WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d post processing

  1. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  2. PROPOSAL FOR AN UNIFORM DATA STANDARD FOR ICHNOLOGICAL 3D TRACKING AND POST-PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO PETRUZZELLI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate fossil tracks have been studied through 3D modelling techniques during the last two decades to improve tracking procedures. Different laser scanners and software have been used during field investigation and this differentiation caused incompatibility between many analysis programs. Post processing procedures are not standardized among scientists and file precision give different results in additionally constrain comparison. The starting point to find a solution to the problem is to point out the main technologies used to collect data in the field. The resulting protocol does not oblige to uniform hardware but it does suggest combining different laser scanners with a minimum post processing to optimize the result. Important inkling would be to use 2D relief as a reference to organize 3D tracking procedures. Saving formats during post processing are improved by setting fixed landmarks integrated in the 3D model in a multitask file. The D.I.C.O.M. medical standard (*.cdm format and the 3D printing international standard (*.stl format when combined, may be a good solution for uniform the format. This approach might be the first step for the standardization of source and derived files and the creation of a worldwide 3D ichnological catalogue. This will allow creating a scientific improvement in terms of reproducibility and comparison of the experience. 

  3. Detectability of hepatic tumors during 3D post-processed ultrafast cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jijo; Vogl, Thomas J.; Chacko, Annamma

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate hepatic tumor detection using ultrafast cone-beam computed tomography (UCBCT) cross-sectional and 3D post-processed image datasets. 657 patients were examined using UCBCT during hepatic transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and data were collected retrospectively from January 2012 to September 2014. Tumor detectability, diagnostic ability, detection accuracy and sensitivity were examined for different hepatic tumors using UCBCT cross-sectional, perfusion blood volume (PBV) and UCBCT-MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) fused image datasets. Appropriate statistical tests were used to compare collected sample data. Fused image data showed the significantly higher (all P  color display. Fused image data produced 100% tumor sensitivity due to the simultaneous availability of MRI and UCBCT information during tumor diagnosis. Fused image data produced excellent hepatic tumor sensitivity, detectability and diagnostic ability compared to other datasets assessed. Fused image data is extremely reliable and useful compared to UCBCT cross-sectional or PBV image datasets to depict hepatic tumors during TACE. Partial anatomical visualization on cross-sectional images was compensated by fused image data during tumor diagnosis.

  4. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.T.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  5. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H.; Verbeeck, R.; Vandermeulen, D.; Suetens, P.; Wilms, G.; Maaly, M.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final `background region` whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the `brain region`. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms.

  6. Advanced 3D mesh manipulation in stereolithographic files and post-print processing for the manufacturing of patient-specific vascular flow phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.

  7. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  8. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  9. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  10. Process for 3D chip stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malba, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: 1) holding individual chips for batch processing, 2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, 3) opening vias in the dielectric, 4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and 5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume.

  11. Process for 3D chip stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malba, V.

    1998-11-10

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: (1) holding individual chips for batch processing, (2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, (3) opening vias in the dielectric, (4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and (5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume. 3 figs.

  12. 3-D analysis of grain selection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Tomoka; Esaka, Hisao; Shinozuka, Kei

    2012-07-01

    It is known that the grain selection plays an important role in the manufacturing process for turbine blades. There are some analytical or numerical models to treat the grain selection. However, the detailed mechanism of grain selection in 3-D is still uncertain. Therefore, an experimental research work using Al-Cu alloy has been carried out in order to understand the grain selection in 3-D.A mold made by Al2O3 was heated to 600 °C ( = liquids temperature of the alloy) and was set on a water-colded copper chill plate. Molten Al-20 wt%Cu alloy was cast into the mold and unidirectional solidified ingot was prepared. The size of ingot was approximately phi25×65H mm. To obtain the thermal history, 4 thermocouples were placed in the mold. It is confirmed that the alloy solidified unidirectionally from bottom to top. Solidified structure on a longitudinal cross section was observed and unidirectional solidification up to 40 mm was ensured. EBSD analysis has been performed on horizontal cross section at an interval of ca.200 μm. These observations were carried out 7-5 mm from the bottom surface. Crystallographic orientation of primary Al phase and size of solidified grains were characterized. A large solidified grain, the crystallographic orientation of which is approximately along heat flow direction, is observed near the lowest cross section. The area of grain decreased as solidification proceeded. On the other hand, it is found that the area of grain increased.

  13. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    such products. 9.1. Additive Manufacturing Hardware Wish List • Multi-axis FDM machine capable of complex layups: An FDM system with a 4th and...transferring, receiving, manipulating, and printing a digital 3D model into an additively manufactured component. Several digital models were...into an additively manufactured component. Several digital models were exchanged, and the steps, barriers, workarounds, and results have been

  14. Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An

    2013-09-30

    When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development.

  15. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  16. 3D stacked chips from emerging processes to heterogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size.  The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.   •Provides single-source reference to the latest research in 3D optoelectronic integration: process, devices, and systems; •Explains the use of wireless 3D integration to improve 3D IC reliability and yield; •Describes techniques for monitoring and mitigating thermal behavior in 3D I...

  17. Optical 3D shape measurement for dynamic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    3D shape dynamic measurement is essential to the study of machine vision, hydromechanics, high-speed rotation, deformation of material, stress analysis, deformation in impact, explosion process and biomedicine. in recent years. In this paper,the results of our research, including the theoretical analysis, some feasible methods and relevant verifying experiment results, are compendiously reported. At present, these results have been used in our assembling instruments for 3D shape measurement of dynamic process.

  18. Full Parallax Integral 3D Display and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gook Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Full parallax integral 3D display is one of the promising future displays that provide different perspectives according to viewing direction. In this paper, the authors review the recent integral 3D display and image processing techniques for improving the performance, such as viewing resolution, viewing angle, etc.Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, to improve the viewing resolution of 3D images in the integral imaging display with lenslet array, the authors present 3D integral imaging display with focused mode using the time-multiplexed display. Compared with the original integral imaging with focused mode, the authors use the electrical masks and the corresponding elemental image set. In this system, the authors can generate the resolution-improved 3D images with the n×n pixels from each lenslet by using n×n time-multiplexed display. Secondly, a new image processing technique related to the elemental image generation for 3D scenes is presented. With the information provided by the Kinect device, the array of elemental images for an integral imaging display is generated.Findings – From their first work, the authors improved the resolution of 3D images by using the time-multiplexing technique through the demonstration of the 24 inch integral imaging system. Authors’ method can be applied to a practical application. Next, the proposed method with the Kinect device can gain a competitive advantage over other methods for the capture of integral images of big 3D scenes. The main advantage of fusing the Kinect and the integral imaging concepts is the acquisition speed, and the small amount of handled data.Originality / Value – In this paper, the authors review their recent methods related to integral 3D display and image processing technique.Research type – general review.

  19. GLOBE 3D : an new 3D toolset for Geoscience data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Baeye, Matthias; Quemener, Gael

    2013-04-01

    Within EUROFLEETS project, and linked to EMODNET and GEOSEAS european projects, GLOBE (GLobal Oceanographic Bathymetry Explorer) is an innovative and generic software combining all necessary functionalities for cruise preparation, for collection, linking, processing and display of scientific data acquired during sea cruises, and for export of data and information to the main marine data centres and networks. The first version was delivered by the end of 2012 and was dedicated to MBES (Multi Beam Echo Sounder) data processing, but is designed to accept further functionalities such as image and video. It can be used onboard during the survey to get a quick view of acquired data, or later, to re-process data with accurate environmental data. Technically, the concept of the software relies on Eclipse RCP for the hosted client, Java and Nasa World Wind for the 3D views. The version shown at EGU will present several key items : - 3D vizualisation : DTM multi-layers from EmodNET, WaterColumn echogram, Seismic lines, ... - Bathymetry Plug-In : manual and automatic data cleaning, - Photo/Video Plug-In - Navigation - WMS/WFS interfaces.

  20. Characterizing Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printed Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyge, Emil; Pallisgaard, Jens J.; Lillethorup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The resolution and repeatability of 3D printing processes depends on a number of factors including the software, hardware, and material used. When printing parts with features that are near or below the nominal printing resolution, it is important to understand how the printer works. For example......, what is the smallest unit shape that can be produced? And what is the reproducibility of that process? This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing the height, width, and length of micro scale geometric primitives produced via a digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing...

  1. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  2. 3D Images of Materials Structures Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohser, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Taking and analyzing images of materials' microstructures is essential for quality control, choice and design of all kind of products. Today, the standard method still is to analyze 2D microscopy images. But, insight into the 3D geometry of the microstructure of materials and measuring its characteristics become more and more prerequisites in order to choose and design advanced materials according to desired product properties. This first book on processing and analysis of 3D images of materials structures describes how to develop and apply efficient and versatile tools for geometric analysis

  3. Advances in the numerical simulation of 3D FSW processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Chiumenti, Michèle; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Dialami, Narges; Santiago, Diego de; Lombera, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the computational modeling and numerical simulation of 3D Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Eulerian and ALE formulations have been used to solve the quasi-static thermal transient governing equations. Mixed P2/P1/P2+SUPG and subgrid-scale stabilized P1/P1/P1 velocity/pressure/temperature elements have been implemented. Norton-Hoff and Sheppard-Wright rigid thermoplastic material models have been considered. Computational visualization techniques using tracers have b...

  4. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherny, S; Chirkov, D; Lapin, V; Eshkunova, I [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS Acad. Lavrentjev avenue 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bannikov, D; Avdushenko, A [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Novosibirsk State University Pirogov st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Skorospelov, V, E-mail: chirkov@ict.nsc.r [Institute of Mathematics SB RAS Acad. Koptug avenue 4, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  5. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, S.; Chirkov, D.; Bannikov, D.; Lapin, V.; Skorospelov, V.; Eshkunova, I.; Avdushenko, A.

    2010-08-01

    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  6. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    of the narrow FOV camera. We substantiate these two observations by qualitative results on face reconstruction and quantitative results on face recognition. As a consequence, such a set-up allows to achieve better and much more flexible system for 3D face reconstruction e.g. for recognition or emotion......We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification....... We argue for two advantages of such a system: First, an extended work range, and second, the possibility to place the narrow FOV camera in a way such that a much better reconstruction quality can be achieved compared to a static camera even if the face had been fully visible in the periphery...

  7. Vision based error detection for 3D printing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Felix

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers became more popular in the last decade, partly because of the expiration of key patents and the supply of affordable machines. The origin is located in rapid prototyping. With Additive Manufacturing (AM it is possible to create physical objects from 3D model data by layer wise addition of material. Besides professional use for prototyping and low volume manufacturing they are becoming widespread amongst end users starting with the so called Maker Movement. The most prevalent type of consumer grade 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM, also Fused Filament Fabrication FFF. This work focuses on FDM machinery because of their widespread occurrence and large number of open problems like precision and failure. These 3D printers can fail to print objects at a statistical rate depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer. Failures can occur due to misalignment of the print-bed, the print-head, slippage of the motors, warping of the printed material, lack of adhesion or other reasons. The goal of this research is to provide an environment in which these failures can be detected automatically. Direct supervision is inhibited by the recommended placement of FDM printers in separate rooms away from the user due to ventilation issues. The inability to oversee the printing process leads to late or omitted detection of failures. Rejects effect material waste and wasted time thus lowering the utilization of printing resources. Our approach consists of a camera based error detection mechanism that provides a web based interface for remote supervision and early failure detection. Early failure detection can lead to reduced time spent on broken prints, less material wasted and in some cases salvaged objects.

  8. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

  9. Fundamental characterization of soft matter 3D printing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migler, Kalman; Seppala, Jonathan; Davis, Chelsea; Hillgartner, Kaitlyn

    In fused filament fabrication (FFF), a material extrusion 3D printing method, thermoplastic filament is extruded though a rastering nozzle on the previous layer. The resulting strength of the FFF produced part is limited by the strength of the weld between each layer. While numerous factors can affect the weld strength, the temperature of the extrudate and the previous layer dictate the amount of interdiffusion and thus the weld strength. Temperature measurements were performed using forward looking infrared imaging. Interdiffusion estimates were calculated from temperature profiles, normalized using horizontal shift factors from offline rheological measurements of the neat polymer. Weld strength was measured directly by Mode III Fracture using a simplified geometry limiting the measurement to a single weld. Since the processing conditions are known aprioi this approach provides the data needed to estimate the final build strength at time of design. The resulting agreement between interdiffusion estimates and weld strength for a range of printing conditions are discussed.

  10. 3D geometrical modelling of post-foliation deformations in metamorphic terrains (Syros, Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Caumon, Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    Superposed to ductile syn-metamorphic deformations, post-foliation deformations affect metamorphic units during their exhumation. Understanding the role of such deformations in the structuration of metamorphic units is key for understanding the tectonic evolution of convergence zones. We characterize post-foliations deformations using 3D modelling which is a first-order tool to describe complex geological structures, but a challenging task where based only on surface data. We propose a modelling procedure that combines fast draft models (interpolation of orientation data), with more complex ones where the structural context is better understood (implicit modelling), allowing us to build a 3D geometrical model of Syros Island blueschists (Cyclades), based on field data. With our approach, the 3D model is able to capture the complex present-day geometry of the island, mainly controlled by the superposition of three types of post-metamorphic deformations affecting the original metamorphic pile: i) a top-to-South ramp-flat extensional system that dominates the overall island structure, ii) large-scale folding of the metamorphic units associated with ramp-flat extensional system, and iii) steeply-dipping normal faults trending dominantly NNW-SSE and EW. The 3D surfaces produced by this method match outcrop data, are geologically consistent, and provide reasonable estimates of geological structures in poorly constrained areas.

  11. 3D cutting tool-wear monitoring in the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerce, Luka; Pusavec, Franci; Kopac Janez [University of Ljubljana, Askerceva (Slovenia)

    2015-09-15

    The tool-wear of cutting tools has a very strong impact on the product quality as well as efficiency of the machining processes. Therefore, it in-the process characterization is crucial. This paper presents an innovative and reliable direct measuring procedure for measuring spatial cutting tool-wear with usage of laser profile sensor. The technique provides possibility for determination of 3D wear profiles, as advantage to currently used 2D techniques. The influence of the orientation of measurement head on the accuracy and the amount of captured reliable data was examined and the optimal setup of the measuring system was defined. Further, a special clamping system was designed to mount the measurement device on the machine tool turret. To test the measurement system, tool-life experiment was performed. Additionally, a new tool-life criterion was developed, including spatial characteristics of the tool-wear. The results showed that novel tool-wear and tool-life diagnostic represent objective and robust estimator of the machining process. Additionally, such automation of tool-wear diagnostics on machine tool provides higher productivity and quality of the machining process.

  12. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  13. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Dai

    Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  14. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct.

  15. Autostereoscopic 3D visualization and image processing system for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Kuß, Julia; Uhlemann, Falk; Wagner, Stefan; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Steinmeier, Ralf; Schackert, Gabriele; Morgenstern, Ute

    2013-06-01

    A demonstrator system for planning neurosurgical procedures was developed based on commercial hardware and software. The system combines an easy-to-use environment for surgical planning with high-end visualization and the opportunity to analyze data sets for research purposes. The demonstrator system is based on the software AMIRA. Specific algorithms for segmentation, elastic registration, and visualization have been implemented and adapted to the clinical workflow. Modules from AMIRA and the image processing library Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) can be combined to solve various image processing tasks. Customized modules tailored to specific clinical problems can easily be implemented using the AMIRA application programming interface and a self-developed framework for ITK filters. Visualization is done via autostereoscopic displays, which provide a 3D impression without viewing aids. A Spaceball device allows a comfortable, intuitive way of navigation in the data sets. Via an interface to a neurosurgical navigation system, the demonstrator system can be used intraoperatively. The precision, applicability, and benefit of the demonstrator system for planning of neurosurgical interventions and for neurosurgical research were successfully evaluated by neurosurgeons using phantom and patient data sets.

  16. Induction Heating Process: 3D Modeling and Optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar, R.; Bay, F.

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of problems in mechanics and physics involves multiphysics coupled problems. Among these problems, we can often find electromagnetic coupled problems. Electromagnetic couplings may be involved through the use of direct or induced currents for thermal purposes—in order to generate heat inside a work piece in order to get either a prescribed temperature field or some given mechanical or metallurgical properties through an accurate control of temperature evolution with respect to time-, or for solid or fluid mechanics purposes—in order to create magnetic forces such as in fluid mechanics (electromagnetic stirring,…) or solid mechanics (magnetoforming,…). Induction heat treatment processes is therefore quite difficult to control; trying for instance to minimize distortions generated by such a process is not easy. In order to achieve these objectives, we have developed a computational tool which includes an optimsation stage. A 3D finite element modeling tool for local quenching after induction heating processes has already been developed in our laboratory. The modeling of such a multiphysics coupled process needs taking into account electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical and metallurgical phenomenon—as well as their mutual interactions during the whole process: heating and quenching. The model developed is based on Maxwell equations, heat transfer equation, mechanical equilibrium computations, Johnson-Mehl-Avrami and Koistinen-Marburger laws. All these equations and laws may be coupled but some coupling may be neglected. In our study, we will also focus on induction heating process aiming at optimising the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). Thus problem is formalized as an optimization problem—minimizing a cost function which measures the difference between computed and optimal temperatures—along with some constraints on process parameters. The optimization algorithms may be of two kinds—either zero-order or first-order algorithms. First

  17. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  18. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash LIDAR (3DFL) is ideal for determining real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed and orientation to the planet surface, as well as evaluating potential hazards...

  19. Progresses in 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Saavedra, Genaro; Navarro, Hector; Pons, Amparo [Department of Optics. University of Valencia. Calle Doctor Moliner 50, E46 100, Burjassot (Spain); Javidi, Bahram [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1157 (United States)], E-mail: manuel.martinez@uv.es

    2008-11-01

    Integral imaging is a promising technique for the acquisition and auto-stereoscopic display of 3D scenes with full parallax and without the need of any additional devices like special glasses. First suggested by Lippmann in the beginning of the 20th century, integral imaging is based in the intersection of ray cones emitted by a collection of 2D elemental images which store the 3D information of the scene. This paper is devoted to the study, from the ray optics point of view, of the optical effects and interaction with the observer of integral imaging systems.

  20. Automation of 3D micro object handling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Most of the micro objects in industrial production are handled with manual labour or in semiautomatic stations. Manual labour usually makes handling and assembly operations highly flexible, but slow, relatively imprecise and expensive. Handling of 3D micro objects poses special challenges due to ...

  1. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  2. 3D TCAD Simulation for Semiconductor Processes, Devices and Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Technology computer-aided design, or TCAD, is critical to today’s semiconductor technology and anybody working in this industry needs to know something about TCAD.  This book is about how to use computer software to manufacture and test virtually semiconductor devices in 3D.  It brings to life the topic of semiconductor device physics, with a hands-on, tutorial approach that de-emphasizes abstract physics and equations and emphasizes real practice and extensive illustrations.  Coverage includes a comprehensive library of devices, representing the state of the art technology, such as SuperJunction LDMOS, GaN LED devices, etc. Provides a vivid, internal view of semiconductor devices, through 3D TCAD simulation; Includes comprehensive coverage of  TCAD simulations for both optic and electronic devices, from nano-scale to high-voltage high-power devices; Presents material in a hands-on, tutorial fashion so that industry practitioners will find maximum utility; Includes a comprehensive library of devices, re...

  3. HERO - A 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor for accretion discs around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) is a 3D general relativistic radiative transfer code which has been tailored to the problem of analysing radiation from simulations of relativistic accretion discs around black holes. HERO is designed to be used as a post-processor. Given some fixed fluid structure for the disc (i.e. density and velocity as a function of position from a hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic simulation), the code obtains a self-consistent solution for the radiation field and for the gas temperatures using the condition of radiative equilibrium. The novel aspect of HERO is that it combines two techniques: (1) a short-characteristics (SC) solver that quickly converges to a self-consistent disc temperature and radiation field, with (2) a long-characteristics (LC) solver that provides a more accurate solution for the radiation near the photosphere and in the optically thin regions. By combining these two techniques, we gain both the computational speed of SC and the high accuracy of LC. We present tests of HERO on a range of 1D, 2D, and 3D problems in flat space and show that the results agree well with both analytical and benchmark solutions. We also test the ability of the code to handle relativistic problems in curved space. Finally, we discuss the important topic of ray defects, a major limitation of the SC method, and describe our strategy for minimizing the induced error.

  4. Robotic extrusion processes for direct ink writing of 3D conductive polyaniline structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, F. Benjamin; Price, Aaron D.

    2016-04-01

    The intractable nature of intrinsically conductive polymers (ICP) leads to practical limitations in the fabrication of ICP-based transducers having complex three-dimensional geometries. Conventional ICP device fabrication processes have focused primarily on thin-film deposition techniques; therefore this study explores novel additive manufacturing processes specifically developed for ICP with the ultimate goal of increasing the functionality of ICP sensors and actuators. Herein we employ automated polymer paste extrusion processes for the direct ink writing of 3D conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures. Realization of these structures is enabled through a modified fused filament fabrication delta robot equipped with an integrated polymer paste extruder. This unique robot-controlled additive manufacturing platform is capable of fabricating high-resolution 3D conductive PANI and has been utilized to produce structures with a minimum feature size of 1.5 mm. The required processability of PANI is achieved by means of a counter-ion induced thermal doping method. Using this method, a viscous paste is formulated as the extrudate and a thermo-chemical treatment is applied post extrusion to finalize the complexation.

  5. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics. PMID:28054558

  6. Development of the Improving Process for the 3D Printed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Kensuke; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer because the FDM 3D printer can print the utility resin material. It can print with low cost and therefore it is the most suitable for home 3D printer. The FDM 3D printer has the problem that it produces layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure. Therefore the authors developed the 3D-Chemical Melting Finishing (3D-CMF) for removing layer grooves. In this method, a pen-style device is filled with a chemical able to dissolve the materials used for building 3D printed structures. By controlling the behavior of this pen-style device, the convex parts of layer grooves on the surface of the 3D printed structure are dissolved, which, in turn, fills the concave parts. In this study it proves the superiority of the 3D-CMF than conventional processing for the 3D printed structure. It proves utilizing the evaluation of the safety, selectively and stability. It confirms the improving of the 3D-CMF and it is confirmed utilizing the data of the surface roughness precision and the observation of the internal state and the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics.

  7. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  8. Parallel processing for efficient 3D slope stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Metz, Markus; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    We test the performance of the GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model r.slope.stability. The model was developed as a C- and python-based raster module of the GRASS GIS software. It considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surface, adopting a modification of the model proposed by Hovland (1977), and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a terrain elevation map and a set of relevant thematic layers, the model evaluates the stability of slopes for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a value of the factor of safety, FS. For each pixel, the minimum value of FS and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information is used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable slopes in the study area. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, an area known to be susceptible to landslides of different type and size. Availability of a comprehensive and detailed landslide inventory map allowed for a critical evaluation of the model results. The r.slope.stability code automatically splits the study area into a defined number of tiles, with proper overlap in order to provide the same statistical significance for the entire study area. The tiles are then processed in parallel by a given number of processors, exploiting a multi-purpose computing environment at CNR IRPI, Perugia. The map of the FS is obtained collecting the individual results, taking the minimum values on the overlapping cells. This procedure significantly reduces the processing time. We show how the gain in terms of processing time depends on the tile dimensions and on the number of cores.

  9. Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

  10. Visualizing the process of interaction in a 3D environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Vivek; Suryanarayanan, Srikanth; Krishnan, Kajoli; Mullick, Rakesh

    2007-03-01

    As the imaging modalities used in medicine transition to increasingly three-dimensional data the question of how best to interact with and analyze this data becomes ever more pressing. Immersive virtual reality systems seem to hold promise in tackling this, but how individuals learn and interact in these environments is not fully understood. Here we will attempt to show some methods in which user interaction in a virtual reality environment can be visualized and how this can allow us to gain greater insight into the process of interaction/learning in these systems. Also explored is the possibility of using this method to improve understanding and management of ergonomic issues within an interface.

  11. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis...

  12. EXAMPLES OF 3D-TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PROCESSES. DECREASE IN METAL CONSUMPTION IN CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the design of metal castings produced by use of 3D-technologies. Some new ways of 3D-processing of materials connected with additive processes are described, which represents the next step in environmental resource-saving production. Examples of patterns and casting of complex design with an optimal combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance are shown. Described 3D high-tech processes are expanding the existing range of metal products and the ways of its production.

  13. Quality Criteria for Architectural 3D Data in Usage and Preservation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindlar, Michelle; Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    responsible for the archival of information about publically funded buildings. Architectural practise of today commonly includes 3D object processing. The output of these processes is slowly reaching the aforementioned cultural heritage institutions which are now facing the task of quality assessment...... of the material. The paper will present a first analysis of potential quality factors and compare architectural and cultural heritage domain expectations in 3D data quality. It will look at two forms of 3D data: modelled 3D objects and scanned 3D objects. The work presented in this paper is based on work......Quality assessment of digital material has been just one of the new tasks the digital revolution brought into the library domain. With the first big print material digitization efforts in the digital heritage domain dating back to the 1980ies, plenty of experience has been gathered...

  14. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  15. A 3D bioprinting exemplar of the consequences of the regulatory requirements on customized processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Medcalf, Nicholas; Segal, Joel; Williams, David J

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided 3D printing approaches to the industrial production of customized 3D functional living constructs for restoration of tissue and organ function face significant regulatory challenges. Using the manufacture of a customized, 3D-bioprinted nasal implant as a well-informed but hypothetical exemplar, we examine how these products might be regulated. Existing EU and USA regulatory frameworks do not account for the differences between 3D printing and conventional manufacturing methods or the ability to create individual customized products using mechanized rather than craft approaches. Already subject to extensive regulatory control, issues related to control of the computer-aided design to manufacture process and the associated software system chain present additional scientific and regulatory challenges for manufacturers of these complex 3D-bioprinted advanced combination products.

  16. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  17. Accelerated 3D Monte Carlo light dosimetry using a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Chun Yip; Lilge, Lothar

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a basic computational framework for real-time, 3-D light dosimetry on graphics processing unit (GPU) clusters. The GPU-based approach offers a direct solution to overcome the long computation time preventing Monte Carlo simulations from being used in complex optimization problems such as treatment planning, particularly if simulated annealing is employed as the optimization algorithm. The current multi- GPU implementation is validated using a commercial light modelling software (ASAP from Breault Research Organization). It also supports the latest Fermi GPU architecture and features an interactive 3-D visualization interface. The software is available for download at http://code.google.com/p/gpu3d.

  18. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  19. Pre-Peak and Post-Peak Rock Strain Characteristics During Uniaxial Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact optical method for strain measurement applying three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) in uniaxial compression is presented. A series of monotonic uniaxial compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions on Hawkesbury sandstone specimens were conducted. A prescribed constant lateral-strain rate to control the applied axial load in a closed-loop system allowed capturing the complete stress-strain behaviour of the rock, i.e. the pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain regimes. 3D DIC uses two digital cameras to acquire images of the undeformed and deformed shape of an object to perform image analysis and provides deformation and motion measurements. Observations showed that 3D DIC provides strains free from bedding error in contrast to strains from LVDT. Erroneous measurements due to the compliance of the compressive machine are also eliminated. Furthermore, by 3D DIC technique relatively large strains developed in the post-peak regime, in particular within localised zones, difficult to capture by bonded strain gauges, can be measured in a straight forward manner. Field of strains and eventual strain localisation in the rock surface were analysed by 3D DIC method, coupled with the respective stress levels in the rock. Field strain development in the rock samples, both in axial and shear strain domains suggested that strain localisation takes place progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. It is accelerated, otherwise, in post-peak regime associated with the increasing rate of strength degradation. The results show that a major failure plane, due to strain localisation, becomes noticeable only long after the peak stress took place. In addition, post-peak stress-strain behaviour was observed to be either in a form of localised strain in a shearing zone or inelastic unloading outside of the shearing zone.

  20. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  1. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsworth Kevin; Block Steve; Glatt Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illu...

  2. Vision processing for realtime 3-D data acquisition based on coded structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Jianwei

    2008-02-01

    Structured light vision systems have been successfully used for accurate measurement of 3-D surfaces in computer vision. However, their applications are mainly limited to scanning stationary objects so far since tens of images have to be captured for recovering one 3-D scene. This paper presents an idea for real-time acquisition of 3-D surface data by a specially coded vision system. To achieve 3-D measurement for a dynamic scene, the data acquisition must be performed with only a single image. A principle of uniquely color-encoded pattern projection is proposed to design a color matrix for improving the reconstruction efficiency. The matrix is produced by a special code sequence and a number of state transitions. A color projector is controlled by a computer to generate the desired color patterns in the scene. The unique indexing of the light codes is crucial here for color projection since it is essential that each light grid be uniquely identified by incorporating local neighborhoods so that 3-D reconstruction can be performed with only local analysis of a single image. A scheme is presented to describe such a vision processing method for fast 3-D data acquisition. Practical experimental performance is provided to analyze the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  3. Possible use of a 3-D clinostat to analyze plant growth processes under microgravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Buchen, B; Sievers, A; Yamashita, M; Masuda, Y

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat equipped with two rotation axes placed at right angles was constructed, and various growth processes of higher plants grown on this clinostat were compared with ground controls, with plants grown on the conventional horizontal clinostat, and with those under real microgravity in space. On the 3-D clinostat, cress roots developed a normal root cap and the statocytes showed the typical polar organization except a random distribution of statoliths. The structural features of clinostatted statocytes were fundamentally similar to those observed under real microgravity. The graviresponse of cress roots grown on the 3-D clinostat was the same as the control roots. On the 3-D clinostat, shoots and roots exhibited a spontaneous curvature as well as an altered growth direction. Such an automorphogenesis was sometimes exaggerated when plants were subjected to the horizontal rotation, whereas the curvature was suppressed on the vertical rotation. These discrepancies in curvature between the 3-D clinostat and the conventional ones appear to be brought about by the centrifugal force produced. Thus, the 3-D clinostat was proven as a useful device to simulate microgravity.

  4. Virtual 3D tumor marking-exact intraoperative coordinate mapping improve post-operative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essig Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of the interdisciplinary interface in oncological treatment between surgery, pathology and radiotherapy is mainly dependent on reliable anatomical three-dimensional (3D allocation of specimen and their context sensitive interpretation which defines further treatment protocols. Computer-assisted preoperative planning (CAPP allows for outlining macroscopical tumor size and margins. A new technique facilitates the 3D virtual marking and mapping of frozen sections and resection margins or important surgical intraoperative information. These data could be stored in DICOM format (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine in terms of augmented reality and transferred to communicate patient's specific tumor information (invasion to vessels and nerves, non-resectable tumor to oncologists, radiotherapists and pathologists.

