.509 certificate permits the user to employ MoldaNet to read and write the files to a local file store; actions that are normally disallowed in Java applets. The modularity of the Java language also allows straightforward inclusion of Java3D and Chemical Markup Language classes in MoldaNet to permit the user to filter their model into 3D model descriptors such as VRML97 or CML for saving on local disk. The implications for both distance-based training environments and chemical commerce are noted.

  7. How Perceived Distractor Distance Influences Reference Production : Effects of Perceptual Grouping in 2D and 3D Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, R.M.F.; Houben, E.; Huntjens, J.; Krahmer, E.J.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This study explored two factors that might have an impact on how participants perceive distance between objects in a visual scene: perceptual grouping and presentation mode (2D versus 3D). More specifically, we examined how these factors affect language production, asking if they cause speakers to i

  8. Application of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI-based 3D reconstruction of the dural tail sign in meningioma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Binsheng; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Jian; Song, Qimin; Dai, Chao; Heng, Xueyuan; Fei, Chang

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT The goal of this study was to investigate the significance of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1W) MRI-based 3D reconstruction of dural tail sign (DTS) in meningioma resection. METHODS Between May 2013 and August 2014, 18 cases of convexity and parasagittal meningiomas showing DTS on contrast-enhanced T1W MRI were selected. Contrast-enhanced T1W MRI-based 3D reconstruction of DTS was conducted before surgical treatment. The vertical and anteroposterior diameters of DTS on the contrast-enhanced T1W MR images and 3D reconstruction images were measured and compared. Surgical incisions were designed by referring to the 3D reconstruction and MR images, and then the efficiency of the 2 methods was evaluated with assistance of neuronavigation. RESULTS Three-dimensional reconstruction of DTS can reveal its overall picture. In most cases, the DTS around the tumor is uneven, whereas the DTS around the dural vessels presents longer extensions. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the vertical and anteroposterior diameters of DTS measured on the contrast-enhanced T1W MR and 3D reconstruction images. The 3D images of DTS were more intuitive, and the overall picture of DTS could be revealed in 1 image, which made it easier to design the incision than by using the MR images. Meanwhile, assessment showed that the incisions designed using 3D images were more accurate than those designed using MR images (ridit analysis by SAS, F = 7.95; p = 0.008). Pathological examination showed that 34 dural specimens (except 2 specimens from 1 tumor) displayed tumor invasion. The distance of tumor cell invasion was 1.0-21.6 mm (5.4 ± 4.41 mm [mean ± SD]). Tumor cell invasion was not observed at the dural resection margin in all 36 specimens. CONCLUSIONS Contrast-enhanced T1W MRI-based 3D reconstruction can intuitively and accurately reveal the size and shape of DTS, and thus provides guidance for designing meningioma incisions.

  9. Building 3D Layer-by-Layer Graphene-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Tunable Interlayer Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    the entire surface of graphene within such 3D layer-by-layer hybrid nanomaterials would be exposed to electrolyte ions to facilitate the charging...B.; Li, Y. L.; Li, Y. M.; Li, J. H.; Deng, Z. X. Noncovalent DNA decorations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide toward water -soluble metal...Building 3D Layer-by-Layer Graphene −Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Tunable Interlayer Distance Chenming Xue,† Min Gao,† Yuhua Xue,‡ Lin

  10. GE3D: A Virtual Campus for Technology-Enhanced Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Grieu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of learning systems platforms are used all over the world. But these conventional E-learning platforms aim at students who are used to work on their own. Our students are young (19 years old – 22 years old, and in their first year at the university. Following extensive interviews with our students, we have designed GE3D, an E-learning platform, according to their expectations and our criteria. In this paper, we describe the students’ demands, resulting from the interviews. Then, we describe our virtual campus. Even if our platform uses some elements coming from the 3D games world, it is always a pedagogical tool. Using this technology, we developed a 3D representation of the real world. GE3D is a multi-users tool, with a synchronous technology, an intuitive interface for end-users and an embedded Intelligent Tutoring System to support learners. We also describe the process of a lecture on the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC’s in this new universe.

  11. Assessing the Applicability of 3D Holographic Technology as an Enhanced Technology for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalansooriya, Pradeep; Marasinghe, Ashu; Bandara, K. M. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Distance learning has provided an excellent platform for students in geographically remote locations while enabling them to learn at their own pace and convenience. A number of technologies are currently being utilized to conceptualize, design, enhance and foster distance learning. Teleconferences, electronic field trips, podcasts, webinars, video…

  12. Measuring distances and reddenings for a billion stars: Toward a 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Gregory Maurice; Finkbeiner, Douglas P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Jurić, Mario [LSST Corporation, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Burgett, Will; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Martin, Nicolas, E-mail: ggreen@cfa.harvard.edu [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2014-03-10

    We present a method to infer reddenings and distances to stars based only on their broad-band photometry, and show how this method can be used to produce a three-dimensional (3D) dust map of the Galaxy. Our method samples from the full probability density function of distance, reddening, and stellar type for individual stars, as well as the full uncertainty in reddening as a function of distance in the 3D dust map. We incorporate prior knowledge of the distribution of stars in the Galaxy and the detection limits of the survey. For stars in the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) 3π survey, we demonstrate that our reddening estimates are unbiased and accurate to ∼0.13 mag in E(B – V) for the typical star. Based on comparisons with mock catalogs, we expect distances for main-sequence stars to be constrained to within ∼20%-60%, although this range can vary, depending on the reddening of the star, the precise stellar type, and its position on the sky. A later paper will present a 3D map of dust over the three quarters of the sky surveyed by PS1. Both the individual stellar inferences and the 3D dust map will enable a wealth of Galactic science in the plane. The method we present is not limited to the passbands of the PS1 survey but may be extended to incorporate photometry from other surveys, such as the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (where available), and in the future, LSST and Gaia.

  13. The "sagging rope sign" in avascular necrosis in children's hip diseases--confirmation by 3D CT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H T; Eisenhauer, E; Wenger, D R

    1995-01-01

    Growth disturbance of the proximal femoral epiphysis and physis secondary to avascular necrosis (AVN) in a variety of children's hip disorders produces changes in the femoral head and neck that make radiographic interpretation difficult. The enlarged overhanging femoral head produces radiographic markings on the femoral neck which are sometimes confusing. These have sometimes been misinterpreted as growth arrest lines. Apley and Wientroub reintroduced Perkins' description of the "sagging rope" sign in AVN of the femoral head, and Clarke clarified that this puzzling radiographic transverse metaphyseal line overlying the femoral neck in fact represents the margin of the femoral head rather than a growth arrest line. Their report was made after studying plain and stereoscopic radiographs alone. Our review of 23 cases of femoral head AVN in children, documented by 3 dimensional computerized tomographic (3D CT) radiographs of the femoral head and pelvis, confirms Clarke's view of the nature of the "sagging rope" sign. These sophisticated radiographic studies provide new detail and understanding of head-neck relationship in AVN which allows better planning for surgical correction of hip disorders in children.

  14. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina 3D FDTD Modelling for a Broad Range of Inter-pore Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Roselló, Francesc; Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F.

    2016-08-01

    The capability of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the numerical modelling of the optical properties of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in a broad range of inter-pore distances is evaluated. FDTD permits taking into account in the same numerical framework all the structural features of NAA, such as the texturization of the interfaces or the incorporation of electrolyte anions in the aluminium oxide host. The evaluation is carried out by comparing reflectance measurements from two samples with two very different inter-pore distances with the simulation results. Results show that considering the texturization is crucial to obtain good agreement with the measurements. On the other hand, including the anionic layer in the model leads to a second-order contribution to the reflectance spectrum.

  15. ¹³C NMR-distance matrix descriptors: optimal abstract 3D space granularity for predicting estrogen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Svetoslav H; Geesaman, Elizabeth L; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Beger, Richard D

    2012-07-23

    An improved three-dimensional quantitative spectral data-activity relationship (3D-QSDAR) methodology was used to build and validate models relating the activity of 130 estrogen receptor binders to specific structural features. In 3D-QSDAR, each compound is represented by a unique fingerprint constructed from (13)C chemical shift pairs and associated interatomic distances. Grids of different granularity can be used to partition the abstract fingerprint space into congruent "bins" for which the optimal size was previously unexplored. For this purpose, the endocrine disruptor knowledge base data were used to generate 50 3D-QSDAR models with bins ranging in size from 2 ppm × 2 ppm × 0.5 Å to 20 ppm × 20 ppm × 2.5 Å, each of which was validated using 100 training/test set partitions. Best average predictivity in terms of R(2)test was achieved at 10 ppm ×10 ppm × Z Å (Z = 0.5, ..., 2.5 Å). It was hypothesized that this optimum depends on the chemical shifts' estimation error (±4.13 ppm) and the precision of the calculated interatomic distances. The highest ranked bins from partial least-squares weights were found to be associated with structural features known to be essential for binding to the estrogen receptor.

  16. New image analysis methods for 3D visualization and assessment of mapping distance for chromosomes in interphase nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikizyan, I.; Burde, S.; Leary, J.F. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Confocal microscopy (Meridian Instruments, Inc.) images of interphase nuclei with portions or entire chromosomes singley- or doubly-labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization were analyzed with newly-developed software on an 80486 PC equipped with an autostereoscopic display (Dimension Technologies, Inc.). The computer display is hologram-like with the ability to address points in 3D space using the associated mouse. Software was developed which allowed for reduction of background by a 19 voxel (3x3x3 voxel cube without corner voxels) median filtering algorithm followed by rendering of a 3D surface and skeleton figure of a chromosome. Visualization at multiple viewing angles by animation allows approximate coordinate locations to be obtained with a 3D mouse to guide the process thereby reducing significantly the required calculation times. Two biological applications under development include (1) correct counting of a given chromosome's copy number using centromere/chromosome-specific probes, and (2) visualization of painted chromosomes and subregion-specific probes at different locations on that chromosome for physical mapping. In either application, real-world distances within each confocal plane and between planes are calculable to give physical mapping distances in three dimensions and along the chromosome.

  17. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Bassani, M.; Grasso, N.; Piras, M.

    2015-01-01

    The available sight distance (ASD) in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS) has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid probl...

  18. Real-time reconstruction of depth sequences using signed distance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P.; Tutwiler, Richard L.

    2014-06-01

    With the recent influx of inexpensive depth sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect, systems for 3D reconstruction and visual odometry utilizing depth information have garnered new interest. Often these processes are highly parallel and can be realized in real-time through parallel computing architectures for the GPU. We represent fused depth maps as a Truncated Signed Distance Function (TSDF) which is a grid of voxels that contain the distance to the nearest surface. Point clouds of subsequent captures are aligned to the TSDF volume through error minimization, taking advantage of the fact that surfaces are implicitly defined where the distance is zero. We present a new method for minimizing the error based on absolute orientation that does not require linearization or a weighting function. To evaluate the proposed method we compare the number of iterations required for convergence, time per iteration, and final alignment error with existing Gauss-Newton nonlinear minimization methods. While we use the Microsoft Kinect due to its fused depth and color capabilities, the alignment only requires depth and is applicable to current active fused lidar systems with VNIR, SWIR, MWIR or LWIR sensors.

  19. A Ground-Based Study on Extruder Standoff Distance for the 3D Printing in Zero Gravity Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Rabenberg, E. M.; Soohoo, H. A.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Bell, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of phase I specimens produced as part of the 3D printing in zero G technology demonstration mission exhibited some differences in structure and performance for specimens printed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and specimens produced on the ground with the same printer prior to its launch. This study uses the engineering test unit for the printer, identical to the unit on ISS, to conduct a ground-based investigation of the impact of the distance between the extruder tip and the build tray on material outcomes. This standoff distance was not held constant for the phase I flight prints and is hypothesized to be a major source of the material variability observed in the phase I data set.

  20. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.

  1. Un environnement 3D qui favorise le sentiment d’appartenance en situation de formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire IsaBelle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available De plus en plus de plateformes hypermédias sont créées pour combler les besoins de la formation à distance et en ligne. Le langage de modélisation Virtual Reality Modeling Language permet de créer des représentations numériques d'un environnement 3D, imitant un monde réaliste, dans lequel l’apprenant évolue de façon interactive à l’aide d’un avatar. Une étude a été menée auprès de 40 apprenants afin de mesurer l’effet d’un environnement 3D, avec avatars, sur leur sentiment d’appartenance au groupe et sur le taux de rétention. Les apprenants qui ont suivi la formation avec le monde 3D ont affirmé avoir ressenti un sentiment d’appartenance plus élevé que ceux qui ont suivi la formation avec une plateforme de type traditionnel.

  2. Generalizations of the Distance and Dependent Function in Extenics to 2D, 3D, and n−D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Cai Wen defined in his 1983 paper: — the distance formula be tween a point x 0 and a one-dimensional (1D interval ; — and the dependence function which gives the degree of dependence of a point with respect to a pair of in cluded 1 D -intervals. His paper inspired us to generalize the Extension Set to two- dimensions, i.e. in plane of real numbers R 2 where one has a rectangle (instead of a segment of line, dete r- mined by two arbitrary points A ( a 1 , a 2 and B ( b 1 , b 2 . And similarly in R 3 , where one has a prism determined by two arbitrary points A ( a 1 , a 2 , a 3 and B ( b 1 , b 2 , b 3 . We ge- ometrically define the linear and non-linear distance betwe en a point and the 2 D and 3 D -extension set and the dependent function for a nest of two in cluded 2 D and 3 D - extension sets. Linearly and non-linearly attraction poin t principles towards the optimal point are presented as well. The same procedure can be then us ed considering, instead of a rectangle, any bounded 2 D -surface and similarly any bounded 3 D -solid, and any bounded ( n − D -body in R n . These generalizations are very important since the Ex- tension Set is generalized from one-dimension to 2, 3 and eve n n -dimensions, therefore more classes of applications will result in consequence.

  3. Asymmetry of intracranial internal carotid artery on 3D TOF MR angiography: a sign of unilateral extracranial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, Olivier; Seiller, Nicolas; Gobin-Metteil, Marie-Pierre; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine [Faculte de Medecine Rene Descartes, Universite Paris 5. Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris cedex 14 (France); Touze, Emmanuel; Mas, Jean-Louis [Faculte de Medecine Rene Descartes, Universite Paris 5. Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurology, Paris cedex 14 (France)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine whether an asymmetry of size of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) on 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) is predictive of a high-grade cervical ICA stenosis. Ninety-six stroke/TIA consecutive patients were recruited for the study, of whom 32 had unilateral high-grade ICA stenosis ({>=}70% NASCET) and were included into the case group, and the remaining 64 did not have such high-grade stenosis and were included in the control group. On intracranial MRA, two observers, blinded to the characteristics of cervical ICA stenosis, independently searched for qualitative size asymmetry between ICAs and measured the cross-sectional surface of the intracranial ICAs. An intracranial size asymmetry was seen in 28 of the 32 high-grade stenoses by both readers, and in 10 (reader{sub 1}) and 8 (reader{sub 2}) of the 64 controls (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 84-88%). In patients without agenesia of the A1 segment of the circle of Willis (n = 70), sensitivity was {>=}90% and specificity = 96%. Surfaces ratios were significantly different (p < 0.001) between cases and controls. However, using ROC curves analysis, the quantitative processing did not improve the detection when compared with the qualitative assessment of intracranial ICA asymmetry. A size asymmetry of the intracranial ICAs reveals the presence of an underlying high-grade cervical stenosis, with a high degree of confidence, especially in patients without anatomical variant of the anterior part of the circle of Willis. This sign may allow an early detection of high-grade cervical carotid stenosis in stroke patients before dedicated neck imaging is performed. (orig.)

  4. Prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes from 3D structures by random forests with a distance-based feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Hua

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-antibody interactions are key events in immune system, which provide important clues to the immune processes and responses. In Antigen-antibody interactions, the specific sites on the antigens that are directly bound by the B-cell produced antibodies are well known as B-cell epitopes. The identification of epitopes is a hot topic in bioinformatics because of their potential use in the epitope-based drug design. Although most B-cell epitopes are discontinuous (or conformational, insufficient effort has been put into the conformational epitope prediction, and the performance of existing methods is far from satisfaction. Results In order to develop the high-accuracy model, we focus on some possible aspects concerning the prediction performance, including the impact of interior residues, different contributions of adjacent residues, and the imbalanced data which contain much more non-epitope residues than epitope residues. In order to address above issues, we take following strategies. Firstly, a concept of 'thick surface patch' instead of 'surface patch' is introduced to describe the local spatial context of each surface residue, which considers the impact of interior residue. The comparison between the thick surface patch and the surface patch shows that interior residues contribute to the recognition of epitopes. Secondly, statistical significance of the distance distribution difference between non-epitope patches and epitope patches is observed, thus an adjacent residue distance feature is presented, which reflects the unequal contributions of adjacent residues to the location of binding sites. Thirdly, a bootstrapping and voting procedure is adopted to deal with the imbalanced dataset. Based on the above ideas, we propose a new method to identify the B-cell conformational epitopes from 3D structures by combining conventional features and the proposed feature, and the random forest (RF algorithm is used as the

  5. FROM THE ROAD SIGN TO THE MAP: 3D MODELING IN SUPPORT OF THE URBAN AND RURAL ROAD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palummo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, commonly known as a drone, and an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have been spreading on a massive scale during the last few years, especially for civilian use. And this situation can have significant repercussions on the ways and purposes with which we make photogrammetry nowadays. In this brief article we take into account the italian road signs as a case study on which to apply the new potential of photogrammetry realized with the aid of drones. Our main purpose is to achieve a specific method which allows the calculation of centimeter precision measurements of solids reconstructed for a mapping of (public and private road signs which require verification or replacement in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Our hope is that this new approach to photogrammetry may arise opportunities for dialogue with policy makers especially where the usefulness of mapping could also appear predictive with respect to recurrent issues before they become consolidated.

  6. Exact and Adaptive Signed Distance Fields Computation for Rigid and Deformable Models on GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuchang; Kim, Young J

    2014-05-01

    Most techniques for real-time construction of a signed distance field, whether on a CPU or GPU, involve approximate distances. We use a GPU to build an exact adaptive distance field, constructed from an octree by using the Morton code. We use rectangle-swept spheres to construct a bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) around a triangulated model. To speed up BVH construction, we can use a multi-BVH structure to improve the workload balance between GPU processors. An upper bound on distance to the model provided by the octree itself allows us to reduce the number of BVHs involved in determining the distances from the centers of octree nodes at successively lower levels, prior to an exact distance query involving the remaining BVHs. Distance fields can be constructed 35-64 times as fast as a serial CPU implementation of a similar algorithm, allowing us to simulate a piece of fabric interacting with the Stanford Bunny at 20 frames per second.