  5. Pre- and post-irradiation performance of FBK 3D silicon pixel detectors for CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzywda, A., E-mail: akrzywda@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Obertino, M. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arndt, K. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Uplegger, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Betta, G.F. Dalla [TIFPA INFN and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Rivera, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Terzo, S. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Prosser, A.; Adreson, J.; Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    In preparation for the tenfold luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (the HL-LHC) around 2020, three-dimensional (3D) silicon pixel sensors are being developed as a radiation-hard candidate to replace the planar ones currently being used in the CMS pixel detector. This study examines an early batch of FBK sensors (named ATLAS08) of three 3D pixel geometries: 1E, 2E, and 4E, which respectively contain one, two, and four readout electrodes for each pixel, passing completely through the bulk. We present electrical characteristics and beam test performance results for each detector before and after irradiation. The maximum fluence applied is 3.5×10{sup 15} n {sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Dosimetric Comparison of 3D Tangential Radiotherapy of Post-Lumpectomy Breast at Two Different Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Anbiaee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery is one of the most common procedures performed in any radiation oncology department. A tangential parallel-opposed pair is almost always the technique of choice for this purpose. This technique is often performed based on 3D treatment planning. The aim of this study was to compare 3D treatment planning for two different energies (Cobalt 60 versus 6 MV photon beams in tangential irradiation of breast conserving radiotherapy. In this comparison, homogeneity of isodoses within the breast volume and dose received by lungs were considered. Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery were included. A CT scan was performed on selected patients. Three-dimensional treatment planning with 6 MV photon beams was carried out for patients on the  Eclipse 3D treatment planning system (TPS. The volumes receiving lower than 95% (Vol105 (hot areas of the reference dose, and the volume of lung receiving ≥30Gy (Vol≥30Gy were derived from dose volume histograms (DVHs. Dose homogeneity index was calculated as: DHI = 100 – (Vol>105 + Vol

  7. Quasi-3D Waveform Inversion for Velocity Structures and Source Process Analyses Using its Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikima, K.; Koketsu, K.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, we propose an efficient waveform inversion method for 2-D velocity structures and 3-D velocity structures are constructed by interpolating the results of the 2-D inversions. We apply these methods to a source process study of the 2003 Miyagi-ken Hokubu earthquake. We will first construct a velocity model, then determine the source processes of this earthquake sequence using the Green's function calculated with the resultant 3-D velocity model. We formulate the inversion procedure in a 2-D cross section. In a 2-D problem, an earthquake is forced to be a line source. Therefore, we introduce approximate transformation from a line source to a point source (Vidale and Helmberger, 1987). We use the 2-D velocity-stress staggered-grid finite difference scheme, so that the source representation is somewhat different from the original 'source box method' and we apply additional corrections to calculated waveforms. The boundary shapes of layers are expressed by connected nodes and we invert observed waveforms for layer thicknesses at the nodes. We perform 2-D velocity inversions along cross sections which involve a medium-size earthquake and observation points. We assemble the results for many stations and interpolated them to construct the 3-D velocity model. Finally, we calculate waveforms from the target earthquake by the 3-D finite difference method with this velocity model to confirm the validity of the model. We next perform waveform inversions for source processes of the 2003 Miyagi-ken Hokubu earthquake sequence using the resultant 3-D velocity model. We divide the fault plane into northern and southern subplanes, so that the southern subplane includes the hypocenter of the mainshock and the largest foreshock. The strike directions of the northern and southern subplanes were N-S and NE-SW, respectively. The Green's functions for these source inversions are calculated using the reciprocal theorem. We determine the slip models using the 3- D structure and

  8. 3D finite elements method (FEM Analysis of basic process parameters in rotary piercing mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pater

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 3D FEM analysis of process parameters and its infl uence in rotary piercing mill is presented. The FEM analyze of the rotary piercing process was made under the conditions of 3D state of strain with taking into consideration the thermal phenomena. The calculations were made with application of different rolls’ skew angles and different plug designs. In the result, progression of shapes, temperature and distributions of stress and strain were characterized. The numerical results of calculations were compared with results of stand test with use of 100Cr6 steel. The comparisons of numerical and experimental tests confirm good agreement between obtained results.

  9. In-process 3D geometry reconstruction of objects produced by direct light projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Vølcker; Pedersen, David Bue; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    al. 2011), this method has shown its potential with 3D printing (3DP) and selective laser sintering additive manufacturing processes, where it is possible to directly capture the geometrical features of each individual layer during a build job using a digital camera. When considering the process...... equipment such as coordinate measuring machines cannot be verified easily. This problem is addressed by developing an in-line reverse engineering and 3D reconstruction method that allows a true-to-scale reconstruction of a part being additively manufactured. In earlier works (Pedersen et al. 2010; Hansen et...

  10. Production and 3D printing processing of bio-based thermoplastic filament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkartzou Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an extrusion-based 3D printing technique was employed for processing of biobased blends of Poly(Lactic Acid (PLA with low-cost kraft lignin. In Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF 3D printing process, objects are built in a layer-by-layer fashion by melting, extruding and selectively depositing thermoplastic fibers on a platform. These fibers are used as building blocks for more complex structures with defined microarchitecture, in an automated, cost-effective process, with minimum material waste. A sustainable material consisting of lignin biopolymer blended with poly(lactic acid was examined for its physical properties and for its melt processability during the FFF process. Samples with different PLA/lignin weight ratios were prepared and their mechanical (tensile testing, thermal (Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis and morphological (optical and scanning electron microscopy, SEM properties were studied. The composition with optimum properties was selected for the production of 3D-printing filament. Three process parameters, which contribute to shear rate and stress imposed on the melt, were examined: extrusion temperature, printing speed and fiber’s width varied and their effect on extrudates’ morphology was evaluated. The mechanical properties of 3D printed specimens were assessed with tensile testing and SEM fractography.

  11. Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations......, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo......-chemical-mechanical analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D...

  12. A web-based 3D medical image collaborative processing system with videoconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sanbi; Han, Jun; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-07-01

    Three dimension medical images have been playing an irreplaceable role in realms of medical treatment, teaching, and research. However, collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical images on Internet is still one of the biggest challenges to support these activities. Consequently, we present a new application approach for web-based synchronized collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical Images. Meanwhile, a web-based videoconference function is provided to enhance the performance of the whole system. All the functions of the system can be available with common Web-browsers conveniently, without any extra requirement of client installation. In the end, this paper evaluates the prototype system using 3D medical data sets, which demonstrates the good performance of our system.

  13. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Gabriele; Harran, Sami; Signoroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  14. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  15. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities. PMID:27594781

  16. 3D multi-layered fibrous cellulose structure using an electrohydrodynamic process for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-11-01

    Micro/nanofibrous structures have been applied widely in various tissue-engineering applications because the topological structures are similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which encourages a high degree of cell adhesion and growth. However, it has been difficult to produce a three-dimensional (3D) fibrous structure using controllable macro-pores. Recently, cellulose has been considered a high-potential natural-origin biomaterial, but its use in 3D biomedical structures has been limited due to its narrow processing window. Here, we suggest a new 3D cellulose scaffold consisting of multi-layered struts made of submicron-sized entangled fibers that were fabricated using an electrohydrodynamic direct jet (EHDJ) process that is spin-printing. By optimizing processing conditions (electric field strength, cellulose feeding rate, and distance between nozzle and target), we can achieve a multi-layered cellulose structure consisting of the cylindrically entangled cellulose fibers. To compare the properties of the fabricated 3D cellulose structure, we used a PCL fibrous scaffold, which has a similar fibrous morphology and pore geometry, as a control. The physical and in vitro biocompatibilities of both fibrous scaffolds were assessed using human dermal fibroblasts, and the cellulose structure showed higher cell adhesion and metabolic activities compared with the control. These results suggest the EHDJ process to be an effective fabricating tool for tissue engineering and the cellulose scaffold has high potential as a tissue regenerative material.

  17. Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for 3D Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven vision to 3D laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active Triangulation. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The 3D scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist - Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD 3D scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, 3D scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same 3D reconstruction in static scenes.

  18. Industrial challenges in ion beam processing and metrology in the 3D era

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J.; Möller, W.

    2015-12-01

    Ion beam mechanisms present in plasma doping have been investigated by comparing SIMS measurements of Ge implants into deposited layers of As on Si wafers to planar dynamic ion beam models of the implants and SIMS analyses. Industrial devices are overcoming the limitations of lateral scaling by using the vertical direction. The same modelling approach would be valuable for interpreting 1.5D SIMS analyses of plasma doping of 3D-NAND test structures but 3D dynamic codes do not yet have all the capabilities to allow this. The required features are being developed within a static 3D code, TRI3DSTP, which has been used to qualitatively explain the good uniformity of a P plasma doping process and indicate where more quantitative explanations will be possible once the full dynamic capabilities are available.

  19. Industrial challenges in ion beam processing and metrology in the 3D era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, J., E-mail: jonathan_england@amat.com [Varian Semiconductor Equipment, Silicon Systems Group, Applied Materials Inc. (United States); Möller, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Ion beam mechanisms present in plasma doping have been investigated by comparing SIMS measurements of Ge implants into deposited layers of As on Si wafers to planar dynamic ion beam models of the implants and SIMS analyses. Industrial devices are overcoming the limitations of lateral scaling by using the vertical direction. The same modelling approach would be valuable for interpreting 1.5D SIMS analyses of plasma doping of 3D-NAND test structures but 3D dynamic codes do not yet have all the capabilities to allow this. The required features are being developed within a static 3D code, TRI3DSTP, which has been used to qualitatively explain the good uniformity of a P plasma doping process and indicate where more quantitative explanations will be possible once the full dynamic capabilities are available.

  20. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsworth Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  1. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case.

  2. Putting 3D modelling and 3D printing into practice: virtual surgery and preoperative planning to reconstruct complex post-traumatic skeletal deformities and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsworth, Kevin; Block, Steve; Glatt, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology has revolutionized and gradually transformed manufacturing across a broad spectrum of industries, including healthcare. Nowhere is this more apparent than in orthopaedics with many surgeons already incorporating aspects of 3D modelling and virtual procedures into their routine clinical practice. As a more extreme application, patient-specific 3D printed titanium truss cages represent a novel approach for managing the challenge of segmental bone defects. This review illustrates the potential indications of this innovative technique using 3D printed titanium truss cages in conjunction with the Masquelet technique. These implants are custom designed during a virtual surgical planning session with the combined input of an orthopaedic surgeon, an orthopaedic engineering professional and a biomedical design engineer. The ability to 3D model an identical replica of the original intact bone in a virtual procedure is of vital importance when attempting to precisely reconstruct normal anatomy during the actual procedure. Additionally, other important factors must be considered during the planning procedure, such as the three-dimensional configuration of the implant. Meticulous design is necessary to allow for successful implantation through the planned surgical exposure, while being aware of the constraints imposed by local anatomy and prior implants. This review will attempt to synthesize the current state of the art as well as discuss our personal experience using this promising technique. It will address implant design considerations including the mechanical, anatomical and functional aspects unique to each case. PMID:28220752

  3. Experimental investigation of 3D scanheads for laser micro-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchev, Pavel; Dimov, Stefan; Bhaduri, Debajyoti

    2016-07-01

    The broader use of laser micro-processing technology increases the demand for executing complex machining and joining operations on free-from (3D) workpieces. To satisfy these growing requirements it is necessary to utilise 3D scanheads that integrate beam deflectors (X and Y optical axes) and Z modules with high dynamics. The research presented in this communication proposes an experimental technique to quantify the dynamic capabilities of Z modules, also called Dynamic Focusing Modules (DFM), of such 3D scanheads that are essential for efficient, accurate and repeatable laser micro-processing of free form surfaces. The proposed experimental technique is validated on state-of-art laser micro-machining platform and the results show that the DFM dynamic capabilities are substantially inferior than those of X and Y beam deflectors, in particular the maximum speed of the Z module is less than 10% of the maximum speeds achievable with X and Y optical axes of the scanhead. Thus, the DFM dynamics deficiencies can become a major obstacle for the broader use of high frequency laser sources that necessitate high dynamics 3D scanheads for executing cost effectively free-form surface processing operations.

  4. Simulation of 3D chip shaping of aluminum alloy 7075 in milling processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hui-yue; KE Ying-lin

    2005-01-01

    By adopting an equivalent geometry model of machining process and considering thermo-plastic properties of the work material, a finite element method(FEM) to study oblique milling process of aluminum alloy with a double-edge tool was presented. In the FEM, shear flow stress was determined by material test. Re-meshing technology was used to represent chip separation process. Comparing the predicted cutting forces with the measured forces shows the 3D FEM is reasonable. Using this FEM, chip forming process and temperature distribution were predicted. Chips obtained by the 3D FEM are in spiral shape and are similar to the experimental ones. Distribution and change trend of temperature in the tool and chip indicate that contact length between tool rake face and chip is extending as tool moving forward. These results confirm the capability of FEM simulation in predicting chip flow and selecting optimal tool.

  5. 3D measurements of ignition processes at 20 kHz in a supersonic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Lei, Qingchun; Wu, Yue; Ombrello, Timothy M.; Carter, Campbell D.

    2015-05-01

    The ignition dynamics in a Mach 2 combustor were investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic with 20 kHz temporal resolution. The diagnostic was based on a combination of tomographic chemiluminescence and fiber-based endoscopes (FBEs). Customized FBEs were employed to capture line-of-sight integrated chemiluminescence images (termed projections) of the combustor from eight different orientations simultaneously at 20 kHz. The measured projections were then used in a tomographic algorithm to obtain 3D reconstruction of the sparks, ignition kernel, and stable flame. Processing the reconstructions frame by frame resulted in 4D measurements. Key properties were then extracted to quantify the ignition processes, including 3D volume, surface area, sphericity, and velocity of the ignition kernel. The data collected in this work revealed detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of the ignition kernel, which are not obtainable with planar diagnostics, such as its growth, movement, and development into "stable" combustion. This work also illustrates the potential for obtaining quantitative 3D measurements using tomographic techniques and the practical utility of FBEs.

  6. 3D transient model to predict temperature and ablated areas during laser processing of metallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshine, Babak. B.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh

    2017-02-01

    Laser processing is one of the most popular small-scale patterning methods and has many applications in semiconductor device fabrication and biomedical engineering. Numerical modelling of this process can be used for better understanding of the process, optimization, and predicting the quality of the final product. An accurate 3D model is presented here for short laser pulses that can predict the ablation depth and temperature distribution on any section of the material in a minimal amount of time. In this transient model, variations of thermal properties, plasma shielding, and phase change are considered. Ablation depth was measured using a 3D optical profiler. Calculated depths are in good agreement with measured values on laser treated titanium surfaces. The proposed model can be applied to a wide range of materials and laser systems.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Cooling Process Based on 3D Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIShu-biao; ZHOUHua-min; LIDe-qun

    2004-01-01

    The design of the coohng system of injection molds directly affects both productivity and the quality of the final part. Using the cooling process CAE system to instruct the mold design, the efficiency and quality of design can be improved greatly. At the same time, it is helpful to confirm the cooling system structure and optimize the process conditions. In this paper, the 3D surface model of mold cavity is used to replace the middle-plane model in the simulation by Boundary Element Method, which break the bottleneck of the application of the injection molding simulation softwares base on the middle-plane model. With the improvements of this paper, a practical and commercial simulation software of injection molding cooling process named as HsCAE3D6.0 is developed.

  8. Development of a welding system for 3D steel rapid prototyping process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Metal device rapid prototyping with welding is one of the research interests at present. A controlled inertial droplet transfer MAG welding (CIDTMAGW) process was developed for the 3D steel device rapid prototyping with metal deposition. In this process, by using a special designed wire feeder, a controlled inertia is imposed on the droplet formed on the wire tip and combines with the arc force to make it detached. Thus, according to the requirements of rapid prototyping, the arc heat and the droplet detaching force can be separately controlled to attain a stable and satisfactory metal deposition process. A CIDTMAGW system and a testing manipulator for the 3D steel device rapid prototyping are presented. The required software is completed as well. The experiments proved that the geometric formation of the rapid prototyping device with welding deposition is well agreed the data of the device CAD modeling. The surface of the deposited device is comparatively smooth.

  9. Ship Maintenance Processes with Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management and 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning Tools: Reducing Costs and Increasing Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    approach that incorporates the 3D terrestrial laser scanning (3D TLS) and collaborative product lifecycle management (collab- PLM ) tool suite. Results...incorporated into final implementation of the 3D TLS and collab- PLM tools. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...terrestrial laser scanning (3D TLS) and collaborative product lifecycle management (collab- PLM ) tool suite. Results suggest that when the SHIPMAIN process

  10. 3D TEM reconstruction and segmentation process of laminar bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturrondobeitia, M., E-mail: maider.iturrondobeitia@ehu.es; Okariz, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, R.; Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Ibarretxe, J. [eMERG, University of the Basque Country, Rafael Moreno Pitxitxi street 2 and 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-03-30

    The microstructure of laminar bio-nanocomposites (Poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay) depends on the amount of clay platelet opening after integration with the polymer matrix and determines the final properties of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique is the only one that can provide a direct observation of the layer dispersion and the degree of exfoliation. However, the orientation of the clay platelets, which affects the final properties, is practically immeasurable from a single 2D TEM image. This issue can be overcome using transmission electron tomography (ET), a technique that allows the complete 3D characterization of the structure, including the measurement of the orientation of clay platelets, their morphology and their 3D distribution. ET involves a 3D reconstruction of the study volume and a subsequent segmentation of the study object. Currently, accurate segmentation is performed manually, which is inefficient and tedious. The aim of this work is to propose an objective/automated segmentation methodology process of a 3D TEM tomography reconstruction. In this method the segmentation threshold is optimized by minimizing the variation of the dimensions of the segmented objects and matching the segmented V{sub clay} (%) and the actual one. The method is first validated using a fictitious set of objects, and then applied on a nanocomposite.

  11. Comparison Between Two Generic 3d Building Reconstruction Approaches - Point Cloud Based VS. Image Processing Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, D.; Linkiewicz, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares two generic approaches for the reconstruction of buildings. Synthesized and real oblique and vertical aerial imagery is transformed on the one hand into a dense photogrammetric 3D point cloud and on the other hand into photogrammetric 2.5D surface models depicting a scene from different cardinal directions. One approach evaluates the 3D point cloud statistically in order to extract the hull of structures, while the other approach makes use of salient line segments in 2.5D surface models, so that the hull of 3D structures can be recovered. With orders of magnitudes more analyzed 3D points, the point cloud based approach is an order of magnitude more accurate for the synthetic dataset compared to the lower dimensioned, but therefor orders of magnitude faster, image processing based approach. For real world data the difference in accuracy between both approaches is not significant anymore. In both cases the reconstructed polyhedra supply information about their inherent semantic and can be used for subsequent and more differentiated semantic annotations through exploitation of texture information.

  12. Flexible simulation framework to couple processes in complex 3D models for subsurface utilization assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Nakaten, Benjamin; De Lucia, Marco; Nakaten, Natalie; Otto, Christopher; Pohl, Maik; Tillner, Elena; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of the geological subsurface for production and storage of hydrocarbons, chemical energy and heat as well as for waste disposal requires the quantification and mitigation of environmental impacts as well as the improvement of georesources utilization in terms of efficiency and sustainability. The development of tools for coupled process simulations is essential to tackle these challenges, since reliable assessments are only feasible by integrative numerical computations. Coupled processes at reservoir to regional scale determine the behaviour of reservoirs, faults and caprocks, generally demanding for complex 3D geological models to be considered besides available monitoring and experimenting data in coupled numerical simulations. We have been developing a flexible numerical simulation framework that provides efficient workflows for integrating the required data and software packages to carry out coupled process simulations considering, e.g., multiphase fluid flow, geomechanics, geochemistry and heat. Simulation results are stored in structured data formats to allow for an integrated 3D visualization and result interpretation as well as data archiving and its provision to collaborators. The main benefits in using the flexible simulation framework are the integration of data geological and grid data from any third party software package as well as data export to generic 3D visualization tools and archiving formats. The coupling of the required process simulators in time and space is feasible, while different spatial dimensions in the coupled simulations can be integrated, e.g., 0D batch with 3D dynamic simulations. User interaction is established via high-level programming languages, while computational efficiency is achieved by using low-level programming languages. We present three case studies on the assessment of geological subsurface utilization based on different process coupling approaches and numerical simulations.

  13. Pre- and post- scission particle emission in 3D Langevin calculations with various macroscopic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fission dynamics described by solving differential equations of the Langevin type in three dimensional space of the deformation parameters is very sensitive on the choice of the macroscopic components such as potential energy models. The mass or charge distribution or total kinetic energy has been already shown to be different when one uses the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model or Lublin - Strasbourg Drop model. Also the shape-dependent congruence or shape-dependent Wigner energy and A0 terms are important especially for the fission of medium mass nuclei. We would like to make step forward and answer the question about the varying of the post-scission multiplicity by including different PES. Up to now there are only few experimental data for the medium mass nuclei where the pre- and post- scission emission has been estimated and isotopic distributions have been shown. The isotopic distributions of the fission products for light compound nucleus such as 111 In with two beam energies (Ebeam = 10.6 AMeV and 5.9 AMeV and two heavy systems: 229Np with Ebeam = 7.4 AMeV and 260 No (Ebeam = 6 AMeV and 7.5 AMeV have been studied theoretically. The agreement with the experimental data is discussed.

  14. VLSI design of 3D display processing chip for binocular stereo displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chenyang; Zheng Nanning

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop the core chip supporting binocular stereo displays for head mounted display(HMD)and glasses-TV,a very large scale integrated(VLSI)design scheme is proposed by using a pipeline architecture for 3D display processing chip(HMD100).Some key techniques including stereo display processing and high precision video scaling based bicubic interpolation,and their hardware implementations which improve the image quality are presented.The proposed HMD100 chip is verified by the field-programmable gate array(FPGA).As one of innovative and high integration SoC chips,HMD100 is designed by a digital and analog mixed circuit.It can support binocular stereo display,has better scaling effect and integration.Hence it is applicable in virtual reality(VR),3D games and other microdisplay domains.

  15. 3D Finite Element Simulation of Tunnel Boring Machine Construction Processes in Deep Water Conveyance Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Denghua; TONG Dawei

    2009-01-01

    Applying stiffness migration method, a 3D finite element mechanical model is established to simulate the excavation and advance processes. By using 3D nonlinear finite element method, the tunnel boring machine (TBM) excavation process is dynamically simulated to analyze the stress and strain field status of surrounding rock and segment. The maximum tensile stress of segment ring caused by tunnel construction mainly lies in arch bottom and presents zonal distribution. The stress increases slightly and limitedly in the course of excavation. The maxi-mum and minimum displacements of segment, manifesting as zonal distribution, distribute in arch bottom and vault respectively. The displacements slightly increase with the advance of TBM and gradually tend to stability.

  16. Insights on the Subduction Process from High-Resolution 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, Margarete

    2015-04-01

    This is an exciting time in geodynamics as the use of unprecedented high-resolution 3D modeling allows us to ask new questions that were previously unattainable. It is now relatively straightforward to run 3D numerical simulations, with local mesh refinement to ~1 km, input data mapped onto over 100 million finite element nodes, and using tens of thousands of compute hours per model, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2012]. With the additional computational resources, comes a new approach to modeling the tectonic problem. For example, mapping tectonic plates onto a high-resolution 3D geodynamic model grid forces the modeler to ask questions much as a field geologist would ask when constructing a geologic map. In this process of moving from textbook models of subduction to using models based on observation, the modeler is forced to explain the more complicated geometries and features in the Earth, allowing for the new computational approaches to be powerful tools for scientific discovery. Subduction modeling of this kind has expanded the classical view of two-dimensional corner flow, e.g. McKenzie [1969], to a slab driven flow that can be quite complex with predictions for upper mantle flow rates that can be over ten times surface plate motions, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2010] and others. In this talk, I will investigate the role of the third-dimension and non-linearity in plate boundary deformation. I will present high-resolution 3D numerical models that examine the effect of observationally based slab geometry, multiple subducting plates, non-linear rheology, and variations in overriding plate thickness on the subduction related deformation of plate margins. Specific examples include the Alaska and Central America subduction systems. In addition, I will highlight future directions in subduction modeling, and how these can be advanced by the increased incorporation of observational data, high-performance computing, focused numerical algorithms, and 3D interactive data visualization.

  17. 3D surface topography of cylinder liner forecasting during plateau honing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizer, R.; Pawlus, P.

    2011-08-01

    Areal surface topographies after plateau honing process were measured. A correlation analysis of surface texture parameters was then carried out. As the results, the following parameters describing plateau honed cylinder 3D surface topography were selected: amplitude Sq, Sz, spatial: Str, Std, hybrid SΔq as well as functional: Spq, Svq and Smq. 3D surface topographies were modeled. The modeled surface topographies were correctly matched to measured ones in 77% of all analyzed cases. The plateau honing experiment was then carried out using an orthogonal selective research plan. Two machining parameters were input variables: coarse honing pressure pv and plateau honing time t. Chosen cylinder liners texture parameters were output values. As the result of the experiment, regression equations connecting plateau honing process parameters pv and t with recommended 3D surface topography parameters were obtained. Finally, cylinder liner surface topographies were predicted for various values of machining parameters. Proper matching accuracy of modeled to measured textures was assured in 67% of analyzed cases.

  18. 3D surface topography of cylinder liner forecasting during plateau honing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizer, R [University of Rzeszow, Institute of Technology, Rejtana 16A, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pawlus, P, E-mail: rreizer@univ.rzeszow.pl [Rzeszow University of Technology, W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland)

    2011-08-19

    Areal surface topographies after plateau honing process were measured. A correlation analysis of surface texture parameters was then carried out. As the results, the following parameters describing plateau honed cylinder 3D surface topography were selected: amplitude Sq, Sz, spatial: Str, Std, hybrid S{Delta}q as well as functional: Spq, Svq and Smq. 3D surface topographies were modeled. The modeled surface topographies were correctly matched to measured ones in 77% of all analyzed cases. The plateau honing experiment was then carried out using an orthogonal selective research plan. Two machining parameters were input variables: coarse honing pressure p{sub v} and plateau honing time t. Chosen cylinder liners texture parameters were output values. As the result of the experiment, regression equations connecting plateau honing process parameters pv and t with recommended 3D surface topography parameters were obtained. Finally, cylinder liner surface topographies were predicted for various values of machining parameters. Proper matching accuracy of modeled to measured textures was assured in 67% of analyzed cases.

  19. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-09-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  20. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  1. 3D Reconstruction of End-Effector in Autonomous Positioning Process Using Depth Imaging Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time calculation of positioning error, error correction, and state analysis has always been a difficult challenge in the process of manipulator autonomous positioning. In order to solve this problem, a simple depth imaging equipment (Kinect is used and Kalman filtering method based on three-frame subtraction to capture the end-effector motion is proposed in this paper. Moreover, backpropagation (BP neural network is adopted to recognize the target. At the same time, batch point cloud model is proposed in accordance with depth video stream to calculate the space coordinates of the end-effector and the target. Then, a 3D surface is fitted by using the radial basis function (RBF and the morphology. The experiments have demonstrated that the end-effector positioning error can be corrected in a short time. The prediction accuracies of both position and velocity have reached 99% and recognition rate of 99.8% has been achieved for cylindrical object. Furthermore, the gradual convergence of the end-effector center (EEC to the target center (TC shows that the autonomous positioning is successful. Simultaneously, 3D reconstruction is also completed to analyze the positioning state. Hence, the proposed algorithm in this paper is competent for autonomous positioning of manipulator. The algorithm effectiveness is also validated by 3D reconstruction. The computational ability is increased and system efficiency is greatly improved.

  2. Fractographic classification in metallic materials by using 3D processing and computer vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ximena Bastidas-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Failure analysis aims at collecting information about how and why a failure is produced. The first step in this process is a visual inspection on the flaw surface that will reveal the features, marks, and texture, which characterize each type of fracture. This is generally carried out by personnel with no experience that usually lack the knowledge to do it. This paper proposes a classification method for three kinds of fractures in crystalline materials: brittle, fatigue, and ductile. The method uses 3D vision, and it is expected to support failure analysis. The features used in this work were: i Haralick’s features and ii the fractal dimension. These features were applied to 3D images obtained from a confocal laser scanning microscopy Zeiss LSM 700. For the classification, we evaluated two classifiers: Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine. The performance evaluation was made by extracting four marginal relations from the confusion matrix: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision, plus three evaluation methods: Receiver Operating Characteristic space, the Individual Classification Success Index, and the Jaccard’s coefficient. Despite the classification percentage obtained by an expert is better than the one obtained with the algorithm, the algorithm achieves a classification percentage near or exceeding the 60 % accuracy for the analyzed failure modes. The results presented here provide a good approach to address future research on texture analysis using 3D data.

  3. Electromagnetic and absorbing property of CIPs/resin composite using the 3D forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Liang, Zichang; Wang, Xiaobing; Yuan, Liming; Li, Xinghao

    2016-08-01

    The absorbing composite filled with the flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) were prepared using a three-dimensional (3D) forming process, in which the forming powder was fabricated using a milling process. The surface morphology was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy, the static magnetic property was evaluated on a vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 4-18 GHz. With the variable thickness was set, the reflection loss (RL) was simulated to analyze the absorbing property of the composite. The results showed that the forming powder was uniformly dispersed in the absorber, and the saturation magnetization and the grain structure of the CIPs in the forming powder nearly did not change in the milling process. With the same volume content CIPs added, the average permittivity and the imaginary permeability of the samples added the powder was smaller than the directly mixing sample due to the aggregation effect. The RL results showed that the absorbing composites using the 3D forming process with thickness 6 or 8 mm had an better absorbing property (minimum RL -13.58 and -21.85 dB) in 4-18 GHz.

  4. Using Gaussian Process Annealing Particle Filter for 3D Human Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rudzsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for human body parts tracking in 3D with prelearned motion models using multiple cameras. Gaussian process annealing particle filter is proposed for tracking in order to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to increase the tracker's stability and robustness. Comparing with a regular annealed particle filter-based tracker, we show that our algorithm can track better for low frame rate videos. We also show that our algorithm is capable of recovering after a temporal target loss.

  5. Functional neurology of a brain system: a 3D olfactory bulb model to process natural odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Michele; Cavarretta, Francesco; Hines, Michael L; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2013-01-01

    The network of interactions between mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb is a critical step in the processing of odor information underlying the neural basis of smell perception. We are building the first computational model in 3 dimensions of this network in order to analyze the rules for connectivity and function within it. The initial results indicate that this network can be modeled to simulate experimental results on the activation of the olfactory bulb by natural odorants, providing a much more powerful approach for 3D simulation of brain neurons and microcircuits.

  6. 3D Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of the Nonuniform Residual Stress in Ultrasonic Impact Treatment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengsun; Guo, Chaobo; Wang, Dongpo; Wang, Zhijiang

    2016-09-01

    The nonuniform distributions of the residual stress were simulated by a 3D finite element model to analyze the elastic-plastic dynamic ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) process of multiple impacts on the 2024 aluminum alloy. The evolution of the stress during the impact process was discussed. The successive impacts during the UIT process improve the uniformity of the plastic deformation and decrease the maximum compressive residual stress beneath the former impact indentations. The influences of different controlled parameters, including the initial impact velocity, pin diameter, pin tip, device moving, and offset distances, on the residual stress distributions were analyzed. The influences of the controlled parameters on the residual stress distributions are apparent in the offset direction due to the different surface coverage in different directions. The influences can be used to understand the UIT process and to obtain the desired residual stress by optimizing the controlled parameters.

  7. In vivo multiphoton microscopy associated to 3D image processing for human skin characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeweck, T.; Tancrède, E.; Dokladal, P.; Koudoro, S.; Morard, V.; Meyer, F.; Decencière, E.; Pena, A.-M.

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiphoton microscopy coupled to specific 3D image processing tools could provide new insights into the organization of different skin components and their age-related changes. For that purpose, we performed a clinical trial on 15 young and 15 aged human female volunteers on the ventral and dorsal side of the forearm using the DermaInspectR medical imaging device. We visualized the skin by taking advantage of intrinsic multiphoton signals from cells, elastic and collagen fibers. We also developed 3D image processing algorithms adapted to in vivo multiphoton images of human skin in order to extract quantitative parameters in each layer of the skin (epidermis and superficial dermis). The results show that in vivo multiphoton microscopy is able to evidence several skin alterations due to skin aging: morphological changes in the epidermis and modifications in the quantity and organization of the collagen and elastic fibers network. In conclusion, the association of multiphoton microscopy with specific image processing allows the three-dimensional organization of skin components to be visualized and quantified thus providing a powerful tool for cosmetic and dermatological investigations.