  7. Contrast Enhancement Method Based on Gray and Its Distance Double-Weighting Histogram Equalization for 3D CT Images of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a new detection method for 3D nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards (PCBs. However, the obtained 3D image of PCBs exhibits low contrast because of several factors, such as the occurrence of metal artifacts and beam hardening, during the process of CBCT imaging. Histogram equalization (HE algorithms cannot effectively extend the gray difference between a substrate and a metal in 3D CT images of PCBs, and the reinforcing effects are insignificant. To address this shortcoming, this study proposes an image enhancement algorithm based on gray and its distance double-weighting HE. Considering the characteristics of 3D CT images of PCBs, the proposed algorithm uses gray and its distance double-weighting strategy to change the form of the original image histogram distribution, suppresses the grayscale of a nonmetallic substrate, and expands the grayscale of wires and other metals. The proposed algorithm also enhances the gray difference between a substrate and a metal and highlights metallic materials. The proposed algorithm can enhance the gray value of wires and other metals in 3D CT images of PCBs. It applies enhancement strategies of changing gray and its distance double-weighting mechanism to adapt to this particular purpose. The flexibility and advantages of the proposed algorithm are confirmed by analyses and experimental results.

  8. 6-DoF Haptic Rendering Using Continuous Collision Detection between Points and Signed Distance Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Xu; Barbic, Jernej

    2017-01-01

    We present an algorithm for fast continuous collision detection between points and signed distance fields, and demonstrate how to robustly use it for 6-DoF haptic rendering of contact between objects with complex geometry. Continuous collision detection is often needed in computer animation, haptics, and virtual reality applications, but has so far only been investigated for polygon (triangular) geometry representations. We demonstrate how to robustly and continuously detect intersections between points and level sets of the signed distance field. We suggest using an octree subdivision of the distance field for fast traversal of distance field cells. We also give a method to resolve continuous collisions between point clouds organized into a tree hierarchy and a signed distance field, enabling rendering of contact between rigid objects with complex geometry. We investigate and compare two 6-DoF haptic rendering methods now applicable to point-versus-distance field contact for the first time: continuous integration of penalty forces, and a constraint-based method. An experimental comparison to discrete collision detection demonstrates that the continuous method is more robust and can correctly resolve collisions even under high velocities and during complex contact.

  9. DistancePPG: Robust non-contact vital signs monitoring using a camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mayank; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2015-05-01

    Vital signs such as pulse rate and breathing rate are currently measured using contact probes. But, non-contact methods for measuring vital signs are desirable both in hospital settings (e.g. in NICU) and for ubiquitous in-situ health tracking (e.g. on mobile phone and computers with webcams). Recently, camera-based non-contact vital sign monitoring have been shown to be feasible. However, camera-based vital sign monitoring is challenging for people with darker skin tone, under low lighting conditions, and/or during movement of an individual in front of the camera. In this paper, we propose distancePPG, a new camera-based vital sign estimation algorithm which addresses these challenges. DistancePPG proposes a new method of combining skin-color change signals from different tracked regions of the face using a weighted average, where the weights depend on the blood perfusion and incident light intensity in the region, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of camera-based estimate. One of our key contributions is a new automatic method for determining the weights based only on the video recording of the subject. The gains in SNR of camera-based PPG estimated using distancePPG translate into reduction of the error in vital sign estimation, and thus expand the scope of camera-based vital sign monitoring to potentially challenging scenarios. Further, a dataset will be released, comprising of synchronized video recordings of face and pulse oximeter based ground truth recordings from the earlobe for people with different skin tones, under different lighting conditions and for various motion scenarios.

  10. Correlations between carotid plaque progression and mechanical stresses change sign over time: a patient follow up study using MRI and 3D FSI models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Wu, Zheyang; Hatsukami, Thomas; Yuan, Chun

    2013-10-14

    Increasing evidence suggests that mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression may be different from those for early progression and require further investigation. Serial MRI data and 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were employed to identify possible correlations between mechanical stresses and advanced plaque progression measured by vessel wall thickness increase (WTI). Long-term patient follow up was used to gather data and investigate if the correlations identified above were reproducible. In vivo MRI data were acquired from 16 patients in a follow-up study with 2 to 4 scans for each patient (scan interval: average 18 months and standard deviation 6.8 months). A total of 38 scan pairs (baseline and follow-up) were formed for analysis using the carotid bifurcation as the registration point. 3D FSI models were constructed to obtain plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS) to quantify their correlations with plaque progression. The Linear Mixed-Effects models were used to study possible correlations between WTI and baseline PWS and FSS with nodal dependence taken into consideration. Of the 38 scan pairs, 22 pairs showed positive correlation between baseline PWS and WTI, 1 pair showed negative correlation, and 15 pairs showed no correlation. Thirteen patients changed their correlation sign (81.25%). Between baseline FSS and WTI, 16 pairs showed negative correlation, 1 pair showed positive correlation. Twelve patients changed correlation sign (75%). Our results showed that advanced plaque progression had an overall positive correlation with plaque wall stress and a negative correlation with flow shear stress at baseline. However, long-term follow up showed that correlations between plaque progress and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS) identified for one time period were not re-producible for most cases (>80%). Further investigations are needed to identify the reasons causing the correlation sign changes.

  11. Assessment of 3D T2-weighted high-sampling-efficiency technique (SPACE) for detection of cerebellar tonsillar motion: new useful sign for Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Murat; Tokgoz, Nil; Koc, Ali Murat; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Kalkan, Gokalp; Akkan, Koray

    2015-01-01

    To describe tonsillar blackout sign (TBS) on three-dimensional (3D)-SPACE, evaluate its performance in identifying Chiari malformation (CM1) as diagnostic marker, and investigate its role in differentiation of symptomatic and asymptomatic CM1. One-hundred fifty-six patients were divided into two groups based on caudal displacement of cerebellar tonsils: CM1 (Group I) and non-CM1 (Group II). Group I was subclassified as symptomatic and asymptomatic by a neurosurgeon. Two radiologists evaluated TBS and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormality. All subjects presenting TBS had CM1. Difference in presence of TBS between Group I and Group II was highly significant (P<.001).Grading of TBS in symptomatic patients was significantly higher than that in asymptomatic patients (P<.001). TBS is highly suggestive of CM1 and potentially useful in differentiation of symptomatic and asymptomatic CM1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 3D time-of-flight distance measurement with custom solid-state image sensors in CMOS/CCD-technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Robert de

    2006-01-01

    Three-D time-of-flight distance measurement with custom solid-state image sensors in CMOS/CCD-technology Da wir in einer dreidimensionalen Welt leben, erfordert eine geeignete Beschreibung unserer Umwelt für viele Anwendungen Kenntnis über die relative Position und Bewegung der verschiedenen Objekte innerhalb einer Szene. Die daraus resultierende Anforderung räumlicher Wahrnehmung ist in der Natur dadurch gelöst, daß die meisten Tiere mindestens zwei Augen haben. Diese Fähigkeit des Stere...

  13. Real-time 3D reconstruction of road curvature in far look-ahead distance from analysis of image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Reinhold

    1995-12-01

    A system for visual road recognition in far look-ahead distance, implemented in the autonomous road vehicle VaMP (a passenger car), is described. Visual cues of a road in a video image are the bright lane markings and the edges formed at the road borders. In a distance of more than 100 m, the most relevant road cue is the homogeneous road area, limited by the two border edges. These cues can be detected by the image processing module KRONOS applying edge detection techniques and areal 2D segmentation based on resolution triangles (analogous to a resolution pyramid). An estimation process performs an update of a state vector, which describes spatial road shape and vehicle orientation relative to the road. This state vector is estimated every 40 ms by exploiting knowledge about the vehicle movement (spatio-temporal model of vehicle dynamics) and the road design rules (clothoidal segments). Kalman filter techniques are applied to obtain an optimal estimate of the state vector by evaluating the measurements of the road border positions in the image sequence taken by a set of CCD cameras. The road consists of segments with piecewise constant curvature parameters. The borders between these segments can be detected by applying methods which have been developed for detection of discontinuities during time-discrete measurements. The road recognition system has been tested in autonomous rides with VaMP on public Autobahnen in real traffic at speeds up to 130 km/h.

  14. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villoutreix Bruno O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods.

  15. Detection and alignment of 3D domain swapping proteins using angle-distance image-based secondary structural matching techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Han Chu

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel detection method for three-dimensional domain swapping (DS, a mechanism for forming protein quaternary structures that can be visualized as if monomers had "opened" their "closed" structures and exchanged the opened portion to form intertwined oligomers. Since the first report of DS in the mid 1990s, an increasing number of identified cases has led to the postulation that DS might occur in a protein with an unconstrained terminus under appropriate conditions. DS may play important roles in the molecular evolution and functional regulation of proteins and the formation of depositions in Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Moreover, it is promising for designing auto-assembling biomaterials. Despite the increasing interest in DS, related bioinformatics methods are rarely available. Owing to a dramatic conformational difference between the monomeric/closed and oligomeric/open forms, conventional structural comparison methods are inadequate for detecting DS. Hence, there is also a lack of comprehensive datasets for studying DS. Based on angle-distance (A-D image transformations of secondary structural elements (SSEs, specific patterns within A-D images can be recognized and classified for structural similarities. In this work, a matching algorithm to extract corresponding SSE pairs from A-D images and a novel DS score have been designed and demonstrated to be applicable to the detection of DS relationships. The Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC and sensitivity of the proposed DS-detecting method were higher than 0.81 even when the sequence identities of the proteins examined were lower than 10%. On average, the alignment percentage and root-mean-square distance (RMSD computed by the proposed method were 90% and 1.8Å for a set of 1,211 DS-related pairs of proteins. The performances of structural alignments remain high and stable for DS-related homologs with less than 10% sequence identities. In addition, the quality of its

  16. Detection and alignment of 3D domain swapping proteins using angle-distance image-based secondary structural matching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Han; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Hsin-Wei; Hsu, Yen-Chu; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Pai, Tun-Wen; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2010-10-14

    This work presents a novel detection method for three-dimensional domain swapping (DS), a mechanism for forming protein quaternary structures that can be visualized as if monomers had "opened" their "closed" structures and exchanged the opened portion to form intertwined oligomers. Since the first report of DS in the mid 1990s, an increasing number of identified cases has led to the postulation that DS might occur in a protein with an unconstrained terminus under appropriate conditions. DS may play important roles in the molecular evolution and functional regulation of proteins and the formation of depositions in Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Moreover, it is promising for designing auto-assembling biomaterials. Despite the increasing interest in DS, related bioinformatics methods are rarely available. Owing to a dramatic conformational difference between the monomeric/closed and oligomeric/open forms, conventional structural comparison methods are inadequate for detecting DS. Hence, there is also a lack of comprehensive datasets for studying DS. Based on angle-distance (A-D) image transformations of secondary structural elements (SSEs), specific patterns within A-D images can be recognized and classified for structural similarities. In this work, a matching algorithm to extract corresponding SSE pairs from A-D images and a novel DS score have been designed and demonstrated to be applicable to the detection of DS relationships. The Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and sensitivity of the proposed DS-detecting method were higher than 0.81 even when the sequence identities of the proteins examined were lower than 10%. On average, the alignment percentage and root-mean-square distance (RMSD) computed by the proposed method were 90% and 1.8Å for a set of 1,211 DS-related pairs of proteins. The performances of structural alignments remain high and stable for DS-related homologs with less than 10% sequence identities. In addition, the quality of its hinge loop

  17. Comparison of Binary Classification Based on Signed Distance Functions with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Boczko, Erik M; Zie, Minhui; Wu, Di

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the performance of a simple signed distance function (SDF) based method by direct comparison with standard SVM packages, as well as K-nearest neighbor and RBFN methods. We present experimental results comparing the SDF approach with other classifiers on both synthetic geometric problems and five benchmark clinical microarray data sets. On both geometric problems and microarray data sets, the non-optimized SDF based classifiers perform just as well or slightly better than well-developed, standard SVM methods. These results demonstrate the potential accuracy of SDF-based methods on some types of problems.

  18. A 3D cell culture system: separation distance between INS-1 cell and endothelial cell monolayers co-cultured in fibrin influences INS-1 cells insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Georges; Vermette, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell culture system allowing studying the effect of separation distance between monolayers of rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) co-cultured in fibrin over INS-1 cell insulin secretion. For this purpose, a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture chamber was designed, built using micro-fabrication techniques and validated. The co-culture was successfully carried out and the effect on INS-1 cell insulin secretion was investigated. After 48 and 72 h, INS-1 cells co-cultured with HUVEC separated by a distance of 100 µm revealed enhanced insulin secretion compared to INS-1 cells cultured alone or co-cultured with HUVEC monolayers separated by a distance of 200 µm. These results illustrate the importance of the separation distance between two cell niches for cell culture design and the possibility to further enhance the endocrine function of beta cells when this factor is considered.

  19. CopyMe3D: Scanning and Printing Persons in 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Jürgen; Bylow, Erik; Kahl, Fredrik; Cremers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to create 3D miniatures of persons using a Kinect sensor and a 3D color printer. To achieve this, we acquire color and depth images while the person is rotating on a swivel chair. We represent the model with a signed distance function which is updated and visualized as the images are captured for immediate feedback. Our approach automatically fills small holes that stem from self-occlusions. To optimize the model for 3D printing, we extract a watert...

  20. Nondestructive testing and monitoring of stiff large-scale structures by measuring 3D coordinates of cardinal points using electronic distance measurements in a trilateration architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David H.

    2017-04-01

    By using three, or more, electronic distance measurement (EDM) instruments, such as commercially available laser trackers, in an unconventional trilateration architecture, 3-D coordinates of specialized retroreflector targets attached to cardinal points on a structure can be measured with absolute uncertainty of less than one part-permillion. For example, 3-D coordinates of a structure within a 100 meter cube can be measured within a volume of a 0.1 mm cube (the thickness of a sheet of paper). Relative dynamic movements, such as vibrations at 30 Hz, are typically measured 10 times better, i.e., within a 0.01 mm cube. Measurements of such accuracy open new areas for nondestructive testing and finite element model confirmation of stiff, large-scale structures, such as: buildings, bridges, cranes, boilers, tank cars, nuclear power plant containment buildings, post-tensioned concrete, and the like by measuring the response to applied loads, changes over the life of the structure, or changes following an accident, fire, earthquake, modification, etc. The sensitivity of these measurements makes it possible to measure parameters such as: linearity, hysteresis, creep, symmetry, damping coefficient, and the like. For example, cracks exhibit a highly non-linear response when strains are reversed from compression to tension. Due to the measurements being 3-D, unexpected movements, such as transverse motion produced by an axial load, could give an indication of an anomaly-such as an asymmetric crack or materials property in a beam, delamination of concrete, or other asymmetry due to failures. Details of the specialized retroreflector are included.

  1. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 1; The Study for the Distance 4.5Rs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our report devotes a 3D numerical hybrid model of the interaction of the solar wind with the Solar Probe spacecraft. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) model includes 3 main parts, namely, a non-conducting heat shield, a support system, and cylindrical section or spacecraft bus that contains the particle analysis devices and antenna. One observes an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of about (0.06-0.6) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about (0.15-0.7) V/m were also observed. The wave amplitudes are comparable to or greater than previously estimated max wave amplitudes that SPP is expected to measure. The results of our hybrid simulation will be useful for understanding the plasma environment near the SPP spacecraft at the distance 4.5 Rs. Future simulation will take into account the charging of the spacecraft, the charge separation effects, an outgassing from heat shield, a photoionization and an electron impact ionization effects near the spacecraft.

  2. 3D stellar kinematics at the Galactic center: measuring the nuclear star cluster spatial density profile, black hole mass, and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Do, T; Yelda, S; Ghez, A M; Bullock, J; Kaplinghat, M; Lu, J R; Peter, A G H; Phifer, K

    2013-01-01

    We present 3D kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true three dimensional profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass ($M_\\mathrm{BH}$), and distance to the Galactic center ($R_0$) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, $\\rho(r)\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ to have a power law slope $\\gamma=0.05_{-0.60}^{+0.29}$, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall $\\&am...

  3. Comparative Study of CAD Software, Web3D Technologies and Existing Solutions to Support Distance-Learning Students of Engineering Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zona Kostic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactive simulations, virtual environments and 3D interfaces significantly contribute to the process of learning through collab-oration and interaction with distant participants, and through simulation of real environments and real life situations. Depend-ing on the needs and case studies, different technologies, soft-ware packages and their combinations are used. In this paper, we present a comparative study based on the use of different CAD software in conjunction with Web3D technologies for teaching students at the Department of Engineering Management. With respect to the specificity of the profile of students undergoing training, the selection of CAD packages is reduced to the five most commonly used in this field: SolidWorks, Inventor, CATIA, Pro/ENGINEER and AutoCAD. During research, we found that Inventor and AutoCAD do not export VRML/X3D file types; hence, this paper provides only the basic functions of Inventor without integration of Web3D technologies. Combining with AutoCAD is described due to the existence of a number of plug-ins, as well as exporters and working groups working on Auto-CAD-X3D development. The main criteria for evaluating and ranking CAD packages used here are learning curve, export and import from CAD to X3D and vice versa, file types and sizes, types of nodes and material properties. We also review the tech-nology used to display 3D content on the Internet, and the rea-sons why we decided to use Web3D technologies in combination with these CAD packages. This paper presents specific conclu-sions, the advantages and disadvantages of software and technol-ogy, as well as predictions regarding further development of existing platforms and environments.

  4. WSDF: Weighting of Signed Distance Function for Camera Motion Estimation in RGB-D Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Minh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advent of the cost-effective Kinect, which can capture real-time high-resolution RGB and visual depth information, has opened an opportunity to significantly increase the capabilities of many automated vision based recognition including object/action classification, 3D reconstruction, etc… In this work, we address the camera motion estimation which is an important phase in 3D object reconstruction system based on RGB-D data. We segment objects by thresholding algorithm based on depth data and propose the weighting function for SDF that is called WSDF. The problem of minimizing of this function is solved by Gauss-Newton methods. We systematically evaluate our method on TUM dataset. The experimental results are measured by ATE and RPE that evaluate both global and local consistency of camera motion estimation algorithm. We demonstrate large improvements over the state-of-the-art methods on both plant and teddy3 objects and achieve the best ATE as 0.00564 and 0.0182 and the best RPE as 0.00719 and 0.00104, respectively. These experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques.