  8. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.

  9. A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ibrahim

    1998-12-01

    Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.

  10. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  11. Source Process of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake Using New Fault Geometry and 3-D Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The September 1, 1923, Kanto earthquake caused severe damage and more than 100,000 fatalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake is an interplate event along the Sagami trough where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath a continental plate. We have investigated the source process of this earthquake using the geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data (Kobayashi and Koketsu, 2005). The resultant slip distributions show that two asperities (areas of large slips) are located around the base of the Izu peninsula and the Uraga channel. In 2002 and 2003, four seismic surveys were carried out to determine crustal structures and fault locations in the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The seismic reflections from the surface of the Philippine Sea slab suggested that the slab surface should be shallower than the previous models (e.g., Ishida, 1992; Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The fault model of Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) was also based on Matsu'ura et al. (1980). In this study, we adopt new fault geometry consistent with the result of the reflection surveys and perform another source process inversion. The new slip distribution showed that the western asperity moved from the Uraga channel to the tip of the Miura peninsula, while the western asperity did not move considerably. Green's functions that Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) used were calculated in a halfspace for geodetic data or in a 1-D model for strong motions. However, the real structure in the Kanto region is three-dimensionally complex as suggested by the geographical setting and seismic surveys. In fact, Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) showed that the long coda of the observed seismogram at Hongo, Tokyo, was not reproduced in the synthetic one. The forward modeling with a 3-D structure (Sato et al., 1999) suggested that surface waves excited along the boundary between the Kanto mountains and Kanto basin can explain the large coda. Thus we calculate 3-D Green's functions for the strong motion

  12. Percolation properties of 3-D multiscale pore networks: how connectivity controls soil filtration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Perrier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the connectivity of pore networks is a key issue not only for modelling fluid flow and solute transport in porous media but also for assessing the ability of soil ecosystems to filter bacteria, viruses and any type of living microorganisms as well inert particles which pose a contamination risk. Straining is the main mechanical component of filtration processes: it is due to size effects, when a given soil retains a conveyed entity larger than the pores through which it is attempting to pass. We postulate that the range of sizes of entities which can be trapped inside soils has to be associated with the large range of scales involved in natural soil structures and that information on the pore size distribution has to be complemented by information on a Critical Filtration Size (CFS delimiting the transition between percolating and non percolating regimes in multiscale pore networks. We show that the mass fractal dimensions which are classically used in soil science to quantify scaling laws in observed pore size distributions can also be used to build 3-D multiscale models of pore networks exhibiting such a critical transition. We extend to the 3-D case a new theoretical approach recently developed to address the connectivity of 2-D fractal networks (Bird and Perrier, 2009. Theoretical arguments based on renormalisation functions provide insight into multi-scale connectivity and a first estimation of CFS. Numerical experiments on 3-D prefractal media confirm the qualitative theory. These results open the way towards a new methodology to estimate soil filtration efficiency from the construction of soil structural models to be calibrated on available multiscale data.

  13. Percolation properties of 3-D multiscale pore networks: how connectivity controls soil filtration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Perrier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the connectivity of pore networks is a key issue not only for modelling fluid flow and solute transport in porous media but also for assessing the ability of soil ecosystems to filter bacteria, viruses and any type of living microorganisms as well inert particles which pose a contamination risk. Straining is the main mechanical component of filtration processes: it is due to size effects, when a given soil retains a conveyed entity larger than the pores through which it is attempting to pass. We postulate that the range of sizes of entities which can be trapped inside soils has to be associated with the large range of scales involved in natural soil structures and that information on the pore size distribution has to be complemented by information on a critical filtration size (CFS delimiting the transition between percolating and non percolating regimes in multiscale pore networks. We show that the mass fractal dimensions which are classically used in soil science to quantify scaling laws in observed pore size distributions can also be used to build 3-D multiscale models of pore networks exhibiting such a critical transition. We extend to the 3-D case a new theoretical approach recently developed to address the connectivity of 2-D fractal networks (Bird and Perrier, 2009. Theoretical arguments based on renormalisation functions provide insight into multi-scale connectivity and a first estimation of CFS. Numerical experiments on 3-D prefractal media confirm the qualitative theory. These results open the way towards a new methodology to estimate soil filtration efficiency from the construction of soil structural models to be calibrated on available multiscale data.

  14. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  15. 3-D loaded scaffolds obtained by supercritical CO2 assisted process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardea, S.; Reverchon, E.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) drying process for the formation of 3-D PVDF-HFP loaded scaffolds was tested. Experiments at pressures ranging between 150 and 250 bar and at temperatures ranging between 35 and 55°C were performed. The PVDF-HFP- acetone-ethanol solution at 15% w/w polymer was selected as the base case. The drug (amoxicillin) concentration was varied from 20 to 30% w/w with respect to PVDF-HFP. SC- CO2 drying process was confirmed to be a valid alternative to generate loaded structures; indeed, scaffolds characterized by nanometric networks (with mean pore diameter of about 300 nm) with a homogeneous drug distribution were obtained. Drug controlled release experiments were also performed and a quasi-zero order release kinetic was observed.

  16. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS₂ thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Ben; Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag; Min, Byoung Koun

    2014-03-28

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of ∼1.3 μm. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions.

  17. A SEMI-AUTOMATED POINT CLOUD PROCESSING METHODOLOGY FOR 3D CULTURAL HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ö. Kıvılcım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect’s Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  18. 3D numerical simulation of the evolutionary process of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Li, Min

    2016-06-01

    A dune constitutive model was coupled with a large eddy simulation (LES) with the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale (SGS) model to accurately describe the evolutionary process of dunes from the macroscopic perspective of morphological dynamics. A 3D numerical simulation of the evolution of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes was then performed. The evolution of the 3D structure of Gaussian-shaped dunes was simulated under the influence of gravity modulation, which was the same with the vertical oscillation of the sand bed to adjust the threshold of sand grain liftoff in wind tunnel experiments under the same wind speed. The influence of gravity modulation intensity on the characteristic scale parameter of the dune was discussed. Results indicated that the crescent shape of the dune was reproduced with the action of gravity during regulation of the saturation of wind-sand flow at specific times. The crescent shape was not dynamically maintained as time passed, and the dunes dwindled until they reached final decomposition because of wind erosion. The height of the dunes decreased over time, and the height-time curve converged as the intensity of modulation increased linearly. The results qualitatively agreed with those obtained from wind tunnel experiments.

  19. a Semi-Automated Point Cloud Processing Methodology for 3d Cultural Heritage Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvılcım, C. Ö.; Duran, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect's Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  20. Photopolymerization of 3D conductive polypyrrole structures via digital light processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron D.

    2016-04-01

    The intrinsically conductive polymer polypyrrole is conventionally synthesized as monolithic films that exhibit significant actuation strains when subjected to an applied electric potential. Though numerous linear and bending actuators based on polypyrrole films have been investigated, the limitations inherent to planar film geometries inhibit the realization of more complex behaviours. Hence, three-dimensional polypyrrole structures are sought to greatly expand the potential applications for conductive polymer actuators. This research aims to develop a novel additive manufacturing method for the fabrication of three-dimensional structures of conductive polypyrrole. In this investigation, radiation-curing techniques are employed by means of digital light processing (DLP) technology. DLP is an additive manufacturing technique where programmed light patterns emitted from a dedicated source are used to selectively cure a specially formulated polymer resin. Successive curing operations lead to a layered 3D structure into which fine features may be incorporated. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is subsequently employed to examine the unique microstructural features of the resultant 3D printed polymer morphology in order to elucidate the nature of the conductivity. These polymer microstructures are highly desirable since actuation response times are highly dependent on ion transport distances, and hence the ability to fabricate fine features offers a potential mechanism to improve actuator performance.

  1. Processing of noised residual stress phase maps by using a 3D phase unwrapping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Albertazzi, Armando; Willemann, Daniel P.

    2013-07-01

    The measurement of residual stress by using digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) combined with the hole drilling technique is a valuable and fast tool for integrity evaluation of civil structures and mechanical parts. However, in some cases, measured phase maps are badly corrupted by noise which makes phase unwrapping a difficult and unsuccessful task. By following recommendations given by the ASTM E837 standard, 20 consecutive hole steps should be performed for the measurement of non-uniform stresses. As a consequence, 20 difference phase maps along the hole depth will be available for the DSPI technique. An adaptive phase unwrapping algorithm could be used in order to unwrap images following paths localized along well modulated pixels and performing two dimensional phase unwrapping (following paths inside a difference phase map corresponding to a hole step) or 3D phase unwrapping (similar to a temporal phase unwrapping following paths located at well-modulated pixels in a previous or a subsequent hole image). Non-corrupted and corrupted hole-drilling tests were processed with a traditional phase unwrapping algorithm as well as with the proposed 3D approach. Comparisons between unwrapped phase maps and simulated ones have shown that the proposed method gave results with best accordance than 2D results.

  2. Developing a 3D Game Design Authoring Package to Assist Students' Visualization Process in Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Shiou; Chuang, Tsung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of 3D digital game design requires the development of students' meta-skills, from story creativity to 3D model construction, and even the visualization process in design thinking. The characteristics a good game designer should possess have been identified as including redesign things, creativity thinking and the ability to…

  3. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online.

  4. 3-D transient numerical simulation on the process of laser cladding by powder feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlu Huang; Gongying Liang; Junyi Su

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D transient mathematical model for laser cladding by powder feeding was developed to examine the macroscopic heat and momentum transport during the process, based on which a novel method for determining the configuration and thickness of cladding layer was presented. By using Lambert-Beer theorem and Mie′s theory, the interaction between powder stream and laser beam was treated to evoke their subtle effects on heat transfer and fluid flow in laser molten pool. The numerical study was performed in a co-ordinate system moving with the laser at a constant scanning speed. A fixed grid enthalpy-porosity approach was used,which predicted the evolutionary development of the laser molten pool. The commercial software PHOENICS, to which several modules were appended, was used to accomplish the simulation. The results obtained by the simulation were coincident with those measured in experiment basically.

  5. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, Alan Richard [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department; Zelt, Colin A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  6. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  7. A T1 and DTI fused 3D corpus callosum analysis in pre- vs. post-season contact sports players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Law, Meng; Shi, Jie; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wang, Yalin; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Sports related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide public health issue, and damage to the corpus callosum (CC) has been considered as an important indicator of TBI. However, contact sports players suffer repeated hits to the head during the course of a season even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, and less is known about their effect on callosal anatomy. In addition, T1-weighted and diffusion tensor brain magnetic resonance images (DTI) have been analyzed separately, but a joint analysis of both types of data may increase statistical power and give a more complete understanding of anatomical correlates of subclinical concussions in these athletes. Here, for the first time, we fuse T1 surface-based morphometry and a new DTI analysis on 3D surface representations of the CCs into a single statistical analysis on these subjects. Our new combined method successfully increases detection power in detecting differences between pre- vs. post-season contact sports players. Alterations are found in the ventral genu, isthmus, and splenium of CC. Our findings may inform future health assessments in contact sports players. The new method here is also the first truly multimodal diffusion and T1-weighted analysis of the CC, and may be useful to detect anatomical changes in the corpus callosum in other multimodal datasets.

  8. Modeling and simulation of 3D thermal stresses of large-sized castings in solidification processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When heavy machines and large scaled receiver system of communication equipment are manufactured, it always needs to produce large- sized steel castings, aluminum castings and etc. Some defects of hot cracking by thermal stress often appear during solidification process as these castings are produced, which results in failure of castings.Therefore predicting the effects of technological parameters for production of castings on the thermal stress during solidification process becomes an important means. In this paper, the mathematical models have been established and numerical calculation of temperature fields by using finite difference method (FDM) and then thermal stress fields by using finite element method (FEM) during solidification process of castings have been carried out. The technological parameters of production have been optimized by the results of calculation and the defects of hot cracking have been eliminated. Modeling and simulation of 3D thermal stress during solidification processes of large-sized castings provided a scientific basis, which promoted further development of advanced manufacturing technique.

  9. ALPINE3D: a detailed model of mountain surface processes and its application to snow hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, Michael; Völksch, Ingo; Gustafsson, David; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Stähli, Manfred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2006-06-01

    Current models of snow cover distribution, soil moisture, surface runoff and river discharge typically have very simple parameterizations of surface processes, such as degree-day factors or single-layer snow cover representation. For the purpose of reproducing catchment runoff, simple snowmelt routines have proven to be accurate, provided that they are carefully calibrated specifically for the catchment they are applied to. The use of more detailed models is, however, useful to understand and quantify the role of individual surface processes for catchment hydrology, snow cover status and soil moisture distribution.We introduce ALPINE3D, a model for the high-resolution simulation of alpine surface processes, in particular snow processes. The model can be driven by measurements from automatic weather stations or by meteorological model outputs. As a preprocessing alternative, specific high-resolution meteorological fields can be created by running a meteorological model. The core three-dimensional ALPINE3D modules consist of a radiation balance model (which uses a view-factor approach and includes shortwave scattering and longwave emission from terrain and tall vegetation) and a drifting snow model solving a diffusion equation for suspended snow and a saltation transport equation. The processes in the atmosphere are thus treated in three dimensions and are coupled to a distributed (in the hydrological sense of having a spatial representation of the catchment properties) one-dimensional model of vegetation, snow and soil (SNOWPACK) using the assumption that lateral exchange is small in these media. The model is completed by a conceptual runoff module. The model can be run with a choice of modules, thus generating more or less detailed surface forcing data as input for runoff generation simulations. The model modules can be run in a parallel (distributed) mode using a GRID infrastructure to allow computationally demanding tasks. In a case study from the Dischma Valley

  10. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  11. Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D improves chest CT image quality and reduces radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Yamashiro

    Full Text Available To assess the advantages of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D for image quality improvement and dose reduction for chest computed tomography (CT.Institutional Review Boards approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-eight subjects underwent chest CT at five institutions using identical scanners and protocols. During a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to images using AIDR3D and a conventional reconstruction mode (without AIDR3D. Using a 5-point scale from 1 (non-diagnostic to 5 (excellent, three blinded observers independently evaluated image quality for three lung zones, four patterns of lung disease (nodule/mass, emphysema, bronchiolitis, and diffuse lung disease, and three mediastinal measurements (small structure visibility, streak artifacts, and shoulder artifacts. Differences in these scores were assessed by Scheffe's test.At each tube current, scans using AIDR3D had higher scores than those without AIDR3D, which were significant for lung zones (p<0.0001 and all mediastinal measurements (p<0.01. For lung diseases, significant improvements with AIDR3D were frequently observed at 120 and 60 mA. Scans with AIDR3D at 120 mA had significantly higher scores than those without AIDR3D at 240 mA for lung zones and mediastinal streak artifacts (p<0.0001, and slightly higher or equal scores for all other measurements. Scans with AIDR3D at 60 mA were also judged superior or equivalent to those without AIDR3D at 120 mA.For chest CT, AIDR3D provides better image quality and can reduce radiation exposure by 50%.

  12. A novel lithography process for 3D (three-dimensional) interconnect using an optical direct-writing exposure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Matsuo, M.; Kawasaki, A.; Hagiwara, K.; Matsui, H.; Kawamura, N.; Kishimoto, K.; Nakamura, A.; Washio, Y.

    2010-03-01

    A novel lithography process for 3D (Three-dimensional) interconnect was developed using an optical direct-writing exposure tool. A reflective IR (Infra-red) alignment system allows a direct detection of alignment marks both on front-side and back-side of wafer, and consequently allows feasible micro-fabrication for 3D interconnect using the reversed wafer. A combination of the optical direct-writing exposure tool of Dainippon Screen MFG. Co., Ltd. with the reflective IR alignment system and a high aspect chemically amplified resist of Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. provides the lithography process exclusively for 12-inch wafer level 3D interconnect.

  13. Computed tomography study of VAPEX process in laboratory 3D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.Q.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory; Salama, D. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper provided details of a 3-D laboratory model of the VAPEX process that used computerized tomography (CT) to examine vapour chamber expansion behaviour in longitudinal and radial directions. The model was comprised of an aluminum cylinder with 2 slotted tubes installed inside to act as injection and production wells. Propane was used as a solvent with heavy oil. The results of experiments conducted with the model showed that the V shape vapour chamber expansion pattern predicted by the 2-D model was a localized phenomenon. The dominant characteristic of the vapour chamber was an overriding of the injected solvent at the top of the model. The overriding was attributed to gravity segregation. The study also showed that longitudinal expansion was more significant than upwards expansion during the early stages of the VAPEX process. Oil production performance was then examined using different solvent injection rates. An analysis of the CT images was conducted to obtain model porosity, density, and oil saturation profiles. The study demonstrated that pressure cycles caused oil to be produced intermittently. Oil swelling by solvent gas dissolution was an important recovery mechanism. It was concluded that solvent soaking can be used to recover additional residual oil during the VAPEX process. 19 refs., 1 tab., 24 figs.

  14. Feature extraction from 3D lidar point clouds using image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Shortridge, Ashton; Lusch, David; Shi, Ruoming

    2011-10-01

    Airborne LiDAR data have become cost-effective to produce at local and regional scales across the United States and internationally. These data are typically collected and processed into surface data products by contractors for state and local communities. Current algorithms for advanced processing of LiDAR point cloud data are normally implemented in specialized, expensive software that is not available for many users, and these users are therefore unable to experiment with the LiDAR point cloud data directly for extracting desired feature classes. The objective of this research is to identify and assess automated, readily implementable GIS procedures to extract features like buildings, vegetated areas, parking lots and roads from LiDAR data using standard image processing tools, as such tools are relatively mature with many effective classification methods. The final procedure adopted employs four distinct stages. First, interpolation is used to transfer the 3D points to a high-resolution raster. Raster grids of both height and intensity are generated. Second, multiple raster maps - a normalized surface model (nDSM), difference of returns, slope, and the LiDAR intensity map - are conflated to generate a multi-channel image. Third, a feature space of this image is created. Finally, supervised classification on the feature space is implemented. The approach is demonstrated in both a conceptual model and on a complex real-world case study, and its strengths and limitations are addressed.

  15. Understanding surface processes 3D imaging from micro-scale to regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin; Guerin, Antoine; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Michoud, Clément; Nicolet, Pierrick; Penna, Ivanna; Rudaz, Benjamin; Voumard, Jeremie; Wyser, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The production of topography using remote sensing techniques has considerably been improved during the last fifteen years due to the advances in electronics and to the increase of computing power. The earth surface is monitored at all the scales using Space Shuttle Missions (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), or using laser scanner (LS), both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS), with accuracies that can reach up to less than 50 microns for observations of objects at meter scale. Recently, photogrammetry has been pushed by the progress of LiDAR and thanks to the advance in image recognition. It led to the development of new techniques such as structure-from-motion (SFM), which allows obtaining 3D point cloud based on several pictures of the same object taken from several point of views. Both LiDAR and Photogrammetry produce 3D point clouds. One of the current 3D applications is the surface changes, which is often based simply on the subtraction of DEM at different time intervals, leading to a simple superficial description of the natural processes without information on the mass transport. However, a point cloud has much more information than a simple surface. For instance, shape recognition can be used to track objects or deformations such as a rock mass toppling, either using the shape of the point cloud or a specific moving element. Such method permits, for instance, to study in detail pre-failure accelerations, and are now routinely used in mining industry. Other methods are coupling images and DEMs and are used, for example, to capture the surface vectors of displacements in order to deduce the surface deformations of landslides. These types of surveys have now broad applications to all kinds of erosional processes. The coastal retreat can be monitored, and it displays in some places several centimetres per year of retreat on average. The sediment transports in torrent are now better constraint showing clearly pulses. The seasonal cycles can as well be

  16. 3D visualization of the material flow in friction stir welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yanhua; Lin Sanbao; Shen Jiajie; Wu Lin

    2005-01-01

    The material flow in friction stir welded 2014 Al alloy has been investigated using a marker insert technique (MIT). Results of the flow visualization show that the material flow is asymmetrical during the friction stir welding(FSW)process and there are also significant differences in the flow patterns observed on advancing side and retreating side. On advancing side, some material transport forward and some move backward, but on retreating side, material only transport backward. At the top surface of the weld, significant material traasport forward due to the action of the rotating tool shoulder.Combining the data from all the markers, a three-dimensional flow visualization, similar to the 3D image reconstruction technique, was obtained. The three-dimensional plot gives the tendency chart of material flow in friction stir welding process and from the plot it can be seen that there is a vertical, circular motion around the longitudinal axis of the weld. On the advancing side of the weld, the material is pushed downward but on the retreating side, the material is pushed toward the crown of the weld. The net result of the two relative motions in both side of the advancing and the retreating is that a circular motion comes into being. Comparatively, the material flow around the longitudinal axis is a secondary motion.

  17. Acquisition of high-resolution 3D data and processing using Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Sheng, J.; Yang, W.; Pu, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Holographic PIV (HPIV) is a promising 3D velocity field measurement technique providing high spatial-temporal resolution needed for understanding complex and turbulent flows. An HPIV system, combining in-line recording and off-axis viewing (IROV) holography and Heuristic Morphology Particle Pairing (HMPP) method, is being developed in this work. Unlike 2D PIV, HPIV instantaneously records a volume of particle images through holographic imaging. Its data processing involves special difficulties such as speckle noise, sparse pairs and large data sets. The HMPP algorithm is an adaptive parallel processing scheme applying artificial intelligence searching theory. Based on similar morphology of a particle group at successive instants separated by a small interval, HMPP matches a group of particle images between double exposures and provides velocity vectors for individual particle pairs, providing much higher spatial resolution than conventional correlation algorithm and lower measurement error caused by large velocity gradients. Taking advantages of IROV and HMPP, the system being developed appears highly promising as a practical HPIV configuration.

  18. Study of filled dolines by using 3D stereo image processing and electrical resistivity imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Breg Valjavec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with doline degradation due to uncontrolled waste dumping in the past in the Logatec Polje in Slovenia. It introduces a concept for determining 3D geometric characteristics (shape, depth, radius, area, and volume of formerly concave landforms (i.e., recently filled dolines by using a combination of two methods: (1 photogrammetric stereo processing of archival aerial photographs and (2 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI. To represent, visualize, and study the characteristics of the former surface morphology (i.e., the dolines before they were filled, a digital terrain model (DTM for 1972 (DTM1972 was made using digital photogrammetry processing of five sequential archival aerial photographs (1972, © GURS. DTM1972 was visually and quantitatively compared with the DTM5 of the recent surface morfology (DTM5, © GURS, 2006 in order to define areas of manmade terrain differences. In general, a circular area with a higher terrain difference is an indicator of a filled doline. The calculated terrain differences also indicate the thickness of buried waste material. Three case-study dolines were selected for 3D geometric analysis and tested in the field using ERI. ERI was used to determine the genetic type of the original doline, to confirm that the buried material in the doline is actually waste, and to ascertain opportunities for further study of water pollution due to waste leakage. Based on a comparison among the ERI sections obtained using various electrode arrays, it was concluded that the basins are actually past concave landforms (i.e., dolines filled with mixed waste material having the lowest resistivity value (bellow 100 ohm-m, which differs measurably from the surrounding natural materials. The resistivity of hard stacked limestone is higher (above 1,000 ohm-m than resistivity of cracked carbonate rocks with cracks filled with loamy clay sediments while in loamy alluvial sediment resistivity falls below 150 ohm

  19. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi [Nagoya University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics, Nagakute (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  20. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Rowe, John C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  1. Performance evaluation of laser line scanner for in-process inspection of 3D geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sen; Xu, Jian; Tao, Lei; Yan, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Non-contact measurement techniques using laser scanning have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to most notably manufacturing, and have the advantage of high speed and high detail output. However, a major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex on-line producing environments is their geometric constraints and low accuracy compared to the contact-based counterparts. The work presented in this paper introduces a performance evaluation test of laser line scanning for in-process inspection of 3D geometries. Some straightforward test methods that use a designed artifact are proposed. First, one work aims to experimentally investigate the location accuracy of knee point or corner point of edge features using a commercial laser stripe scanner, which is common in mechanical parts. Another work experimentally investigates the formation of outliers that may be usually promoted by reflective surfaces around surrounding area of corner point, and these outliers are characterized with large measurement errors, which significantly deteriorate the quality of the scanned point cloud data. Scanning path planning and outlier filter design are respectively discussed.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in 3D turbid media accelerated by graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A

    2009-10-26

    We report a parallel Monte Carlo algorithm accelerated by graphics processing units (GPU) for modeling time-resolved photon migration in arbitrary 3D turbid media. By taking advantage of the massively parallel threads and low-memory latency, this algorithm allows many photons to be simulated simultaneously in a GPU. To further improve the computational efficiency, we explored two parallel random number generators (RNG), including a floating-point-only RNG based on a chaotic lattice. An efficient scheme for boundary reflection was implemented, along with the functions for time-resolved imaging. For a homogeneous semi-infinite medium, good agreement was observed between the simulation output and the analytical solution from the diffusion theory. The code was implemented with CUDA programming language, and benchmarked under various parameters, such as thread number, selection of RNG and memory access pattern. With a low-cost graphics card, this algorithm has demonstrated an acceleration ratio above 300 when using 1792 parallel threads over conventional CPU computation. The acceleration ratio drops to 75 when using atomic operations. These results render the GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation a practical solution for data analysis in a wide range of diffuse optical imaging applications, such as human brain or small-animal imaging.

  3. 3D reconstruction of single rising bubble in water using digital image processing and characteristic matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuchen Bian; Feng Dong; Weida Zhang; Hongyi Wang; Chao Tan; Zhiqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the shape of a bubble will lay a firm foundation for further description of the dynamic characteristics of bubbly flow,especially for a single rising bubble or separate bubbles whose interaction could be neglected.In this case,the rising bubble is usually simulated as an ellipsoid consisting of two semi-ellipsoids up and down.Thus the projected image of a bubble consists of two semi-ellipses.In this paper,a method for reconstructing the ellipsoid bubble model is described following digital image processing,using the Hough transform in 2D ellipse parameter extraction which could cover most of the bubble edge points in the image.Then a method based on characteristic symmetric matrix is described to detect 3D bubble ellipsoid model parameters from 2D ellipse parameters of projection planes.This method can be applied to bubbles rising with low-velocity in static flow field much in conformity with the projection theory and the shape variation of the rising bubble.This method does not need to solve nonlinear equation sets and provides an easy way to calculate the characteristic matrix of a space ellipsoid model for deformed bubble.For bubble application,two assumed conditions and a calibration factor are proposed to simplify calculation and detection.Errors of ellipsoid center and three axes are minor.Errors of the three rotation angles have no negative effect on further study on bubbly flow.

  4. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  5. The Modelling Process of a Paper Folding Problem in GeoGebra 3D 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Aktumen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research; a problem situation, which requires the ability of thinking in three dimensions, was developed by the researchers. As the purpose of this paper is producing a modeling task suggestion, the problem was visualized and analyzed in GeoGebra3D environment. Then visual solution was also been supported by algebraic approach. So, the capability of creating the relationship between geometric and algebraic representations in GeoGebra was also presented in 3D sense

  6. Synthesis and 3D printing of biodegradable polyurethane elastomer by a water-based process for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kun-Che; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable materials that can undergo degradation in vivo are commonly employed to manufacture tissue engineering scaffolds, by techniques including the customized 3D printing. Traditional 3D printing methods involve the use of heat, toxic organic solvents, or toxic photoinitiators for fabrication of synthetic scaffolds. So far, there is no investigation on water-based 3D printing for synthetic materials. In this study, the water dispersion of elastic and biodegradable polyurethane (PU) nanoparticles is synthesized, which is further employed to fabricate scaffolds by 3D printing using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a viscosity enhancer. The surface morphology, degradation rate, and mechanical properties of the water-based 3D-printed PU scaffolds are evaluated and compared with those of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds made from the solution in organic solvent. These scaffolds are seeded with chondrocytes for evaluation of their potential as cartilage scaffolds. Chondrocytes in 3D-printed PU scaffolds have excellent seeding efficiency, proliferation, and matrix production. Since PU is a category of versatile materials, the aqueous 3D printing process developed in this study is a platform technology that can be used to fabricate devices for biomedical applications.

  7. 2D and 3D CMOS MAPS with high performance pixel-level signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.traversi@unibg.i [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Ratti, Lodovico [University of Pavia and INFN Pavia (Italy); Re, Valerio [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Deep N-well (DNW) MAPS have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. These devices have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130 nm CMOS technology. The triple-well structure available in such an ultra-deep submicron technology is exploited by using the deep N-well as the charge-collecting electrode. This paper intends to discuss the design features and measurement results of the last prototype (Apsel5T chip) recently fabricated in a 2D 130 nm CMOS technology. Recent advances in microelectronics industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for High Energy Physics experiments. A 3D version of the Apsel5T chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS, two-layer, vertically integrated technology. The main features of this new 3D monolithic detector are presented in this paper.

  8. Effects of Processing and Medical Sterilization Techniques on 3D-Printed and Molded Polylactic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geritano, Mariah Nicole

    Manufacturing industries have evolved tremendously in the past decade with the introduction of Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing. The medical device industry has been a leader in adapting this new technology into research and development. 3D printing enables medical devices and implants to become more customizable, patient specific, and allows for low production numbers. This study compares the mechanical and thermal properties of traditionally manufactured parts versus parts manufactured through 3D printing before and after sterilization, and the ability of an FDM printer to produce reliable, identical samples. It was found that molded samples and 100% infill high-resolution samples have almost identical changes in properties when exposed to different sterilization methods, and similar cooling rates. The data shown throughout this investigation confirms that manipulation of printing parameters can result in an object with comparable material properties to that created through traditional manufacturing methods.

  9. Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Contents on the Process of Learning to Build a Handmade PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh Yamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed Web3D contents that simulate the procedure for assembling a handmade PC. The original motivation for this project was to enable media-informatics students to deepen their understanding of PC hardware. However, it was found that due to their lack of perspective, conveying information that relates to such virtual manufacturing was quite difficult using conventional 2D displays. In this study, we optimized the graphical contents for a stereoscopic environment that would allow proper perspective to be realized. No significant differences were identified between stereoscopic 3D cases and 2D cases. This result is considered to be due to learner fatigue specific to stereoscopic 3D cases.

  10. Variation in spectral and mass dimension on 3D soil image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. E.; Tarquis, A. M.; Fabregat, J.; Andina, D.; Jimenez, J.; Crawford, J. W.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important for understanding soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes on various scales. Recent advances in non-destructive imaging, such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), provide several ways to analyze pore space features mainly concentrating on the visualization of soil structure. Fractal formalism has revealed as useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous medium are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied for water and gas diffusion coefficient in soil. At the same time that these techniques give a unique opportunity to quantify and describe pore space, they presents steps in their procedures on which the results depend. In this work, intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of a Brazilian soil and 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained. Four different threshold criteria were used to transform CT grey-scale imagery in binary imagery (pore/solid), based on the frequency of CT units. Then the threshold effect on the estimation of Dm and d, as well as their ratio was studied. Each threshold criteria had a direct influence on Dm as it has been previously reported [1], through the increase on porosity obtained. Meanwhile Dm showed a clear logarithmic relation with the apparent porosity in the image obtained for each threshold, d showed an almost linear one. In any case the increase of each one of them respect to porosity was different for each horizon. The Dm/d ratio was practically constant through all the porosity achieved in this study when Dm was estimated using all the scale range available. On the other hand, when Dm was estimated based on smaller scales this ratio depended on the threshold criteria applied to the image. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. [1] A

  11. High-Performance 3D Image Processing Architectures for Image-Guided Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Circuits and Systems, vol. 1 (2), 2007, pp. 116-127. iv • O. Dandekar, C. Castro- Pareja , and R. Shekhar, “FPGA-based real-time 3D image...How low can we go?,” presented at IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2006, pp. 502-505. • C. R. Castro- Pareja , O. Dandekar, and R...Venugopal, C. R. Castro- Pareja , and O. Dandekar, “An FPGA-based 3D image processor with median and convolution filters for real-time applications,” in

  12. Free and Open-source Control Software for 3-D Motion and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Wijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RepRap 3-D printers and their derivatives using conventional firmware are limited by: 1 requiring technical knowledge, 2 poor resilience with unreliable hardware, and 3 poor integration in complicated systems. In this paper, a new control system called Franklin, for CNC machines in general and 3-D printers specifically, is presented that enables web-based three dimensional control of additive, subtractive and analytical tools from any Internet connected device. Franklin can be set up and controlled entirely from a web interface; it uses a custom protocol which allows it to continue printing when the connection is temporarily lost, and allows communication with scripts.