  5. Application of distance-coded reference measuring system on rotary swivel drive of the 3D laser cutting machine%距离编码测量装置在三维激光切割机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟东升; 钟昇; 洪超

    2013-01-01

    The application method of distance-coded reference measuring system on rotary swivel drive of the 3D laser cutting machine has been introduced in the text. The above method and conclusion provide reference for the application of distance-coded reference measuring system on other machine tools.%本文主要介绍带距离编码参考点标记的测量装置在三维激光切割机旋转机构上的应用方法,可为距离编码测量装置的应用提供参考.

  6. Student 'voices' and course development: reading the signs on a distance course in educational technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Slaouti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether in face-to-face or distance mode, courses result not-simply from informed input and pedagogic planning from an academic team but, as Thorpe (1988: 120 maintains from 'a process of interaction between the learner and any materials, staff or facilities associated with the achievement of [those courses]'. This synergy suggests that learners have a pivotal role to play not only in revealing the short-term effectiveness of instructional design and teaching strategies but also in contributing to their long-term development. This is not disputed, as reflected in the place that formal evaluation tools have on most courses.

  7. The Interaction of the Solar Wind with Solar Probe Plus - 3D Hybrid Simulation. Report 2: The Study for the Distance 9.5Rs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Our paper is a 2.5D and 3D numerical plasma models of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC). These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model for which the derived SW interaction with spacecraft (SC) could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board SC in the inner heliosphere. We observe an excitation of the low frequency Alfven and whistler type wave directed by the magnetic field with an amplitude of the electromagnetic field oscillation about of (0.015-0.06) V/m. The compression waves and the jumps in an electric field with an amplitude of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements, which were planned in future Solar Probe Plus mission.

  8. The sign of temperature inhomogeneities deduced from time-distance helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Brüggen, M

    2000-01-01

    Inhomogeneities in wave propagation conditions near and below the solar surface have been detected by means of time-distance helioseismology. Here we calculate the effect of temperature inhomogeneities on the travel times of sound waves. A temperature increase, e.g. in active regions, not only increases the sound speed but also lengthens the path along which the wave travels because the expansion of the heated layers shifts the upper turning of the waves upward. Using a ray tracing approximation we find that in many cases the net effect of a temperature enhancement is an {\\it increase} of the travel times. We argue that the reduced travel times that are observed are caused by a combination of magnetic fields in the active region and {\\it reduced} subsurface temperatures. Such a reduction may be related to the increased radiative energy loss from small magnetic flux tubes.

  9. Web3D新技术环境下现代远程教育研究%A Study of Modern Distance Education Based on of Web3D Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳西述; 唐宜清

    2012-01-01

      Web3D是虚拟现实在网络上的实现形式,现代远程教育是以计算机网络为平台的远距离教育。从Web3D应用于现代远程教育的理论基础、现代远程教育应用Web3D技术层次、Web3D远程教育学生学习和教师分类等方面,研究了Web3D新技术环境下现代远程教育有关理论、方法与策略。%  Web3D is a form of VR (virtual reality) in network and modern distance education is a distance educa-tion taking computer network as the platform. The paper illustrates the relative theories and strategies of Web3D tech-nology used in modern distance education based on its theoretical basis, the application levels and the classification of students and teachers.

  10. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  11. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  12. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  13. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  14. How accurate are the fusion of cone-beam CT and 3-D stereophotographic images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas S N Jayaratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and stereophotography are two of the latest imaging modalities available for three-dimensional (3-D visualization of craniofacial structures. However, CBCT provides only limited information on surface texture. This can be overcome by combining the bone images derived from CBCT with 3-D photographs. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the feasibility of integrating 3-D Photos and CBCT images 2 to assess degree of error that may occur during the above processes and 3 to identify facial regions that would be most appropriate for 3-D image registration. METHODOLOGY: CBCT scans and stereophotographic images from 29 patients were used for this study. Two 3-D images corresponding to the skin and bone were extracted from the CBCT data. The 3-D photo was superimposed on the CBCT skin image using relatively immobile areas of the face as a reference. 3-D colour maps were used to assess the accuracy of superimposition were distance differences between the CBCT and 3-D photo were recorded as the signed average and the Root Mean Square (RMS error. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The signed average and RMS of the distance differences between the registered surfaces were -0.018 (±0.129 mm and 0.739 (±0.239 mm respectively. The most errors were found in areas surrounding the lips and the eyes, while minimal errors were noted in the forehead, root of the nose and zygoma. CONCLUSIONS: CBCT and 3-D photographic data can be successfully fused with minimal errors. When compared to RMS, the signed average was found to under-represent the registration error. The virtual 3-D composite craniofacial models permit concurrent assessment of bone and soft tissues during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  15. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  16. CBCT三维测量与CBCT转化头颅侧位片测量常用线距值比较%A study on the comparison of general distance between the 3D analysis software and conventional cephalometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成日; 冯扬; 贾立辉; 骆厚卓; 张文君; 张晓东

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较头影测量常用线距值的锥形束CT(CBCT)三维测量与CBCT数据转化成头颅侧位片(Cephalogramfrom CBCT,CCB)的二维测量.方法:收集口腔正畸患者40名(男16名,女24名)进行CBCT扫描.操作者分别应用Invivo Dental 5.0三维测量软件和Winceph 8.0软件对CBCT头颅数据和CCB进行测量,每个数据重复测量2次,取平均值.选择18项头影测量常用线距值,将两种方法测得数据进行统计学分析,采用配对t检验.结果:两种测量方法得出头影测量值中Me-Go,N-Me,N-Gn,ANS-Gn,Go-Pog,Pog-NB,LLL值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);其余项目测量值无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:CBCT的三维测量与Winceph 8.0二维测量得出的常用线距值大部分无统计学差异,虽不能说明三维测量比转化后的二维测量更精确,但随着CBCT的应用及三维软件技术的进步,直接在CBCT数据上的三维测量能够代替传统的二维头影测量方法应用于临床.%Objective:To compare and investigate the difference of general distance between the 3D analysis software and conventional winceph 8.0 software via CCB.(Cephalogram from CBCT,CCB).Method:Forty pre-orthodontic patients were radiographed with cone-beam computed tomography techniques.According to the consistant standard,the operator has separately taken the measurement of 18 general distance magnitudes for 3D and 2D views by Invivo Dental 5.0 and Winceph 8.0.each data would be measured for two times and scored the average magnitudes.Paired t test was used analysing variability differences.Result:These evaluations of the general distance during two methods were significant at P <0.05 calculatious.such as:Me-Go,N-Me,N-Gn,ANS-Gn,Go-Pog,Pog-NB,LLL.The rest were not significant at P >0.05 calculatious.Conclusion:The result from the measurement of two methods was not significant.It didn't explain that the measurement with 3D analysis was better accurative than the winceph 8.0 software.Howerver,with the

  17. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  18. TEHNOLOGIJE 3D TISKALNIKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  19. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  20. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  1. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  2. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  3. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  4. AE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  5. Changes in susceptibility signs on serial T2*-weighted single-shot echo-planar gradient-echo images in acute embolic infarction: comparison with recanalization status on 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Kinoshita, Fumiko [Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels - Akita, Department of Radiology, Akita (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The present study compares changes in susceptibility signs on follow-up single-shot echo-planar gradient-echo T2*-weighted images (GRE-EPI) with vascular status on follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in acute embolic infarction. Twenty consecutive patients with acute embolic infarction repeatedly underwent MR imaging including GRE-EPI and MRA using a 1.5-T MR superconducting system. All patients underwent initial MR examination within 24 h of onset and follow-up MR imaging within 1 month after onset. Changes in susceptibility signs on follow-up GRE-EPI were compatible with vascular status on follow-up MRA in 19 of the 20 patients. Susceptibility signs disappeared with complete recanalization in 13 patients, migrated with partial recanalization in 3, did not change together with the absence of recanalization in 2, and became extended together with the absence of recanalization in 1. Cerebral hemorrhage obscured susceptibility signs in the one remaining patient. Susceptibility signs on follow-up GRE-EPI can reflect changes in an acute embolus, such as recanalization or migration, in this study. Serial GRE-EPI in acute embolism complements the diagnostic certainty of MRA by directly detecting an embolus as a susceptibility sign. (orig.)

  6. How 3-D Movies Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铁雄

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  7. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  8. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  9. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  10. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  11. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  12. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  13. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  14. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  15. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  16. Statistical Sign Language Machine Translation: from English written text to American Sign Language Gloss

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Achraf

    2011-01-01

    This works aims to design a statistical machine translation from English text to American Sign Language (ASL). The system is based on Moses tool with some modifications and the results are synthesized through a 3D avatar for interpretation. First, we translate the input text to gloss, a written form of ASL. Second, we pass the output to the WebSign Plug-in to play the sign. Contributions of this work are the use of a new couple of language English/ASL and an improvement of statistical machine translation based on string matching thanks to Jaro-distance.

  17. 基于反距离权重插值的土壤盐分三维分布解析方法%Interpreting method of regional soil salinity 3D distribution based on inverse distance weighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚坤; 刘广明; 杨劲松; 余世鹏

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the three-dimensional spatial pattern of soil salinity on a regional scale, the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method was used, combining the electromagnetic induction technique in this study. Apparent electrical conductivities were measured by electromagnetic induction, and thus layered salinity interpreting models with reasonable accuracy were established. The models showed a significant correlation between soil salt contents of different layers and apparent soil conductivities measured by electromagnetic induction, while soil moisture and clay content also significantly correlated with the apparent soil electrical conductivities. According to the classical statistical results, the minimum values (0.742-0.821 g/kg) of soil salt contents in different soil layers were substantially equal, but the maximum values differed from 5.943 to 9.810 g/kg, showing a significantly increased regularity with increasing depth, and the average values varied from 2.3 to 3.0 g/kg. Soil salinities of every layer belonged to moderate variability while the coefficients of variation increased with the increase of soil depth. Three-dimensional spatial distribution of soil salinity was characterized by IDW. Regional soil salinity spatial distribution characteristics were intuitively revealed by three-dimensional graphics. Profile soil salinity varied greatly with depth, showing different types of profile distribution characteristics in different locations across the study area. Soil of the main study area registered moderate or severe degree of salinization, which showed that there were more common and severe soil salinization in this study area. The 3D inverse distance weighting method combined apparent soil conductivity rapid determination by means of electromagnetic induction, and could achieve exact analytical evaluation of the three-dimensional spatial variability of regional soil salinity. This study and the results could provide a reliable technical method for

  18. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  19. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2016-01-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+ TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+ TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+ TFT admits a topological bou...

  20. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  1. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  2. 3D and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  3. 3D medical thermography device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  4. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  5. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  6. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  7. 3D-kompositointi

    OpenAIRE

    Piirainen, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi yleisimpiä 3D-kompositointiin liittyviä tekniikoita sekä kompositointiin käytettyjä ohjelmia ja liitännäisiä. Työssä esitellään myös kompositoinnin juuret 1800-luvun lopulta aina nykyaikaiseen digitaaliseen kompositointiin asti. Kompositointi on yksinkertaisimmillaan usean kuvan liittämistä saumattomasti yhdeksi uskottavaksi kokonaisuudeksi. Vaikka prosessi vaatii visuaalista silmää, vaatii se myös paljon teknistä osaamista. Tämän lisäksi perusymmärrys kamera...

  8. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  9. 基于中值滤波和Hu矩向量的手语识别%Sign language recognition based on Hu invariant moments and euclidean distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华斌; 夏利娜

    2011-01-01

    To increase accuracy rate of sign language recognition, a recognition method based on Hu invariant moments and euclidean distance of sign language image is introduced. Firstly, its 7Hu moments are calculated, the recognition of 30 letter gestures is performed by computing distance between matching and template image to recognize image. The algorithm remains constant when the image rotates,transfers and scales. The method overcomes the impact of illumination in capturing image and marginal information loss caused by image segmentation. The experiments show the validity of this method especitaly a successful result of images with a high rate of pepper-andsalt noise.%为提高手语图像的正识率,提出一种基于中值滤波和Hu不变矩特征量相结合的手语识别方法,对待匹配图像进行预处理,计算图像的7Hu矩特征量,通过欧氏距离计算与标准手语特征向量的相似程度,识别手语,对旋转、缩放和平移等图像的非本质性改变具有很好的鲁棒性,克服了手语图像采集中光照不均的影响和传统手语识别中基于图像分割造成的边缘信息损失.实验结果表明了该方法对手语识别的有效性,特别是对含有椒盐噪声信噪比较高的图像具有很好的效果.

  10. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  11. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  13. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  14. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  15. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  16. Full-Angle Quaternions for Robustly Matching Vectors of 3D Rotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Pham, Minh-Tri; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Stenger, Björn

    In this paper we introduce a new distance for robustly matching vectors of 3D rotations. A special representation of 3D rotations, which we coin full-angle quaternion (FAQ), allows us to express this distance as Euclidean. We apply the distance to the problems of 3D shape recognition from point

  17. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  18. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  19. a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.

  20. Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultralarge screen 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Toshihiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2004-10-01

    A large screen 2D display used at stadiums and theaters consists of a number of pixel modules. The pixel module usually consists of 8x8 or 16x16 LED pixels. In this study we develop a 3D pixel module in order to construct a large screen 3D display which is glass-free and has the motion parallax. This configuration for a large screen 3D display dramatically reduces the complexity of wiring 3D pixels. The 3D pixel module consists of several LCD panels, several cylindrical lenses, and one small PC. The LCD panels are slanted in order to differentiate the distances from same color pixels to the axis of the cylindrical lens so that the rays from the same color pixels are refracted into the different horizontal directions by the cylindrical lens. We constructed a prototype 3D pixel module, which consists of 8x4 3D pixels. The prototype module is designed to display 300 different patterns into different horizontal directions with the horizontal display angle pitch of 0.099 degree. The LCD panels are controlled by a small PC and the 3D image data is transmitted through the Gigabit Ethernet.

  1. Solving a 3D structural puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Casper

    to spatial structural information using NMR spectroscopy. Experimental distances from nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) correlations, and dihedral angles from 3JHH-coupling constants, were used to obtain 3D structural information for several natural and synthetic compounds. The stereochemistry of novel natural...... samples, which allows for RDCs to be extracted. The number of internuclear vectors for the correlation of RDCs to 3D structures is often limited for small molecules. Homonuclear RDCs were extracted by use of the homonuclear S3 HMBC that correlated well to alignment tensors from 1DCH-coupling constants......-calculation of RDCs from 3D structures was developed and tested, which copes better with multiple conformers than the commonly used SVD methodology. The approach thus resulted in good conformer populations for several small molecules, including multiple cinchona alkaloids....

  2. Novel proposals in widefield 3D microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ortiga, E.; Doblas, A.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.

    2010-04-01

    Patterned illumination is a successful set of techniques in high resolution 3D microscopy. In particular, structured illumination microscopy is based on the projection of 1D periodic patterns onto the 3D sample under study. In this research we propose the implementation of a very simple method for the flexible production of 1D structured illumination. Specifically, we propose the insertion of a Fresnel biprism after a monochromatic point source. The biprism produces a pair of twin, fully coherent, virtual point sources. After imaging the virtual sources onto the objective aperture stop, the expected 1D periodic pattern is produced into the 3D sample. The main advantage of using the Fresnel biprism is that by simply varying the distance between the biprism and the point source one can tune the period of the fringes while keeping their contrast.

  3. Holography of 3d-3d correspondence at Large N

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-01-01

    We study the physics of multiple M5-branes compactified on a hyperbolic 3-manifold. On the one hand, it leads to the 3d-3d correspondence which maps an N = 2 $$ \\mathcal{N}=2 $$ superconformal field theory to a pure Chern-Simons theory on the 3-manifold. On the other hand, it leads to a warped AdS 4 geometry in M-theory holographically dual to the superconformal field theory. Combining the holographic duality and the 3d-3d correspondence, we propose a conjecture for the large N limit of the p...

  4. Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R

    2007-01-01

    In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.

  5. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kast, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Collin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  6. Innovative 3D-printing technology in the fashion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rykavishnikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes improved methods of 3D-printing technology is their advantage, as well as used in modern fashion-industry. 3D-press began with the image on a fabric, flags, banners, advertising signs, furniture upholstery design, souvenirs. Improved and most commonly used in the fashion industry 3D-printing technology is the selective laser sintering. 3D-press is also used in the production of not only clothing, but also footwear company Nike; glasses, rings and other accessories.

  7. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  8. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  9. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  10. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  11. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  12. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  13. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  14. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  15. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  16. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  17. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  18. Binary pattern analysis for 3D facial action unit detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, Georgia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose new binary pattern features for use in the problem of 3D facial action unit (AU) detection. Two representations of 3D facial geometries are employed, the depth map and the Azimuthal Projection Distance Image (APDI). To these the traditional Local Binary Pattern is applied,

  19. Perception of 3D spatial relations for 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.

    2004-05-01

    We test perception of 3D spatial relations in 3D images rendered by a 3D display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. 3D images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our 3D display is a device that renders a 3D image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of 3D objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.

  20. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  1. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  2. Spherical 3D Isotropic Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L

    2011-01-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the Fourier-Bessel decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. 2006. We also present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large...

  3. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  4. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    to produce high quality 3-D images. Because of the large matrix transducers with integrated custom electronics, these systems are extremely expensive. The relatively low price of ultrasound scanners is one of the factors for the widespread use of ultrasound imaging. The high price tag on the high quality 3-D......The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...

  5. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  6. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  7. 3D vision system assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  8. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  9. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  10. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  11. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  12. APPLICATION OF CABRI 3D IN TEACHING STEREOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rososzczuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cabri 3D is a software which connects geometry and algebra to enable measuring length, distance, area, angles, scalar product, volume and use them in calculations or in algebraic expressions. Cabri 3D gives new opportunities for teaching three-dimentional Euclidean geometry. In this work we describe some tools and functions of Cabri 3D. We also give a skech of using this mathematical software to create 2D and 3D figures and explore a figure’s properties by manipulating its variable elements.

  13. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  14. 3D Technology Selection for a Virtual Learning Environment by Blending ISO 9126 Standard and AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Aydin; Guler, Inan

    2011-01-01

    Web3D presents many opportunities for learners in a virtual world or virtual environment over the web. This is a great opportunity for open-distance education institutions to benefit from web3d technologies to create courses with interactive 3d materials. There are many open source and commercial products offering 3d technologies over the web…

  15. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  16. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  17. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  18. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  19. 3D Visualization of Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamicists and biologists have long recognized the benefits of formation flight. When birds or aircraft fly in the upwash region of the vortex generated by leaders in a formation, induced drag is reduced for the trail bird or aircraft, and efficiency improves. The major consequence of this is that fuel consumption can be greatly reduced. When two aircraft are separated by a large enough longitudinal distance, the aircraft are said to be flying in a cooperative trajectory. A simulation has been developed to model autonomous cooperative trajectories of aircraft; however it does not provide any 3D representation of the multi-body system dynamics. The topic of this research is the development of an accurate visualization of the multi-body system observable in a 3D environment. This visualization includes two aircraft (lead and trail), a landscape for a static reference, and simplified models of the vortex dynamics and trajectories at several locations between the aircraft.