  13. Making Things See 3D vision with Kinect, Processing, Arduino, and MakerBot

    CERN Document Server

    Borenstein, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This detailed, hands-on guide provides the technical and conceptual information you need to build cool applications with Microsoft's Kinect, the amazing motion-sensing device that enables computers to see. Through half a dozen meaty projects, you'll learn how to create gestural interfaces for software, use motion capture for easy 3D character animation, 3D scanning for custom fabrication, and many other applications. Perfect for hobbyists, makers, artists, and gamers, Making Things See shows you how to build every project with inexpensive off-the-shelf components, including the open source P

  14. Evaluation of the durability of 3D printed keys produced by computational processing of image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Possession of a working 3D printed key can, for most practical purposes, convince observers that an illicit attempt to gain premises access is authorized. This paper seeks to assess three things. First, work has been performed to determine how easily the data for making models of keys can be obtained through manual measurement. It then presents work done to create a model of the key and determine how easy key modeling could be (particularly after a first key of a given key `blank' has been made). Finally, it seeks to assess the durability of the keys produced using 3D printing.

  15. 3d Anisotropic Post Stack Imaging on an Offshore Africa Case Study Étude de la migration anisotrope en 3D des traces sismiques sur un champ pétrolier offshore d'Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Rousseau J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic anisotropy may degrade the quality of seismic images and cause the mispositioning of events within them. Shales have often been observed to be significantly anisotropic, usually with approximately hexagonal symmetry (transverse isotropy with axis normal to the bedding plane. We investigate the effect of anisotropy on imaging a real data set from offshore Africa, where there are thick shale sequences. We perform, in parallel, isotropic and anisotropic velocity model building and 3D post-stack migration of the same stack volume. We observe that the anisotropic processing improves the focussing of dipping events and that the assumption of isotropy may cause lateral and vertical displacement of the reservoir boundaries, of around 100 and 200 meters respectively, relative to the positions obtained with the anisotropic processing. L'anisotropie sismique peut altérer la qualité des images sismiques et provoquer ainsi un mauvais positionnement. Les argiles se sont souvent révélées avoir des propriétés anisotropes, avec une symétrie presque hexagonale (isotropie transversale sur un axe normal par rapport au plan de stratification. Nous étudions ici l'effet de l'anisotropie sur la migration d'un ensemble de données réelles d'un gisement offshore africain possédant d'épaisses couches d'argile. Nous réalisons en parallèle la création des modèles de vitesse isotrope et anisotrope et la migration du même volume des données stacken utilisant les deux modèles. Nous observons que la méthode anisotrope améliore la mise au point en profondeur et que l'augmentation de l'isotropie peut provoquer un décalage latéral et vertical des limites du réservoir, respectivement de 100 et 200 mètres, par rapport aux positions obtenues avec la méthode anisotrope.

  16. Research on 3D Micro-nano Processing Reported on Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The latest issue of Nature reported in its Research Highlights ( see " Lithography: Luminous Lizards", Nature, Vol. 451, p868, Feb. 21, 2008) that a group of researchers from the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) achieved the new progress in 3D microstructures of nanometer composites using the multiphoton nanoprocessing technology.

  17. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are b...

  18. 2D or 3D? New user interfaces for control rooms in process industries. A feasibility study; 2D eller 3D? Nya graenssnitt foer processindustrins kontrollrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, MariAnne

    2008-01-15

    Three dimensional user interfaces and techniques for visualisation have been discussed as possible ways to improve the work situation for control room operators in process industries. The aims of the project, which is a pilot project, has been: (i) to compile existing knowledge on the pro's and con's of 2D versus 3D user interfaces in order to assess and conclude if, and how, 3-dimensional visualisations could be applied when designing new user interfaces for modern process control rooms and (ii) to investigate operators' attitudes towards and acceptance of 3-dimensional user interfaces for visualisation of information. The project has included the following activities: a literature review has been completed in order to collect information on different projects and tests in which 3-dimensional user interfaces have been evaluated for different tasks; an identification of feasible use cases has been made, partly on basis of a workshop in which participated researchers from the field and partly on basis of study visits to different process plants on the west coast of Sweden; an interview study has been carried with control room operators at four different power plants in order to find out the operators' assessments of and attitudes towards 3-dimensional information visualisation; and interviews with representatives of system developers have been completed in order to elicit information on ongoing development work and experiences of developing and implementing 3-dimensional user interfaces in control rooms. On basis of the literature review as well as the interview studies cannot be concluded that 3-dimensional user interfaces and 3-dimensional visualisation of information hold any general advantages compared to 2-dimensional solutions. Pro's and con's are, instead, highly contextual and dependant upon (i) the characteristics of user (in terms e.g. of computer skills); (ii) the (work) task; and (iii) the specific design of the user

  19. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo [Dept. of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: amichele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  20. Refilling process in the plasmasphere: a 3-D statistical characterization based on Cluster density observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission offers an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of the plasma population in a large part of the inner magnetosphere, explored near its orbit's perigee, over a complete solar cycle. The WHISPER sounder, on board each satellite of the mission, is particularly suitable to study the electron density in this region, between 0.2 and 80 cm−3. Compiling WHISPER observations during 1339 perigee passes distributed over more than three years of the Cluster mission, we present first results of a statistical analysis dedicated to the study of the electron density morphology and dynamics along and across magnetic field lines between L = 2 and L = 10. In this study, we examine a specific topic: the refilling of the plasmasphere and trough regions during extended periods of quiet magnetic conditions. To do so, we survey the evolution of the ap index during the days preceding each perigee crossing and sort out electron density profiles along the orbit according to three classes, namely after respectively less than 2 days, between 2 and 4 days, and more than 4 days of quiet magnetic conditions (ap ≤ 15 nT following an active episode (ap > 15 nT. This leads to three independent data subsets. Comparisons between density distributions in the 3-D plasmasphere and trough regions at the three stages of quiet magnetosphere provide novel views about the distribution of matter inside the inner magnetosphere during several days of low activity. Clear signatures of a refilling process inside an expended plasmasphere in formation are noted. A plasmapause-like boundary, at L ~ 6 for all MLT sectors, is formed after 3 to 4 days and expends somewhat further after that. In the outer part of the plasmasphere (L ~ 8, latitudinal profiles of median density values vary essentially according to the MLT sector considered rather than according to the refilling duration. The shape of these density profiles

  1. 3-D shape measurement by composite pattern projection and hybrid processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H J; Zhang, J; Lv, D J; Fang, J

    2007-09-17

    This article presents a projection system with a novel composite pattern for one-shot acquisition of 3D surface shape. The pattern is composed of color encoded stripes and cosinoidal intensity fringes, with parallel arrangement. The stripe edges offer absolute height phases with high accuracy, and the cosinoidal fringes provide abundant relative phases involved in the intensity distribution. Wavelet transform is utilized to obtain the relative phase distribution of the fringe pattern, and the absolute height phases measured by triangulation are combined to calibrate the phase data in unwrapping, so as to eliminate the initial and noise errors and to reduce the accumulation and approximation errors. Numerical simulations are performed to prove the new unwrapping algorithms and actual experiments are carried out to show the validity of the proposed technique for accurate 3- D shape measurement.

  2. Understanding the mixing process in 3D microfluidic nozzle/diffuser systems: simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Abdeljalil; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2016-11-01

    We characterise computationally and experimentally a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic passive mixer for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 100, corresponding to primary flow rates of 10-870 µl min-1. The 3D mixing channel is composed of multiple curved segments: circular arcs situated in the substrate plane and curved nozzle/diffuser elements normal to the substrate plane. Numerical simulation provides a detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism resulting from the geometrical topology of the mixer. These Comsol software-based simulations reveal the development of two secondary flows perpendicular to the primary flow: a swirling flow resulting from tangential injection of the flow into the nozzle holes and Dean vortices present in the circular arcs. These phenomena are particularly important at a Reynolds number larger than 30, where mixing occurs by chaotic advection. Experimentally, the 3D mixer is fabricated in a monolithic glass substrate by powder blasting machining, exploiting eroding powder beams at various angles of impact with respect to the substrate plane. Experimental mixing was characterised using two coloured dyes, showing nearly perfect mixing for a microfluidic footprint of the order of a few mm2, in good agreement with the simulations.

  3. Design of 3D Video Front-end Processing and Display System Based on FPGA%FPGA 的3D 视频前端处理与显示系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德亮; 余建华; 张翼杨

    2014-01-01

    针对目前国内3D 电视芯片的缺少而导致3D 片源短缺,传统视频处理过程复杂,以及红蓝3D 视频观看时出现重影、亮度降低等问题,本文设计了一款基于 FPGA 的3D 视频前端处理与显示系统。以两路摄像头采集的信号作为输入源,采用 Altera 公司的 Cyclone IV 系列 FPGA 芯片为处理核心,实时地完成数据采集和图像处理,采用 LCOS 微显示器件作为显示单元,得到了效果逼真的3D 视频图像。%Aiming at the problems of 3D sources inadequate,conventional video processing complex,ghost and decrease in brightness that occurs when watching red and blue 3D video,which are caused by the 3D TV chip shortage,the paper designs a kind of 3D video front-end processing and display system based on FPGA.The signals collected by two cameras as the input source and Altera Cyclone IV series FPGA chip as the core processor,the design can realize real-time data acquisition and image processing.Because of adopting LCOS as the display unit,we can get the realistic 3D video image.

  4. The 3D Simulation of Liquid Core Change of Cylinder Steel Rolling Forming on Soft-reduction Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jian; WANG Ying; LI Ainong; HUA Lin

    2006-01-01

    Using ABAQUS FEM software, the Elastic-plastic with isotropic hardening model is applied to simulate 3D cylinder slab rolling forming in continuous casting (CC), the change of liquid core before slab solidification completely on soft reduction process is studied, the analyse result shows the soft reduction technique can change the liquid core size, which is useful to cylinder slab forming in CC.

  5. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W; Barnes, Vernon A

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  6. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder eJerath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information is filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  7. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top...... and easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester...

  8. A 3-D nonlinear recursive digital filter for video image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, P. H.; Qian, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a recursive 3-D nonlinear digital filter, which is capable of performing noise suppression without degrading important image information such as edges in space or time. It also has the property of unnoticeable bandwidth reduction immediately after a scene change, which makes the filter an attractive preprocessor to many interframe compression algorithms. The filter consists of a nonlinear 2-D spatial subfilter and a 1-D temporal filter. In order to achieve the required computational speed and increase the flexibility of the filter, all of the linear shift-variant filter modules are of the IIR type.

  9. Flank wear and I-kaz 3D correlation in ball end milling process of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.M. Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear may deteriorate the machine product quality due to high surface roughness, dimension exceeding tolerance and also to machine tool itself. Tool wear monitoring system is vital to be used in machining process to achieve high quality of the machined product and at the same time improve the productivity. Nowadays, many monitoring system developed using various sensor and statistical technique to analyze the signals being used. In this paper, I-kaz 3D method is used to analyze cutting force signal in milling process of Inconel 718 for monitoring the status of tool wear in milling process. The results from analyzing cutting force show that I-kaz 3D coefficient has a correlation with cutting tool condition. Tool wear will generate high value of I-kaz 3D coefficient than the sharp cutting tool. Furthermore, the three dimension graphical representation of I-kaz 3D for all cutting condition shown that the degree of scattering data increases with tool wear progression.

  10. A simultaneous process of 3D magnesium phosphate scaffold fabrication and bioactive substance loading for hard tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongman; Farag, Mohammad Mahmoud; Park, Eui Kyun; Lim, Jiwon; Yun, Hui-Suk

    2014-03-01

    A novel room temperature process was developed to produce a 3D porous magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold with high drug load/release efficiency for use in hard tissue regeneration through a combination of a paste extruding deposition (PED) system and cement chemistry. MgP scaffolds were prepared using a two-step process. The first step was fabrication of the 3D porous scaffold green body to control both the morphology and pore structure using a PED system without hardening. The second step was cementation, which was carried out by immersing the scaffold green body in the binder solution for hardening instead of the typical sintering process in ceramic scaffold fabrication. Separation of the manufacturing process and cement reaction was important to secure enough time to fabricate a 3D scaffold with various sizes and architectures under homogeneous extruding conditions. Because the whole process is carried out at room temperature, the bioactive molecules, which are easily denatured by heat, may apply to scaffolds during the process. Lysozyme was selected as a model bioactive substance to demonstrate the efficiency of this process; this was directly mixed into MgP powder to introduce homogeneous distribution in the scaffold. The extruding paste for the PED system was prepared using the MgP-lysozyme blended powder as starting materials. That is, both 3D scaffold fabrication and functionalization of the scaffold with bioactive substances could be carried out simultaneously. This process significantly enhanced both drug loading efficiency and release performance compared to the typical sintering process, where the drug is generally loaded by adsorption after heat treatment. The MgP scaffold developed in this study satisfied the required conditions for scaffolding in hard tissue regeneration in an ideal manner, including 3 dimensionally well-interconnected pore structures, favorable mechanical properties, biodegradability, good cell affinity and in vitro biocompatibility

  11. The valuable use of Microsoft Kinect™ sensor 3D kinematic in the rehabilitation process in basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, Ariel; Favaretto, Guillermo; Frisoli, Melisa; Gemignani, Diego; Gumpel, Gustavo; Massuh, Roberto; Rayan, Josefina; Turin, Matías

    2016-04-01

    Subjects who practice sports either as professionals or amateurs, have a high incidence of knee injuries. There are a few publications that show studies from a kinematic point of view of lateral-structure-knee injuries, including meniscal (meniscal tears or chondral injury), without anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The use of standard motion capture systems for measuring outdoors sport is hard to implement due to many operative reasons. Recently released, the Microsoft Kinect™ is a sensor that was developed to track movements for gaming purposes and has seen an increased use in clinical applications. The fact that this device is a simple and portable tool allows the acquisition of data of sport common movements in the field. The development and testing of a set of protocols for 3D kinematic measurement using the Microsoft Kinect™ system is presented in this paper. The 3D kinematic evaluation algorithms were developed from information available and with the use of Microsoft’s Software Development Kit 1.8 (SDK). Along with this, an algorithm for calculating the lower limb joints angles was implemented. Thirty healthy adult volunteers were measured, using five different recording protocols for sport characteristic gestures which involve high knee injury risk in athletes.

  12. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Vià, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.da.via@cern.ch [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardil, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, GianFranco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); La Rosa, Alessandro [CERN CH 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Micelli, Andrea [Tne University of Udine and INFN, via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12 D-53115, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Povoli, Marco [DISI, Università degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); and others

    2013-01-21

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  13. A web-based collaborative framework for facilitating decision making on a 3D design developing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevdorj Nyamsuren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased competitive challenges are forcing companies to find better ways to bring their applications to market faster. Distributed development environments can help companies improve their time-to-market by enabling parallel activities. Although, such environments still have their limitations in real-time communication and real-time collaboration during the product development process. This paper describes a web-based collaborative framework which has been developed to support the decision making on a 3D design developing process. The paper describes 3D design file for the discussion that contains all relevant annotations on its surface and their visualization on the user interface for design changing. The framework includes a native CAD data converting module, 3D data based real-time communication module, revision control module for 3D data and some sub-modules such as data storage and data management. We also discuss some raised issues in the project and the steps underway to address them.

  14. Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Williams, Robert J; Lawrence, Jon S; Ireland, Michael J; Withford, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The first demonstration of narrowband spectral filtering of multimode light on a 3D integrated photonic chip using photonic lanterns and waveguide Bragg gratings is reported. The photonic lanterns with multi-notch waveguide Bragg gratings were fabricated using the femtosecond direct-write technique in boro-aluminosilicate glass (Corning, Eagle 2000). Transmission dips of up to 5 dB were measured in both photonic lanterns and reference single-mode waveguides with 10.4-mm-long gratings. The result demonstrates efficient and symmetrical performance of each of the gratings in the photonic lantern. Such devices will be beneficial to space-division multiplexed communication systems as well as for units for astronomical instrumentation for suppression of the atmospheric telluric emission from OH lines.

  15. Precision depth measurement of through silicon vias (TSVs) on 3D semiconductor packaging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jonghan; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Lee, Sunghun

    2012-02-27

    We have proposed and demonstrated a novel method to measure depths of through silicon vias (TSVs) at high speed. TSVs are fine and deep holes fabricated in silicon wafers for 3D semiconductors; they are used for electrical connections between vertically stacked wafers. Because the high-aspect ratio hole of the TSV makes it difficult for light to reach the bottom surface, conventional optical methods using visible lights cannot determine the depth value. By adopting an optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser in the infra-red range as a light source, the depths of TSVs having aspect ratio of about 7 were measured. This measurement was done at high speed based on spectral resolved interferometry. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for depth inspection of TSVs.

  16. Development and Evaluation of Roadside/Obstacle Detection Method Using 3D Scanned Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki

    In this paper, we have reported the development of a snowblower support system which can safely navigate snowblowers, even during a whiteout, with the combination of a very accurate GPS system, so called RTK-GPS, and a unique and highly accurate map of roadsides and obstacles on roads. Particularly emphasized new techniques in this paper are ways to detect accurate geographical positions of roadsides and obstacles by utilizing and analyzing 3D laser scanned data, whose data has become available in recent days. The experiment has shown that the map created by the methods and RTK-GPS can sufficiently navigate snowblowers, whereby a secure and pleasant social environment can be archived in snow areas of Japan. In addition, proposed methods are expected to be useful for other systems such as a quick development of a highly accurate road map, a safely navigation of a wheeled chair, and so on.

  17. HEXAHEDRAL ELEMENT REFINEMENT FOR THE PREDICTION-CORRECTION ALE FEM SIMULATION OF 3D BULKING FORMING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Chen; Y.X. Wang; W.P. Dong; X.Y. Ruan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of 3D bulk forming process, the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)formulation-based FEM is studied, and a prediction-correction ALE-based FEM is proposed which integrates the advantages of precisely predicting the boundary configuration of the deformed material, and of efficiently avoiding hexahedron remeshing processes. The key idea of the prediction-correction ALE FEM is elaborated in detail. Accordingly, the strategy of mesh quality control, one of the key enabling techniques for the 3D bulk forming process numerical simulation by the prediction-correction ALE FEM is carefully investigated, and the algorithm for hexahedral element refinement is formulated based on the mesh distortion energy.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  19. Induced tauopathy in a novel 3D-culture model mediates neurodegenerative processes: a real-time study on biochips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Diana; Krinke, Dana; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Hirche, Anika; Kloß, Daniel; Mack, Till G A; Striggow, Frank; Robitzki, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease represent one of the major health problems of aging population worldwide. Therefore, a better understanding of tau-dependent pathologies and consequently, tau-related intervention strategies is highly demanded. In recent years, several tau-focused therapies have been proposed with the aim to stop disease progression. However, to develop efficient active pharmaceutical ingredients for the broad treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients, further improvements are necessary for understanding the detailed neurodegenerative processes as well as the mechanism and side effects of potential active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the neuronal system. In this context, there is a lack of suitable complex in vitro cell culture models recapitulating major aspects of taupathological degenerative processes in sufficient time and reproducible manner.Herewith, we describe a novel 3D SH-SY5Y cell-based, tauopathy model that shows advanced characteristics of matured neurons in comparison to monolayer cultures without the need of artificial differentiation promoting agents. Moreover, the recombinant expression of a novel highly pathologic fourfold mutated human tau variant lead to a fast and emphasized degeneration of neuritic processes. The neurodegenerative effects could be analyzed in real time and with high sensitivity using our unique microcavity array-based impedance spectroscopy measurement system. We were able to quantify a time- and concentration-dependent relative impedance decrease when Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology was induced in the neuronal 3D cell culture model. In combination with the collected optical information, the degenerative processes within each 3D-culture could be monitored and analyzed. More strikingly, tau-specific regenerative effects caused by tau-focused active pharmaceutical ingredients could be quantitatively monitored by impedance spectroscopy.Bringing together our novel complex 3D cell culture

  20. Development of a 3D ultrasound system to investigate post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in pre-term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Lee, D.; St. Lawrence, K.; Romano, W.; Fenster, A.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2013-03-01

    Clinical intracranial ultrasound (US) is performed as a standard of care on neonates at risk of intraventricular hemorrhaging (IVH) and is also used after a diagnosis to monitor for potential ventricular dilation. However, it is difficult to estimate the volume of ventricles with 2D US due to their irregular shape. We developed a 3D US system to be used as an adjunct to a clinical system to investigate volumetric changes in the ventricles of neonates with IVH. Our system has been found have an error of within 1% of actual distance measurements in all three directions and volume measurements of manually segmented volumes from phantoms were not statistically significantly different from the actual values (p>0.3). Interobserver volume measurements of the lateral ventricles in a patient with grade III IVH found no significant differences between measurements. There is the potential to use this system in IVH patients to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time.

  1. 3D MHD simulation of post--flare supra--arcade downflows in a turbulent current sheet medium

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, M; Costa, A; Schneiter, M

    2014-01-01

    Supra--arcade downflows (SADs) are sunward, generally dark, plasma density depletions originated above posteruption flare arcades. In this paper using 3D MHD simulations we investigate if the SAD cavities can be produced by a direct combination of the tearing mode and Kelvin--Helmholtz instabilities leading to a turbulent current sheet (CS) medium or if the current sheet is merely the background where SADs are produced triggered by an impulsive deposition of energy. We find that to give account of the observational dark lane structures an addition of local energy provided by a reconnection event is required. This local reconnection can trigger a nonlinear internal wave dynamic, generated by the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves that compose relatively stable voids.

  2. 3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjeong Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1 a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2 the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further.

  3. Processing of MRI images weighted in TOF for blood vessels analysis: 3-D reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez D, J.; Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz A, I., E-mail: hernandezdj.gto@gmail.com [CONACYT, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, A. C., Jalisco s/n, Col. Valenciana, 36000 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a novel presents an approach based on differences of intensities for the identification of vascular structures in medical images from MRI studies of type time of flight method (TOF). The plating method hypothesis gave high intensities belonging to the vascular system image type TOF can be segmented by thresholding of the histogram. The enhanced vascular structures is performed using the filter Vesselness, upon completion of a decision based on fuzzy thresholding minimizes error in the selection of vascular structures. It will give a brief introduction to the vascular system problems and how the images have helped diagnosis, is summarized the physical history of the different imaging modalities and the evolution of digital images with computers. Segmentation and 3-D reconstruction became image type time of flight; these images are typically used in medical diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The proposed method has less error in segmentation and reconstruction of volumes related to the vascular system, clear images and less noise compared with edge detection methods. (Author)

  4. Defining new dental phenotypes using 3-D image analysis to enhance discrimination and insights into biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Zaitoun, Halla; Coxon, Tom; Karmo, Mayada; Kaur, Gurpreet; Townsend, Grant; Harris, Edward F.; Brook, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims In studying aetiological interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in normal and abnormal developments of the dentition, methods of measurement have often been limited to maximum mesio-distal and bucco-lingual crown diameters, obtained with hand-held calipers. While this approach has led to many important findings, there are potentially many other informative measurements that can be made to describe dental crown morphology. Advances in digital imaging and computer technology now offer the opportunity to define and measure new dental phenotypes in 3-D that have the potential to provide better anatomical discrimination and clearer insights into the underlying biological processes in dental development. Over recent years, image analysis in 2-D has proved to be a valuable addition to hand-measurement methods but a reliable and rapid 3-D method would increase greatly the morphological information obtainable from natural teeth and dental models. Additional measurements such as crown heights, surface contours, actual surface perimeters and areas, and tooth volumes would maximise our ability to discriminate between samples and to explore more deeply genetic and environmental contributions to observed variation. The research objectives were to investigate the limitations of existing methodologies and to develop and validate new methods for obtaining true 3-D measurements, including curvatures and volumes, in order to enhance discrimination to allow increased differentiation in studies of dental morphology and development. The validity of a new methodology for the 3-D measurement of teeth is compared against an established 2-D system. The intra- and inter-observer reliability of some additional measurements, made possible with a 3-D approach, are also tested. Methods and results From each of 20 study models, the permanent upper right lateral and upper left central incisors were separated and imaged independently by two operators using 2-D image

  5. Processing and Evaluation of 3D-Reinforced Needled Composite Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    laminates using the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) process. Specimens were then cut from the cured parent panels and inspected with...before the panel was processed with VARTM . A significant quantity of aramid could be seen protruding from the backside of the laminate as well as...embedded in the foam backer, indicating inefficiency in this handheld processing method. After the panel was processed with VARTM , the TTR was observed

  6. A study on the influence of process parameters on the Mechanical Properties of 3D printed ABS composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have been emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components within a short span of time. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as additive layer manufacturing technology is one of the powerful method of rapid prototyping (RP) technique that fabricates three dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital CAD data is converted directly to a product. In the present investigation, ABS + hydrous magnesium silicate composite was considered as the starting material. Mechanical properties of ABS + hydrous magnesium silicate composite material were evaluated. ASTM D638 and ASTM D760 standards were followed for carrying out tensile and flexural tests, respectively. Samples with different layer thickness and printing speed were prepared. Based on the experimental results, it is suggested that low printing speed, and low layer thickness has resulted maximum tensile and flexural strength, as compared to all the other process parameters samples.

  7. The Basic Process of 3D Modeling%浅析maya软件建模的基本流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国艳; 苏家有

    2015-01-01

    学习三维建模的人必须在掌握三维建模的流程(创建模型、UV拆分、贴图绘制、灯光设置、渲染设置)基础上,学习和掌握其相关的建模技巧和造型能力,了解模型的精度级别以及制作规范,才能做出精美的模型。%Study of 3D modeling of people you must master a 3D modeling process(the model is created,UV arran gement,texturing,lighting,rendering settings)basis,learning and mastering the related modeling techniques and modeling skills,understand the model accuracy level and production norms,can make beautiful model.

  8. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark: From 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines of The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Hanne M.;

    2008-01-01

    with PWT. The dose to the internal mammary nodes (IMN) was not satisfactory for five of the seven patients for 3F, whereas only two of the seven patients had a minimum dose lower than 95% of the prescribed dose with PWT. Finally, the dose to the contralateral breast was increased when using PWT compared...... to 3F. It was concluded that PWT was an appropriate choice of technique for future radiation treatment of post-mastectomy patients. A working group was formed and guidelines for 3D planning were developed during a series of workshops where radiation oncologists and physicists from all radiotherapy...

  9. Reconstruction for Time-Domain In Vivo EPR 3D Multigradient Oximetric Imaging—A Parallel Processing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Dharmaraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23×23×23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet. The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  10. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  11. Process and Post-Process: A Discursive History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history of process and post-process in composition studies, focusing on ways in which terms, such as "current-traditional rhetoric,""process," and "post-process" have contributed to the discursive construction of reality. Argues that use of the term post-process in the context of second language writing needs to be guided by a…

  12. 3D FEA simulation of 4A11 piston skirt isothermal forging process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wan-peng; CHEN Jun

    2008-01-01

    To eliminate the defects during piston skirt isothermal forming process, simulations under different process parameters such as the deformation temperature and friction factor were analyzed with the rigid-plastic FEA. Deformation pattern, metal flow and influence of process parameters were concluded. The prediction load value with a relative error of 4.98% is more accurate to the testing one than that from the empirical formula whose relative error is up to 50.8%. Finally, based on the simulation results, an improved process at 300 ℃ and 0.005-0.05 s-1 was verified without any defects by the physical try-out.

  13. Regulative processes in individual, 3D and computer supported cooperative learning contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Frank; Kollöffel, Bas; Meijden, van der Henny; Kleine Staarman, Judith; Janssen, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Three studies of student regulation of learning were undertaken. In the first study, the temporal organization of the self-regulation process was examined within an individual learning context. Multilevel analysis showed linear and quadratic relations between self-regulation process and the phase of

  14. SIMULATION OF 3-D DEFORMATION AND MATERIAL FLOW DURING ROLL FORGING PROCESS USING SYSTEM OF OVAL-ROUND GROOVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Basing on the analysis of the traits of the roll forging process, a system-model of computer simulation has been established. Three-dimensional rigid-plastic FEM has been used for the simulation of the deformation process in the oval and round pass rolling, including the entering, rolling, and separating stages. The analysis was conducted using the Deform-3D ver. 5.0 code.The important information concerned with the deformation area characteristic, material fiow, and velocity field has been presented. Otherwise, the location of the neutral plane in the deformation area was shown clearly.

  15. Process Parameter Optimization of Extrusion-Based 3D Metal Printing Utilizing PW–LDPE–SA Binder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luquan Ren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer. The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid (PW–LDPE–SA. The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. The influence factors in regard to the ultimate tensile strength of the green samples can be described as follows: infill degree > raster angle > layer thickness. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity.