  20. 3D measurement using circular gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.

  1. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  2. Accepting the T3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  3. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...

  4. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  5. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  6. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  7. Multiple 3D medical data watermarking for healthcare data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hwan; Kwon, Ki-Ryong

    2011-12-01

    The rapid development of healthcare information management for 3D digital medical libraries, 3D PACS, and 3D medical diagnosis has addressed the security issues pertaining to medical IT technology. This paper presents multiple watermarking schemes for a healthcare information management system for 3D medical image data for the protection, authentication, indexing, and hiding of diagnosis information. The proposed scheme, which is based on POCS watermarking, embeds a robust watermark for a doctor's digital signature and an information retrieval indexing key to the distribution of vertex curvedness; the scheme also embeds a fragile watermark for diagnosis information and an authentication reference message to the vertex distance difference. The multiple embedding process creates three convex sets for robustness, fragileness, and invisibility and projects the 3D medical image data onto these three convex sets alternately and iteratively. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed scheme has the robustness and fragileness to handle various 3D geometric and mesh modifiers simultaneously.

  8. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  9. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Wu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  10. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  11. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  12. Single Camera Calibration in 3D Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caius SULIMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera calibration is a necessary step in 3D vision in order to extract metric information from 2D images. A camera is considered to be calibrated when the parameters of the camera are known (i.e. principal distance, lens distorsion, focal length etc.. In this paper we deal with a single camera calibration method and with the help of this method we try to find the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The method was implemented with succes in the programming and simulation environment Matlab.

  13. 3D-mallinnus ja 3D-animaatiot biovoimalaitoksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltula, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin biovoimalaitoksen piirustuksista 3D-mallinnus ja animaatiot. Työn tarkoituksena oli saada valmiiksi Recwell Oy:lle markkinointiin tarkoitetut kuva- ja videomateriaalit. Työssä perehdyttiin 3D-mallintamisen perustietoihin ja lähtökohtiin sekä animaation laatimiseen. Työ laadittiin kokonaisuudessaan AutoCAD-ohjelmalla, ja työn aikana tutustuttiin huolellisesti myös ohjelman käyttöohjeisiin. Piirustusten mitoituksessa huomattiin jo alkuvaiheessa suuria puutteita, ...

  14. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  15. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  16. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  17. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  18. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  19. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  20. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  1. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  2. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Dongmin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kim, Nakwoo [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University,Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A{sub N−1} on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T{sub N}[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T{sub N}[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  3. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2, 0) theory of type A N -1 on a 3-manifold M . The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,C) ) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T N [ M ]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T [SU( N )], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N > 2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2 T N [ M ] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper [1], which summarizes our main results.

  4. Holography of 3d-3d correspondence at large N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Dongmin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nakwoo [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University,26 Kyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangmin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Liberal Studies,Seoul National University, 1 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-20

    We study the physics of multiple M5-branes compactified on a hyperbolic 3-manifold. On the one hand, it leads to the 3d-3d correspondence which maps an N=2 superconformal field theory to a pure Chern-Simons theory on the 3-manifold. On the other hand, it leads to a warped AdS{sub 4} geometry in M-theory holographically dual to the superconformal field theory. Combining the holographic duality and the 3d-3d correspondence, we propose a conjecture for the large N limit of the perturbative free energy of a Chern-Simons theory on hyperbolic 3-manifold. The conjecture claims that the tree, one-loop and two-loop terms all share the same N{sup 3} scaling behavior and are proportional to the volume of the 3-manifold, while the three-loop and higher terms are suppressed at large N. Under mild assumptions, we prove the tree and one-loop parts of the conjecture. For the two-loop part, we test the conjecture numerically in a number of examples and find precise agreement. We also confirm the suppression of higher loop terms in a few examples.

  5. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  6. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  7. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  8. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  11. Seeing a Stellar Explosion in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have for the first time obtained a three-dimensional view of the distribution of the innermost material expelled by a recently exploded star. The original blast was not only powerful, according to the new results. It was also more concentrated in one particular direction. This is a strong indication that the supernova must have been very turbulent, supporting the most recent computer models. Unlike the Sun, which will die rather quietly, massive stars arriving at the end of their brief life explode as supernovae, hurling out a vast quantity of material. In this class, Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) in the rather nearby Large Magellanic Cloud occupies a very special place. Seen in 1987, it was the first naked-eye supernova to be observed for 383 years (eso8704), and because of its relative closeness, it has made it possible for astronomers to study the explosion of a massive star and its aftermath in more detail than ever before. It is thus no surprise that few events in modern astronomy have been met with such an enthusiastic response by scientists. SN 1987A has been a bonanza for astrophysicists (eso8711 and eso0708). It provided several notable observational 'firsts', like the detection of neutrinos from the collapsing inner stellar core triggering the explosion, the localisation on archival photographic plates of the star before it exploded, the signs of an asymmetric explosion, the direct observation of the radioactive elements produced during the blast, observation of the formation of dust in the supernova, as well as the detection of circumstellar and interstellar material (eso0708). New observations making use of a unique instrument, SINFONI [1], on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have provided even deeper knowledge of this amazing event, as astronomers have now been able to obtain the first-ever 3D reconstruction of the central parts of the exploding material. This view shows that the explosion was stronger and

  12. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  13. 3D digitization of mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a methodology developed to access to Cultural Heritage information using digital 3d reality-based models as graphic interfaces. The case studies presented belong to the wide repertoire of mosaics of Ravenna. One of the most peculiar characteristics of mosaics that often limits their digital survey is their multi-scale complexity; nevertheless their models could be used in 3d information systems, for digital exhibitions, for reconstruction aims and to document their conservation conditions in order to conduct restoration interventions in digital environments aiming at speeding and performing more reliable evaluations.

  14. Navigation in Orthognathic Surgery: 3D Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiali, Giovanni; Roncari, Andrea; Bianchi, Alberto; Taddei, Fulvia; Marchetti, Claudio; Schileo, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to determine the absolute accuracy of maxillary repositioning during orthognathic surgery according to simulation-guided navigation, that is, the combination of navigation and three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgery. We retrospectively studied 15 patients treated for asymmetric dentofacial deformities at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from January 2010 to January 2012. Patients were scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography before and after surgery. The virtual surgical simulation was realized with a dedicated software and loaded on a navigation system to improve intraoperative reproducibility of the preoperative planning. We analyzed the outcome following two protocols: (1) planning versus postoperative 3D surface analysis; (2) planning versus postoperative point-based analysis. For 3D surface comparison, the mean Hausdorff distance was measured, and median among cases was 0.99 mm. Median reproducibility orthognathic surgery, if compared with the surgical computer-designed project realized with a dedicated software, particularly for the vertical dimension, which is the most challenging to manage.

  15. Colored 3D surface reconstruction using Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian-peng; Chen, Xiang-ning; Chen, Ying; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    A colored 3D surface reconstruction method which effectively fuses the information of both depth and color image using Microsoft Kinect is proposed and demonstrated by experiment. Kinect depth images are processed with the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation which efficiently combines the depth and color data to improve its quality. The registered depth data are integrated to achieve a surface reconstruction through the colored truncated signed distance fields presented in this paper. Finally, the improved ray casting for rendering full colored surface is implemented to estimate color texture of the reconstruction object. Capturing the depth and color images of a toy car, the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation is used to improve the quality of depth images and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is approximately 4.57 dB, which is better than 1.16 dB of the joint-bilateral filter. The colored construction results of toy car demonstrate the suitability and ability of the proposed method.

  16. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  17. 3D Tracking via Shoe Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most location-based services are based on a global positioning system (GPS, which only works well in outdoor environments. Compared to outdoor environments, indoor localization has created more buzz in recent years as people spent most of their time indoors working at offices and shopping at malls, etc. Existing solutions mainly rely on inertial sensors (i.e., accelerometer and gyroscope embedded in mobile devices, which are usually not accurate enough to be useful due to the mobile devices’ random movements while people are walking. In this paper, we propose the use of shoe sensing (i.e., sensors attached to shoes to achieve 3D indoor positioning. Specifically, a short-time energy-based approach is used to extract the gait pattern. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of vertical distance estimation while the person is climbing upstairs, a state classification is designed to distinguish the walking status including plane motion (i.e., normal walking and jogging horizontally, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs. Furthermore, we also provide a mechanism to reduce the vertical distance accumulation error. Experimental results show that we can achieve nearly 100% accuracy when extracting gait patterns from walking/jogging with a low-cost shoe sensor, and can also achieve 3D indoor real-time positioning with high accuracy.

  18. 3D Tracking via Shoe Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangmin; Liu, Guo; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiaochuang; Ma, Xiaolin

    2016-10-28

    Most location-based services are based on a global positioning system (GPS), which only works well in outdoor environments. Compared to outdoor environments, indoor localization has created more buzz in recent years as people spent most of their time indoors working at offices and shopping at malls, etc. Existing solutions mainly rely on inertial sensors (i.e., accelerometer and gyroscope) embedded in mobile devices, which are usually not accurate enough to be useful due to the mobile devices' random movements while people are walking. In this paper, we propose the use of shoe sensing (i.e., sensors attached to shoes) to achieve 3D indoor positioning. Specifically, a short-time energy-based approach is used to extract the gait pattern. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of vertical distance estimation while the person is climbing upstairs, a state classification is designed to distinguish the walking status including plane motion (i.e., normal walking and jogging horizontally), walking upstairs, and walking downstairs. Furthermore, we also provide a mechanism to reduce the vertical distance accumulation error. Experimental results show that we can achieve nearly 100% accuracy when extracting gait patterns from walking/jogging with a low-cost shoe sensor, and can also achieve 3D indoor real-time positioning with high accuracy.

  19. Viewing galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krajnović, Davor

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to a technique that reveals galaxies in 3D, astronomers can now show that many galaxies have been wrongly classified. Davor Krajnovi\\'c argues that the classification scheme proposed 85 years ago by Edwin Hubble now needs to be revised.

  20. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  1. When Art Meets 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  2. 3D Printing of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits that could be derived if the science and technology of 3D printing were to be established have been the crux behind monumental efforts by governments, in most countries, that invest billions of dollars to develop this manufacturing technology.[...

  3. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  4. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  5. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  6. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  7. Application of CT 3D reconstruction in diagnosing atlantoaxial subluxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段少银; 林清池; 庞瑞麟

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the diagnostic value in atlantoaxial subluxation by CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction.Methods:3D reconstruction fimdings of 41 patients with atlantoaxiai subluxation were retrospectively analyzed, and comparisons were made among images of transverse section, multiplanar reformorting (MPR), surface shade display (SSD), maximum intensity project (MIP), and volume rendering (VR). Results:Of 41 patients with atlantoaxial subluxation, 31 belonged to rotary dislocation, 5 antedislocation, and 5 hind dislocation. All the cases showed the dislocated joint panel of atlantoaxial articulation.Fifteen cases showed deviation of the odontoid process and 8 cases widened distance between the dens and anterior arch of the atlas. The dislocated joint panel of atlantoaxial articulation was more clearly seen with SSD-3D imaging than any other methods. Conclusions:Atlantoaxial subluxation can well be diagnosed by CT 3D reconstruction, in which SSD-3D imaging is optimal.

  8. Multi-level spherical moments based 3D model retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; HE Yuan-jun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel 3D model retrieval method that employs multi-level spherical moment analysis and relies on voxelization and spherical mapping of the 3D models is proposed. For a given polygon-soup 3D model, first a pose normalization step is done to align the model into a canonical coordinate frame so as to define the shape representation with respect to this orientation. Afterward we rasterize its exterior surface into cubical voxel grids, then a series of homocentric spheres with their center superposing the center of the voxel grids cut the voxel grids into several spherical images. Finally moments belonging to each sphere are computed and the moments of all spheres constitute the descriptor of the model. Experiments showed that Euclidean distance based on this kind of feature vector can distinguish different 3D models well and that the 3D model retrieval system based on this arithmetic yields satisfactory performance.

  9. Glass Vision 3D: Digital Discovery for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2017-01-01

    Glass Vision 3D was a grant-funded project focused on developing and researching a Google Glass app that would allowed young Deaf children to look at the QR code of an object in the classroom and see an augmented reality projection that displays an American Sign Language (ASL) related video. Twenty five objects and videos were prepared and tested…

  10. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  11. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. Medical 3D thermography system

    OpenAIRE

    GRUBIŠIĆ, IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is an imaging technology which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These propertiesmake IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various industrial applications to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. This paper presents a conceptual model of Medical 3D Thermo...

  14. For 3D laparoscopy: a step toward advanced surgical navigation: how to get maximum benefit from 3D vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Wolfgang; Storz, Pirmin; Kirschniak, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    The authors are grateful for the interesting perspectives given by Buchs and colleagues in their letter to the editor entitled "3D Laparoscopy: A Step Toward Advanced Surgical Navigation." Shutter-based 3D video systems failed to become established in the operating room in the late 1990s. To strengthen the starting conditions of the new 3D technology using better monitors and high definition, the authors give suggestions for its practical use in the clinical routine. But first they list the characteristics of single-channeled and bichanneled 3D laparoscopes and describe stereoscopic terms such as "comfort zone," "stereoscopic window," and "near-point distance." The authors believe it would be helpful to have the 3D pioneers assemble and share their experiences with these suggestions. Although this letter discusses "laparoscopy," it would also be interesting to collect experiences from other surgical disciplines, especially when one is considering whether to opt for bi- or single-channeled optics.

  15. Automated detection, 3D segmentation and analysis of high resolution spine MR images using statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, A.; Fripp, J.; Engstrom, C.; Schwarz, R.; Lauer, L.; Salvado, O.; Crozier, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine provide a basis for the automated assessment of intervertebral disc (IVD) and vertebral body (VB) anatomy. High resolution three-dimensional (3D) morphological information contained in these images may be useful for early detection and monitoring of common spine disorders, such as disc degeneration. This work proposes an automated approach to extract the 3D segmentations of lumbar and thoracic IVDs and VBs from MR images using statistical shape analysis and registration of grey level intensity profiles. The algorithm was validated on a dataset of volumetric scans of the thoracolumbar spine of asymptomatic volunteers obtained on a 3T scanner using the relatively new 3D T2-weighted SPACE pulse sequence. Manual segmentations and expert radiological findings of early signs of disc degeneration were used in the validation. There was good agreement between manual and automated segmentation of the IVD and VB volumes with the mean Dice scores of 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.91 ± 0.02 and mean absolute surface distances of 0.55 ± 0.18 mm and 0.67 ± 0.17 mm respectively. The method compares favourably to existing 3D MR segmentation techniques for VBs. This is the first time IVDs have been automatically segmented from 3D volumetric scans and shape parameters obtained were used in preliminary analyses to accurately classify (100% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) disc abnormalities associated with early degenerative changes.

  16. 3D fluorescence spectral data interpolation by using IDW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghang; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yi, Chao

    2008-12-01

    Because measured precision of some spectral instruments such as fluorescence spectrometer HITACHI F-4500 cannot reach the requirement of spectral analytical technique, and measured data is finite, which causes some three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectral data missed. The fact of missing data can result in errors in interpretations of 3D fluorescence spectral data. This paper takes ethanol solution (volume percentage phi(beta)=0.400) 3D fluorescence spectral data for example, applies inverse distance weighting (IDW) to 3D fluorescence spectral data interpolation. The results prove that the more details of 3D fluorescence spectra are expressed well by using IDW in contrast to that of original 3D fluorescence spectra. To evaluate the effectiveness of interpolation by using IDW, this paper compares standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and the mean, median, maximum and minimum values of original ethanol solution (phi(beta)=0.400) 3D fluorescence spectral data and that of the interpolated, whose results suggest that the interpolation of the 3D fluorescence spectra data by using IDW is exact.

  17. Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  18. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  19. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  20. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic inference using Dempster-Shafer theory, which makes it possible to handle observations that have different degrees and kinds of uncertainty. The system has been implemented and tested in a real indoor environment, showing the benefits of the proposed approach.

  1. 3D Capturing with Monoscopic Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galabov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new concept of using the auto-focus function of the monoscopic camera sensor to estimate depth map information, which avoids not only using auxiliary equipment or human interaction, but also the introduced computational complexity of SfM or depth analysis. The system architecture that supports both stereo image and video data capturing, processing and display is discussed. A novel stereo image pair generation algorithm by using Z-buffer-based 3D surface recovery is proposed. Based on the depth map, we are able to calculate the disparity map (the distance in pixels between the image points in both views for the image. The presented algorithm uses a single image with depth information (e.g. z-buffer as an input and produces two images for left and right eye.

  2. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  3. Comparison of 3D reconstruction of mandible for pre-operative planning using commercial and open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Johari Yap; Omar, Marzuki; Pritam, Helmi Mohd Hadi; Husein, Adam; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    3D printing of mandible is important for pre-operative planning, diagnostic purposes, as well as for education and training. Currently, the processing of CT data is routinely performed with commercial software which increases the cost of operation and patient management for a small clinical setting. Usage of open-source software as an alternative to commercial software for 3D reconstruction of the mandible from CT data is scarce. The aim of this study is to compare two methods of 3D reconstruction of the mandible using commercial Materialise Mimics software and open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) software. Head CT images with a slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512x512 pixels each were retrieved from the server located at the Radiology Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The CT data were analysed and the 3D models of mandible were reconstructed using both commercial Materialise Mimics and open-source MITK software. Both virtual 3D models were saved in STL format and exported to 3matic and MeshLab software for morphometric and image analyses. Both models were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Hausdorff Distance. No significant differences were obtained between the 3D models of the mandible produced using Mimics and MITK software. The 3D model of the mandible produced using MITK open-source software is comparable to the commercial MIMICS software. Therefore, open-source software could be used in clinical setting for pre-operative planning to minimise the operational cost.

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  5. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  7. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  8. A 3D translation stage calibrated with Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Kai; Wang, Lu-Yu; Su, Wei-Hung

    2016-09-01

    A 3D translation stage which meets the requirement of the next-generation lithography is proposed. The Michelson interferometer is used to evaluate the moving distance for this 3-dimensional translation stage. With the help of Michelson interferometer, accuracy in the order of nanometers is desirable.

  9. 3D simulation for solitons used in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, F.; Tebeica, C. M.; Schiopu, P.; Vladescu, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper is described 3D simulation for solitions used in optical fibers. In the scientific works is started from nonlinear propagation equation and the solitons represents its solutions. This paper presents the simulation of the fundamental soliton in 3D together with simulation of the second order soliton in 3D. These simulations help in the study of the optical fibers for long distances and in the interactions between the solitons. This study helps the understanding of the nonlinear propagation equation and for nonlinear waves. These 3D simulations are obtained using MATLAB programming language, and we can observe fundamental difference between the soliton and the second order/higher order soliton and in their evolution.

  10. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.

  11. Effects of Administration of Morphine on Sign-tracking/Goal-tracking under Different Distances%吗啡对不同距离条件下大鼠信号追踪和目标追踪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常逢锦; 李新旺; 崔睿思

    2015-01-01

    条件刺激短暂呈现并消失后, 奖赏立即呈现, 多次匹配后诱导出动物对条件刺激(信号追踪)或奖赏呈现装置如食盒(目标追踪)的接近.条件刺激与食盒间的距离是影响信号/目标追踪反应和损害联结学习的重要变量, 成瘾药物能够增加奖赏的诱因动机, 进而增加个体的奖赏寻求行为.距离能否通过损害联结学习而减弱成瘾药物的动机放大作用尚未见到报道.本实验采用autoshaping模型,考察8、30和60 cm距离条件下吗啡处理对大鼠信号追踪和目标追踪的影响.结果发现:(1)信号追踪随距离增加而减少, 目标追踪对距离不敏感.(2)急性吗啡处理减少8、30和60 cm条件下信号追踪而增加8和60 cm条件下目标追踪,慢性吗啡处理在8和30 cm条件下减少信号追踪增加目标追踪;消退检测中,吗啡前暴露减少8和60 cm条件下信号追踪而增加60 cm条件下目标追踪.(3)辨别反转学习中,吗啡前暴露使30和60 cm条件下的大鼠偏爱旧信号、辨别力受损,减少8、30和60 cm条件下大鼠对新信号的接触.这些结果提示,距离较少影响吗啡的信号追踪抑制作用和目标追踪增强效应, 而易化吗啡前暴露对反转学习的损害.说明距离是易化成瘾药物对联结学习不利影响而非反转其动机放大作用的重要因素.%Pairings of a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned (US) stimulus can result in approach to either the CS (sign tracking) or the US (goal tracking). The distance between the conditioned stimulus and the site of US delivery affects the sign / goal tracking response and impairs the associative learning; the addictive drugs can enhance the incentive effects of a reward and thus increase individual reward seeking behavior. There are no reports on the relationship between impairments of associative learning by the distance and the incentive amplifying effects of addictive drugs. Therefore, this experiment attempted to

  12. 距离测度视角下生态城市规划方案三维评价模型研究%Study on the 3D Evaluation Model of Eco-City Planning under the Distance Measure Perpective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宏; 杜永杰; 陈永奇; 任鹏宇; 董海峰

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the high‐speed urbanization and requirements on the energy conservation and environmental pro‐tection ,eco‐‐city becomes the priority of urbanization development in China ,and governments of all levels promoted vari‐ous eco‐city planning schemes within a short term ,but most schemes are characterized by randomness and subjectivity .In order to solve the problem w here the eco‐city planning lacks scientific pre‐implementation evaluation and improve the eco‐city construction quality ,this research carries out systematic analysis from three dimensions ,including the eco‐city plan‐ning scheme ,operating mechanism and guarantee measures ,and constructs the 3D evaluation model for the eco‐city plan‐ning through index selection .Schemes are ranked comprehensively with the distance measure method ,and projection anal‐ysis is carried out with the "four‐grid evaluation screen".Finally ,the 3D evaluation model is applied to the evaluation of eco‐city planning for Shenzhen ,Chongqing and Weifang .According to the research result ,the model can carry out com‐prehensive evaluation of the eco‐city planning scheme effectively ,and offer targeted optimization suggestions in accordance with the evaluation results .Construction of 3D evaluation model of the eco‐city planning based on the distance measure for determining the reasonability of eco‐city planning will be favorable for lowering the institutional cost and social cost of the eco‐city planning practices .%在高速发展的城镇化和节能环保要求的双重背景下,生态城市成为中国城镇化发展的首选,各级政府短期内推出了大量生态城市规划方案,但多数生态城市规划方案存在随意性和主观性等问题。对生态城市规划方案、规划方案运作机制和规划方案保障措施3个维度进行了系统分析,通过指标选取构建了生态城市规划三维评价模型,采用距离测度方法对方案

  13. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  14. 3D level set methods for evolving fronts on tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.

    2017-05-01

    The level set method is commonly used to model dynamically evolving fronts and interfaces. In this work, we present new methods for evolving fronts with a specified velocity field or in the surface normal direction on 3D unstructured tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The level set field is located at the nodes of the tetrahedral cells and is evolved using new upwind discretizations of Hamilton-Jacobi equations combined with a Runge-Kutta method for temporal integration. The level set field is periodically reinitialized to a signed distance function using an iterative approach with a new upwind gradient. The details of these level set and reinitialization methods are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.

  15. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  16. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  17. Interpolation of 3D slice volume data for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littley, Samuel; Voiculescu, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Medical imaging from CT and MRI scans has become essential to clinicians for diagnosis, treatment planning and even prevention of a wide array of conditions. The presentation of image data volumes as 2D slice series provides some challenges with visualising internal structures. 3D reconstructions of organs and other tissue samples from data with low scan resolution leads to a `stepped' appearance. This paper demonstrates how to improve 3D visualisation of features and automated preparation for 3D printing from such low resolution data, using novel techniques for morphing from one slice to the next. The boundary of the starting contour is grown until it matches the boundary of the ending contour by adapting a variant of the Fast Marching Method (FMM). Our spoke based approach generates scalar speed field for FMM by estimating distances to boundaries with line segments connecting the two boundaries. These can be regularly spaced radial spokes or spokes at radial extrema. We introduce clamped FMM by running the algorithm outwards from the smaller boundary and inwards from the larger boundary and combining the two runs to achieve FMM growth stability near the two region boundaries. Our method inserts a series of uniformly distributed intermediate contours between each pair of consecutive slices from the scan volume thus creating smoother feature boundaries. Whilst hard to quantify, our overall results give clinicians an evidently improved tangible and tactile representation of the tissues, that they can examine more easily and even handle.

  18. 3D-DXA: Assessing the Femoral Shape, the Trabecular Macrostructure and the Cortex in 3D from DXA images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ludovic; Martelli, Yves; Fonolla, Roger; Steghofer, Martin; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Malouf, Jorge; Romera, Jordi; Barquero, Luis Miguel Del Rio

    2017-01-01

    The 3D distribution of the cortical and trabecular bone mass in the proximal femur is a critical component in determining fracture resistance that is not taken into account in clinical routine Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) examination. In this paper, a statistical shape and appearance model together with a 3D-2D registration approach are used to model the femoral shape and bone density distribution in 3D from an anteroposterior DXA projection. A model-based algorithm is subsequently used to segment the cortex and build a 3D map of the cortical thickness and density. Measurements characterising the geometry and density distribution were computed for various regions of interest in both cortical and trabecular compartments. Models and measurements provided by the "3D-DXA" software algorithm were evaluated using a database of 157 study subjects, by comparing 3D-DXA analyses (using DXA scanners from three manufacturers) with measurements performed by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The mean point-to-surface distance between 3D-DXA and QCT femoral shapes was 0.93 mm. The mean absolute error between cortical thickness and density estimates measured by 3D-DXA and QCT was 0.33 mm and 72 mg/cm(3). Correlation coefficients (R) between the 3D-DXA and QCT measurements were 0.86, 0.93, and 0.95 for the volumetric bone mineral density at the trabecular, cortical, and integral compartments respectively, and 0.91 for the mean cortical thickness. 3D-DXA provides a detailed analysis of the proximal femur, including a separate assessment of the cortical layer and trabecular macrostructure, which could potentially improve osteoporosis management while maintaining DXA as the standard routine modality.

  19. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy [Advanced Data Security, 1933 O' Toole Way, San Jose, CA 95131 (United States); Poutivski, Iouri [Terimber Corporation, 2456 Homewood Drive, San Jose, CA 95128, USA and Facebook Inc, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  20. Classification of conformational stability of protein mutants from 3D pseudo-folding graph representation of protein sequences using support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Michael; Caballero, Julio; Fernández, Leyden; Abreu, Jose Ignacio; Acosta, Gianco

    2008-01-01

    This work reports a novel 3D pseudo-folding graph representation of protein sequences for modeling purposes. Amino acids euclidean distances matrices (EDMs) encode primary structural information. Amino Acid Pseudo-Folding 3D Distances Count (AAp3DC) descriptors, calculated from the EDMs of a large data set of 1363 single protein mutants of 64 proteins, were tested for building a classifier for the signs of the change of thermal unfolding Gibbs free energy change (DeltaDeltaG) upon single mutations. An optimum support vector machine (SVM) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel well recognized stable and unstable mutants with accuracies over 70% in crossvalidation test. To the best of our knowledge, this result for stable mutant recognition is the highest ever reported for a sequence-based predictor with more than 1000 mutants. Furthermore, the model adequately classified mutations associated to diseases of human prion protein and human transthyretin.

  1. Spatial 3-D nonlinear calibration technique for PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Zhang, Guoxiong; Zheng, Qi; Gong, Qiang; Liu, Wenyao

    2006-11-01

    A 3-D nonlinear calibration technique for Position sensitive detector (PSD) in long distance laser collimating measurement is proposed. An automatic calibration system was developed to measure the nonlinearity of a 2-D PSD in 3-D space. It is mainly composed of a high accurate 2-D motorized translational stage, a high precision distance measuring device, and a computer-based data acquisition and control system. With the aid of the calibration system, the nonlinear characteristic of 2-D PSD is checked in a long collimating distance up to 78 meters. The calibration experiment was carried out for a series of distance, e.g. every 15 meters. The results showed that the nonlinearity of 2-D PSD is different evidently when the PSD element is at different distance from the laser head. One calculating method is defined to evaluate the nonlinear errors. The spatial 3-D mapping relationship between the actual displacements of the incident light and the coordinates of 2-D PSD outputs is established using a multilayer feedforward neural network.

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  3. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  4. Lidar-Incorporated Traffic Sign Detection from Video Log Images of Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Fan, J.; Huang, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping System (MMS) simultaneously collects the Lidar points and video log images in a scenario with the laser profiler and digital camera. Besides the textural details of video log images, it also captures the 3D geometric shape of point cloud. It is widely used to survey the street view and roadside transportation infrastructure, such as traffic sign, guardrail, etc., in many transportation agencies. Although many literature on traffic sign detection are available, they only focus on either Lidar or imagery data of traffic sign. Based on the well-calibrated extrinsic parameters of MMS, 3D Lidar points are, the first time, incorporated into 2D video log images to enhance the detection of traffic sign both physically and visually. Based on the local elevation, the 3D pavement area is first located. Within a certain distance and height of the pavement, points of the overhead and roadside traffic signs can be obtained according to the setup specification of traffic signs in different transportation agencies. The 3D candidate planes of traffic signs are then fitted using the RANSAC plane-fitting of those points. By projecting the candidate planes onto the image, Regions of Interest (ROIs) of traffic signs are found physically with the geometric constraints between laser profiling and camera imaging. The Random forest learning of the visual color and shape features of traffic signs is adopted to validate the sign ROIs from the video log images. The sequential occurrence of a traffic sign among consecutive video log images are defined by the geometric constraint of the imaging geometry and GPS movement. Candidate ROIs are predicted in this temporal context to double-check the salient traffic sign among video log images. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of scenarios on the interstate highway G-4 near Beijing, China under varying lighting conditions and occlusions. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm enhances the rate of detecting

  5. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  6. Building 3D scenes from 2D image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2006-05-01

    Sequences of 2D images, taken by a single moving video receptor, can be fused to generate a 3D representation. This dynamic stereopsis exists in birds and reptiles, whereas the static binocular stereopsis is common in mammals, including humans. Most multimedia computer vision systems for stereo image capture, transmission, processing, storage and retrieval are based on the concept of binocularity. As a consequence, their main goal is to acquire, conserve and enhance pairs of 2D images able to generate a 3D visual perception in a human observer. Stereo vision in birds is based on the fusion of images captured by each eye, with previously acquired and memorized images from the same eye. The process goes on simultaneously and conjointly for both eyes and generates an almost complete all-around visual field. As a consequence, the baseline distance is no longer fixed, as in the case of binocular 3D view, but adjustable in accordance with the distance to the object of main interest, allowing a controllable depth effect. Moreover, the synthesized 3D scene can have a better resolution than each individual 2D image in the sequence. Compression of 3D scenes can be achieved, and stereo transmissions with lower bandwidth requirements can be developed.

  7. Vrste i tehnike 3D modeliranja

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Proces stvaranja 3D stvarnih ili imaginarnih objekata naziva se 3D modeliranje. Razvoj računalne tehnologije omogućuje korisniku odabir raznih metoda i tehnika kako bi se postigla optimalna učinkovitost. Odabir je vezan za klasično 3D modeliranje ili 3D skeniranje pomoću specijaliziranih programskih i sklopovskih rješenja. 3D tehnikama modeliranja korisnik može izraditi 3D model na nekoliko načina: koristi poligone, krivulje ili hibrid dviju spomenutih tehnika pod nazivom subdivizijsko modeli...

  8. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  9. Content-based similarity for 3D model retrieval and classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Lü; Ning He; Jian Xue

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D digital shape information,content-based 3D model retrieval and classification has become an important research area.This paper presents a novel 3D model retrieval and classification algorithm.For feature representation,a method combining a distance histogram and moment invariants is proposed to improve the retrieval performance.The major advantage of using a distance histogram is its invariance to the transforms of scaling,translation and rotation.Based on the premise that two similar objects should have high mutual information,the querying of 3D data should convey a great deal of information on the shape of the two objects,and so we propose a mutual information distance measurement to perform the similarity comparison of 3D objects.The proposed algorithm is tested with a 3D model retrieval and classification prototype,and the experimental evaluation demonstrates satisfactory retrieval results and classification accuracy.

  10. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-07-29

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  11. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Tuong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement. This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  12. Imaging and 3D morphological analysis of collagen fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altendorf, H; Decencière, E; Jeulin, D; De sa Peixoto, P; Deniset-Besseau, A; Angelini, E; Mosser, G; Schanne-Klein, M-C

    2012-08-01

    The recent booming of multiphoton imaging of collagen fibrils by means of second harmonic generation microscopy generates the need for the development and automation of quantitative methods for image analysis. Standard approaches sequentially analyse two-dimensional (2D) slices to gain knowledge on the spatial arrangement and dimension of the fibrils, whereas the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) image yields better information about these characteristics. In this work, a 3D analysis method is proposed for second harmonic generation images of collagen fibrils, based on a recently developed 3D fibre quantification method. This analysis uses operators from mathematical morphology. The fibril structure is scanned with a directional distance transform. Inertia moments of the directional distances yield the main fibre orientation, corresponding to the main inertia axis. The collaboration of directional distances and fibre orientation delivers a geometrical estimate of the fibre radius. The results include local maps as well as global distribution of orientation and radius of the fibrils over the 3D image. They also bring a segmentation of the image into foreground and background, as well as a classification of the foreground pixels into the preferred orientations. This accurate determination of the spatial arrangement of the fibrils within a 3D data set will be most relevant in biomedical applications. It brings the possibility to monitor remodelling of collagen tissues upon a variety of injuries and to guide tissues engineering because biomimetic 3D organizations and density are requested for better integration of implants. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  14. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  15. Forward ramp in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. Measurements with Irradiated 3D Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, M. [University of Freiburg (Germany); Bates, R. [University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [University of Trento and INFN sez. Trento (Italy); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Haerkoenen, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Jakobs, K. [University of Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Maeenpaeae, T.; Moilanen, H. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Parkes, C. [University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Parzefall, U. [University of Freiburg (Germany); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics (United States); Spiegel, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia (United States); Wiik, L. [University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    For the unprecedentedly high radiation level at the sLHC, the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, new tracking detectors are investigated. Among different approaches, silicon detectors in 3D technology constitute a promising option. Columnar electrodes are etched into the substrate, therefore the distance for charge collection and depletion is decoupled from the detector thickness. Thus, two of the detrimental effects caused by radiation in silicon (increased depletion voltage and charge carrier trapping) can be reduced. Results of measurements with irradiated 3D silicon strip detectors produced by IMB-CNM are presented.

  17. Surface-preserving robust watermarking of 3-D shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Bors, Adrian G

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a new statistical approach for watermarking mesh representations of 3-D graphical objects. A robust digital watermarking method has to mitigate among the requirements of watermark invisibility, robustness, embedding capacity and key security. The proposed method employs a mesh propagation distance metric procedure called the fast marching method (FMM), which defines regions of equal geodesic distance width calculated with respect to a reference location on the mesh. Each of these regions is used for embedding a single bit. The embedding is performed by changing the normalized distribution of local geodesic distances from within each region. Two different embedding methods are used by changing the mean or the variance of geodesic distance distributions. Geodesic distances are slightly modified statistically by displacing the vertices in their existing triangle planes. The vertex displacements, performed according to the FMM, ensure a minimal surface distortion while embedding the watermark code. Robustness to a variety of attacks is shown according to experimental results.

  18. A View to the Future: A Novel Approach for 3D-3D Superimposition and Quantification of Differences for Identification from Next-Generation Video Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, Daniele; De Angelis, Danilo; Poppa, Pasquale; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Techniques of 2D-3D superimposition are widely used in cases of personal identification from video surveillance systems. However, the progressive improvement of 3D image acquisition technology will enable operators to perform also 3D-3D facial superimposition. This study aims at analyzing the possible applications of 3D-3D superimposition to personal identification, although from a theoretical point of view. Twenty subjects underwent a facial 3D scan by stereophotogrammetry twice at different time periods. Scans were superimposed two by two according to nine landmarks, and root-mean-square (RMS) value of point-to-point distances was calculated. When the two superimposed models belonged to the same individual, RMS value was 2.10 mm, while it was 4.47 mm in mismatches with a statistically significant difference (p forensic practice. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Visual Semantic Based 3D Video Retrieval System Using HDFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Ranjith; Suguna, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper brings out a neoteric frame of reference for visual semantic based 3d video search and retrieval applications. Newfangled 3D retrieval application spotlight on shape analysis like object matching, classification and retrieval not only sticking up entirely with video retrieval. In this ambit, we delve into 3D-CBVR (Content Based Video Retrieval) concept for the first time. For this purpose, we intent to hitch on BOVW and Mapreduce in 3D framework. Instead of conventional shape based local descriptors, we tried to coalesce shape, color and texture for feature extraction. For this purpose, we have used combination of geometric & topological features for shape and 3D co-occurrence matrix for color and texture. After thriving extraction of local descriptors, TB-PCT (Threshold Based- Predictive Clustering Tree) algorithm is used to generate visual codebook and histogram is produced. Further, matching is performed using soft weighting scheme with L2 distance function. As a final step, retrieved results are ranked according to the Index value and acknowledged to the user as a feedback .In order to handle prodigious amount of data and Efficacious retrieval, we have incorporated HDFS in our Intellection. Using 3D video dataset, we future the performance of our proposed system which can pan out that the proposed work gives meticulous result and also reduce the time intricacy.