  16. CT图像后处理重建膝关节三维模型:3D-CT评估前交叉韧带重建后的骨道差异%Reconstruction of three-dimensional models of knee joint using CT image post-processing technique:evaluation of bone tunnel difference after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冠奇; 张克远

    2015-01-01

    背景:有研究表明影响前交叉韧带重建手术效果的因素主要取决于骨道的位置,而目前对骨道位置的研究仍存在一定争议。目的:探讨3D-CT对关节镜辅助下前交叉韧带重建后骨道评估的临床价值。方法:对2014年1月至8月收治的58例前交叉韧带损伤患者行关节镜下前交叉韧带重建。股骨端采用Endobutton固定,胫骨端使用可吸收界面钉固定。分别对58个膝关节进行双源CT扫描,使用CT图像后处理工作站重建膝关节三维模型,再现股骨外髁内侧壁及重建后单束骨道,胫骨平台及骨道。根据Lysholm评分分级办法,将随访时Lysholm评分≥80分病例作为优良组,80分以下为不良组,标记、测量股骨及胫骨骨道中心点的相对位置,比较两者的位置关系。结果与结论:3D-CT 三维重建法清晰地反映了膝关节前交叉韧带重建后的骨道及其出入口的位置、固定物及移植物等情况。膝关节功能优良组与不良组患者的术侧膝关节的股骨骨道中心位置之间差异有显著性意义(P 0.05)。结果证实,3D-CT能够清晰重建骨隧道及前交叉韧带移植物的图像,临床上可用于评估骨隧道定位与移植物走形的关系。%BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that factors affecting the outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mainly depend on the position of bone tunnels. However, there stil exists certain controversy over the researches on the position of bone tunnels. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical value of three-dimensional computed tomography on postoperative evaluation of bone tunnel after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under arthroscopic assistance. METHODS:Fifty-eight patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury who received the treatment from January 2014 to August 2014 underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under arthroscopic assistance. The femoral end was fixed using an

  17. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

    2008-07-15

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  18. Taking geoscience to the IMAX: 3D and 4D insight into geological processes using micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Katherine; Dingwell, Don; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Withers, Philip; Lee, Peter; Pistone, Mattia; Fife, Julie; Atwood, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Geology is inherently dynamic, and full understanding of any geological system can only be achieved by considering the processes by which change occurs. Analytical limitations mean understanding has largely developed from ex situ analyses of the products of geological change, rather than of the processes themselves. Most methods essentially utilise "snap shot" sampling: and from thin section petrography to high resolution crystal chemical stratigraphy and field volcanology, we capture an incomplete view of a spatially and temporally variable system. Even with detailed experimental work, we can usually only analyse samples before and after we perform an experiment, as routine analysis methods are destructive. Serial sectioning and quenched experiments stopped at different stages can give some insight into the third and fourth dimension, but the true scaling of the processes from the laboratory to the 4D (3D + time) geosphere is still poorly understood. Micro computed tomography (XMT) can visualise the internal structures and spatial associations within geological samples non-destructively. With image resolutions of between 200 microns and 50 nanometres, tomography has the ability to provide a detailed sample assessment in 3D, and quantification of mineral associations, porosity, grain orientations, fracture alignments and many other features. This allows better understanding of the role of the complex geometries and associations within the samples, but the challenge of capturing the processes that generate and modify these structures remains. To capture processes, recent work has focused on developing experimental capability for in situ experiments on geological materials. Data presented will showcase examples from recent experiments where high speed synchrotron x-ray tomography has been used to acquire each 3D image in under 2 seconds. We present a suite of studies that showcase how it is now possible to take quantification of many geological processed into 3D and

  19. 3D Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Analysis for Skew Rolling Process of the Stepped Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang FANG; Pan ZENG

    2003-01-01

    Based on rigid-plastic finite element method, a skew rolling process of stepped part is simulated. Considering nodesaving and effective remeshing, the tetrahedron solid elements are used to discrete workpiece. The workpiece material adopts rigid-plastic m

  20. The Influence of Process Parameters on the Surface Roughness of a 3D-Printed Co–Cr Dental Alloy Produced via Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Hong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM, used to fabricate metallic objects with high geometrical complexity, is currently of increasing interest to the fields of medicine and dentistry. SLM-fabricated products should have highly smooth surfaces to minimize the use of post-processing procedures such as finishing and polishing. This study investigated the effect of various laser process parameters (laser power, scan rate, and scan-line spacing on the surface roughness of a Co–Cr dental alloy that was three-dimensionally (3D constructed via SLM. Initially, a single-line formation test was used to determine the optimal laser power (200 W and scan rate (128.6 mm/s that resulted in beads with an optimal profile. During subsequent multi-layer formation tests, the 3D Co–Cr body with the smoothest surface was produced using a scan-line spacing of 100 μm. The findings of this study show that laser process parameters have crucial effects on the surface quality of SLM-fabricated Co–Cr dental alloys.

  1. Accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system in the process of making ceramic inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the results of many years of Cerec® 3D CAD/CAM system technological development is implementation of one intraoral and two extraoral optical scanning methods which, depending on the current indications, are applied in making fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of precision of optical scanning methods by the use of the Cerec®3D CAD/CAM system in the process of making ceramic inlays. Methods. The study was conducted in three experimental groups of inlays prepared using the procedure of three methods of scanning Cerec ®3D system. Ceramic inlays made by conventional methodology were the control group. The accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system computer aided designcomputer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM was indirectly examined by measuring a marginal gap size between inlays and demarcation preparation by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. The results of the study showed a difference in the accuracy of the existing methods of scanning dental CAD/CAM systems. The highest level of accuracy was achieved by the extraoral optical superficial scanning technique. The value of marginal gap size inlays made with the technique of extraoral optical superficial scanning was 32.97 ± 13.17 μ. Techniques of intraoral optical superficial and extraoral point laser scanning showed a lower level of accuracy (40.29 ± 21.46 μ for inlays of intraoral optical superficial scanning and 99.67 ± 37.25 μ for inlays of extraoral point laser scanning. Conclusion. Optical scanning methods in dental CAM/CAM technologies are precise methods of digitizing the spatial models; application of extraoral optical scanning methods provides the hightest precision.

  2. a Geometric Processing Workflow for Transforming Reality-Based 3d Models in Volumetric Meshes Suitable for Fea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Guidi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Conservation of Cultural Heritage is a key issue and structural changes and damages can influence the mechanical behaviour of artefacts and buildings. The use of Finite Elements Methods (FEM) for mechanical analysis is largely used in modelling stress behaviour. The typical workflow involves the use of CAD 3D models made by Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) surfaces, representing the ideal shape of the object to be simulated. Nowadays, 3D documentation of CH has been widely developed through reality-based approaches, but the models are not suitable for a direct use in FEA: the mesh has in fact to be converted to volumetric, and the density has to be reduced since the computational complexity of a FEA grows exponentially with the number of nodes. The focus of this paper is to present a new method aiming at generate the most accurate 3D representation of a real artefact from highly accurate 3D digital models derived from reality-based techniques, maintaining the accuracy of the high-resolution polygonal models in the solid ones. The approach proposed is based on a wise use of retopology procedures and a transformation of this model to a mathematical one made by NURBS surfaces suitable for being processed by volumetric meshers typically embedded in standard FEM packages. The strong simplification with little loss of consistency possible with the retopology step is used for maintaining as much coherence as possible between the original acquired mesh and the simplified model, creating in the meantime a topology that is more favourable for the automatic NURBS conversion.

  3. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  4. B4 2 After, 3D Deformation Field From Matching Pre- To Post-Event Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds, The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah M7.2 Earthquake Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Nissen, E.; Limon-Tirado, J. F.; Arrowsmith, R.; Krishnan, A.; Saripalli, S.; Oskin, M. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Arregui, S. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O. J.

    2013-05-01

    Aerial LiDAR surveys reconstruct with amazing fidelity the sinuosity of terrain relief. In this research we explore the 3D deformation field at the surface after a big earthquake (M7.2) by comparing pre- to post-event aerial LiDAR point clouds. The April 4 2010 earthquake produced a NW-SE surface rupture ~110km long with right-lateral normal slip up to 3m in magnitude over a very favorable target: scarcely vegetated and unaltered desert mountain range, sierras El Mayor and Cucapah, in northern Baja California, close to the US-México border. It is a plate boundary region between the Pacific and North American plates. The pre-event LiDAR with lower point density (0.013-0.033 pts m-2) required filtering and post-processing before comparing with the denser (9-18 pts m-2) more accurate post event dataset. The 3D surface displacement field was determined using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, implemented in the open source Point Cloud Library (PCL). The LiDAR datasets are first split into a grid of windows, and for each one, ICP iteratively converges on the rigid body transformation (comprising translations and rotations) that best aligns the pre- to post-event points. Perturbing the pre- and post-event point clouds independently with a synthetic right lateral inverse displacements of known magnitude along a proposed fault, ICP recovered the synthetically introduced translations. Windows with dimensions of 100-200m gave the best results for datasets with these densities. The simplified surface rupture photo interpreted and mapped in the field, delineates very well the vertical displacements patterns unveiled by ICP. The method revealed block rotations, some with clockwise and others counter clockwise direction along the simplified surface rupture. As ground truth, displacements from ICP have similar values as those measured in the field along the main rupture by Fletcher and collaborators. The vertical component was better estimated than the

  5. Numerical modeling of cutting processes for elastoplastic materials in 3D-statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukudzhanov, V. N.; Levitin, A. L.

    2008-06-01

    In the present paper, we use the finite element method to perform the three-dimensional modeling of unsteady process of cutting an elastoplastic plate (slab) by an absolutely rigid cutting tool moving at a constant velocity V 0 at different inclinations α of the tool face (Fig. 1). The modeling was based on the coupled thermomechanical model of an elastoviscoplastic material. The adiabatic process of cutting was compared with the regime in which the slab material heat conduction is taken into account. The cutting process was parametrically studied for variations in the slab and cutting tool geometry, in the rate and depth of cutting, and in the properties of the processed material. The slab thickness was varied in the direction of the axis z. The stressed state varied from the plane-stressed bar H = H/L≪ 1 (thin plate) to the plane-strained bar H ≫ 1 (wide plate), where H is the slab thickness and L is the slab length. The problem was solved on a moving adaptive Lagrange-Euler grid by the finite element method with splitting, by using the explicit-implicit integration schemes for equations [13]. It was shown that the numerical modeling of the problem in the three-dimensional statement permits studying the cutting processes with continuous chip formation and with chip destruction into separate pieces. The mechanism of this phenomenon in the case of orthogonal cutting ( α = 0) can be explained by the thermal softening with formation of adiabatic shear strips without using the damage models. In cutting by a sharper tool (the angle α is large), it is necessary to use the coupled model of thermal and structural softening. We obtain dependences of the force acting on the tool for different geometric and physical parameters of the problem. We also show that the quasimonotone and oscillating operation modes are possible and explain them from the physical standpoint.

  6. Induced tauopathy in a novel 3D-culture model mediates neurodegenerative processes: a real-time study on biochips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Seidel

    Full Text Available Tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease represent one of the major health problems of aging population worldwide. Therefore, a better understanding of tau-dependent pathologies and consequently, tau-related intervention strategies is highly demanded. In recent years, several tau-focused therapies have been proposed with the aim to stop disease progression. However, to develop efficient active pharmaceutical ingredients for the broad treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients, further improvements are necessary for understanding the detailed neurodegenerative processes as well as the mechanism and side effects of potential active pharmaceutical ingredients (API in the neuronal system. In this context, there is a lack of suitable complex in vitro cell culture models recapitulating major aspects of taupathological degenerative processes in sufficient time and reproducible manner.Herewith, we describe a novel 3D SH-SY5Y cell-based, tauopathy model that shows advanced characteristics of matured neurons in comparison to monolayer cultures without the need of artificial differentiation promoting agents. Moreover, the recombinant expression of a novel highly pathologic fourfold mutated human tau variant lead to a fast and emphasized degeneration of neuritic processes. The neurodegenerative effects could be analyzed in real time and with high sensitivity using our unique microcavity array-based impedance spectroscopy measurement system. We were able to quantify a time- and concentration-dependent relative impedance decrease when Alzheimer's disease-like tau pathology was induced in the neuronal 3D cell culture model. In combination with the collected optical information, the degenerative processes within each 3D-culture could be monitored and analyzed. More strikingly, tau-specific regenerative effects caused by tau-focused active pharmaceutical ingredients could be quantitatively monitored by impedance spectroscopy.Bringing together our novel complex 3

  7. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  8. SHEARING STRENGTH TEST OF ORTOPEDIC TITANIUM ALLOY SCREW PRODUCED IN THE PROCESS OF 3D TECHNOLOGY PRINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Ruszniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present dissertation is the assessment of technical shear resistance (technological shear of orthopedic screw made of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V, produced using incremental technology in the process of 3D printing process. The first part of the work presents incremental techniques in production engineering. The second part of the present work contains specification of the 3D printing process of samples as well as the description of the used material. The fundamental part of the article is composed out of endurance tests for orthopaedic screws as well as the analysis of the obtained results and conclusions. The method of incremental production SLM using SLM 280HL metal printer was used during the technological process. The resistance tests were performed using ZWICK/ROELL Z150 machines. Identical endurance trials were performed for monolithic bars made of titanium alloys (of bar core size made on a wire electric discharge machine Sodick SL600Q for comparative purposes. The obtained test results enabled comparative assessment of the value of shear resistance Rt in the conditions of technological shear. According to the performed tests, the shear resistance Rt of orthopaedic screws is nearly 33% lower than of monolithic bars of the same core size.

  9. 3-D Numerical Simulation on the Chip Machining Process of a Metal Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yixia; Yin Yihui; Li Weifen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the cutting process of a metal block is numerically simulated by the dynamic explicit FE code ABAQUS. Taking thermo-mechanical coupling effect into consideration, the simulation presents the variation of temperature, stress and strain distribution in the workpiece and chip. The effective plastic strain failure criterion is applied to modeling the chip separation and plastic formation. And the phenomenon of the contact and friction between the workpiece and the cutting tool are described in the paper.

  10. New process for fuel cell fabrication. 3D screen printing of metal bipolar plates; Neues Verfahren zur Brennstoffzellenfertigung. 3D-Siebdruck von metallischen Bipolarplatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnitzky, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung (IFAM), Dresden (Germany); Helm, Peter; Heinzel, Angelika [Zentrum fuer BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH (ZBT), Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Minimization of space requirements, weight, and production cost is one of the key preconditions for successful launching of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM). In the stacks constructed from single PEM cells, the bipolar plate is a central component. It determines the weight and volume of the stack and accounts for more than 30 percent of the overall cost, depending on the fabrication process. It is therefore important for producers of fuel cells to develop a process that combines free design, high functionality and low cost in serial production.

  11. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of 2D and 3D Tasks for Virtual Reality Therapies Based on Robotic-Assisted Neurorehabilitation for Post-stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Sabater-Navarro, José M; García-Aracil, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length, or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding the success rates

  13. A comparative analysis of 2D and 3D tasks for virtual reality therapies based on robotic-assisted neurorehabilitation for post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Lledó

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke neurorehabilitation based on virtual therapies are performed completing repetitive exercises shown in visual electronic devices, whose content represents imaginary or daily life tasks. Currently, there are two ways of visualization of these task. 3D virtual environments are used to get a three dimensional space that represents the real world with a high level of detail, whose realism is determinated by the resolucion and fidelity of the objects of the task. Furthermore, 2D virtual environments are used to represent the tasks with a low degree of realism using techniques of bidimensional graphics. However, the type of visualization can influence the quality of perception of the task, affecting the patient's sensorimotor performance. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if there were differences in patterns of kinematic movements when post-stroke patients performed a reach task viewing a virtual therapeutic game with two different type of visualization of virtual environment: 2D and 3D. Nine post-stroke patients have participated in the study receiving a virtual therapy assisted by PUPArm rehabilitation robot. Horizontal movements of the upper limb were performed to complete the aim of the tasks, which consist in reaching peripheral or perspective targets depending on the virtual environment shown. Various parameter types such as the maximum speed, reaction time, path length or initial movement are analyzed from the data acquired objectively by the robotic device to evaluate the influence of the task visualization. At the end of the study, a usability survey was provided to each patient to analysis his/her satisfaction level. For all patients, the movement trajectories were enhanced when they completed the therapy. This fact suggests that patient's motor recovery was increased. Despite of the similarity in majority of the kinematic parameters, differences in reaction time and path length were higher using the 3D task. Regarding

  14. Editorial: 3DIM-DS 2015: Optical image processing in the context of 3D imaging, metrology, and data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-02-01

    Following the first International Symposium on 3D Imaging, Metrology, and Data Security (3DIM-DS) held in Shenzhen during september 2015, this special issue gathers a series of articles dealing with the main topics discussed during this symposium. These topics highlighted the importance of studying complex data treatment systems and intensive calculations designed for high dimensional imaging and metrology for which high image quality and high transmission speed become critical issues in a number of technological applications. A second purpose was to celebrate the International Year of Light by emphasizing the important role of optics in actual information processing systems.

  15. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  16. Novel Processing for Creating 3D Architectured Porous Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    prevents inter-diffusion of Fe into the NiTi matrix. Previously, steel spaceholders were carburized before processing. In this case, high carbon steel...Also, 5.3 wt% Nb powder is blended with the NiTi powder matrix to form small amounts of the eutectic phase. The tubes were carburized and sensitized...by carburizing for 960°C for 4 hr packed in graphite under flowing argon. The NiTi+Nb powder blend was then packed around the frame and cold

  17. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  18. 3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scaffaro, Giada Lo Re, Salvatrice Rigogliuso and Giulio Ghersi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide (PLA-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

  19. Image Post-Processing in Dental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by ...

  20. High-temperature compatible 3D-integration processes for a vacuum-sealed CNT-based NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, R.; Lee, S. W.; Akiyama, T.; Briand, D.; Roman, C.; Hierold, C.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    A System-in-Package (SiP) concept for the 3D-integration of a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with its CMOS driving electronics is presented. The key element of this advanced SiP is the monolithic 3D-integration of the MEMS with the CMOS electronics using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) on an SOI wafer. This SiP includes: A glass cap vacuum-sealed to the main wafer using an eutectic bonding process: a low leak rate of 2.7 10-9 mbar•l/s was obtained; Platinum-TSVs, compatible with the SWCNT growth and release process; The TSVs were developed in a "via first" process and characterized at high-temperature — up to 850 °C. An ohmic contact between the Pt-metallization and the SOI silicon device layer was obtained; The driving CMOS electronic device is assembled to the MEMS using an Au stud bump technology. Keywords: System-in-Package (SiP), vacuum packaging, eutectic bonding, "via-first" TSVs, high-temperature platinum interconnects, ohmic contacts, Au-stud bumps assembly, CMOS electronics.

  1. Simulation of the screening process on a circularly vibrating screen using 3D-DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Lala; Zhao Yuemin; Liu Chusheng; Li Jun; Dong Hailin

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study of the motion particulates follow along a circularly vibrating screen deck was done using the three dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM).The motion of the particles was analyzed.The effects of vibration amplitude,throwing index,and screen deck inclination angle on the screening process are discussed.The results show that the average velocity of the particles increases along the longitudinal direction of the deck.The screening efficiency is highest when the vibration amplitude,throwing index,and screen deck inclination angle are 3-3.5 mm,2.7 and 15°,respectively.This work is helpful for developing a deep understanding of particle motion and for optimizing screen separator designs.

  2. Role of 3D force networks in linking grain scale to macroscale processes in sheared granular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, K.; Jettestuen, E.; Abe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Active faults, landslides and subglacial tills contain accumulations of granular debris that evolve during sliding. The macroscopic motion in these environments is at least to some extent determined by processes operating in this sheared granular material. A valid question is how the local behavior at the individual granular contacts actually sums up to influence macroscopic sliding. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling can potentially help elucidate this. Observations of jamming (stick) and unjamming (flow) as well as concentrated shear bands on the scale of 5-10 grains suggest that a simple continuum description may be insufficient to capture important elements of the behavior. We therefore seek a measure of the organization of the granular fabric and the 3D structure of the load bearing skeleton that effectively demonstrates how the individual grain interactions are manifested in the macroscopic sliding behavior we observe. Contact force networks are an expression of this. Here we investigate the structure and variability of the most connected system spanning force networks produced in 3D discrete element models of granular layers under shear. We use percolation measures to identify, characterize, compare and track the evolution of these strongly connected contact force networks. We show that specific topological measures used in describing the networks, such as number of contacts and coordination number, are sensitive to grain size distribution (and likely the grain shape) of the material as well as loading conditions. Hence, faults of different maturity would be expected to accommodate shear in different ways. Distinct changes in the topological characteristics i.e. the geometry of strong force networks with accumulated strain are directly correlated to fluctuations in macroscopic shearing resistance. This suggests that 3D force networks play an important bridging role between individual grain scale processes and macroscopic sliding behavior.

  3. Process of 3D wireless decentralized sensor deployment using parsing crossover scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H.R. Ko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN usually consists of numerous wireless devices deployed in a region of interest, each able to collect and process environmental information and communicate with neighboring devices. It can thus be regarded as a Multi-Agent System for territorial security, where individual agents cooperate with each other to avoid duplication of effort and to exploit other agent’s capacities. The problem of sensor deployment becomes non-trivial when we consider environmental factors, such as terrain elevations. Due to the fact that all sensors are homogeneous, the chromosomes that encode sensor positions are actually interchangeable, and conventional crossover schemes such as uniform crossover would cause some redundancy as well as over-concentration in certain specific geographical area. We propose a Parsing Crossover Scheme that intends to reduce redundancy and ease geographical concentration pattern in an effort to facilitate the search. The proposed parsing crossover method demonstrates better performances than those of uniform crossover under different terrain irregularities.

  4. 3D Simulation of Neutral Gas Dynamics for PVD DC-MSIP and HPPMS Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Brugnara, Ricardo Henrique; Schäfer, Marcel; Trieschmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetron sputtering processes used for physical vapor deposition often require gas pressures well below 1 Pa. Under these conditions the gas flow in the reactor is usually determined by a Knudsen number of about one, i.e. a transition regime between the hydrodynamic and the rarefied gas regime. In the first, the gas flow is well described by the Navier-Stokes equations, while in the second a kinetic approach via the Boltzmann equation is necessary. In this paper the neutral and reactive gas flow of argon and molecular nitrogen gas inside an industrial scale plasma reactor is simulated using a fluid model, as well as a fully kinetic model. The results are compared and it is found that the gas flow appears to be significantly different, although the neutral particles exhibit a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in energy space for both approaches. It is shown that the results are in qualitative agreement and the main expected characteristics of the gas flow are covered by both models. However, only the kinetic mod...

  5. Investigation of molten pool oscillation during GMAW-P process based on a 3D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. L.; Lu, F. G.; Cui, H. C.; Tang, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    In order to better reveal the oscillation mechanism of the pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) process due to an alternately varied welding current, arc plasma and molten pool oscillation were simulated through a self-consistent three-dimensional model. Based on an experimental analysis of the dynamic variation of the arc plasma and molten pool captured by a high-speed camera, the model was validated by comparison of the measured and predicted results. The calculated results showed that arc pressure was the key factor causing the molten pool to oscillate. The variation in arc size and temperature from peak time to base time resulted in a great difference in the heat input and arc pressure acting on the molten pool. The surface deformation of the molten pool due to the varying degrees of arc pressure induced alternate displacement and backflow in the molten metal. The periodic iteration of deeper and shallower surface deformation, drain and backflow of molten metal caused the molten pool to oscillate at a certain frequency. In this condition, the arc pressure at the peak time is more than six times higher than that at the base time, and the maximum surface depression is 1.4 mm and 0.6 mm, respectively, for peak time and base time.

  6. 3D point cloud in the evaluation of processes that generate instability of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González Gallegos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To integrate patients with lumbar instability in a multisensor platform in the process of assessment and diagnosis, assigning quantitative parameters for the sagittal balance (SB and muscle function. METHODS: Experimental study involving adult patients diagnosed with diseases that cause alterations in the SB, that were or were not submitted to surgery with posterior instrumentation and fusion. Each patient underwent anthropometric measurements in body composition scale; a kinesiological analysis using a multisensor platform consisting of depth camera to static/dynamic analysis for the quantitative measurement of SB, and surface electromyography to capture the level of abdominal and lumbar muscles activation and through flexion and extension. RESULTS: Seven adult patients: five females (62.5%and two men (37.5% with a mean age 48 years. Images with depth cameras resulted in a SB of from -6.4 to +5.3cm (average -5.7cm. In individuals with positive sagittal balance the percentage of activation (PA of the abdominal muscles was 58.5% and the lower back lumbar was 75.25%; patients with negative SB integrated the PA of the abdominal muscles of 70.25% and lumbar of 65%; the patient with neutral SB exhibited activation of the abdominal muscles of 87.75% and lumbar muscles of 78.25%. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a trend towards positive SB in patients with overweight and obesity by BMI, as well as increased activation of the abdominal muscles. The multi sensor platform is a useful tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases involving sagittal imbalance.

  7. In-process 3D laser measurement to control the fiber tape-laying for composite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Mersmann, Christoph; Damm, Björn

    2010-05-01

    Metrology is the key to an economically feasible production of fiber-reinforced composites in the field of automated tape laying, applying a novel laser light-section sensor system (LLSS) to measure process quality and feed back the results to close control loops of the production system. The developed method derives 3D measurements from height profiles through an in-process surface scan by the integrated LLSS. Gaps, overlaps, misalignment and defects of the composite tapes are detected during their lay-up and consolidation by comparing the measurement results with a CAD/CAM model of the lay-up. The height profiles are processed with a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a set of sigmoid functions to ensure sub-pixel accuracy.

  8. 3D FE Analysis of Thermal Behavior of Billet in Rod and Wire Hot Continuous Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Si-yu; ZHANG Li-wen; LIAO Shu-lun; QI Min; ZHEN Yu; GUO Shu-qi

    2007-01-01

    An FE model was developed to study thermal behavior during the rod and wire hot continuous rolling process. The FE code MSC.Marc was used in the simulation using implicit static arithmetic. The whole rolling process of 30 passes was separated and simulated with several continuous 3D elastic-plastic FE models. A rigid pushing body and a data transfer technique were introduced into this model. The on-line experiments were conducted on 304 stainless steel and GCr15 steel hot continuous rolling process to prove the results of simulation by implicit static FEM. The results show that the temperature results of finite element simulations are in good agreement with experiments, which indicate that the FE model developed in this study is effective and efficient.

  9. A novel structured dictionary for fast processing of 3D medical images, with application to computed tomography restoration and denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Davood; Ward, Rabab K.

    2016-03-01

    Sparse representation of signals in learned overcomplete dictionaries has proven to be a powerful tool with applications in denoising, restoration, compression, reconstruction, and more. Recent research has shown that learned overcomplete dictionaries can lead to better results than analytical dictionaries such as wavelets in almost all image processing applications. However, a major disadvantage of these dictionaries is that their learning and usage is very computationally intensive. In particular, finding the sparse representation of a signal in these dictionaries requires solving an optimization problem that leads to very long computational times, especially in 3D image processing. Moreover, the sparse representation found by greedy algorithms is usually sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a novel two-level dictionary structure that improves the performance and the speed of standard greedy sparse coding methods. The first (i.e., the top) level in our dictionary is a fixed orthonormal basis, whereas the second level includes the atoms that are learned from the training data. We explain how such a dictionary can be learned from the training data and how the sparse representation of a new signal in this dictionary can be computed. As an application, we use the proposed dictionary structure for removing the noise and artifacts in 3D computed tomography (CT) images. Our experiments with real CT images show that the proposed method achieves results that are comparable with standard dictionary-based methods while substantially reducing the computational time.

  10. Characterization of immiscible fluid displacement processes with various capillary numbers and viscosity ratios in 3D natural sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Jiang, Fei; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the influence of reservoir conditions upon multiphase flow, we calculated fluid displacements (drainage processes) in 3D pore spaces of Berea sandstone using two-phase lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations. The results of simulations under various conditions were used to classify the resulting two-phase flow behavior into three typical fluid displacement patterns on the diagram of capillary number (Ca) and viscosity ratio of the two fluids (M). In addition, the saturation of the nonwetting phase was calculated and mapped on the Ca-M diagram. We then characterized dynamic pore-filling events (i.e., Haines jumps) from the pressure variation of the nonwetting phase, and linked this behavior to the occurrence of capillary fingering. The results revealed the onset of capillary fingering in 3D natural rock at a higher Ca than in 2D homogeneous granular models, with the crossover region between typical displacement patterns broader than in the homogeneous granular model. Furthermore, saturation of the nonwetting phase mapped on the Ca-M diagram significantly depends on the rock models. These important differences between two-phase flow in 3D natural rock and in 2D homogeneous models could be due to the heterogeneity of pore geometry in the natural rock and differences in pore connectivity. By quantifying two-phase fluid behavior in the target reservoir rock under various conditions (e.g., saturation mapping on the Ca-M diagram), our approach could provide useful information for investigating suitable reservoir conditions for geo-fluid management (e.g., high CO2 saturation in CO2 storage).

  11. Image post-processing in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-10-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by a computer and image processing programs. In this article, image post-processing operations such as image restoration, image enhancement, image analysis, image synthesis, and image compression, and their diagnostic efficacy is described. In addition this article provides general dental practitioners with a broad overview of the benefits of the different image post-processing operations to help them understand the role of that the technology can play in their practices.

  12. Intense post-accelerated 11C beams for hadrontherapy: Treatment and at the same time 3D dose mapping by PET imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonca, T; Stora, T; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    Hadrontherapy was introduced in the USA some decades ago and has by now widespread throughout the world, as seen with the construction of CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN, MedAustron and Etoile treatment centers. Accelerator laboratories, such as GANIL, CERN-ISOLDE and SPES, producing post-accelerated radioactive ion beams for fundamental research have in parallel been also multiplied. Here we propose to fully replace or combine carbon therapy treatments based on 12C ions with treatments using a post-accelerated 11C PET radioactive ion. This has the advantage to provide a beam for treatment and at the same time, to collect informations during or just after, on the 3D distribution of the implanted ions by PET imaging using, i.e. PET-CT scanners in the treatment rooms. This approach has already been tested at NIRS in Japan and can be seriously envisaged, notably because of the recent progresses made on 11C ion production and post-acceleration techniques. Furthermore, it presents a much higher sensitivity and flexibility than...

  13. Constraints on post Mid-Jurassic basin evolution in the North Sea from 3D numerical modelling of basin initiation and subsidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K. D.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    The North Sea sedimentary basin contains more than 3km of post Mid-Jurassic sediments. These are located in a trilete graben system consisting of the Moray Firth and the Viking and Central grabens, but also in a broad region surrounding the grabens, corresponding to the post-mid Cretaceous sediment deposits During the Mid- Jurassic the area was exposed to volcanism, domal regional uplift and erosion, followed by crustal thinning and normal faulting in the grabens. We use a numerical model considering 3D thermal evolution, flexural isostasy, erosion, sedimentation and compaction together with isopach data to simulate the geodynamic evolution of the area since the Mid-Jurassic. Our modelling studies show that the broad distribution of post Jurassic sediments cannot be explained by uniform stretching in the graben areas alone. Regional Mid-Jurassic thinning of the subcrustal lithosphere producing first uplift and erosion and later accommodation space for Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments is also required. The uniform crustal thinning factor in the grabens amounts to a maximum of 1.14. The required subcrustal lithospheric thinning amounts to about 15 km. Our results are in accordance with observations from recent rift systems such as the Rhine Graben, Eastern Africa and the Baikal Rift, which show that crustal thinning is restricted to the graben areas while thinning of the subcrustal lithosphere (up to 100 km) and the associated domal surface uplift are more regionally distributed.

  14. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  15. Simulation of the load rejection transient process of a francis turbine by using a 1-D-3-D coupling approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓曦; 程永光; 杨建东; 夏林生; 赖旭

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation and the analysis of the transient process of a Francis turbine during the load rejection by employing a one-dimensional and three-dimensional (1-D-3-D) coupling approach. The coupling is realized by partly overlapping the 1-D and 3-D parts, the water hammer wave is modeled by defining the pressure dependent density, and the guide vane closure is treated by a dynamic mesh method. To verify the results of the coupling approach, the transient parameters for both typical models and a real power station are compared with the data obtained by the 1-D approach, and good agreements are found. To investigate the differences between the transient and steady states at the corresponding operating parameters, the flow characteristics inside a turbine of the real power station are simulated by both transient and steady methods, and the results are analyzed in details. Our analysis suggests that there are just a little differences in the turbine outer characteristics, thus the traditional 1-D method is in general acceptable. However, the flow patterns in the spiral casing, the draft tube, and the runner passages are quite different: the transient situation has obvious water hammer waves, the water inertia, and some other effects. These may be crucial for the draft tube pul- sation and need further studies.

  16. A novel 3D-layered electrochemical-thermal coupled model strategy for the nail-penetration process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guozhou; Zhang, Yiming; Han, Qi; Liu, Zhaoping; Jiang, Zhen; Tian, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    The safety is one of the persisting concerns related with Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, among which the internal short-circuit is the most dangerous abusive situation and has always been the root cause for several catastrophic accidents in recent years. In this work, a 3D-layered electrochemical-thermal coupled model is employed to investigate the nail-penetration process in a Li-ion cell. The model is based on multilayer construction of a cell, and an effective strategy to evaluate the short-circuit area equivalent resistance (i.e. the equivalent resistance of short-circuit area that is caused by nail-penetration) during the penetration process is proposed. The developed model is proved to have capability of estimating the thermal runaway time, as well as the temperature distribution during nail-penetration process. It is also found that the active material loss during the nail-penetration process can be reconstructed by utilizing the developed model, which could provide understandings about the side reactions inside the cell during the nail-penetration process. The present study provides some insights about the nail-penetration process, and can be treated as a useful tool that helps the design of Li-ion cells for improving safety.