  20. 3D roadmap in neuroangiography: technique and clinical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, Michael; Andersson, T. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Babic, D.; Homan, R. [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    We present the first clinical results obtained with a novel technique: the three-dimensional [3D] roadmap. The major difference from the standard 2D digital roadmap technique is that the newly developed 3D roadmap is based on a rotational angiography acquisition technique with the two-dimensional [2D] fluoroscopic image as an overlay. Data required for an accurate superimposition of the previously acquired 3D reconstructed image on the interactively made 2D fluoroscopy image, in real time, are stored in the 3D workstation and constitute the calibration dataset. Both datasets are spatially aligned in real time; thus, the 3D image is accurately superimposed on the 2D fluoroscopic image regardless of any change in C-arm position or magnification. The principal advantage of the described roadmap method is that one contrast injection allows the C-arm to be positioned anywhere in the space and allows alterations in the distance between the x-ray tube and the image intensifier as well as changes in image magnification. In the clinical setting, the 3D roadmap facilitated intravascular neuronavigation with concurrent reduction of procedure time and use of contrast medium. (orig.)

  1. 高速出口前置指路标志的安全距离设置模型%Setting Model of Safe Distance of Advance Guide Signs at Highway Exits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟铭; 邓如丰; 张阳; 庄岩浩

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the safety performance of advance guide signs ( AGSs) at highway exits for the diverging area, the characteristics of the diverging area and the visual recognizing-exiting behaviors of the driver are taken into consideration, and a setting model of safe distance of AGSs, which reveals the effects of traffic flow, design speed and lane number on lane-changing behaviors, is constructed based on the analysis of the computation mode of lane-changing driving distance. Then, a simulation is carried out with TSIS-CORSIM. The results indicate that, for a three-lane expressway with a design speed higher than 110km/h, an AGS setting distance of 700m may result in minimum lane-changing number of vehicles proportionally dispersed in the diverging area, which means that the safe distance is reasonably set.%为提高高速出口前置指路标志(AGS)对分流区的安全性能,根据分流区特性和驾驶员的视认-驶离行为,在分析车道变换行驶距离计算模式的基础上,建立了前置指路标志的安全距离设置模型.该模型揭示了交通流量、设计时速、车道数对分流区变道行为的影响.TSIS-CORSIM模拟显示,对主线设计时速超过110 km/h的三车道高速公路而言,当AGS设置距离为700m时,分流区内车辆的变道次数最少且变道次数均衡分散,其安全性能最好.

  2. Comparison of Placement Distances of Advance Guide Sign of Freeway Exit and Their Safety Performances%高速出口预告指路标志设置距离及其安全性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭唐仪; 胡启洲; 姚丁元

    2011-01-01

    为弥补我国现行规范和美国MUTCD关于出口预告指路标志设置经验主义的缺陷,根据驾驶员驶离高速主线的驾驶行为,视觉特性以及高速道路交通条件,建模确定了预告指路标志3种不同安装方式(路边直立式、路上横跨式及中央架设式)在不同车道数和不同设计速度下的设置距离.TSIS - CORSIM模拟表明,本文计算值比我国现行规范以及MUTCD推荐值在分流鼻上游500m产生的车道变换次数分别少38%和74%,能较大程度改善分流区的安全性能.%The current Chinese specification and US MUTCD guideline for placement distance of advance guide sign of freeway exit are empiricism-based. To remedy the existing shortcomings, considering drivers' exiting driving behaviors, vision characteristics and traffic conditions on freeway, the placement distances for ground installation, overhead installation and median installation under the condition of different lane numbers and design speeds were deduced by modeling. The simulation result in TIS-CORSIM indicates that the number of lane changes generated by the distance proposed in this paper is 40% less than that generated by current Chinese specification and 20% less than that from MUTCD guideline in diverging area from ramp nose to 500 m upstream. Thus, the recommended placement distances have better safety performance.

  3. Sliding Adjustment for 3D Video Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Franck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with video coding of static scenes viewed by a moving camera. We propose an automatic way to encode such video sequences using several 3D models. Contrary to prior art in model-based coding where 3D models have to be known, the 3D models are automatically computed from the original video sequence. We show that several independent 3D models provide the same functionalities as one single 3D model, and avoid some drawbacks of the previous approaches. To achieve this goal we propose a novel algorithm of sliding adjustment, which ensures consistency of successive 3D models. The paper presents a method to automatically extract the set of 3D models and associate camera positions. The obtained representation can be used for reconstructing the original sequence, or virtual ones. It also enables 3D functionalities such as synthetic object insertion, lightning modification, or stereoscopic visualization. Results on real video sequences are presented.

  4. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  5. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  6. 3D ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B

    2008-12-01

    3D ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and 3D ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.

  7. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  8. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  9. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  10. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jodi L. Connell; Eric T. Ritschdorff; Marvin Whiteley; Jason B. Shear

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a microscopic threedimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating...

  11. 3D Scanning technology for offshore purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Morten Thoft

    2005-01-01

    New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities......New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities...

  12. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  13. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  14. 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration for navigated prostate biopsy: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Selmi, Sonia,; Promayon, Emmanuel; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to describe a 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration method for navigated prostate biopsy and its first results obtained on patient data. A system combining a low-cost tracking system and a 3D-2D registration algorithm was designed. The proposed 3D-2D registration method combines geometric and image-based distances. After extracting features from ultrasound images, 3D and 2D features within a defined distance are matched using an intensity...

  15. 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration for navigated prostate biopsy: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Sonia Y; Promayon, Emmanuel; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration method for navigated prostate biopsy and its first results obtained on patient data. A system combining a low-cost tracking system and a 3D-2D registration algorithm was designed. The proposed 3D-2D registration method combines geometric and image-based distances. After extracting features from ultrasound images, 3D and 2D features within a defined distance are matched using an intensity-based function. The results are encouraging and show acceptable errors with simulated transforms applied on ultrasound volumes from real patients.

  16. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  17. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  18. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  19. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  20. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  1. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  2. 3D immersive and interactive learning

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yiyu

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews innovative uses of 3D for immersive and interactive learning, covering gifted programs, normal stream and special needs education. Reports on curriculum-based 3D learning in classrooms, and co-curriculum-based 3D student research projects.

  3. 中职3D MAX课程教学改革探索%Exploration on Teaching Reformation in 3D MAX Course of Vocational School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠坤

    2012-01-01

    Describes 3D MAX course in vocational schools teaching present situation and the existing problems. With animation professional 3D MAX com~e as an example, puts forward the 3D MAX curriculum teaching objectives, discusses the teaching reformation and practice in the de- sign of the teaching content and the teaching stage arrangement, the corresponding teaching methods and material selection.%阐述3D MAX课程在中职教学中的课程现状及存在的现实问题.以动漫专业3D MAX课程为例,提出相应的中职3D MAX课程教学目标,着重论述教学改革实践设计中的教学内容及教学阶段的安排,相应教学方法的使用及教材选择等。

  4. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  5. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  6. Investigating Mobile Stereoscopic 3D Touchscreen Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Ashley; Hakkila, Jonna; SCHOENING, Johannes; Posti, Maaret

    2013-01-01

    3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in tou...

  7. 3D shock-bubble interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazialhosseini, Babak; Rossinelli, Diego; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2013-09-01

    We present a simulation for the interactions of shockwaves with light spherical density inhomogeneities. Euler equations for two-phase compressible flows are solved in a 3D uniform resolution finite volume based solver using 5th order WENO reconstructions of the primitive quantities, HLL-type numerical fluxes and 3rd order TVD time stepping scheme. In this study, a normal Mach 3 shockwave in air is directed at a helium bubble with an interface Atwood number of -0.76. We employ 4 billion cells on a supercomputing cluster and demonstrate the development of this flow until relatively late times. Shock passage compresses the bubble and deposits baroclinic vorticity on the interface. Initial distribution of the vorticity and compressions lead to the formation of an air jet, interface roll-ups and the formation of a long lasting vortical core, the white core. Compressed upstream of the bubble turns into a mixing zone and as the vortex ring distances from this mixing zone, a plume-shaped region is formed and sustained. Close observations have been reported in previous experimental works. The visualization is presented in a fluid dynamics video.

  8. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  9. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  10. DAGON: a 3D Maxwell-Bloch code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Eduardo; Cotelo, Manuel; Escudero, Juan Carlos; González-Fernández, Agustín.; Sanchís, Alberto; Vera, Javier; Vicéns, Sergio; Velarde, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    The amplification of UV radiation and high order harmonics (HOH) in plasmas is a subject of raising interest due to its different potential applications in several fields like environment and security (detection at distance), biology, materials science and industry (3D imaging) and atomic and plasma physics (pump-probe experiments). In order to develop these sources, it is necessary to properly understand the amplification process. Being the plasma an inhomogeneous medium which changes with time, it is desirable to have a full time-dependent 3D description of the interaction of UV and XUV radiation with plasmas. For these reasons, at the Instituto de Fusíon Nuclear we have developed DAGON, a 3D Maxwell-Bloch code capable of studying the full spationtemporal structure of the amplification process abovementioned.

  11. SDTP: a robust method for interest point detection on 3D range images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shandong; Gong, Lujin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yongjie; Ren, Haibing; Rhee, Seon-Min; Lee, Hyong-Euk

    2013-12-01

    In fields of intelligent robots and computer vision, the capability to select a few points representing salient structures has always been focused and investigated. In this paper, we present a novel interest point detector for 3D range images, which can be used with good results in applications of surface registration and object recognition. A local shape description around each point in the range image is firstly constructed based on the distribution map of the signed distances to the tangent plane in its local support region. Using this shape description, the interest value is computed for indicating the probability of a point being the interest point. Lastly a Non-Maxima Suppression procedure is performed to select stable interest points on positions that have large surface variation in the vicinity. Our method is robust to noise, occlusion and clutter, which can be seen from the higher repeatability values compared with the state-of-the-art 3D interest point detectors in experiments. In addition, the method can be implemented easily and requires low computation time.

  12. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest....... In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality....... The conceptual level is used to structure and organise user-centered 3D Geovisualisation into four categories: representation, rendering, interface and interaction. The categories reflect a process of development of 3D Geovisualisation where objects can be represented verisimilar to the real world...

  13. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  14. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm.

  15. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  16. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, N.L. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  17. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  18. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  19. 3D-Barolo: 3D fitting tool for the kinematics of galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Teodoro, E. M.; Fraternali, F.

    3D-Barolo (3D-Based Analysis of Rotating Object via Line Observations) or BBarolo is a tool for fitting 3D tilted-ring models to emission-line datacubes. BBarolo works with 3D FITS files, i.e. image arrays with two spatial and one spectral dimensions. BBarolo recovers the true rotation curve and

  20. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  1. Stability Criteria of 3D Inviscid Shears

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y Charles

    2009-01-01

    The classical plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and pipe Poiseuille flow share some universal 3D steady coherent structure in the form of "streak-roll-critical layer". As the Reynolds number approaches infinity, the steady coherent structure approaches a 3D limiting shear of the form ($U(y,z), 0, 0$) in velocity variables. All such 3D shears are steady states of the 3D Euler equations. This raises the importance of investigating the stability of such inviscid 3D shears in contrast to the classical Rayleigh theory of inviscid 2D shears. Several general criteria of stability for such inviscid 3D shears are derived. In the Appendix, an argument is given to show that a 2D limiting shear can only be the classical laminar shear.

  2. 3D-tulostus : case Printrbot

    OpenAIRE

    Arvekari, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää 3D-tulostustekniikan perusteita ja 3D-tulostuksen nykytilannetta. 3D-tulostukseen sopivien mallien luomista tutkitaan ja mallin tekemiseen on etsitty toimivia ohjesääntöjä. Tärkeä osa työtä on tutkia mitä vaiheita 3D-tulostimen hankinnassa kotikäyttöön tulee vastaan. Käytännön kokeita varten opinnäytetyössä on case Printrbot, jossa on tutustuttu edulliseen 3D-tulostuslaitteeseen kokoonpanosta lähtien. Työn kuluessa selvisi että edulliset 3D-tulos...

  3. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  4. Reconhecimento de faces 3D com Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Cardia Neto, João Baptista [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    For person identification, facil recognition has several advantages over other biometric traits due mostly to its high universelly, collectability, and acceptability. When dealing with 2D face images several problems arise related to pose, illumination, and facial expressions. To increase the performance of facial recognition, 3D mehtods have been proposed and developedm since working with 3D objects allow us to handle better the aforementioned problems. With 3D object, it is possible to rota...

  5. Ultrasonic Sensor Based 3D Mapping & Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Fahim Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a basic level introduction to 3D mapping using sonar sensors and localization. It describes the methods used to construct a low-cost autonomous robot along with the hardware and software used as well as an insight to the background of autonomous robotic 3D mapping and localization. We have also given an overview to what the future prospects of the robot may hold in 3D based mapping.

  6. Ekologinen 3D-tulostettava asuste

    OpenAIRE

    Paulasaari, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli ekologisuus 3D-tulostuksessa ja sen hyödynnettävyys erityisesti asustesuunnittelussa. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää, kuinka 3D-tulostusta voi tehdä ekologisemmin ja mitä vaihtoehtoja kuluttajalle tällä hetkellä on. Työ tehtiin Young skills –osuuskunnalle. 3D-tulostuksella on mahdollisuus antaa todella paljon tulevaisuuden tuotantomenetelmille ja se vapauttaa tuotteiden muotoilua täysin uudella tavalla. 3D-tulostuksen avulla voidaan keskittyä enemmän esim...

  7. Topology Dictionary for 3D Video Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted pattern...

  8. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  9. Virtual Realization using 3D Password

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.Gadicha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed; however, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3D password. The 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3D password. The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space.

  10. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  11. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  12. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  13. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  14. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...... are present in theoretical and empirical elaborations on mobility, but these remain largely implicit and unchallenged (Bauman 1998). This talk will endeavour to unmask distance as a theoretical entity by exploring ways in which distance can be understood and by discussing distance through its representations...

  15. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  16. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  17. 3D scene reconstruction: why, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jonah C.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Goodsell, Thomas R.; Eaton, Ross S.; Stevens, Mark R.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robot designers frequently look to computer vision to solve navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object detection problems. Potential solutions using low-cost video cameras are particularly alluring. Recent results in 3D scene reconstruction from a single moving camera seem particularly relevant, but robot designers who attempt to use such 3D techniques have uncovered a variety of practical concerns. We present lessons-learned from developing a single-camera 3D scene reconstruction system that provides both a real-time camera motion estimate and a rough model of major 3D structures in the robot"s vicinity. Our objective is to use the motion estimate to supplement GPS (indoors in particular) and to use the model to provide guidance for further vision processing (look for signs on walls, obstacles on the ground, etc.). The computational geometry involved is closely related to traditional two-camera stereo, however a number of degenerate cases exist. We also demonstrate how SFM can use used to improve the performance of two specific robot navigation tasks.

  18. 3D Image Fusion to Localise Intercostal Arteries During TEVAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzi, G; Sandström, C; Skoog, P; Roos, H; Falkenberg, M

    2017-01-01

    Preservation of intercostal arteries during thoracic aortic procedures reduces the risk of post-operative paraparesis. The origins of the intercostal arteries are visible on pre-operative computed tomography angiography (CTA), but rarely on intra-operative angiography. The purpose of this report is to suggest an image fusion technique for intra-operative localisation of the intercostal arteries during thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR). The ostia of the intercostal arteries are identified and manually marked with rings on the pre-operative CTA. The optimal distal landing site in the descending aorta is determined and marked, allowing enough length for an adequate seal and attachment without covering more intercostal arteries than necessary. After 3D/3D fusion of the pre-operative CTA with an intra-operative cone-beam CT (CBCT), the markings are overlaid on the live fluoroscopy screen for guidance. The accuracy of the overlay is confirmed with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the overlay is adjusted when needed. Stent graft deployment is guided by the markings. The initial experience of this technique in seven patients is presented. 3D image fusion was feasible in all cases. Follow-up CTA after 1 month revealed that all intercostal arteries planned for preservation, were patent. None of the patients developed signs of spinal cord ischaemia. 3D image fusion can be used to localise the intercostal arteries during TEVAR. This may preserve some intercostal arteries and reduce the risk of post-operative spinal cord ischaemia.

  19. Combinatorial and probabilistic fusion of noisy correlation measurements for untracked freehand 3-D ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Catherine; Arbel, Tal

    2008-01-01

    In freehand 3-D ultrasound (US), the relative positions of US images are usually measured using a position tracking device despite its cumbersome nature. The probe trajectory can instead be estimated from image data, using registration techniques to recover in-plane motion and speckle decorrelation to recover out-of-plane transformations. The relationship between speckle decorrelation and elevational separation is typically represented by a single curve, estimated from calibration data. Distances read off such a curve are corrupted by bias and uncertainty, and only provide an absolute estimate of elevational displacement. This paper presents a probabilistic model of the relationship between correlation measurements and elevational separation. This representation captures the skewed distribution of distance estimates based on high correlations and the uncertainties attached to each measurement. Multiple redundant correlation measurements can then be integrated within a maximum likelihood estimation framework. This paper also introduces a new method based on the traveling salesman problem for resolving sign ambiguities in data sets resulting from nonmonotonic probe motion and frame intersections. Experiments with real and synthetic US data show that by combining these new methods, out-of-plane US probe motion is recovered with improved accuracy over baseline methods using a deterministic model and fewer measurements.

  20. On Integral Invariants for Effective 3-D Motion Trajectory Matching and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanpeng; Li, Youfu

    2016-02-01

    Motion trajectories tracked from the motions of human, robots, and moving objects can provide an important clue for motion analysis, classification, and recognition. This paper defines some new integral invariants for a 3-D motion trajectory. Based on two typical kernel functions, we design two integral invariants, the distance and area integral invariants. The area integral invariants are estimated based on the blurred segment of noisy discrete curve to avoid the computation of high-order derivatives. Such integral invariants for a motion trajectory enjoy some desirable properties, such as computational locality, uniqueness of representation, and noise insensitivity. Moreover, our formulation allows the analysis of motion trajectories at a range of scales by varying the scale of kernel function. The features of motion trajectories can thus be perceived at multiscale levels in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, we define a distance function to measure the trajectory similarity to find similar trajectories. Through the experiments, we examine the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed integral invariants and find that they can capture the motion cues in trajectory matching and sign recognition satisfactorily.

  1. Large-scale three-dimensional measurement via combining 3D scanner and laser rangefinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinlong; Sun, Zhengxing; Bai, Suqin

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) measurement method of large-scale objects by integrating a 3D scanner and a laser rangefinder. The 3D scanner, used to perform partial section measurement, is fixed on a robotic arm which can slide on a guide rail. The laser rangefinder, used to compute poses of the 3D scanner, is rigidly connected to the 3D scanner. During large-scale measurement, after measuring a partial section, the 3D scanner is straightly moved forward along the guide rail to measure another section. Meanwhile, the poses of the 3D scanner are estimated according to its moved distance for different partial section alignments. The performance and effectiveness are evaluated by experiments.

  2. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  3. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  4. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  5. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality...

  6. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  7. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  8. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  9. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  10. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  11. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  12. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  13. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  14. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  15. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  16. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  17. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...

  18. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  19. 3D interferometric shape measurement technique using coherent fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    In-situ 3-D shape measurements with submicron shape uncertainty of fast rotating objects in a cutting lathe are expected, which can be achieved by simultaneous distance and velocity measurements. Conventional tactile methods, coordinate measurement machines, only support ex-situ measurements. Optical measurement techniques such as triangulation and conoscopic holography offer only the distance, so that the absolute diameter cannot be retrieved directly. In comparison, laser Doppler distance sensors (P-LDD sensor) enable simultaneous and in-situ distance and velocity measurements for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. In order to achieve shape measurement uncertainties below 1 μm, a P-LDD sensor with a dual camera based scattered light detection has been investigated. Coherent fiber bundles (CFB) are employed to forward the scattered light towards cameras. This enables a compact and passive sensor head in the future. Compared with a photo detector based sensor, the dual camera based sensor allows to decrease the measurement uncertainty by the order of one magnitude. As a result, the total shape uncertainty of absolute 3-D shape measurements can be reduced to about 100 nm.

  20. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  1. Limited Feedback for 3D Massive MIMO under 3D-UMa and 3D-UMi Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For three-dimensional (3D massive MIMO utilizing the uniform rectangular array (URA in the base station (BS, we propose a limited feedback transmission scheme in which the channel state information (CSI feedback operations for horizontal domain and vertical domain are separate. Compared to the traditional feedback scheme, the scheme can reduce the feedback overhead, code word index search complexity, and storage requirement. Also, based on the zenith of departure angle (ZoD distribution in 3D-Urban Macro Cell (3D-UMa and 3D-Urban Micro Cell (3D-UMi scenarios, we propose the angle quantization codebook for vertical domain, while the codebook of long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced is still adopted in horizontal domain to preserve compatibility with the LTE-Advanced. Based on the angle quantization codebook, the subsampled 3-bit DFT codebook is designed for vertical domain. The system-level simulation results reveal that, to compromise the feedback overhead and system performance, 2-bit codebook for 3D-UMa scenario and 3-bit codebook for 3D-UMi scenario can meet requirements in vertical domain. The feedback period for vertical domain can also be extended appropriately to reduce the feedback overhead.

  2. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  3. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Herfray, Yannick; Scarinci, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern-Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any SU(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal SU(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  4. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  5. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  6. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  7. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  8. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  9. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  10. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  11. Point-cloud registration using 3D shape contexts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contexts Recently, Tombari et al. [9] showed that a simple yet intuitive solution proposed by Bro et al. [14] held the key to solving the problem of selecting reference frames for 3D descriptors. This lead to their definition of the Unique Shape Context.... Malik, and J. Puzicha, ?Shape matching and object recognition using shape context,? IEEE Trans Patt Anal Mach Intell, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 509?522, 2002. [14] R. Bro, E. Acar, and T. Kolda, ?Resolving the Sign Ambiguity in the Singular Value...

  12. A 3D quantitative evaluation for assessing the changes of treatment planning system and irradiation techniques in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhamid Chaikh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work proposes and compares two 3D global evaluation methods for assessing the alteration of calculated dose distributions when treatment planning system algorithms or irradiation techniques is modified in radiation therapy. Methods: The global analysis is based on gamma index (γ proposed by Low et al.1 and Chi (χ index proposed by Bakai et al.2. The γ and χ values are signed in order to identify the over and under estimating dosage. The 3D maps, the cumulative Gamma Voxels Histograms (GVHs and Chi Voxels Histograms (CVHs were generated using two software. The γ and χ criteria were set to 3 mm for the distance to agreement and 3% for dose. Pearson's Chi-squared test was applied to assess the statistically significance between GVHs and CVHs. We illustrated this method for the change of dose calculation algorithms for lung cancer, and the change of irradiation techniques for breast cancer. For each patient, 2 treatment plans were generated. For the example of change of dose calculation algorithms, a plan 1 was calculated using Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC algorithm and a plan 2 was calculated using Modified Batho method (PBC-MB. For the example of change of irradiation technique, a plan 1 was calculated using Source Skin Distance SSD technique and a plan 2 was calculated using a single isocenter technique. Results: The 3D analysis based on γ and χ indexes showed a significant effect on the dosimetric representation in the lung cancer when we change the PBC algorithm to PBC-MB method. The comparison between the two irradiation techniques showed that the single isocenter technique produces a better dose distribution for the treatment of breast cancer. Pearson's Chi-squared test showed that there was no statistically significance between GVHs and CVHs generated by γ and χ indexes, (p > 0.05. The global analysis using 3D for γ and χ indexes confirmed the results obtained from dosimetric analysis. Conclusion: The methods

  13. Statistical skull models from 3D X-ray images

    CERN Document Server

    Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 statistical models of the skull and mandible built upon an elastic registration method of 3D meshes. The aim of this work is to relate degrees of freedom of skull anatomy, as static relations are of main interest for anthropology and legal medicine. Statistical models can effectively provide reconstructions together with statistical precision. In our applications, patient-specific meshes of the skull and the mandible are high-density meshes, extracted from 3D CT scans. All our patient-specific meshes are registrated in a subject-shared reference system using our 3D-to-3D elastic matching algorithm. Registration is based upon the minimization of a distance between the high density mesh and a shared low density mesh, defined on the vertexes, in a multi resolution approach. A Principal Component analysis is performed on the normalised registrated data to build a statistical linear model of the skull and mandible shape variation. The accuracy of the reconstruction is under the millimetre in the shape...

  14. NIHmagic: 3D visualization, registration, and segmentation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidlin, Raisa Z.; Ohazama, Chikai J.; Arai, Andrew E.; McGarry, Delia P.; Panza, Julio A.; Trus, Benes L.

    2000-05-01

    Interactive visualization of multi-dimensional biological images has revolutionized diagnostic and therapy planning. Extracting complementary anatomical and functional information from different imaging modalities provides a synergistic analysis capability for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the objects under examination. We have been developing NIHmagic, a visualization tool for research and clinical use, on the SGI OnyxII Infinite Reality platform. Images are reconstructed into a 3D volume by volume rendering, a display technique that employs 3D texture mapping to provide a translucent appearance to the object. A stack of slices is rendered into a volume by an opacity mapping function, where the opacity is determined by the intensity of the voxel and its distance from the viewer. NIHmagic incorporates 3D visualization of time-sequenced images, manual registration of 2D slices, segmentation of anatomical structures, and color-coded re-mapping of intensities. Visualization of MIR, PET, CT, Ultrasound, and 3D reconstructed electron microscopy images has been accomplished using NIHmagic.

  15. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  16. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  18. Identifying Suitable Projection Parameters and Display Configurations for Mobile True-3D Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Marcos; Hildebrandt, Dale; Subramanian, Sriram; Irani, Pourang

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We present a two-part exploration on mobile true-3D displays, i.e. displaying volumetric 3D content in mid-air. We first identify and study the parameters of a mobile true-3D projection, in terms of the projection's distance to the phone, angle to the phone, display volume and position within the display. We identify suitable parameters and constraints, which we propose as requirements for developing mobile true-3D systems. We build on the first outcomes to explore met...

  19. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  20. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  1. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, Soeren; Bilodid, Yuri; Fridman, Emil; Baier, Silvio; Grahn, Alexander; Gommlich, Andre; Nikitin, Evgeny; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  2. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  3. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...

  4. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  5. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  6. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  7. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  13. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF-14-1-0416 This DURIP grant has allowed for the purchase of three 3D printers ...06-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids Report Title Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF

  14. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  15. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  20. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  1. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  2. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    arrival times and impact angles at the Earth," says Dr Thomas Moran of the Catholic University, Washington, USA. In collaboration with Dr Joseph Davila, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA, Moran has analysed two-dimensional images from the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) in a new way to yield 3D images. Their technique is able to reveal the complex and distorted magnetic fields that travel with the CME cloud and sometimes interact with Earth's own magnetic field, pouring tremendous amounts of energy into the space near Earth. "These magnetic fields are invisible," Moran explains, "but since the CME gas is electrified, it spirals around the magnetic fields, tracing out their shapes." Therefore, a 3D view of the CME electrified gas (called a plasma) gives scientists valuable information on the structure and behaviour of the magnetic fields powering the CME. The new analysis technique for SOHO data determines the three-dimensional structure of a CME by taking a sequence of three SOHO Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) images through various polarisers, at different angles. Whilst the light emitted by the Sun is not polarised, once it is scattered off electrons in the CME plasma it takes up some polarisation. This means that the electric fields of some of the scattered light are forced to oscillate in certain directions, whereas the electric field in the light emitted by the Sun is free to oscillate in all directions. Moran and Davila knew that light from CME structures closer to the plane of the Sun (as seen on the LASCO images) had to be more polarised than light from structures farther from that plane. Thus, by computing the ratio of polarised to unpolarised light for each CME structure, they could measure its distance from the plane. This provided the missing third dimension to the LASCO images. With this technique, the team has confirmed that the structure of CMEs directed towards Earth is an expanding arcade of

  3. Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2002-09-01

    Despite all of the medical advances, Babinski sign has proved reliable in precise localization of central nervous system dysfunction. It is well accepted that Babinski sign is indicative of dysfunction of fibers within the pyramidal tract. Joseph François Félix Babinski first described the clinical significance of the reflex in 1896. He showed that the extensor plantar response was indicative of pyramidal dysfunction and that it was absent in hysteria. He also illustrated that it was present in infancy and transiently appeared in epilepsy and strychnine poisoning. Babinski also pointed to the existence of "formes frustes" of his reflex and recognized its occasional absence in patients with other clinical signs of pyramidal lesions. The sign emerges when the dysfunction of the pyramidal tract involves the fibers that project on motoneurons of foot muscles and is mediated by extensor hallucis longus. Babinski sign may not be present acutely after transverse lesions of the spinal cord or acute brain lesions because of temporary inexcitability of spinal motoneurons.

  4. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  5. 3D presentatie van geluid in de cockpit [3D sound presentation in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    A.W. Bronkhorst, 3D-presentatie van geluid in de cockpit 1 Using virtual acoustics, sound can be presented from virtual sources located in the 3D space around the listener. This 3D sound has interesting applications in the cockpit. Sounds can be used to convey directional information, and interferen

  6. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  7. Equation for self-similar singularity of Euler 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Pomeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The equations for a self-similar solution of an inviscid incompressible fluid are mapped into an integral equation which hopefully can be solved by iteration. It is argued that the exponent of the similarity are ruled by Kelvin's theorem of conservation of circulation. The end result is an iteration with a nonlinear term entering in a kernel given by a 3D integral (in general 3D flow) or 2D (for swirling flows), which seems to be within reach of present day computational power. Because of the slow decay of the similarity solution at large distances the total energy is diverging and recent mathematical results excluding a solution of the self-similar solution of Euler equation do not apply.

  8. Optimized 3D watermarking for minimal surface distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Adrian G; Luo, Ming

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to 3D watermarking by ensuring the optimal preservation of mesh surfaces. A new 3D surface preservation function metric is defined consisting of the distance of a vertex displaced by watermarking to the original surface, to the watermarked object surface as well as the actual vertex displacement. The proposed method is statistical, blind, and robust. Minimal surface distortion according to the proposed function metric is enforced during the statistical watermark embedding stage using Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method. A study of the watermark code crypto-security is provided for the proposed methodology. According to the experimental results, the proposed methodology has high robustness against the common mesh attacks while preserving the original object surface during watermarking.

  9. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  10. Two Accelerating Techniques for 3D Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世霞; 胡事民; 孙家广

    2002-01-01

    Automatic reconstruction of 3D objects from 2D orthographic views has been a major research issue in CAD/CAM. In this paper, two accelerating techniques to improve the efficiency of reconstruction are presented. First, some pseudo elements are removed by depth and topology information as soon as the wire-frame is constructed, which reduces the searching space. Second, the proposed algorithm does not establish all possible surfaces in the process of generating 3D faces. The surfaces and edge loops are generated by using the relationship between the boundaries of 3D faces and their projections. This avoids the growth in combinational complexity of previous methods that have to check all possible pairs of 3D candidate edges.

  11. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  12. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  13. 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Klaus; Holzner, Markus; Lüthi, Beat; Guala, Michele; Liberzon, Alexander; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    In this article, we present an experimental setup and data processing schemes for 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV), which expands on the classical 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) through changes in the illumination, image acquisition and analysis. 3D PTV is a flexible flow measurement technique based on the processing of stereoscopic images of flow tracer particles. The technique allows obtaining Lagrangian flow information directly from measured 3D trajectories of individual particles. While for a classical PTV the entire region of interest is simultaneously illuminated and recorded, in SPTV the flow field is recorded by sequential tomographic high-speed imaging of the region of interest. The advantage of the presented method is a considerable increase in maximum feasible seeding density. Results are shown for an experiment in homogenous turbulence and compared with PTV. SPTV yielded an average 3,500 tracked particles per time step, which implies a significant enhancement of the spatial resolution for Lagrangian flow measurements.

  14. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  15. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  16. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  17. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  18. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  19. Copper Electrodeposition for 3D Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Beica, Rozalia; Ritzdorf, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) integration has been the traditional approach for IC integration. Due to increasing demands for providing electronic devices with superior performance and functionality in more efficient and compact packages, has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Three-dimensional (3D) approaches address both miniaturization and integration required for advanced and portable electronic products. Vertical integration proved to be essential in achieving a greater integration flexibility of disparate technologies, reason for which a general trend of transition from 2D to 3D integration is currently being observed in the industry. 3D chip integration using through silicon via (TSV) copper is considered one of the most advanced technologies among all different types of 3D packaging technologies. Copper electrodeposition is one of technologies that enable the formation of TSV structures. Because of its well-known application for copper damascene, it was believed ...

  20. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  1. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  2. The 3-d view of planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando las nebulosas planetarias (PNe de manera tridimensional (3-D, demonstramos que se pueden reducir las grandes incertidumbres asociadas con los m etodos cl asicos de modelar y observar PNe para obtener sus estructuras 3-D y distancias. Usando espectrofotometr a de ranura larga o empleando un Integral Field Unit para restringir los modelos de fotoionizaci on 3-D de PNe y as eliminar dicha incertidumbre de la densidad y de la fracci on del volumen que emite radiaci on ( lling factor, determinamos las detalladas estructuras 3-D, los par ametros de las estrellas centrales y las distancias con una precisi on de 10-20%. Los m etodos cl asicos t picamente daban estos par ametros con una incertidumbre de un factor 3 o m as.

  3. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  4. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  5. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi Untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.  

  6. Cubical Cohomology Ring of 3D Photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio; Medrano, Belen; 10.1002/ima.20271

    2011-01-01

    Cohomology and cohomology ring of three-dimensional (3D) objects are topological invariants that characterize holes and their relations. Cohomology ring has been traditionally computed on simplicial complexes. Nevertheless, cubical complexes deal directly with the voxels in 3D images, no additional triangulation is necessary, facilitating efficient algorithms for the computation of topological invariants in the image context. In this paper, we present formulas to directly compute the cohomology ring of 3D cubical complexes without making use of any additional triangulation. Starting from a cubical complex $Q$ that represents a 3D binary-valued digital picture whose foreground has one connected component, we compute first the cohomological information on the boundary of the object, $\\partial Q$ by an incremental technique; then, using a face reduction algorithm, we compute it on the whole object; finally, applying the mentioned formulas, the cohomology ring is computed from such information.

  7. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  8. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  9. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  10. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  11. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  12. Mayavi: Making 3D Data Visualization Reusable

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Gaël; Ramachandran, Prabhu

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Mayavi is a general-purpose 3D scientific visualization package. We believe 3D data visualization is a difficult task and different users can benefit from an easy-to-use tool for this purpose. In this article, we focus on how Mayavi addresses the needs of different users with a common code-base, rather than describing the data visualization functionalities of Mayavi, or the visualization model exposed to the user.

  13. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  14. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  15. 3D Computer Graphics and Nautical Charts

    OpenAIRE

    Porathe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of an ongoing project using real-time 3D visualization to display nautical charts in a way used by 3D computer games. By displaying the map in an egocentric perspective the need to make cognitively demanding mental rotations are suggested to be removed, leading to faster decision-making and less errors. Experimental results support this hypothesis. Practical tests with limited success have been performed this year.

  16. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments Michael B. Porter...complicated 3D environments . I have also been doing a great deal of work in modeling the noise field (the ocean soundscape) due to various sources...we have emphasized the propagation of ‘signals’. We have become increasingly interested in modeling ‘ noise ’ which can illuminate the ocean environment

  17. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  18. 3D GEO: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information...

  19. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  20. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  1. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  2. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  3. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (<100 microns resolution) scans in extremely demanding scenarios with low-cost components. Several of these cameras are making a practical impact in industrial automation, being adopted in robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  4. Computer Graphics Teaching Support using X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web Authors

    OpenAIRE

    Brutzman, Don

    2008-01-01

    X3D is the ISO-standard scene-graph language for interactive 3D graphics on the Web. A new course is available for teaching the fundamentals of 3D graphics using Extensible 3D (X3D). Resources include a detailed textbook, an authoring tool, hundreds of example scenes, and detailed slidesets covering each chapter. The published book is commercially available, while all other course-module resources are provided online free under open-source licenses. Numerous other commercial and o...

  5. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print ...