  17. LatticeLibrary and BccFccRaycaster: Software for processing and viewing 3D data on optimal sampling lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schold Linnér

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present LatticeLibrary, a C++ library for general processing of 2D and 3D images sampled on arbitrary lattices. The current implementation supports the Cartesian Cubic (CC, Body-Centered Cubic (BCC and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC lattices, and is designed to facilitate addition of other sampling lattices. We also introduce BccFccRaycaster, a plugin for the existing volume renderer Voreen, making it possible to view CC, BCC and FCC data, using different interpolation methods, with the same application. The plugin supports nearest neighbor and trilinear interpolation at interactive frame rates. These tools will enable further studies of the possible advantages of non-Cartesian lattices in a wide range of research areas.

  18. LatticeLibrary and BccFccRaycaster: Software for processing and viewing 3D data on optimal sampling lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnér, Elisabeth Schold; Morén, Max; Smed, Karl-Oskar; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin

    In this paper, we present LatticeLibrary, a C++ library for general processing of 2D and 3D images sampled on arbitrary lattices. The current implementation supports the Cartesian Cubic (CC), Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) lattices, and is designed to facilitate addition of other sampling lattices. We also introduce BccFccRaycaster, a plugin for the existing volume renderer Voreen, making it possible to view CC, BCC and FCC data, using different interpolation methods, with the same application. The plugin supports nearest neighbor and trilinear interpolation at interactive frame rates. These tools will enable further studies of the possible advantages of non-Cartesian lattices in a wide range of research areas.

  19. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.; Torheim, O.; Hu-Guo, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Degerli, Y. [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Hu, Y., E-mail: yann.hu@iphc.cnrs.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2013-03-11

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization.

  20. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raguvarun, K., E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NDE, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamilnadu (India); Palanisamy, Suresh [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering, New South Wales 2522, Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  1. Segmentation process significantly influences the accuracy of 3D surface models derived from cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Schepers, Rutger H; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the accuracy of surface models derived from 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with two different segmentation protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen cadaver heads were used. There was no conflict of interests in this study. CBCT scans were made of the heads and 3D

  2. The influence of the segmentation process on 3D measurements from cone beam computed tomography-derived surface models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, Willem P.; Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of linear and angular measurements between cephalometric and anatomic landmarks on surface models derived from 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with two different segmentation protocols was the aim of this study. CBCT scans were made of cadaver heads and 3D surface mod

  3. Sensor fusion of 2D and 3D data for the processing of images of dental imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methot, Jean-Francois; Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis; Poussart, Denis

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system for the acquisition and processing of 3-D images of wax dental imprints. The ultimate goal of the system is to measure a set of 10 orthodontic parameters that will be fed to an expert system for automatic diagnosis of occlusion problems. An approach for the acquisition of range images of both sides of the imprint is presented. Range is obtained from a shape-from-absorption technique applied to a pair of grey-level images obtained at two different wavelengths. The accuracy of the range values is improved using sensor fusion between the initial range image and a reflectance image from the pair of grey-level images. The improved range image is segmented in order to find the interstices between teeth and, following further processing, the type of each tooth on the profile. Once each tooth has been identified, its accurate location on the imprint is found using a region- growing approach and its shape is reconstructed with third degree polynomial functions. The reconstructed shape will be later used by the system to find specific features that are needed to estimate the orthodontic parameters.

  4. Post-trial anatomical frame alignment procedure for comparison of 3D joint angle measurement from magnetic/inertial measurement units and camera-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingguo; Zhang, Jun-Tian

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units (MIMUs) have been widely used as an alternative to traditional camera-based motion capture systems for 3D joint kinematics measurement. Since these sensors do not directly measure position, a pre-trial anatomical calibration, either with the assistance of a special protocol/apparatus or with another motion capture system is required to establish the transformation matrices between the local sensor frame and the anatomical frame (AF) of each body segment on which the sensors are attached. Because the axes of AFs are often used as the rotational axes in the joint angle calculation, any difference in the AF determination will cause discrepancies in the calculated joint angles. Therefore, a direct comparison of joint angles between MIMU systems and camera-based systems is less meaningful because the calculated joint angles contain a systemic error due to the differences in the AF determination. To solve this problem a new post-trial AF alignment procedure is proposed. By correcting the AF misalignments, the joint angle differences caused by the difference in AF determination are eliminated and the remaining discrepancies are mainly from the measurement accuracy of the systems themselves. Lower limb joint angles from 30 walking trials were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed AF alignment procedure. This technique could serve as a new means for calibrating magnetic/inertial sensor-based motion capture systems and correcting for AF misalignment in scenarios where joint angles are compared directly.

  5. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-I: 3D thermo-chemical process simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri;

    2015-01-01

    , a pultrusion simulation of a Ushaped composite profile is performed to validate the model and it is found that the obtained cure degree profiles match with those given in the literature. Subsequently, the pultrusion process simulation of the NACA0018 profile is performed. The evolutions of the temperature...... and cure degree distributions are predicted inside the heating die and in the post-die region where convective cooling prevails. The effects of varying process conditions on the part quality are investigated for two different heater configurations and with three different pulling speeds. Larger...... throughthickness gradients are obtained for the temperature and degree of cure as the pulling speed increases. This will affect the process induced residual stresses and distortions during manufacturing....

  6. SU-E-T-61: A Practical Process for Fabricating Passive Scatter Proton Beam Modulation Compensation Filters Using 3D Printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T; Drzymala, R [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to devise a practical fabrication process for passive scatter proton beam compensation filters (CF) that is competitive in time, cost and effort using 3D printing. Methods: DICOM compensator filter files for a proton beam were generated by our Eclipse (Varian, Inc.) treatment planning system. The compensator thickness specifications were extracted with in-house software written in Matlab (MathWorks, Inc.) code and written to a text file which could be read by the Rhinoceros 5, computer-aided design (CAD) package (Robert McNeel and Associates), which subsequently generated a smoothed model in a STereoLithographic also known as a Standard Tesselation Language file (STL). The model in the STL file was subsequently refined using Netfabb software and then converted to printing instructions using Cura. version 15.02.1. for our 3D printer. The Airwolf3D, model HD2x, fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer (Airwolf3D.com) was used for our fabrication system with a print speed of 150mm per second. It can print in over 22 different plastic filament materials in a build volume of 11” x 8” x 12”. We choose ABS plastic to print the 3D model of the imprint for our CFs. Results: Prints of the CF could be performed at a print speed of 70mm per second. The time to print the 3D topology for the CF for the 14 cm diameter snout of our Mevion 250 proton accelerator was less than 3 hours. The printed model is intended to subsequently be used as a mold to imprint a molten wax cylindrical to form the compensation after cooling. The whole process should be performed for a typical 3 beam treatment plan within a day. Conclusion: Use of 3D printing is practical and can be used to print a 3D model of a CF within a few hours.

  7. Multigrid mapping and box relaxation for simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Liu, Z. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.

  8. Localized 3D-structural features of dynamic-chemical processes of urban air pollution in Beijing winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX) is described with emphases on the "point-surface" research approach and composite analysis. The analysis results of measurements from four observation sites across the Beijing urban area from January to March indicate that the overall impact of urban emission sources in the heating season is significant, and the staggered impact of urban emission sources has different features at observation sites over different parts of Beijing in both heating and non-heating seasons. The pollutants NOx, SO2 and CO in the urban boundary layer have the in-phase variation features over a large area. O3 concentrations at different sites have the same variation trend but its change is reversed phases with above pollutants. The pollutants over the urban area in heating and non-heating seasons also have the synchronous variation trend. The comprehensive sounding of BECAPEX indicates that pollutants and aerosol vertical profiles are closely correlated to the vertical structure of the large-scale inversion layer in the urban boundary layer over the urban area. The localized 3D-structural features of local urban polluting processes associated with the peripheral areas are discussed with a "point-surface" comprehensive sounding technique.

  9. Ship Maintenance Processes with Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management and 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning Tools: Reducing Costs and Increasing Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    award; “pushing” potentially high-impact research reports (e.g., via overnight shipping) to selected practitioners and policy-makers; and most...integration of these two technologies within Phase IV of SHIPMAIN could result in substantial cost savings and decreased fleet cycle time via ...original Shipmain plan included: – 3D Terrestr s S ni g echnology ial La er can n T (3D TLS) – Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management (collab

  10. Matrix density alters zyxin phosphorylation, which limits peripheral process formation and extension in endothelial cells invading 3D collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Colette A; Bayless, Kayla J

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimal conditions required for known pro-angiogenic stimuli to elicit successful endothelial sprouting responses. We used an established, quantifiable model of endothelial cell (EC) sprout initiation where ECs were tested for invasion in low (1 mg/mL) and high density (5 mg/mL) 3D collagen matrices. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) alone, or S1P combined with stromal derived factor-1α (SDF) and phorbol ester (TPA), elicited robust sprouting responses. The ability of these factors to stimulate sprouting was more effective in higher density collagen matrices. S1P stimulation resulted in a significant increase in invasion distance, and with the exception of treatment groups containing phorbol ester, invasion distance was longer in 1mg/mL compared to 5mg/mL collagen matrices. Closer examination of cell morphology revealed that increasing matrix density and supplementing with SDF and TPA enhanced the formation of multicellular structures more closely resembling capillaries. TPA enhanced the frequency and size of lumen formation and correlated with a robust increase in phosphorylation of p42/p44 Erk kinase, while S1P and SDF did not. Also, a higher number of significantly longer extended processes formed in 5mg/mL compared to 1mg/mL collagen matrices. Because collagen matrices at higher density have been reported to be stiffer, we tested for changes in the mechanosensitive protein, zyxin. Interestingly, zyxin phosphorylation levels inversely correlated with matrix density, while levels of total zyxin did not change significantly. Immunofluorescence and localization studies revealed that total zyxin was distributed evenly throughout invading structures, while phosphorylated zyxin was slightly more intense in extended peripheral processes. Silencing zyxin expression increased extended process length and number of processes, while increasing zyxin levels decreased extended process length. Altogether these data indicate that ECs

  11. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  12. Femtosecond laser aided processing of optical sensor fibers for 3D medical navigation and tracking (FiberNavi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermann, Christian; Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang; Witte, Michael; Kohn, Nils; Wilhelm, Dirk; Schneider, Armin; Reiser, Silvano; Feußner, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    A new concept for fiber-optical 3D shape sensing applying femtosecond laser technology for highprecision direct writing of Bragg gratings within the core and the cladding of single core standard telecom fibers is presented. This new technology enables a cost-efficient and real-time 3D shape sensing and navigation of medical catheters or endoscopes only by means of passive optical sensor elements. First prototypes showed the possibility to achieve absolute navigation accuracy of four mm per meter and have successfully been tested in clinical environment.

  13. SedWorks: A 3-D visualisation software package to help students link surface processes with depositional product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. A.; Edwards, A.; Boulton, P.

    2010-12-01

    Helping students to develop a cognitive and intuitive feel for the different temporal and spatial scales of processes through which the rock record is assembled is a primary goal of geoscience teaching. SedWorks is a 3-D virtual geoscience world that integrates both quantitative modelling and field-based studies into one interactive package. The program aims to help students acquire scientific content, cultivate critical thinking skills, and hone their problem solving ability, while also providing them with the opportunity to practice the activities undertaken by professional earth scientists. SedWorks is built upon a game development platform used for constructing interactive 3-D applications. Initially the software has been developed for teaching the sedimentology component of a Geoscience degree and consists of a series of continents or land masses each possessing sedimentary environments which the students visit on virtual field trips. The students are able to interact with the software to collect virtual field data from both the modern environment and the stratigraphic record, and to formulate hypotheses based on their observations which they can test through virtual physical experimentation within the program. The program is modular in design in order to enhance its adaptability and to allow scientific content to be updated so that the knowledge and skills acquired are at the cutting edge. We will present an example module in which students undertake a virtual field study of a 2-km long stretch of a river to observe how sediment is transported and deposited. On entering the field area students are able to observe different bedforms in different parts of the river as they move up- and down-stream, as well as in and out of the river. As they explore, students discover ‘hot spots’ at which particular tools become available to them. This includes tools for measuring the physical parameters of the flow and sediment bed (e.g. velocity, depth, grain size, bed

  14. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  15. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  16. Nanostructured p-type CZTS thin films prepared by a facile solution process for 3D p-n junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Sim, Jun-Hyoung; Yang, Kee-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, JunHo; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2015-07-07

    Nanoporous p-type semiconductor thin films prepared by a simple solution-based process with appropriate thermal treatment and three-dimensional (3D) p-n junction solar cells fabricated by depositing n-type semiconductor layers onto the nanoporous p-type thin films show considerable photovoltaic performance compared with conventional thin film p-n junction solar cells. Spin-coated p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared using metal chlorides and thiourea show unique nanoporous thin film morphology, which is composed of a cluster of CZTS nanograins of 50-500 nm, and the obvious 3D p-n junction structure is fabricated by the deposition of n-type CdS on the nanoporous CZTS thin films by chemical bath deposition. The photovoltaic properties of 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells are predominantly affected by the scale of CZTS nanograins, which is easily controlled by the sulfurization temperature of CZTS precursor films. The scale of CZTS nanograins determines the minority carrier transportation within the 3D p-n junction between CZTS and CdS, which are closely related with the photocurrent of series resistance of 3D p-n junction solar cells. 3D p-n junction CZTS solar cells with nanograins below 100 nm show power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is comparable with conventional CZTS thin film solar cells.

  17. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  18. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  19. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Naftulin

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT collect three-dimensional data (3D that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images to stereolithography (STL files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min. Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  20. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  1. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva

    2016-09-01

    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  2. 3D modelling of non-linear visco-elasto-plastic crustal and lithospheric processes using LaMEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Anton; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model) is a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical code to simulate crustal and lithospheric deformation. The code is based on a staggered finite difference (FDSTAG) discretization in space, which is a stable and very efficient technique to solve the (nearly) incompressible Stokes equations that does not suffer from spurious pressure modes or artificial compressibility (a typical feature of low-order finite element techniques). Higher order finite element methods are more accurate than FDSTAG methods under idealized test cases where the jump in viscosity is exactly aligned with the boundaries of the elements. Yet, geodynamically more realistic cases involve evolving subduction zones, nonlinear rheologies or localized plastic shear bands. In these cases, the viscosity pattern evolves spontaneously during a simulation or even during nonlinear iterations, and the advantages of higher order methods disappear and they all converge with approximately first order accuracy, similar to that of FDSTAG [1]. Yet, since FDSTAG methods have considerably less degrees of freedom than quadratic finite element methods, they require about an order of magnitude less memory for the same number of nodes in 3D which also implies that every matrix-vector multiplication is significantly faster. LaMEM is build on top of the PETSc library and uses the particle-in-cell technique to track material properties, history variables which makes it straightforward to incorporate effects like phase changes or chemistry. An internal free surface is present, together with (simple) erosion and sedimentation processes, and a number of methods are available to import complex geometries into the code (e.g, http://geomio.bitbucket.org). Customized Galerkin coupled geometric multigrid preconditioners are implemented which resulted in a good parallel scalability of the code (we have tested LaMEM on 458'752 cores [2]). Yet, the drawback of using FDSTAG

  3. Intelligent post processing of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ringdal

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Monitoring Systern (IMS currently provides for joint processing of data from six arrays located in Northern and Central Europe. From experience with analyst review of events automatically defined by the IMS, we bave realized that the quality of the automatic event locations can be significantly improved if the event intervals are reprocessed with signal processing pararneters tuned to phases from events in the given region. The tuned processing parameters are obtained from off line analysis of events located in the region of interest. The primary goal of such intelligent post processing is to provide event definitions of a quality that minimizes the need for subsequent manual analysis. The first step in this post processing is to subdivide the arca to be monitored in order to identify sites of interest. Clearly, calibration will be the easiest and potential savings in manpower are the largest for areas of high, recurring seismicity. We bave identified 8 mining sites in Fennoscandia/NW Russia and noted that 65.6% of the events of ML > 2.0 in this region can be associated with one of these sites. This result is based on 1 year and a half of data. The second step is to refine the phase arrival and azimuth estimates using frequency filters and processing parameters that are tuned to the initial event location provided by the IMS. In this study, we have analyzed a set of 52 mining explosions from the Khibiny Massif mining area in the Kola peninsula of Russia. Very accurate locations of these events bave been provided by the seismologists from the Kola Regional Seismology Centre. Using an autoregressive likelihood technique we have been able to estimate onset times to an accuracy (standard deviation of about 0.05 s for P phases and 0.15 0.20 s for S phases. Using fixed frequency bands, azimuth can be estimated to an accuracy (one standard deviation of 0.9 degrees for the ARCESS array and 3 4 degrees for the small array recently

  4. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  5. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  6. An open source image processing method to quantitatively assess tissue growth after non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging in human bone marrow stromal cell seeded 3D polymeric scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferink, Anne M; Fratila, Raluca M; Koenrades, Maaike A; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Velders, Aldrik; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs.

  7. An open source image processing method to quantitatively assess tissue growth after non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging in human bone marrow stromal cell seeded 3D polymeric scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Leferink

    Full Text Available Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs.

  8. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  9. Fabrication of Light Extraction Efficiency of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with 3D Aspherical Microlens by Using Dry Etching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available organic light-emitting diode (OLED can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio and viewing angle compared to liquid crystal display (LCD because OLED pixels directly emit light. There is a shortcoming that the internal quantum efficiency can reach values close to 100%, but about 80% light disperses because of the difference among the refractive indices of the substrate, anode, indium tin oxide (ITO film, and air. In this paper, three dimensions aspherical microlens arrays (3D A-MLAs with substrate modifications are developed to simulate the optical luminous field by using FRED software. This study modified parameters of 3D A-MLAs such as the diameter, fill-factor, aspect ratio, dry etching parameters, and electroforming rates of microlens to improve the extraction efficiency of the OLED. In dry etching, not only the aspect ratio with better extraction rate can be obtained by reactive ion etching (RIE dry etching, but also an undercutting phenomenon can be avoided. The dimensions of 3D A-MLAs can be accurately controlled in the electroforming process used to make a nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co metal mold to achieve the designed dimensions. According to the measured results, the average luminance efficacy of the OLEDs with 3D A-MLAs can be enhanced.

  10. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  11. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  12. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  13. Solution processed, hybrid 2D/3D MoS2/Si heterostructures with superior junction characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhrajit; Biswas, Souvik; Das, Soumen; Ray, Samit K

    2017-02-03

    We report a theoretical and experimental investigation of the hybrid heterostructure interfaces between atomically thin MoS2 nanocrystals (NCs) on Si platform for their potential applications towards next generation electrical and optical devices. Mie theory based numerical analysis and COMSOL simulations based on finite element method (FEM) have been utilized to study the optical absorption characteristics and light matter interactions in variable sized MoS2 NCs. The size dependent absorption characteristics and the enhancement of electric field of the heterojunction in the UV-visible spectral range agree well with the experimental results. A lithography-free, wafer scale, 2D materials on a 3D substrate hybrid vertical heterostructure has been fabricated using colloidal n-MoS2 NCs on p-Si. The fabricated p-n heterojunction exhibited excellent junction characteristics with a high rectification ratio suitable for voltage clipper and rectifier applications. The current-voltage characteristics of the devices under illumination have been performed in the temperature range of 10-300 K. The device exhibits a high photo-to-dark current ratio of ~3 x 103 and a responsivity comparable to a commercial Si photodetector. The excellent heterojunction characteristics demonstrate the great potential of MoS2 NCs based hybrid electronic and optoelectronic devices in near future.

  14. Manufacture and characterization of a mixture of Bone Powder and Bioceramic: A 3D-printing method process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Parra Calvache

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un constante interés en el mundo de los biomateriales y en cómo éstos mejoran la calidad de vida de la humanidad. Este estudio surgió como un intento de producir implantes capaces de ser introducidos en el cuerpo de manera que la operación y recuperación de un potencial paciente se pudiera dar de una manera menos traumática. De esta forma se presentará el proceso para producir un compuesto a base de polvo de hueso y un biocerámico capaz de ser absorbido por el cuerpo, de manera tal que el injerto induzca el crecimiento de nuevo hueso. Se describirá cómo se produjo el polvo y cómo se realiza la mezcla con el biocerámico. La mezcla resultante fue procesada por medio de prototipaje rápido (impresión en 3D, para luego proceder a caracterizar el material en sus propiedades mecánicas y su comportamiento citotóxico con la finalidad de conocer cómo se comportaría en un ambiente in vivo. Las pruebas biológicas fueron alentadoras, lo cual puede impulsar otros estudios con el compuesto utilizado.

  15. The mass loss process in dwarf galaxies from 3D hydrodynamical simulations: the role of dark matter and starbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Luciana O; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A; Caproni, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological models predict a much larger number of low mass dark matter haloes than has been observed in the Local Group of galaxies. One possible explanation is the increased difficulty of detecting these haloes if most of the visible matter is lost at early evolutionary phases through galactic winds. In this work we study the current models of triggering galactic winds in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) from supernovae, and study, based on 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations, the correlation of the mass loss rates and important physical parameters as the dark matter halo mass and its radial profile, and the star formation rate. We find that the existence of winds is ubiquitous, independent on the gravitational potential. Our simulations revealed that the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) may play a major role on pushing matter out of these systems, even for very massive haloes. The instability is responsible for 5 - 40% of the mass loss during the early evolution of the galaxy, ...

  16. A versatile and low-cost 3D acquisition and processing pipeline for collecting mass of archaeological findings on the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattet, E.; Devogelaere, J.; Raffin, R.; Bergerot, L.; Daniel, M.; Jockey, Ph.; De Luca, L.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, advances in the fields of photogrammetry and computer vision have produced several solutions for generating 3D reconstruction starting from simple images. Even if the potentialities of the image-based 3D reconstruction approach are nowadays very well-known in terms of reliability, accuracy and flexibility, there is still a lack of low-cost, open-source and automated solutions for collecting mass of archaeological findings, specially if one consider the real (and non theoretical) contextual aspects of a digitization campaign on the field (number of objects to acquire, available time, lighting conditions, equipment transport, budget, etc...) as well as the accuracy requirements for an in-depth shape analysis and classification purpose. In this paper we present a prototype system (integrating hardware and software) for the 3D acquisition, geometric reconstruction, documentation and archiving of large collections of archaeological findings. All the aspects of our approach are based on high-end image-based modeling techniques and designed basing on an accurate analysis of the typical field conditions of an archaeological campaign, as well as on the specific requirements of archaeological finding documentation and analysis. This paper presents all the aspects integrated into the prototype: - a hardware development of a transportable photobooth for the automated image acquisition consisting of a turntable and three DSLR controlled by a microcontroller; - an automatic image processing pipeline (based on Apero/Micmac) including mask generation, tie-point extraction, bundle adjustment, multi-view stereo correlation, point cloud generation, surface reconstruction; - a versatile (off-line/on-line) portable database for associating descriptive attributes (archaeological description) to the 3D digitizations on site; - a platform for data-gathering, archiving and sharing collections of 3D digitizations on the Web. The presentation and the assessment of this

  17. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  18. 4D flow mri post-processing strategies for neuropathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauben, Eric Mathew

    4D flow MRI allows for the measurement of a dynamic 3D velocity vector field. Blood flow velocities in large vascular territories can be qualitatively visualized with the added benefit of quantitative probing. Within cranial pathologies theorized to have vascular-based contributions or effects, 4D flow MRI provides a unique platform for comprehensive assessment of hemodynamic parameters. Targeted blood flow derived measurements, such as flow rate, pulsatility, retrograde flow, or wall shear stress may provide insight into the onset or characterization of more complex neuropathologies. Therefore, the thorough assessment of each parameter within the context of a given disease has important medical implications. Not surprisingly, the last decade has seen rapid growth in the use of 4D flow MRI. Data acquisition sequences are available to researchers on all major scanner platforms. However, the use has been limited mostly to small research trials. One major reason that has hindered the more widespread use and application in larger clinical trials is the complexity of the post-processing tasks and the lack of adequate tools for these tasks. Post-processing of 4D flow MRI must be semi-automated, fast, user-independent, robust, and reliably consistent for use in a clinical setting, within large patient studies, or across a multicenter trial. Development of proper post-processing methods coupled with systematic investigation in normal and patient populations pushes 4D flow MRI closer to clinical realization while elucidating potential underlying neuropathological origins. Within this framework, the work in this thesis assesses venous flow reproducibility and internal consistency in a healthy population. A preliminary analysis of venous flow parameters in healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients is performed in a large study employing 4D flow MRI. These studies are performed in the context of the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothesis. Additionally, a

  19. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  20. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  1. Integrated Tsunami Database: simulation and identification of seismic tsunami sources, 3D visualization and post-disaster assessment on the shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivorot'ko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey; Marinin, Igor; Karas, Adel; Khidasheli, David

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important problems of tsunami investigation is the problem of seismic tsunami source reconstruction. Non-profit organization WAPMERR (http://wapmerr.org) has provided a historical database of alleged tsunami sources around the world that obtained with the help of information about seaquakes. WAPMERR also has a database of observations of the tsunami waves in coastal areas. The main idea of presentation consists of determining of the tsunami source parameters using seismic data and observations of the tsunami waves on the shore, and the expansion and refinement of the database of presupposed tsunami sources for operative and accurate prediction of hazards and assessment of risks and consequences. Also we present 3D visualization of real-time tsunami wave propagation and loss assessment, characterizing the nature of the building stock in cities at risk, and monitoring by satellite images using modern GIS technology ITRIS (Integrated Tsunami Research and Information System) developed by WAPMERR and Informap Ltd. The special scientific plug-in components are embedded in a specially developed GIS-type graphic shell for easy data retrieval, visualization and processing. The most suitable physical models related to simulation of tsunamis are based on shallow water equations. We consider the initial-boundary value problem in Ω := {(x,y) ?R2 : x ?(0,Lx ), y ?(0,Ly ), Lx,Ly > 0} for the well-known linear shallow water equations in the Cartesian coordinate system in terms of the liquid flow components in dimensional form Here ?(x,y,t) defines the free water surface vertical displacement, i.e. amplitude of a tsunami wave, q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a tsunami wave. The lateral boundary is assumed to be a non-reflecting boundary of the domain, that is, it allows the free passage of the propagating waves. Assume that the free surface oscillation data at points (xm, ym) are given as a measured output data from tsunami records: fm(t) := ? (xm, ym,t), (xm

  2. 基于数字光处理技术的3D打印技术%3D Printing Based on Digital Light Processing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方浩博; 陈继民

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the digital light processing ( DLP) technology as the main principle of 3D printing technology and discusses issues on optical system in detail. This existing 3D printing technology, the principle of stereolithography technology and DLP technology were introduced. Introduced with DLP technology as the core of 3D printing technology, including the basic structure of the system, and how DLP technology used in rapid prototyping were explained. And the digital micro-mirror device ( DMD) composition and the driving principle, the typical structure of an optical system used in DLP technology, as well as their effects on 3D printing technology were interpreted. Then, the 3D printing applications, and the problem of DLP technology such as the suitable DLP optical system wavelength, the projection format uniformity, and molding accuracy were discussed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages and disadvantages of DLP technology in the field of 3D printing were summanized.%介绍了以数字光处理(digital light processing,DLP)技术发展出的3D打印技术并讨论了其光学系统对成型效果的影响. 介绍了现有3D打印技术的种类、光固化快速成型技术以及DLP技术的原理. 说明了以DLP技术为核心的3D打印系统的基本结构,具体说明了DLP技术如何运用于快速成型领域. 内容包括数字微镜器件( digital micro-mirror device,DMD)的组成和驱动原理、DLP技术中使用的典型光学系统结构,以及它们在3D打印技术中起到的作用. 接着,讨论了在3D打印应用中,DLP技术需要注意的问题. 内容包括DLP系统适用的光波长、投影幅面的均匀性和成型精度. 最后,总结了DLP技术在3D打印领域的优势及不足.

  3. TEHNOLOGIJE 3D TISKALNIKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  4. 3D Virtual Dig: a 3D Application for Teaching Fieldwork in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is a material, embodied discipline; communicating this experience is critical to student success. In the context of lower-division archaeology courses, the present study examines the efficacy of 3D virtual and 2D archaeological representations of digs. This presentation aims to show a 3D application created to teach the archaeological excavation process to freshmen students. An archaeological environment was virtually re-created in 3D, and inserted in a virtual reality software application that allows users to work with the reconstructed excavation area. The software was tested in class for teaching the basics of archaeological fieldwork. The application interface is user-friendly and especially easy for 21st century students. The study employed a pre-survey, post-test, and post-survey design, used to understand the students' previous familiarity with archaeology, and test their awareness after the use of the application. Their level of knowledge was then compared with that of those students who had accessed written material only. This case-study demonstrates how a digital approach to laboratory work can positively affect student learning. Increased abilities to complete ill-defined problems (characteristic of the high-order thinking in the field, can, in fact, be demonstrated. 3D Virtual reconstruction serves, then, as an important bridge from traditional coursework to fieldwork.

  5. Workflow for the integration of a realistic 3D geomodel in process simulations using different cell types and advanced scientific visualization: Variations on a synthetic salt diapir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görz, Ines; Herbst, Martin; Börner, Jana H.; Zehner, Björn

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to use one complex geological 3D model for numerical simulations of various physical processes in process-specific simulation software. To do this, the 3D model has to be discretized according to different cell types, depending on the requirements of the simulation method. We used a salt structure with a diapir and its deformed host rock to produce two 3D models describing the boundary surfaces of the structure: one very simplified model consisting of cuboid surfaces and a realistic model consisting of irregular boundary surfaces. We provide a workflow for how to generate hexahedral, tetrahedral and spherical volume representations of these two geometries. We utilized the volume representations to simulate temperature, displacement and transient electromagnetic fields. We can show that the simulation results closely reflect the input geometry and that it is worth the effort to produce geometric models that are as realistic as possible. Additionally, we provide a workflow for simultaneous visualization and analysis of the simulation results. Scientific visualization is an important tool for deriving knowledge from complex investigations.

  6. Low-Cost 3D Systems: Suitable Tools for Plant Phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two ...

  7. Three-dimensional phase-field study of crack-seal microstructures - Insights from innovative post-processing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of vein evolution contribute to a better understanding of processes involved in their formation and possess the potential to provide invaluable insights into the rock deformation history and fluid flow pathways. The primary aim of the present article is to investigate the influence of a realistic boundary condition, i.e. an algorithmically generated fractal surface, on the vein evolution in 3-D using a thermodynamically consistent approach, while explaining the benefits of accounting for an extra dimensionality. The 3-D simulation results are supplemented by innovative numerical post-processing and advanced visualization techniques. The new methodologies to measure the tracking efficiency demonstrate the importance of accounting the temporal evolution; no such information is usually accessible in field studies and notoriously difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments as well. The grain growth statistics obtained by numerically post-processing the 3-D computational microstructures e...