  6. Technical Note: Immunohistochemical evaluation of mouse brain irradiation targeting accuracy with 3D-printed immobilization device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarghami, Niloufar, E-mail: nzargham@uwo.ca; Jensen, Michael D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Talluri, Srikanth; Dick, Frederick A. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada); Foster, Paula J. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Chambers, Ann F. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Small animal immobilization devices facilitate positioning of animals for reproducible imaging and accurate focal radiation therapy. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to fabricate a custom-designed mouse head restraint. The authors evaluate the accuracy of this device for the purpose of mouse brain irradiation. Methods: A mouse head holder was designed for a microCT couch using CAD software and printed in an acrylic based material. Ten mice received half-brain radiation while positioned in the 3D-printed head holder. Animal placement was achieved using on-board image guidance and computerized asymmetric collimators. To evaluate the precision of beam localization for half-brain irradiation, mice were sacrificed approximately 30 min after treatment and brain sections were stained for γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA breaks. The distance and angle of the γ-H2AX radiation beam border to longitudinal fissure were measured on histological samples. Animals were monitored for any possible trauma from the device. Results: Visualization of the radiation beam on ex vivo brain sections with γ-H2AX immunohistochemical staining showed a sharp radiation field within the tissue. Measurements showed a mean irradiation targeting error of 0.14 ± 0.09 mm (standard deviation). Rotation between the beam axis and mouse head was 1.2° ± 1.0° (standard deviation). The immobilization device was easily adjusted to accommodate different sizes of mice. No signs of trauma to the mice were observed from the use of tooth block and ear bars. Conclusions: The authors designed and built a novel 3D-printed mouse head holder with many desired features for accurate and reproducible radiation targeting. The 3D printing technology was found to be practical and economical for producing a small animal imaging and radiation restraint device and allows for customization for study specific needs.

  7. Classification of voltage-gated K(+) ion channels from 3D pseudo-folding graph representation of protein sequences using genetic algorithm-optimized support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Michael; Fernández, Leyden; Abreu, Jose Ignacio; Garriga, Miguel

    2008-06-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) ion channels (VKCs) are membrane proteins that regulate the passage of potassium ions through membranes. This work reports a classification scheme of VKCs according to the signs of three electrophysiological variables: activation threshold voltage (V(t)), half-activation voltage (V(a50)) and half-inactivation voltage (V(h50)). A novel 3D pseudo-folding graph representation of protein sequences encoded the VKC sequences. Amino acid pseudo-folding 3D distances count (AAp3DC) descriptors, calculated from the Euclidean distances matrices (EDMs) were tested for building the classifiers. Genetic algorithm (GA)-optimized support vector machines (SVMs) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel well discriminated between VKCs having negative and positive/zero V(t), V(a50) and V(h50) values with overall accuracies about 80, 90 and 86%, respectively, in crossvalidation test. We found contributions of the "pseudo-core" and "pseudo-surface" of the 3D pseudo-folded proteins to the discrimination between VKCs according to the three electrophysiological variables.

  8. 3D for Geosciences: Interactive Tangibles and Virtual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, J. E.; Matheney, M.; Kitsch, N.; Rosado, G.; Thompson, Z.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Point cloud processing provides a method of studying and modelling geologic features relevant to geoscience systems and processes. Here, software including Skanect, MeshLab, Blender, PDAL, and PCL are used in conjunction with 3D scanning hardware, including a Structure scanner and a Kinect camera, to create and analyze point cloud images of small scale topography, karst features, tunnels, and structures at high resolution. This project successfully scanned internal karst features ranging from small stalactites to large rooms, as well as an external waterfall feature. For comparison purposes, multiple scans of the same object were merged into single object files both automatically, using commercial software, and manually using open source libraries and code. Files with format .ply were manually converted into numeric data sets to be analyzed for similar regions between files in order to match them together. We can assume a numeric process would be more powerful and efficient than the manual method, however it could lack other useful features that GUI's may have. The digital models have applications in mining as efficient means of replacing topography functions such as measuring distances and areas. Additionally, it is possible to make simulation models such as drilling templates and calculations related to 3D spaces. Advantages of using methods described here for these procedures include the relatively quick time to obtain data and the easy transport of the equipment. With regard to openpit mining, obtaining 3D images of large surfaces and with precision would be a high value tool by georeferencing scan data to interactive maps. The digital 3D images obtained from scans may be saved as printable files to create physical 3D-printable models to create tangible objects based on scientific information, as well as digital "worlds" able to be navigated virtually. The data, models, and algorithms explored here can be used to convey complex scientific ideas to a range of

  9. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  10. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  11. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  12. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  13. [Lhermitte's sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, J M; Izquierdo, G

    2002-03-01

    Besides Babinski's, Lhermitte's sign is likely the eponym mostly used in the neurological literature. We review here the history of this eponym as well as recent advances on its pathophysiology and treatment. Lhermitte's phenomenon is, on one hand, a symptom as it is spontaneously explained by patients, and, on the other hand, a sign as it may be triggered by flexion of the nape. Initially described after head and cervical spine trauma, firstly by Marie and then by Babinski, it was Jean Lhermitte who recognized on it an etiological specificity, namely, a demyelinating sign of cervical spinal posterior cords. He also made a pathophysiological interpretation of the phenomenon, namely, a stretching of posterior cords during flexion of the neck. All authors agree that this phenomenon is more common in multiple sclerosis, although it has been descibed in many other conditions. The history of how this sign was hatched, whose pathophysiology remains a mystery, is fascinating. And it is fascinating the fact that patients compare the phenomenon with a current, especially if we bear in mind that few people may have suffered an electrocution, mainly in that time when just a few ones could actually enjoy domestic electricity.

  14. Thin slice three dimentional (3D reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

  15. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  16. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  17. Visual Fixation for 3D Video Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Seidel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual fixation is employed by humans and some animals to keep a specific 3D location at the center of the visual gaze. Inspired by this phenomenon in nature, this paper explores the idea to transfer this mechanism to the context of video stabilization for a hand-held video camera. A novel approach is presented that stabilizes a video by fixating on automatically extracted 3D target points. This approach is different from existing automatic solutions that stabilize the video by smoothing. To determine the 3D target points, the recorded scene is analyzed with a state-of-the-art structure-from-motion algorithm, which estimates camera motion and reconstructs a 3D point cloud of the static scene objects. Special algorithms are presented that search either virtual or real 3D target points, which back-project close to the center of the image for as long a period of time as possible. The stabilization algorithm then transforms the original images of the sequence so that these 3D target points are kept exactly in the center of the image, which, in case of real 3D target points, produces a perfectly stable result at the image center. Furthermore, different methods of additional user interaction are investigated. It is shown that the stabilization process can easily be controlled and that it can be combined with state-of-the-art tracking techniques in order to obtain a powerful image stabilization tool. The approach is evaluated on a variety of videos taken with a hand-held camera in natural scenes.

  18. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  19. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  20. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  1. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  2. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  3. Heat Equation to 3D Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sirakov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach, capable of 3D image segmentation and objects' surface reconstruction. The main advantages of the method are: large capture range; quick segmentation of a 3D scene/image to regions; multiple 3D objects reconstruction. The method uses centripetal force and penalty function to segment the entire 3D scene/image to regions containing a single 3D object. Each region is inscribed in a convex, smooth closed surface, which defines a centripetal force. Then the surface is evolved by the geometric heat differential equation toward the force's direction. The penalty function is defined to stop evolvement of those surface patches, whose normal vectors encountered object's surface. On the base of the theoretical model Forward Difference Algorithm was developed and coded by Mathematica. Stability convergence condition, truncation error and calculation complexity of the algorithm are determined. The obtained results, advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed at the end of this paper.

  4. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  5. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  6. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  7. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that

  8. Improvement of hydrogen uptake in iron and vanadium matrices by doping with 3d atomic impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.B. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, EA 4522 Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor Le Gorgeu, 29285 Brest Cedex (France); Lebon, A., E-mail: alexandre.lebon@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, EA 4522 Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor Le Gorgeu, 29285 Brest Cedex (France); Vega, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, EA 4522 Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor Le Gorgeu, 29285 Brest Cedex (France); Mokrani, A. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR CNRS 6502, Universite de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 44322 Nantes (France)

    2012-12-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H trapping is easier in V matrix than in Fe matrix whatever the 3d TM impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sc and Ti are the best impurities to trap atomic H in V matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe or Mn doping in V enhance the density of H storage. - Abstract: The insertion of hydrogen in V and Fe has been investigated by means of pseudopotential DFT calculations with localized basis sets. In Fe and V matrices we have replaced the central atom by a transition metal impurity X = Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni to study the capacity of the environment to trap hydrogen. The dissolution energy and structural rearrangement upon H uptake at the different sites close to the doping impurity are calculated. Optimal electronic environments for H trapping are also determined through the calculation of the Fukui function. In the V matrix, the insertion of hydrogen is promoted by doping with the two impurities located at the left of V in the Periodical Table, that is, Ti and Sc. In the iron matrix, among the elements at its left in the Periodic Table, only Mn improves the H uptake, whereas doping with V and Ti worsen the capability of absorbing hydrogen. Finally, the H-H interaction is found to be strongly dependent upon the metal-hydrogen interaction. Elements like Mn or Fe which shorten the H-X distance, exhibit a strong 3d TM state-1s hydrogen state hybridization that seems to wash out the repulsive H-H Coulomb interaction below the 2.0 Angstrom-Sign limit. Addition of a small percentage of Fe or Mn in binary bcc alloys (V-Ti) is suggested to locally enhance the H storage capacity.

  9. Automatic Road Sign Inventory Using Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS), thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  10. CLIP: similarity searching of 3D databases using clique detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nicholas; Willett, Peter; Calvet, Alain; Dunbar, James B; Humblet, Christine

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a program for 3D similarity searching, called CLIP (for Candidate Ligand Identification Program), that uses the Bron-Kerbosch clique detection algorithm to find those structures in a file that have large structures in common with a target structure. Structures are characterized by the geometric arrangement of pharmacophore points and the similarity between two structures calculated using modifications of the Simpson and Tanimoto association coefficients. This modification takes into account the fact that a distance tolerance is required to ensure that pairs of interatomic distances can be regarded as equivalent during the clique-construction stage of the matching algorithm. Experiments with HIV assay data demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of this approach to virtual screening.

  11. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  12. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  13. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  14. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  15. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  16. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O' Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  17. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  18. Teknologi 3D dalam Proses Pembuatan Komik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Baptista Permadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comic has been people’s favorite since 1930. As the growth of years and technology, the demands in designing comic were also increasing. To fulfill the demands, comic authors spent their times to draw so that they have no time to discover other element besides technical. Therefore, it is important if the comic author helped by 3D technology to accelerate technical process so that the comic authors will get extra time to develop other elements like concept and story. Data is gathered from interviews with both semi-professional and professional comic authors who are having problems being solved. Solving problems are conducted by using 3D software to draw picture of distorted space. And then two semi-professional comic authors will try to draw distorted space in tracing the picture from 3D software to see how many times needed to draw hard part traditionally. 

  19. Resist loss in 3D compact modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-03-01

    An enhancement to compact modeling capability to include photoresist (PR) loss at different heights is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to any other plane of interest as a proportional corresponding change in model threshold, which is analogous to a change in exposure dose. The result is compared and validated with 3D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can construct 3D resist profiles capturing resist profile degradation at any vertical plane. Sidewall angle and standing wave information can also be granted from the vertical profile reconstruction. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated to validation and correction without any additional work.

  20. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    , several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape......Structural DNA nanotechnology has been heavily dependent on the development of dedicated software tools for the design of unique helical junctions, to define unique sticky-ends for tile assembly, and for predicting the products of the self-assembly reaction of multiple DNA strands [1-3]. Recently...... [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application...

  1. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  2. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  3. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  4. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  5. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces.

  6. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  7. Design and Implementation of 3D Model Database for General-Purpose 3D GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weiping; ZHU Qing; DU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Yeting

    2010-01-01

    To improve the reusability of three-dimensional (3D) models and simplify the complexity of natural scene reconstruction, this paper presents a 3D model database for universal 3D GIS. After the introduction of its extensible function architecture,accompanied by the conclusion of implicit spatial-temporal hierarchy of models in any reconstructed scene of 3D GIS for general purpose, several key issues are discussed in detail, such as the storage and management of 3D models and related retrieval and load method, as well as the interfaces for further on-demand development. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this model database are proved through its application in the development of 3D visualization system of railway operation.

  8. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah;

    2014-01-01

    are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a sub-interval of the ([0,1]) interval to the corresponding...... method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban...... web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2 D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access...

  9. X3d2pov. Traductor of X3D to POV-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castellanos Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality and low-quality interactive graphics represent two different approaches to computer graphics’ 3D object representation. The former is mainly used to produce high computational cost movie animation. The latter is used for producing interactive scenes as part of virtual reality environments. Many file format specifications have appeared to satisfy underlying model needs; POV-ray (persistence of vision is an open source specification for rendering photorealistic images with the ray tracer algorithm and X3D (extendable 3D as the VRML successor standard for producing web virtual-reality environments written in XML. X3D2POV has been introduced to render high-quality images from an X3D scene specification; it is a grammar translator tool from X3D code to POV-ray code.

  10. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  11. 3D-skannauksen hyödyntäminen 3D-tulostuksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusteknologioihin. Työssä käytiin läpi erilaiset 3D-tulostusmenetelmät ja esiteltiin erilaisia 3D-skannausmenetelmiä. Lisäksi käytiin läpi 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusprosessi. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä oli tutkia, kuinka nämä kaksi teknologiaa toimivat yhdessä. Tarkoituksena oli käydä läpi prosessi, jossa fyysinen kappale skannattiin digitaaliseen muotoon, jonka jälkeen se voidaan tulostaa uudeksi fyysiseksi kappaleeksi. Lisäksi tarko...

  12. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  13. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  14. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hédi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the “Relative Differential Box Counting” was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  15. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  16. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping o......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....

  17. Local orientation measurements in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    The 3 Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) method is presented and its potentials illustrated by examples. The 3DXRD method is based on diffraction of high energy X-rays and allows fast and nondestructive 3D characterization of the local distribution of crystallographic orientations in the bulk....... The spatial resolution is about 1x5x5 mu m but diffraction from microstructural elements as small as 100 nm may be monitored within suitable samples. As examples of the use of the 3DXRD method, it is chosen to present results for complete 3D characterization of grain structures, in-situ "filming...

  18. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  19. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  20. Factorization of the 3d superconformal index

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Chiung; Park, Jaemo

    2012-01-01

    We prove that 3d superconformal index for general $\\mathcal N=2$ U(N) gauge group with fundamentals and anti-fundmentals with/without Chern-Simons terms is factorized into vortex and anti-vortex partition function. We show that for simple cases, 3d vortex partition function coincides with a suitable topological open string partition function. We provide much more elegant derivation at the index level for $\\mathcal N=2$ Seiberg-like dualities of unitary gauge groups with fundamantal matters and $\\mathcal N=4$ mirror symmetry

  1. SURVEY AND ANALYSIS OF 3D STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K .LAKSHMI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, eg., images, audio, and video files. The remarkable growth in computational power, increase in current security approaches and techniques are often used together to ensures security of the secret message. Steganography’s ultimate objectives, which are capacity and invisibility, are the main factors that separate it from related techniques. In this paper we focus on 3D models of steganography and conclude with some review analysis of high capacity data hiding and low-distortion 3D models.

  2. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  3. The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

  4. Tekstiilit 3d-mallinnuksessa ja -animaatiossa

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia tekstiilien 3D-mallinnusta ja animaatiota. Hahmon vaatetus on työn pääroolissa ja esimerkit liittyvät useimmiten vaatekappaleisiin. Vaatteet ovat mielenkiintoisimpia ja vaikeimmin toteutettavia tekstiilejä.; Alkuun täytyi tutustua tekstiilien luonteeseen. Tekstiilien erilaiset rakenteet vaikuttavat siihen kuinka tekstiili käyttäytyy. Tämän takia työssä esitellään kudotun ja neulotun tekstiilin valmistus ja niiden perusrakenteet.; 3D-mallinnettujen tekst...

  5. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  6. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  7. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-08-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm.

  8. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  9. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  10. Iterative closest normal point for 3D face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    The common approach for 3D face recognition is to register a probe face to each of the gallery faces and then calculate the sum of the distances between their points. This approach is computationally expensive and sensitive to facial expression variation. In this paper, we introduce the iterative closest normal point method for finding the corresponding points between a generic reference face and every input face. The proposed correspondence finding method samples a set of points for each face, denoted as the closest normal points. These points are effectively aligned across all faces, enabling effective application of discriminant analysis methods for 3D face recognition. As a result, the expression variation problem is addressed by minimizing the within-class variability of the face samples while maximizing the between-class variability. As an important conclusion, we show that the surface normal vectors of the face at the sampled points contain more discriminatory information than the coordinates of the points. We have performed comprehensive experiments on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database, which is presently the largest available 3D face database. We have achieved verification rates of 99.6 and 99.2 percent at a false acceptance rate of 0.1 percent for the all versus all and ROC III experiments, respectively, which, to the best of our knowledge, have seven and four times less error rates, respectively, compared to the best existing methods on this database.

  11. Single-shot 3D sensing with improved data density

    CERN Document Server

    Willomitzer, Florian; Faber, Christian; Häusler, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel concept for motion robust optical 3D-sensing. The concept is based on multi-line triangulation. The aim is to evaluate a large number of projected lines (high data density) in a large measurement volume with high precision. Implementing all those three attributes at the same time allows for the "perfect" real-time 3D movie camera (our long term goal). The key problem towards this goal is ambiguous line indexing: we will demonstrate that the necessary information for unique line indexing can be acquired by two synchronized cameras and a back projection scheme. The introduced concept preserves high lateral resolution, since the lines are as narrow as the sampling theorem allows, no spatial bandwidth is consumed by encoding of the lines. In principle, the distance uncertainty is only limited by shot noise and coherent noise. The concept can be also advantageously implemented with a hand-guided sensor and real-time registration, for a complete and dense 3D-acquisition of complicated scenes.

  12. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  13. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Yang, Feifei; Zhao, Haiming; Gao, Qing; Xia, Bing; Fu, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films (two dimensional, 2D structures) and printing 3D structures with a special attention to the accurate printing. After a series of experiments, we discovered the relationships between the important factors such as air pressure, feedrate, or even printing distance and the printing quality of the expected structures. Dumbbell shape was observed in the lattice structures printing due to the hydrogel diffuses at the intersection. Collapses and fusion of adjacent layer would result in the error accumulation at Z direction which was an important fact that could cause printing failure. Finally, we successfully demonstrated a 3D printing hydrogel scaffold through harmonize with all the parameters. The cell viability after printing was compared with the casting and the results showed that our bioprinting method almost had no extra damage to the cells.

  14. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  15. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  16. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  17. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  18. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  19. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  20. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.