  8. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  9. Sleep as spatiotemporal integration of biological processes that evolved to periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis: The 2m3d paradigm of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Edward Claro; Mader, Annie Cielo Llave

    2016-08-15

    Sleep continues to perplex scientists and researchers. Despite decades of sleep research, we still lack a clear understanding of the biological functions and evolution of sleep. In this review, we will examine sleep from a functional and phylogenetic perspective and describe some important conceptual gaps in understanding sleep. Classical theories of the biology and evolution of sleep emphasize sensory activation, energy balance, and metabolic homeostasis. Advances in electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging, and neuroplasticity allow us to view sleep within the framework of neural dynamics. With this paradigm shift, we have come to realize the importance of neurodynamic homeostasis in shaping the biology of sleep. Evidently, animals sleep to achieve neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. We are not aware of any framework for understanding sleep where neurodynamic, metabolic, homeostatic, chronophasic, and afferent variables are all taken into account. This motivated us to propose the two-mode three-drive (2m3d) paradigm of sleep. In the 2m3d paradigm, local neurodynamic/metabolic (N/M) processes switch between two modes-m0 and m1-in response to three drives-afferent, chronophasic, and homeostatic. The spatiotemporal integration of local m0/m1 operations gives rise to the global states of sleep and wakefulness. As a framework of evolution, the 2m3d paradigm allows us to view sleep as a robust adaptive strategy that evolved so animals can periodically reinforce neurodynamic and metabolic homeostasis while remaining sensitive to their internal and external environment.

  10. A Study on 3D FE Simulation Method of NC Bending Process of Thin-walled Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The numerical control (NC) precision bending process of thin-walled tube is on e of advanced plastic forming processes with high efficiency, forming precision, strength/weight ratio and low cost, thus it is playing more and more important role in manufacturing parts in aerospace and automobile industries. However, the determination of parameters crucial to make sure tube parts qualified is heavil y experience-based and involves repeated trial-and-errors in practice, which makes the production efficiency...

  11. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  12. Discussion on the Application of 3D Printing Technology in Metal Processing%浅谈3D打印技术应用于金属加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦

    2016-01-01

    The after consulting lots of literatures and Research on the basis, to use 3D printing technology in the general principles of metal processing as the main line, introduce its definition, development, processing advantages, short board and relates to the field of metal processing in the hardware, and further analysis of 3D printing technology development trends in the field of metal processing and influence.%本文在查阅大量文献和调研的基础上,以3D打印技术应用于金属加工的一般原理为主线,介绍其定义、发展现状、加工优势、短板及在涉及到金属加工领域时所需的硬件等,并进一步分析3D打印技术在金属加工领域的发展趋势及影响.

  13. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  14. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  15. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  16. Visualization of the 12th Cranial Nerve with MRI: Value of Balanced Fast-Field Echo and 3D-Drive Sequences Among the T2 TSE Post-Contrast T1 Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our aim was to optimize the most effective MR imaging sequence for visualization of the 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal nerve) through its cisternal course."nPatients and Methods: We applied balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE), 3D-T2 weighted Driven Equilibrium RF Reset Pulse (DRIVE), T2 weighted 2D TSE and post-contrast T1 weighted sequences and tried to find out the best sequence for the perfect visualization of the 12th cranial nerve. One-hundred patients without an...

  17. Near-interface Si substrate 3d metal contamination during atomic layer deposition processing detected by electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. P. D.; Stesmans, A.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2012-06-01

    A K- and Q-band electron spin resonance (ESR) study has been carried out on (100)Si/SiO2 entities manufactured by low temperature (150 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a high-quality SiO2 layer on Si using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, H2O, and ozone in a three-step process. Whereas previous work has demonstrated the high quality of the deposited SiO2 layer, the current ESR analysis reports on the tracing of growth-related contamination of near interface Si substrate layers by two transition metals. This includes, first, detection of the signal of interstitial Cr+ (S = 5/2) impurities in c-Si, characterized by an isotropic central g value of 1.9980 ± 0.0002, an isotropic 53Cr (I = 3/2) hyperfine interaction of splitting Aiso = 11.8 G, and cubic crystal field splitting parameter a = +32.2 G, well in agreement with the known bulk c-Si case; A small anisotropic contribution to the hyperfine interaction has additionally been revealed. The total Cr+ defect density is inferred as ˜5 × 1011 cm-2. Second, a single signal is observed at isotropic g = 2.070 ± 0.001, corresponding to interstitial Fe impurities (Fei)0 (S = 1) positioned in a c-Si matrix. Defect density depth profiling reveals the impurities to be confined to a few μm thick Si substrate top layer, the density decaying exponential-like from the Si/SiO2 interface inward the Si substrate. The total of the results points to a contamination of reactor-environment origin, connected with the layer deposition process. It concerns a weak contamination, in which detection the ESR technique emerges as a powerful technique able to unveil very low levels of contamination of near-surface Si substrate layers.

  18. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  19. Post-processing through linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Van Schaeybroeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various post-processing techniques are compared for both deterministic and ensemble forecasts, all based on linear regression between forecast data and observations. In order to evaluate the quality of the regression methods, three criteria are proposed, related to the effective correction of forecast error, the optimal variability of the corrected forecast and multicollinearity. The regression schemes under consideration include the ordinary least-square (OLS method, a new time-dependent Tikhonov regularization (TDTR method, the total least-square method, a new geometric-mean regression (GM, a recently introduced error-in-variables (EVMOS method and, finally, a "best member" OLS method. The advantages and drawbacks of each method are clarified.

    These techniques are applied in the context of the 63 Lorenz system, whose model version is affected by both initial condition and model errors. For short forecast lead times, the number and choice of predictors plays an important role. Contrarily to the other techniques, GM degrades when the number of predictors increases. At intermediate lead times, linear regression is unable to provide corrections to the forecast and can sometimes degrade the performance (GM and the best member OLS with noise. At long lead times the regression schemes (EVMOS, TDTR which yield the correct variability and the largest correlation between ensemble error and spread, should be preferred.

  20. Post-processing through linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaeybroeck, B.; Vannitsem, S.

    2011-03-01

    Various post-processing techniques are compared for both deterministic and ensemble forecasts, all based on linear regression between forecast data and observations. In order to evaluate the quality of the regression methods, three criteria are proposed, related to the effective correction of forecast error, the optimal variability of the corrected forecast and multicollinearity. The regression schemes under consideration include the ordinary least-square (OLS) method, a new time-dependent Tikhonov regularization (TDTR) method, the total least-square method, a new geometric-mean regression (GM), a recently introduced error-in-variables (EVMOS) method and, finally, a "best member" OLS method. The advantages and drawbacks of each method are clarified. These techniques are applied in the context of the 63 Lorenz system, whose model version is affected by both initial condition and model errors. For short forecast lead times, the number and choice of predictors plays an important role. Contrarily to the other techniques, GM degrades when the number of predictors increases. At intermediate lead times, linear regression is unable to provide corrections to the forecast and can sometimes degrade the performance (GM and the best member OLS with noise). At long lead times the regression schemes (EVMOS, TDTR) which yield the correct variability and the largest correlation between ensemble error and spread, should be preferred.

  1. Emphysema quantification on low-dose CT using percentage of low-attenuation volume and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions: Effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Mizuho, E-mail: nmizuho@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki, E-mail: sumatsu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro, E-mail: sshin@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu, E-mail: hkoyama@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko, E-mail: yasuko1.fujisawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki, E-mail: naoki.sugihara@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Emphysema quantification (LAV% and D) was affected by image noise on low-dose CT. • For LAV% and D, AIDR 3D improved agreement of quantification on low-dose CT. • AIDR 3D has the potential to quantify emphysema accurately on low-dose CT. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing (AIDR 3D) for quantification of two measures of emphysema: percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Method and materials: : Fifty-two patients who underwent standard-dose (SDCT) and low-dose CT (LDCT) were included. SDCT without AIDR 3D, LDCT without AIDR 3D, and LDCT with AIDR 3D were used for emphysema quantification. First, LAV% was computed at 10 thresholds from −990 to −900 HU. Next, at the same thresholds, linear regression on a log–log plot was used to compute the power law exponent (D) for the cumulative frequency-size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess whether AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D. Results: The mean relative differences in LAV% between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 3.73%–88.18% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were −6.61% to 0.406%. The mean relative differences in D between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 8.22%–19.11% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were 1.82%–4.79%. AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT at thresholds from −930 to −990 HU for LAV% and at all thresholds for D. Conclusion: AIDR 3D improved the consistency between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D.

  2. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  3. AE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  4. The human dorsal stream adapts to real actions and 3D shape processing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Króliczak, G; McAdam, T D; Quinlan, D J; Culham, J C

    2008-11-01

    We tested whether the control of real actions in an ever-changing environment would show any dependence on prior actions elicited by instructional cues a few seconds before. To this end, adaptation of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal was measured while human participants sequentially grasped three-dimensional objects in an event-related design, using grasps oriented along the same or a different axis of either the same or a different object shape. We found that the bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, an area previously linked to the control of visually guided grasping, along with other areas of the intraparietal sulcus, the left supramarginal gyrus, and the right mid superior parietal lobe showed clear adaptation following both repeated grasps and repeated objects. In contrast, the left ventral premotor cortex and the bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, the two premotor areas often linked to response selection, action planning, and execution, showed only grasp-selective adaptation. These results suggest that, even in real action guidance, parietofrontal areas demonstrate differential involvement in visuomotor processing dependent on whether the action or the object has been previously experienced.

  5. 3D Imaging of Porous Media Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy with Application to Microscale Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, J.T.

    1999-02-10

    We present advances in the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to image, reconstruct, and characterize statistically the microgeometry of porous geologic and engineering materials. We discuss technical and practical aspects of this imaging technique, including both its advantages and limitations. Confocal imaging can be used to optically section a material, with sub-micron resolution possible in the lateral and axial planes. The resultant volumetric image data, consisting of fluorescence intensities for typically {approximately}50 million voxels in XYZ space, can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the two-phase medium. We present several examples of this application, including studying pore geometry in sandstone, characterizing brittle failure processes in low-porosity rock deformed under triaxial loading conditions in the laboratory, and analyzing the microstructure of porous ceramic insulations. We then describe approaches to extract statistical microgeometric descriptions from volumetric image data, and present results derived from confocal volumetric data sets. Finally, we develop the use of confocal image data to automatically generate a three-dimensional mesh for numerical pore-scale flow simulations.

  6. 3D bone tissue growth in hollow fibre membrane bioreactor: implications of various process parameters on tissue nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N S; Das, D B; Ye, H; Cui, Z F

    2006-09-01

    New experimental evidence shows that hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMB) may be applied to grow bulky bone tissues which may then be implanted into patients to repair skeletal defects. To design effective bone tissue engineering protocols, it is necessary to determine the quantitative relationships between the cell environment and tissue behaviour in HFMBs and their relationship with nutrient supply. It is also necessary to determine under what conditions nutritional limitations may occur and, hence, may cause cell death. These require that the appropriate bioreactor conditions for generating neotissues, and the nutrient transfer behaviour and chemical reaction during cell growth and extracellular matrix formation are studied thoroughly. In this paper, we aim to use an existing mathematical framework to analyse the influence of various relevant parameters on nutrient supply for bone tissue growth in HFMB. We adopt the well-known Krogh cylinder approximation of the HFMB. The model parameters (e.g., cell metabolic rates) and operating conditions for the mathematical model have been obtained from, or correspond to, in-house experiments with the exception of a few variables which have been taken from the literature. The framework is then used to study oxygen and glucose transport behaviour in the HFMB. Influence of a number of important process parameters, e.g., reaction kinetics, cell density, inlet concentration of nutrients, etc, on the nutrient distributions have been systematically analysed. The work presented in this paper provides insights on unfavourable system designs and specifications which may be avoided to prevent mass transfer limitations for growing bone tissues in HFMB.

  7. Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Metal/Polymer Composite Filaments and Printing Parameter Study for Fused Deposition Modeling in the 3D Printing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seyeon; Reyes, Edgar I.; Moon, Kyoung-sik; Rumpf, Raymond C.; Kim, Nam Soo

    2015-03-01

    New metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes were developed in order to observe the thermo-mechanical properties of the new filaments. The acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic was mixed with copper and iron particles. The percent loading of the metal powder was varied to confirm the effects of metal particles on the thermo-mechanical properties of the filament, such as tensile strength and thermal conductivity. The printing parameters such as temperature and fill density were also varied to see the effects of the parameters on the tensile strength of the final product which was made with the FDM process. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the tensile strength of the composites is decreased by increasing the loading of metal particles. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of the metal/polymer composite filament was improved by increasing the metal content. It is believed that the metal/polymer filament could be used to print metal and large-scale 3-dimensional (3D) structures without any distortion by the thermal expansion of thermoplastics. The material could also be used in 3D printed circuits and electromagnetic structures for shielding and other applications.

  8. Probe into Key Techniques of Regional-Oriented 3D GIS On the key techniques of 3D GIS used for regional Geological Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Liang-feng; WU Xin-cai; PAN Xin

    2005-01-01

    Regional Geological Information System combines the multi-dimensional and dynamic spatial information into an integrated spatial information system. 3D geological modeling and its preprocessing or post-processing are the most difficult problems for constructing the system. Based on the current 3D GIS technique, some basic problems in establishing the system are discussed in this paper, including 3D spatial data model, 3D geological modeling, and visualization of 3D geological data. A kind of 3D vector data model based on boundary representation for geological object and its topology was developed in order to model and visualize complex geological structures. In addition, some key techniques are pointed out for further study.

  9. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  10. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  11. A Marked Poisson Process Driven Latent Shape Model for 3D Segmentation of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Image Stacks of Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Sindhu; Jordan, Michael I; Kose, Kivanc; Brooks, Dana H; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dy, Jennifer G

    2017-01-01

    Segmenting objects of interest from 3D data sets is a common problem encountered in biological data. Small field of view and intrinsic biological variability combined with optically subtle changes of intensity, resolution, and low contrast in images make the task of segmentation difficult, especially for microscopy of unstained living or freshly excised thick tissues. Incorporating shape information in addition to the appearance of the object of interest can often help improve segmentation performance. However, the shapes of objects in tissue can be highly variable and design of a flexible shape model that encompasses these variations is challenging. To address such complex segmentation problems, we propose a unified probabilistic framework that can incorporate the uncertainty associated with complex shapes, variable appearance, and unknown locations. The driving application that inspired the development of this framework is a biologically important segmentation problem: the task of automatically detecting and segmenting the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) in 3D reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of human skin. RCM imaging allows noninvasive observation of cellular, nuclear, and morphological detail. The DEJ is an important morphological feature as it is where disorder, disease, and cancer usually start. Detecting the DEJ is challenging, because it is a 2D surface in a 3D volume which has strong but highly variable number of irregularly spaced and variably shaped "peaks and valleys." In addition, RCM imaging resolution, contrast, and intensity vary with depth. Thus, a prior model needs to incorporate the intrinsic structure while allowing variability in essentially all its parameters. We propose a model which can incorporate objects of interest with complex shapes and variable appearance in an unsupervised setting by utilizing domain knowledge to build appropriate priors of the model. Our novel strategy to model this structure combines a spatial Poisson

  12. Fusion and subtraction post-processing in body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom A.; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-02

    Interpreting complex paediatric body MRI studies requires the integration of information from multiple sequences. Image processing software, some freely available, allows the radiologist to use simple and rapid post-processing techniques that may aid diagnosis. We demonstrate the use of fusion and subtraction post-processing techniques with examples from four areas of application: enterography, oncological imaging, musculoskeletal imaging and MR fistulography. (orig.)

  13. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  14. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  15. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  16. 3D pre- versus post-season comparisons of surface and relative pose of the corpus callosum in contact sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wilkins, Bryce; Hwang, Darryl; Tsao, Sinchai; Wang, Yalin; Law, Meng; Leporé, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing[1]. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sport athlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.

  17. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  18. 3D features of delayed thermal convection in fault zones: consequences for deep fluid processes in the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Möller, Sebastian; Inbar, Nimrod; Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that thermal convection in faults can also occur for subcritical Rayleigh conditions. This type of convection develops after a certain period and is referred to as "delayed convection" (Murphy, 1979). The delay in the onset is due to the heat exchange between the damage zone and the surrounding units that adds a thermal buffer along the fault walls. Few numerical studies investigated delayed thermal convection in fractured zones, despite it has the potential to transport energy and minerals over large spatial scales (Tournier, 2000). Here 3D numerical simulations of thermally driven flow in faults are presented in order to investigate the impact of delayed convection on deep fluid processes at basin-scale. The Tiberias Basin (TB), in the Jordan Rift Valley, serves as study area. The TB is characterized by upsurge of deep-seated hot waters along the faulted shores of Lake Tiberias and high temperature gradient that can locally reach 46 °C/km, as in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG). 3D simulations show that buoyant flow ascend in permeable faults which hydraulic conductivity is estimated to vary between 30 m/yr and 140 m/yr. Delayed convection starts respectively at 46 and 200 kyrs and generate temperature anomalies in agreement with observations. It turned out that delayed convective cells are transient. Cellular patterns that initially develop in permeable units surrounding the faults can trigger convection also within the fault plane. The combination of these two convective modes lead to helicoidal-like flow patterns. This complex flow can explain the location of springs along different fault traces of the TB. Besides being of importance for understanding the hydrogeological processes of the TB (Magri et al., 2015), the presented simulations provide a scenario illustrating fault-induced 3D cells that could develop in any geothermal system. References Magri, F., Inbar, N., Siebert, C., Rosenthal, E., Guttman, J., Möller, P., 2015. Transient

  19. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R

    2012-02-23

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  20. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in realtime by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  2. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...

  3. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  4. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  5. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  6. Seafloor surface processes and subsurface paleo-channel unconformities mapped using multi-channel seismic and multi-beam sonar data from the Galicia 3D seismic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).

  7. 3-D thermo-mechanical coupled FEM simulation of continuous hot rolling process of 60SiMnA spring steel bars and rods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahe Ai; Huiju Gao; Tongchun Zhao; Xishan Xie; Yu Liu

    2004-01-01

    The 3-D thermo-mechanical coupled elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM) was used for the simulation of the twopass continuous hot rolling process of 60SiMnA spring steel bars and rods using MARC/AutoForge3.1 software. The simulated results visualize the metal flow and the dynamic evolutions of the strain, stress and temperature during the continuous hot rolling, especially inside the work-piece. It is shown that the non-uniform distributions of the strain, stress and temperature on the longitudinal and transverse sections are a distinct characteristic of the continuous hot rolling, which can be used as basic data for improving the tool design, predicting and controlling the micro-structural evolution of a bar and rod.

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  9. Realtime infiltration process monitoring in macroporous soil - a plot-scale experiment accompanied by high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration and quick vertical redistribution of event water through rapid subsurface flow in soil structures is one of the key issues in hydrology. Although the importance of preferential flow is broadly recognised, our theories, observation techniques and modelling approaches lose grounds when the assumption of well-mixed states in REVs collapses. To characterise the combination of advective and diffusive flow is especially challenging. We have shown in earlier studies that a combination of TDR monitoring, dye- and salt-tracer recovery and time-lapse 3D GPR in irrigation experiments provides means to characterise infiltration dynamics at the plot- and hillslope-scale also in highly structured soils. We pinpointed that the spatial and temporal resolution requires special attention and improvement - particularly owing to the facts of high velocity (10-3 ms-1) of advective flow and small scale (10-2 m) of the respective flow structures. We present insights from a novel technique of continuous high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR measurements during and after a plot-scale (1 m x 1 m) irrigation experiment. Continuous TDR soil moisture measurements, dye tracer excavation and salt-tracer samples are used as qualitative and quantitative references. While classical infiltration experiments either look at spatial patterns or temporal dynamics at singular gauges, we highlight the advantage of combining both to achieve a more complete image of the infiltration process. Although operating at the limits of the techniques this setup enables non-invasive observation of preferential flow processes in the field and allows to explore and characterise macropore matrix exchange.

  10. Rupture Processes of the Mw8.3 Sea of Okhotsk Earthquake and Aftershock Sequences from 3-D Back Projection Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, P. R.; Hung, S. H.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    On May 24, 2013, the largest deep earthquake ever recorded in history occurred on the southern tip of the Kamchatka Island, where the Pacific Plate subducts underneath the Okhotsk Plate. Previous 2D beamforming back projection (BP) of P- coda waves suggests the mainshock ruptured bilaterally along a horizontal fault plane determined by the global centroid moment tensor solution. On the other hand, the multiple point source inversion of P and SH waveforms argued that the earthquake comprises a sequence of 6 subevents not located on a single plane but actually distributed in a zone that extends 64 km horizontally and 35 km in depth. We then apply a three-dimensional MUSIC BP approach to resolve the rupture processes of the manishock and two large aftershocks (M6.7) with no a priori setup of preferential orientations of the planar rupture. The maximum pseudo-spectrum of high-frequency P wave in a sequence of time windows recorded by the densely-distributed stations from US and EU Array are used to image 3-D temporal and spatial rupture distribution. The resulting image confirms that the nearly N-S striking but two antiparallel rupture stages. The first subhorizontal rupture initially propagates toward the NNE direction, while at 18 s later it directs reversely to the SSW and concurrently shifts downward to 35 km deeper lasting for about 20 s. The rupture lengths in the first NNE-ward and second SSW-ward stage are about 30 km and 85 km; the estimated rupture velocities are 3 km/s and 4.25 km/s, respectively. Synthetic experiments are undertaken to assess the capability of the 3D MUSIC BP for the recovery of spatio-temporal rupture processes. Besides, high frequency BP images based on the EU-Array data show two M6.7 aftershocks are more likely to rupture on the vertical fault planes.

  11. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest....... In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality....... The conceptual level is used to structure and organise user-centered 3D Geovisualisation into four categories: representation, rendering, interface and interaction. The categories reflect a process of development of 3D Geovisualisation where objects can be represented verisimilar to the real world...

  12. Photon imaging using post-processed CMOS chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melai, Joost

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents our work on an integrated photon detector made by post-processing of CMOS sensor arrays. The aim of the post-processing is to combine all elements of the detector into a single monolithic device. These elements include a photocathode to convert photon radiation into electronic s

  13. Preliminary investigations on 3D PIC simulation of DPHC structure using NEPTUNE3D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailong; Dong, Ye; Zhou, Haijing; Zou, Wenkang; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Cubic region (34cm × 34cm × 18cm) including the double post-hole convolute (DPHC) structure was chosen to perform a series of fully 3D PIC simulations using NEPTUNE3D codes, massive data ( 200GB) could be acquired and solved in less than 5 hours. Cold-chamber tests were performed during which only cathode electron emission was considered without temperature rise or ion emission, current loss efficiency was estimated by comparisons between output magnetic field profiles with or without electron emission. PIC simulation results showed three stages of current transforming process with election emission in DPHC structure, the maximum ( 20%) current loss was 437kA at 15ns, while only 0.46% 0.48% was lost when driving current reached its peak. DPHC structure proved valuable functions during energy transform process in PTS facility, and NEPTUNE3D provided tools to explore this sophisticated physics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant No. 11571293, 11505172.

  14. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya

    2016-01-01

    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+ TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+ TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+ TFT admits a topological bou...

  15. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  16. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  17. 3D PERSPECTIVE OF MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM Role of 3 Dimensional Computed Tomography in facial fractures. METHODS AND MATERIALS 133 patients with history of head trauma were scanned using multi slice CT for a period of 2 yrs. Data acquisition was performed using - 16 Slice GE Bright Speed Elite CT Scanner. The datasets were transferred to workstation and VR post-processing protocols were applied. RESULTS 122 patients were male and 11 were female. The mean age of patients with fractures was 32.3 years old. Fractures included the mandible, the maxilla, the frontal bone, the zygomatic arch and the nasal bone. CONCLUSION Continuing advances in computer software algorithms and improved precision in the acquisition of radiographic data makes 3D reformatted CT imaging a necessary complement to traditional 2D CT imaging in the management of complex facial trauma. CT is the investigation of choice in the evaluation of patients with maxillofacial trauma.

  18. 3D and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  19. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  20. Assessment of Image Processing and Resolution on Permeability and Drainage Simulations Through 3D Pore-networks Obtained Using X-ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, G.; Willson, C. S.; Thompson, K. E.; Rivers, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Typically, continuum-scale flow parameters are obtained through laboratory experiments. Over the past several years, image-based modeling, which is a direct simulation of flow through the structural arrangements of the voids and solids obtained using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in a sample porous medium, has become a reliable technique for predicting certain flow parameters. Even though XCT is capable of resolving micron-level details, the voxel resolution of the reconstructed image is still dependent upon a number of factors, including the sample size, X-ray energy and XCT beamline setup. Thus, each imaging experiment requires a tradeoff between the sample size that can be imaged, the voxel resolution, and the length scale of the pore space that can be extracted. In addition, the geometric and topological properties of the void space and 3D pore network structure are dictated by the image processing and the choice of pore network generation method. In this research, image-based pore network models are used to quantitatively assess the impact of image resolution, image processing and the choice of pore network generation methods on simulated parameters. A 5 mm diameter and ~15 mm in length Berea sandstone core was scanned two times. First, a ~12 mm long section of the entire cross-section was scanned at 4.1 micron voxel resolution; next, a ~1.4 mm diameter and ~4.12 mm length section within the 1st domain was scanned at 1 micron voxel resolution. The resulting 3D datasets were filtered and segmented into solid and void space. The low resolution image was filtered and segmented using two different approaches in order to evaluate the potential of each approach in identifying the different solid phases in the original 16 bit dataset. A set of networks were created by varying the pore density on both the high and low resolution datasets in order to assess the impact of these factors on flow simulations. Single-phase permeability and a two-phase drainage pore

  1. Branding Your Post-School Outcomes Data Collection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Post-School Outcomes Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of "Branding your Post-School Outcomes Data Collection Process" is to help state education agencies create brand recognition with youths, families, and school personnel for the post-school outcomes survey. Recognition--paired with information about the survey purpose, who is conducting the interview, and how the information…

  2. Limitations on post-processing assisted quantum programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki; Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-03-01

    A quantum multimeter is a programmable device that can implement measurements of different observables depending on the programming quantum state inserted into it. The advantage of this arrangement over a single-purpose device is in its versatility: one can realize various measurements simply by changing the programming state. The classical manipulation of measurement output data is known as post-processing. In this work we study the post-processing assisted quantum programming, which is a protocol where quantum programming and classical post-processing are combined. We provide examples showing that these two processes combined can be more efficient than either of them used separately. Furthermore, we derive an inequality relating the programming resources to their corresponding programmed observables, thereby enabling us to study the limitations on post-processing assisted quantum programming.

  3. Multi-resolution optical 3D sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Breitbarth, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2007-06-01

    A new multi resolution self calibrating optical 3D measurement system using fringe projection technique named "kolibri FLEX multi" will be presented. It can be utilised to acquire the all around shape of small to medium objects, simultaneously. The basic measurement principle is the phasogrammetric approach /1,2,3/ in combination with the method of virtual landmarks for the merging of the 3D single views. The system consists in minimum of two fringe projection sensors. The sensors are mounted on a rotation stage illuminating the object from different directions. The measurement fields of the sensors can be chosen different, here as an example 40mm and 180mm in diameter. In the measurement the object can be scanned at the same time with these two resolutions. Using the method of virtual landmarks both point clouds are calculated within the same world coordinate system resulting in a common 3D-point cloud. The final point cloud includes the overview of the object with low point density (wide field) and a region with high point density (focussed view) at the same time. The advantage of the new method is the possibility to measure with different resolutions at the same object region without any mechanical changes in the system or data post processing. Typical parameters of the system are: the measurement time is 2min for 12 images and the measurement accuracy is below 3μm up to 10 μm. The flexibility makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications such as quality control, rapid prototyping, design and CAD/CAM which will be shown in the paper.

  4. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  5. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  6. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  7. Real-time prediction and gating of respiratory motion in 3D space using extended Kalman filters and Gaussian process regression network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, W; Hong, S-M

    2016-03-01

    The prediction as well as the gating of respiratory motion have received much attention over the last two decades for reducing the targeting error of the radiation treatment beam due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a real-time algorithm for predicting respiratory motion in 3D space and realizing a gating function without pre-specifying a particular phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The algorithm, named EKF-GPRN(+) , first employs an extended Kalman filter (EKF) independently along each coordinate to predict the respiratory motion and then uses a Gaussian process regression network (GPRN) to correct the prediction error of the EKF in 3D space. The GPRN is a nonparametric Bayesian algorithm for modeling input-dependent correlations between the output variables in multi-output regression. Inference in GPRN is intractable and we employ variational inference with mean field approximation to compute an approximate predictive mean and predictive covariance matrix. The approximate predictive mean is used to correct the prediction error of the EKF. The trace of the approximate predictive covariance matrix is utilized to capture the uncertainty in EKF-GPRN(+) prediction error and systematically identify breathing points with a higher probability of large prediction error in advance. This identification enables us to pause the treatment beam over such instances. EKF-GPRN(+) implements a gating function by using simple calculations based on the trace of the predictive covariance matrix. Extensive numerical experiments are performed based on a large database of 304 respiratory motion traces to evaluate EKF-GPRN(+) . The experimental results show that the EKF-GPRN(+) algorithm reduces the patient-wise prediction error to 38%, 40% and 40% in root-mean-square, compared to no prediction, at lookahead lengths of 192 ms, 384 ms and 576 ms, respectively. The EKF-GPRN(+) algorithm can further reduce the prediction error by employing the gating

  8. Collective Mindfulness in Post-implementation IS Adaptation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margun; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    identify the way in which the organizational capability we call "collective mindfulness" was achieved. Being aware of how to practically achieve collective mindfulness, managers may be able to better facilitate mindful handling of post-implementation IS adaptation processes....

  9. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    2017-04-11

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  10. Forging process modeling of cone-shaped posts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Liu; Lingyun Wang; Li Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Using the rigid visco-plastic Finite Element Method (FEM), the process of forging for long cone-shaped posts made of aluminum alloys was modeled and the corresponding distributions of the field variables were obtained based on considering aberrance of grids, dynamic boundary conditions, non-stable process, coupled thermo-mechanical behavior and other special problems.The difficulties in equipment selection and die analysis caused by the long cone shape of post, as well as by pressure calculation were solved.

  11. SoilJ - An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatized image-processing of 3-D X-ray images of soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John

    2016-04-01

    3-D X-ray imaging is a formidable tool for quantifying soil structural properties which are known to be extremely diverse. This diversity necessitates the collection of large sample sizes for adequately representing the spatial variability of soil structure at a specific sampling site. One important bottleneck of using X-ray imaging is however the large amount of time required by a trained specialist to process the image data which makes it difficult to process larger amounts of samples. The software SoilJ aims at removing this bottleneck by automatizing most of the required image processing steps needed to analyze image data of cylindrical soil columns. SoilJ is a plugin of the free Java-based image-processing software ImageJ. The plugin is designed to automatically process all images located with a designated folder. In a first step, SoilJ recognizes the outlines of the soil column upon which the column is rotated to an upright position and placed in the center of the canvas. Excess canvas is removed from the images. Then, SoilJ samples the grey values of the column material as well as the surrounding air in Z-direction. Assuming that the column material (mostly PVC of aluminium) exhibits a spatially constant density, these grey values serve as a proxy for the image illumination at a specific Z-coordinate. Together with the grey values of the air they are used to correct image illumination fluctuations which often occur along the axis of rotation during image acquisition. SoilJ includes also an algorithm for beam-hardening artefact removal and extended image segmentation options. Finally, SoilJ integrates the morphology analyses plugins of BoneJ (Doube et al., 2006, BoneJ Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ. Bone 47: 1076-1079) and provides an ASCII file summarizing these measures for each investigated soil column, respectively. In the future it is planned to integrate SoilJ into FIJI, the maintained and updated edition of ImageJ with selected

  12. A 3D Data Transformation Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ecution traces, e.g., for reverse engineering of malicious soft- ware, and post- mortem analysis of a system that has suffered an attack. Because of the...require the high bandwidth and low latency only pos - sible with a 3D implementation. 3. DESIGN GOALS Our proposed architecture has two major goals: (1...platforms without requiring software modifications or specialized hard- ware [24]. Such a primitive can be used to perform post- mortem analysis for

  13. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  14. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  16. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  18. Visualization of the 12th Cranial Nerve with MRI: Value of Balanced Fast-Field Echo and 3D-Drive Sequences Among the T2 TSE Post-Contrast T1 Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aydin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Our aim was to optimize the most effective MR imaging sequence for visualization of the 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal nerve through its cisternal course."nPatients and Methods: We applied balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE, 3D-T2 weighted Driven Equilibrium RF Reset Pulse (DRIVE, T2 weighted 2D TSE and post-contrast T1 weighted sequences and tried to find out the best sequence for the perfect visualization of the 12th cranial nerve. One-hundred patients without any hypoglossal nerve paralysis were examined via these sequences. Imaging analysis was graded as follows: certain visualization of nerves (score 2, partially visualized nerves (score 1, non-visualized nerves (score 0."nResults: The hypoglossal nerve was visualized exactly in only eight cases and partially depicted in only six cases with the post-contrast T1 series. In B-FFE sequence; 56% of the nerves were properly seen and 8% of the nerves were partially identified, using T2 weighted DRIVE sequences; 30% of the nerves were clearly visualized, the nerves were partially depicted in 15 patients. Regarding the T2 weighted TSE sequence, 15% of the nerves were certainly depicted and in seven patients the nerves were partially depicted."nConclusion: The most diagnostic sequence for the exact visualization of the cisternal course of hypoglossal nerve is B-FFE revealing a 64% visualization rate for the cisternal parts (112 exactly, 16 partially. T2W DRIVE sequence is shown to be more diagnostic than the T2W TSE for visualization of the cisternal part of the hypoglossal nerve.    

  19. Balancing mechanical strength with bioactivity in chitosan-calcium phosphate 3D microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: air- vs. freeze-drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D T; McCanless, J D; Mecwan, M M; Noblett, A P; Haggard, W O; Smith, R A; Bumgardner, J D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of 3D composite scaffolds composed of chitosan and calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering. Additionally, incorporation of mechanically weak lyophilized microspheres within those air-dried (AD) was considered for enhanced bioactivity. AD microsphere, alone, and air- and freeze-dried microsphere (FDAD) 3D scaffolds were evaluated in vitro using a 28-day osteogenic culture model with the Saos-2 cell line. Mechanical testing, quantitative microscopy, and lysozyme-driven enzymatic degradation of the scaffolds were also studied. FDAD scaffold showed a higher concentration (p mechanical strength was sacrificed through introduction of the less stiff, porous FD spheres.

  20. 三维工艺设计中基于加工特征的工序模型生成技术%Generation of Intermediate Process Model Based on Machining Features in 3D Process Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In the 3D process design of machining part, according to machining features such as shape, dimensional tolerance and so on, then carry out process design and process planning, and generate entity modal of every working process from the blank part to the final part. Geometric topology structure and manufacturing process information are combined to set a feature definition and classification system for machining. The concept of intermediate process model and the model recovery method automatically-generated in an intermediate process model is put forward on the basis of feature recognition and 3D process design technology. According to process method and process parameter of each machining feature, automatically generate intermediate process model based on part processing rout. The test results proved that the method offers reference to achieve 3D model-based machining process design.%  在机械加工零件三维工艺设计中,需要根据零件的形状、尺寸公差等识别加工特征,按照加工特征进行工艺设计和工艺路线规划,生成从零件毛坯到最终零件的各个工序的实体模型。结合零件的几何拓扑结构和制造工艺信息,建立一套面向机械加工的特征定义和分类体系,在特征识别和三维工艺设计技术的基础上,提出中间工序模型的概念和中间工序模型自动生成的模型恢复方法,根据各个加工特征的工艺方法和工艺参数,按照零件的加工路线自动生成中间工序模型。实例验证结果证明,该方法可为实现基于三维模型的机加工艺设计提供参考。

  1. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  2. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  3. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  4. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  5. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  6. 3D打印模板引导125I粒子植入术前术后剂量对比%Dose comparison between pre and post operation of 125I seeds implantation guided by 3D print tamplate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏涛; 底学敏; 于慧敏; 赵宪芝; 张利娟; 赵金鑫; 张琛; 刘泽洲; 隋爱霞

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较3D打印模板引导粒子植入术前术后剂量差异,探讨其剂量的准确性.方法 选取2015年8至11月于河北省人民医院实施3D打印模板引导粒子植入患者9例,术前手术体位固定患者扫描CT,行术前计划后打印3D模板,术中按模板预设针道位置穿刺肿瘤,扫描CT确定针尖位置无误后按术前计划植入粒子,术后行验证计划.观察手术前后的90%靶体积的最小吸收剂量(D90)、90%处方剂量覆盖的体积占靶体积的百分比(V90)、V100、V150及粒子数目有无差异.结果 术前D90、V90、V100、V150及粒子数目分别为(7 684±3 279) cGy、93.2%±0.8%、89.8%±0.9%、62.8%±4.7%、(58±17)颗.术后D90、V90、V100、V150及粒子数目分别为(7 531 ±3 523)cGy、92.4%±2.0%、88.0%±2.5%、61.9%±5.3%、(56±17)颗.各指标手术前后比较差异均无统计学意义(均P >0.05).结论 3D打印模板引导粒子植入术后剂量指标与术前比较无差别,对于比较固定的肿瘤,可能成为重复性好的标准术式.%Objective To compare the dose difference between pre and post operation of 125I seeds implantation guided by 3D print tamplate and investigate the dose accuracy.Methods From August 2015 to November2015,a total of 9 patients were selected and underwent 3D print tamplate guided 125I seeds implantation in Hebei General Hospital.All patients had been fixed as the position of operation and then performed CT scan.After preplan was designed,the 3D tamplates were printed.The tumors were punctured through needles holes predesigned.Another CT scan was used to confirm the locations of needles and then seeds were implanted into tumor according to preplan.Postplan was performed after the operation.The D90,V90,V100,V150 and seeds number pre and post operation were collected and compared.Results The mean D90,V90,V100,V150 and seeds number preoperation was (7 684 ±3 279)cGy,93.2% ±0.8%,89.8% ±0.9%,62.8% ±4.7

  7. Post Processing and Biological Evaluation of the Titanium Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wysocki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, post-surgical or post-accidental bone loss can be substituted by custom-made scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM methods from metallic powders. However, the partially melted powder particles must be removed in a post-process chemical treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the chemical polishing with various acid baths on novel scaffolds’ morphology, porosity and mechanical properties. In the first stage, Magics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium was used to design a porous scaffolds with pore size equal to (A 200 µm, (B 500 µm and (C 200 + 500 µm, and diamond cell structure. The scaffolds were fabricated from commercially pure titanium powder (CP Ti using a SLM50 3D printing machine (Realizer GmbH, Borchen, Germany. The selective laser melting (SLM process was optimized and the laser beam energy density in range of 91–151 J/mm3 was applied to receive 3D structures with fully dense struts. To remove not fully melted titanium particles the scaffolds were chemically polished using various HF and HF-HNO3 acid solutions. Based on scaffolds mass loss and scanning electron (SEM observations, baths which provided most uniform surface cleaning were proposed for each porosity. The pore and strut size after chemical treatments was calculated based on the micro-computed tomography (µ-CT and SEM images. The mechanical tests showed that the treated scaffolds had Young’s modulus close to that of compact bone. Additionally, the effect of pore size of chemically polished scaffolds on cell retention, proliferation and differentiation was studied using human mesenchymal stem cells. Small pores yielded higher cell retention within the scaffolds, which then affected their growth. This shows that in vitro cell performance can be controlled to certain extent by varying pore sizes.

  8. Nursing Process in Post Tonsillectomy Pain Diagnosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Fateme; Khademolhoseyni, Seyyed Mohamad; Nouri, Jamile Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tonsillectomy is the most common surgery in the field of ENT. Pain is the most common post tonsillectomy complaint. Considering the importance of nursing cares in relieving post-surgery pain in general and post-tonsillectomy pain in particular, this study is conducted with the aim of presenting nursing process in post tonsillectomy pain diagnosis for decreasing loss of appropriate opportunities in nursing cares and achieving appropriate results in taking care of the patients. Methods: This study is a targeted systematic review focusing on “effective nursing measures in relieving children’s post tonsillectomy pain”. The main stages of searching strategy included searching in electronic sources of Latin databases; Pub Med, Science Direct, and EMBASE and Persian databases; SID, Iran medex, ISC to find published articles from 2009 to 2014. In the end, final synthesis was done on eight articles in English. Findings: Effective nursing measurements for relieving post tonsillectomy pain include: decreasing children’s anxiety through children and their families’ psychological preparation by nurses and other caregivers, using cold compress to reduce neck and jaw pain, presenting distraction techniques, offering fluids and cold foods immediately in the period after surgery, creating a comfortable environment for the children, avoiding too much of talking and adequate sleep. Conclusion: It is recommended to the nursing managers and nurses to perform cares achieved from this systematic review to achieve appropriate results in relieving post tonsillectomy pain. PMID:25560345

  9. Post-processing Kriging with External Drift Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kazuo Yamamoto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Kriging with an external drift has been used for estimating a poorly sampled variable based on an exhaustively sampledsecondary variable. Even considering the information coming from secondary data, the estimates present smaller variancethan the sample variance due to the smoothing effect. A post-processing algorithm for correcting the smoothing effectof ordinary kriging estimates is adapted for kriging with an external drift. According to results shown in this paper, theproposed algorithm not only reproduces the sample histogram but also keeps the linear relationship observed betweenprimary and secondary variables. For very small samples, in terms of number of data points, the post-processing did notpreserve the local precision as smoothed kriging does, because the correction is based on errors derived from the crossvalidation.However, when available sample comprises 3% of the exhaustive data set, the post-processing algorithm givesbetter results than smoothed kriging.

  10. 3-D Characterization of the Structure of Paper and Paperboard and Their Application to Optimize Drying and Water Removal Processes and End-Use Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shri Ramaswamy, University of Minnesota; B.V. Ramarao, State University of New York

    2004-08-29

    the top and bottom sides of the porous material, i.e. "two-sidedness" due to processing and raw material characteristics may lead to differences in end-use performance. The measurements of surface structure characteristics include thickness distribution, surface volume distribution, contact fraction distribution and surface pit distribution. This complements our earlier method to analyze the bulk structure and Z-D structure of porous materials. As one would expect, the surface structure characteristics will be critically dependent on the quality and resolution of the images. This presents a useful tool to characterize and engineer the surface structure of porous materials such as paper and board tailored to specific end-use applications. This will also help troubleshoot problems related to manufacturing and end-use applications. This study attempted to identify the optimal resolution through a comparison between 3D images obtained by monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-CT in phase contrast mode (resolution 1 m) and polychromatic radiation X-CT in absorption mode (res.5 m). It was found that both resolutions have the ability to show the expected trends when comparing different paper samples. The low resolution technique shows fewer details resulting in lower specific surface area, larger pore channels, characterized as hydraulic radii, and lower tortuosities, where differences between samples and principal directions are more difficult to detect. The disadvantages of the high resolution images are high cost and limited availability of hard x-ray beam time as well as the small size of the sample volumes imaged. The results show that the low resolution images can be used for comparative studies, whereas the high resolution images may be better suited for fundamental research on the paper structure and its influence on paper properties, as one gets more accurate physical measurements. In addition, pore space diffusion model has been developed to simulate simultaneous

  11. Shape Calculus. A Spatial Mobile Calculus for 3D Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartocci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a bio-inspired calculus for describing 3D shapes moving in a space. A shape forms a 3D process when combined with a behaviour. Behaviours are specified with a timed CCS-like process algebra using a notion of channel to naturally model binding sites on the surface of shapes. The calculus embeds collision detection and response, binding of compatible 3D processes and split of composed 3D processes.

  12. Predicting Post-Editor Profiles from the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Karan; Orrego-Carmona, David; Gonzales, Ashleigh Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to predict post-editor profiles based on user behaviour and demographics using machine learning techniques to gain a better understanding of post-editor styles. Our study extracts process unit features from the CasMaCat LS14 database from the CRITT...... of translation process features. The classification and clustering of participants resulting from our study suggest this type of exploration could be used as a tool to develop new translation tool features or customization possibilities....

  13. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  14. 3D medical thermography device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  15. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  16. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  17. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  18. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  19. Predicting the binding free energy of the inclusion process of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and small molecules by means of the MM/3D-RISM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Masatake; Hirata, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    A protocol to calculate the binding free energy of a host-guest system is proposed based on the MM/3D-RISM method, taking cyclodextrin derivatives and their ligands as model systems. The protocol involves the procedure to identify the most probable binding mode (MPBM) of receptors and ligands by means of the umbrella sampling method. The binding free energies calculated by the MM/3D-RISM method for the complexes of the seven ligands with the MPBM of the cyclodextrin, and with the fluctuated structures around it, are in agreement with the corresponding experimental data in a semi-quantitative manner. It suggests that the protocol proposed here is promising for predicting the binding affinity of a small ligand to a relatively rigid receptor such as cyclodextrin.

  20. Three-dimensional phase-field study of crack-seal microstructures – insights from innovative post-processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ankit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of vein evolution contribute to a better understanding of processes involved in their formation and possess the potential to provide invaluable insights into the rock deformation history and fluid flow pathways. The primary aim of the present article is to investigate the influence of a "realistic" boundary condition, i.e. an algorithmically generated "fractal" surface, on the vein evolution in 3-D using a thermodynamically consistent approach, while explaining the benefits of accounting for an extra dimensionality. The 3-D simulation results are supplemented by innovative numerical post-processing and advanced visualization techniques. The new methodologies to measure the tracking efficiency demonstrate the importance of accounting the temporal evolution; no such information is usually accessible in field studies and notoriously difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments as well. The grain growth statistics obtained by numerically post-processing the 3-D computational microstructures explain the pinning mechanism which leads to arrest of grain boundaries/multi-junctions by crack peaks, thereby, enhancing the tracking behavior.

  1. High-Throughput Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes for Forming Single-Nanotube Based Architectures for 3D Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; von Allmen, Paul; Kowalczyk, Robert; Baron, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We have developed manufacturable approaches to form single, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 micron deep trenches. These wafer-scale approaches were enabled by chemically amplified resists and inductively coupled Cryo-etchers for forming the 3D nanoscale architectures. The tube growth was performed using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and the materials used for the pre-fabricated 3D architectures were chemically and structurally compatible with the high temperature (700 C) PECVD synthesis of our tubes, in an ammonia and acetylene ambient. Tube characteristics were also engineered to some extent, by adjusting growth parameters, such as Ni catalyst thickness, pressure and plasma power during growth. Such scalable, high throughput top-down fabrication techniques, combined with bottom-up tube synthesis, should accelerate the development of PECVD tubes for applications such as interconnects, nano-electromechanical (NEMS), sensors or 3D electronics in general.

  2. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  3. 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Klaus; Holzner, Markus; Lüthi, Beat; Guala, Michele; Liberzon, Alexander; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    In this article, we present an experimental setup and data processing schemes for 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV), which expands on the classical 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) through changes in the illumination, image acquisition and analysis. 3D PTV is a flexible flow measurement technique based on the processing of stereoscopic images of flow tracer particles. The technique allows obtaining Lagrangian flow information directly from measured 3D trajectories of individual particles. While for a classical PTV the entire region of interest is simultaneously illuminated and recorded, in SPTV the flow field is recorded by sequential tomographic high-speed imaging of the region of interest. The advantage of the presented method is a considerable increase in maximum feasible seeding density. Results are shown for an experiment in homogenous turbulence and compared with PTV. SPTV yielded an average 3,500 tracked particles per time step, which implies a significant enhancement of the spatial resolution for Lagrangian flow measurements.

  4. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  5. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  6. Post processing of Design Load Cases using Pdap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard

    Pdap provides functions for post-processing and documentation of a set of hawc2 result files, e.g. a full design load case. This report describes the input and its syntax, the mathematical foundation and the output in terms of statistic files and standard reports....

  7. Capacitive pressure sensor in post-processing on LTCC substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, M.G.H.; Nieuwkoop, E.; Veninga, E.P.; Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A capacitive pressure sensor was realized by means of a post-processing step on a low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) substrate. The new sensor fabrication technology allows for integration of the sensor with interface circuitry and possibly also wireless transmission circuits on LTCC substrate

  8. Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS Michael Werth, Brandoch Calef, Daniel Thompson The Boeing Company Kathy...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The Boeing Company ,100

  9. Radiation exposure of the personnel in positron emission imaging using [{sup 18}F]-FDG, 3D PET and 2D CDET; Etude de poste dans le cadre de l'utilisation de [{sup 18}F]-FDG en imagerie par emission de positons, TEP 3D et TEDC 2D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balny, F.; Farman-Ara, B.; Talbot, J.N.; Petegnief, Y. [Hopital Tenon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Azli, T.; Sylvain, I. [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 92 - Clichy (France)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by EPD Mk2 (APVL) electronic dosimeters the equivalent dose delivered to the Nuclear Medicine technicians, for the different steps of ({sup 18}F)-FDG examinations on 3D PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and 2D CDET (Coincidence Detection Positron Emission Tomography) cameras. Whole body doses, normalized by the injected activity (nSv/MBq), measured in 7 technicians, with a minimum of 12 measures for each step, were: Reception of containers: 0.20 {+-} 0.14 3D PET (average {+-} s) 0.20 {+-} 0.14 2D CDET (average {+-} s); Injection preparation: 2.56 {+-} 1.60 3D PET (average {+-} s) 4.34 {+-} 2.47 2D CDET (average {+-} s); Injection with leaded shedding: 1.39 {+-} 0.47 3D PET (average {+-} s) 1.20 {+-} 0.32 2D CDET (average {+-} s); Un-perfusion with leaded shedding: 1.03 {+-} 0.22 3D PET (average {+-} s) 0.86 {+-} 0.19 2D CDET (average {+-} s); Patient accompaniment and positioning: 5.08 {+-} 1.90 3D PET (average {+-} s) 4.84 {+-} 4.38 2D CDET (average {+-} s); Total for an examination 10.06 {+-} 2.54 3D PET (average {+-} s) 11.24 {+-} 5.04 2D CDET (average {+-} s). Thus, for a patient of 70 kg, a technician could receive an average equivalent dose of 1.4 {mu}Sv for 3D PET (with the injection of 2 MBq/kg), and 3.9 {mu}Sv for 2D CDET (with the injection of 5 MBq/kg). Moreover, the technician's daily dose value for PET and for 5 patients was 12.7 {mu}Sv/day. Given the fact that examinations on new generation PET cameras (including PET-CT) require the injection of activities comparable to 5 MBq/kg and that a higher work-flow leads to an increased number of studies carried out each day, the use of adequate radiation protection devices and the electronic dosimeters will become essential. (authors)

  10. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  11. Alur Kerja Tahap Produksi Karakter Animasi Serial 3D Menggunakan Perangkat Lunak Maxon Cinema 4D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D Animation serial for television needs have been showed in the national television program, especially fantasy theme and educational program for children. There are so many and sequential needs which tricked by instant and high-quality production so the work flow in creating 3D animation serial are facilitating the producers. The article will explain specifically how the software of Maxon Cinema 4D in process production in 3D animation serial. The article will also clarify and focus on how the work flow of Maxon Cinema 4D software in processing production and post-production stages. The writer does research including audio visual tutorial, end-result comparison and rendering time between some software, self-observation of work flow in creating 3D animation serial using Maxon Cinema 4D software and digital literature study (e-book.

  12. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  13. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  14. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Mayur [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Alagoz, Enver, E-mail: enver.alagoz@cern.ch [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienzadella Informazione, Universitá di Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Osipenkov, Ilya [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Andresen, Jeff [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Boscardin, Maurizio [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Marie Brom, Jean [Strasbourg IPHC, Institut Pluriedisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Brosius, Richard [State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY), Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); and others

    2013-12-21

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p–p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices. -- Highlights: •Pre-irradiation and post-irradiation electrical properties of 3D sensors and 3D diodes from various FBK production batches were measured and analyzed. •I–T measurements of gamma irradiated diodes were analyzed to understand leakage current generation mechanism in 3D diodes. •Laboratory measurements: signal to noise ratio and charge collection efficiency of 3D sensors before and after irradiation. •Testbeam measurements: pre- and post-irradiation pixel cell efficiency and position resolution of 3D sensors.

  15. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  16. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  17. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  18. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  19. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  20. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  1. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  2. A new algorithm for 3D reconstruction from support functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for reconstructing an unknown shape from a finite number of noisy measurements of its support function. The algorithm, based on a least squares procedure, is very easy to program in standard software such as Matlab and allows, for the first time, good 3D reconstructions...... to be performed on an ordinary PC. Under mild conditions, theory guarantees that outputs of the algorithm will converge to the input shape as the number of measurements increases. Reconstructions may be obtained without any pre- or post-processing steps and with no restriction on the sets of measurement...

  3. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  4. Two Accelerating Techniques for 3D Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世霞; 胡事民; 孙家广

    2002-01-01

    Automatic reconstruction of 3D objects from 2D orthographic views has been a major research issue in CAD/CAM. In this paper, two accelerating techniques to improve the efficiency of reconstruction are presented. First, some pseudo elements are removed by depth and topology information as soon as the wire-frame is constructed, which reduces the searching space. Second, the proposed algorithm does not establish all possible surfaces in the process of generating 3D faces. The surfaces and edge loops are generated by using the relationship between the boundaries of 3D faces and their projections. This avoids the growth in combinational complexity of previous methods that have to check all possible pairs of 3D candidate edges.

  5. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  6. 3D Radiative Transfer in Eta Carinae: Application of the SimpleX Algorithm to 3D SPH Simulations of Binary Colliding Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementel, N.; Madura, T. I.; Kruip, C. J. H.; Icke, V.; Gull, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    Eta Carinae is an ideal astrophysical laboratory for studying massive binary interactions and evolution, and stellar wind-wind collisions. Recent three-dimensional (3D) simulations set the stage for understanding the highly complex 3D flows in Eta Car. Observations of different broad high- and low-ionization forbidden emission lines provide an excellent tool to constrain the orientation of the system, the primary's mass-loss rate, and the ionizing flux of the hot secondary. In this work we present the first steps towards generating synthetic observations to compare with available and future HST/STIS data. We present initial results from full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the interacting winds in Eta Car. We use the SimpleX algorithm to post-process the output from 3D SPH simulations and obtain the ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium assuming three different mass-loss rates for the primary star. The resultant ionization maps of both species constrain the regions where the observed forbidden emission lines can form. Including collisional ionization is necessary to achieve a better description of the ionization states, especially in the areas shielded from the secondary's radiation. We find that reducing the primary's mass-loss rate increases the volume of ionized gas, creating larger areas where the forbidden emission lines can form. We conclude that post processing 3D SPH data with SimpleX is a viable tool to create ionization maps for Eta Car.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured wires (1D) to plates (3D) LiV3O8 combining sol-gel and electrospinning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Pill; Manesh, Kalayil Manian; Kim, Kyu Soo; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar

    2009-01-01

    Using the combined techniques of sol-gel and electrospinning, nanostructures (wire (1D) to plates (3D)) of LiV3O8 are prepared with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as the template. A precursor gel of LiOH-V2O5 is prepared in alkaline medium. Fibrous membranes of PVA with different weight% of LiOH-V2O5 gel are prepared by electrospinning and designated as PVA/LiOH-V2O5 composite membrane fibers. The composite fibrous membranes are subjected to calcination at 500 degrees C to obtain different nanostructured LiV3O8. FESEM images of LiV3O8 inform that as the loading % of LiOH-V2O5 gel in the composite membrane increased, the morphology of LiV3O8 changed from fibrous wires (1D) to plates (3D). FESEM images reveal that the diameters of the composite fibrous membranes, PVA/LiOH-V2O5 are in the range of 80-120 nm. Results from X-ray diffraction and thermal studies clearly confirm the formation of LiV3O8 after calcination of PVA/LiOH-V2O5 composite membrane at 500 degrees C. It is presumed that this preparation strategy can be extended to obtain nanostructures of other inorganic oxides.

  8. Sea level history in 3D: Data acquisition and processing for an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedimovic, M. R.; Mountain, G. S.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Aali, M.; Baldwin, K.; Bhatnagar, T.; Johnson, C.; Küçük, H. M.; Newton, A.; Stanley, J.

    2015-12-01

    In June-July 2015, we acquired the first 3D/2D hybrid (short/long streamer) multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection dataset. These data were collected simultaneously across IODP Exp. 313 drillsites, off New Jersey, using R/V Langsethand cover ~95% of the planned 12x50 km box. Despite the large survey area, the lateral and vertical resolution for the 3D dataset is almost a magnitude of order higher than for data gathered for standard petroleum exploration. Such high-resolution was made possible by collection of common midpoint (CMP) lines whose combined length is ~3 times the Earth's circumference (~120,000 profile km) and a source rich in high-frequencies. We present details on the data acquisition, ongoing data analysis, and preliminary results. The science driving this project is presented by Mountain et al. The 3D component of this innovative survey used an athwartship cross cable, extended laterally by 2 barovanes roughly 357.5 m apart and trailed by 24 50-m P-Cables spaced ~12.5 m with near-trace offset of 53 m. Each P-Cable had 8 single hydrophone groups spaced at 6.25 m for a total of 192 channels. Record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with no low cut and an 824 Hz high cut filter. We ran 77 sail lines spaced ~150 m. Receiver locations were determined using 2 GPS receivers mounted on floats and 2 compasses and depth sensors per streamer. Streamer depths varied from 2.1 to 3.7 m. The 2D component used a single 3 km streamer, with 240 9-hydrophone groups spaced at 12.5 m, towed astern with near-trace offset of 229 m. The record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with low cut filter at 2 Hz and high cut at 412 Hz. Receiver locations were recorded using GPS at the head float and tail buoy, combined with 12 bird compasses spaced ~300 m. Nominal streamer depth was 4.5 m. The source for both systems was a 700 in3 linear array of 4 Bolt air guns suspended at 4.5 m towing depth, 271.5 m behind the ship's stern. Shot spacing was 12.5 m. Data analysis to

  9. 3D microfabrication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Esheng; FuTing, Yi; Tian, Yangchao; Liang, Jingqiu; Xian, Dingchang

    1998-08-01

    In the late of this century the great success of VSIC impacts into almost every fields of our social. Following this idea people starts to integrate microsensor microprocessor and microactuators into a small space to forming a Micro Electro and Mechanical System. Such small robot parts are applied to including satellites, computer communication, medical, chemical, biological and environment and so on research fields. The development of MEMS would strongly influence industrial revolution in the next century. LIGA technology including X-ray deep etching lithography; electroplating and plastic molding developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Germany since the beginning of 1980. Its advantages are: it could make three-dimensional microstructures with lateral dimension in several micron range and thickness of several hundred microns with sub-micron precision. In principle all kinds of materials such as polymer, metal and ceramic could be used as microcomponents and could be mass- produced by plastic molding to a commercially available fabrication. LIGA process has become one of the most promising Microfabrication technologies for producing micromechanical, microfluid and micro-optical elements. It opens an additional field in the microstructure market.

  10. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  11. Image Post-Processing Method for Visual Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Visual data mining is one of important approach of data mining techniques. Most of them are based on computer graphic techniques but few of them exploit image-processing techniques. This paper proposes an image processing method, named RNAM (resemble neighborhood averaging method), to facilitate visual data mining, which is used to post-process the data mining result-image and help users to discover significant features and useful patterns effectively. The experiments show that the method is intuitive, easily-understanding and effectiveness. It provides a new approach for visual data mining.

  12. Spherical 3D Isotropic Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L

    2011-01-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the Fourier-Bessel decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. 2006. We also present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large...

  13. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  14. 3D vision system assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  15. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  16. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  17. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  18. Design of 3D integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and sys

  19. Development of Urban Driving Cycle with GPS Data Post Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lipar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GIS-based methodology for urban area driving cycle construction. The approach reaches beyond the frames of usual driving cycle development methods and takes into account another perspective of data collection. Rather than planning data collection, the approach is based on available in-vehicle measurement data post processing using Geographic Information Systems to manipulate the excessive database and extract only the representative and geographically limited individual trip data. With such data post processing the data was carefully adjusted to include only the data that describe representative driving in Ljubljana urban area. The selected method for the driving cycle development is based on searching for the best microtrips combination while minimizing the difference between two vectors; one based on generated cycle and the other on the database. Accounting for a large random sample of actual trip data, our approach enables more representative area-specific driving cycle development than the previously used techniques.

  20. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  1. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  2. Cassiopee: a CFD pre-and post-processing tool

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, C.; Péron, S.; Landier, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the capabilities of a new open-source pre-and post-processing tool for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, called Cassiopee. Its architecture, which is basically a set of Python modules, and the handled data, which is based on CGNS standard, are described. Some examples of workflows that can be built with Cassiopee functions are provided. Finally, some applications of Cassiopee functions to realistic CFD configurations are briefly presented.

  3. Post-secretion processing influences spider silk performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chung-Lin; Blackledge, Todd A; Tso, I-Min

    2012-10-07

    Phenotypic variation facilitates adaptations to novel environments. Silk is an example of a highly variable biomaterial. The two-spidroin (MaSp) model suggests that spider major ampullate (MA) silk is composed of two proteins-MaSp1 predominately contains alanine and glycine and forms strength enhancing β-sheet crystals, while MaSp2 contains proline and forms elastic spirals. Nonetheless, mechanical properties can vary in spider silks without congruent amino acid compositional changes. We predicted that post-secretion processing causes variation in the mechanical performance of wild MA silk independent of protein composition or spinning speed across 10 species of spider. We used supercontraction to remove post-secretion effects and compared the mechanics of silk in this 'ground state' with wild native silks. Native silk mechanics varied less among species compared with 'ground state' silks. Variability in the mechanics of 'ground state' silks was associated with proline composition. However, variability in native silks did not. We attribute interspecific similarities in the mechanical properties of native silks, regardless of amino acid compositions, to glandular processes altering molecular alignment of the proteins prior to extrusion. Such post-secretion processing may enable MA silk to maintain functionality across environments, facilitating its function as a component of an insect-catching web.

  4. High-resolution 3D T2-weighted fast spin echo: new applications in the orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399 (United States); McCaffery, Sharon; O' Brien, Joan M. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rowley, Howard A. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Fischbein, Nancy J. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shimikawa, Ann [General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments have made available for ophthalmologic MR imaging a very high-resolution 3D fast spin echo T2 (3D FSE T2) sequence, which runs in a standard head coil. A modification of this technique, 3D FSEz T2, uses a zero-filled slice interpolation method during post-processing to further improve spatial resolution. We describe the technique and share our early clinical observations in patients with ocular masses. Briefly, the additional information from the 3D FSEz T2 resulted in a change in diagnosis from the conventional imaging series in 11 of (41%) 27 studies, usually through the identification of previously treated retinoblastoma lesions. The new sequence significantly increased diagnostic confidence in six (38%) of the remaining 16 cases, usually through better anatomical detail and lesion conspicuity, and did not change interpretation in 10 cases. Such an approach improves diagnostic confidence and may eliminate the need for a dedicated surface coil examination. (orig.)

  5. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  6. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Yıldırımlı

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hypervigilance as a result of reexperiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. The cognitive approach asserts that cognitions play a triggering and maintaining role for these symptoms and tries to explain them with the information processing framework. According to this approach, the traumatic event that is experienced is processed differently from daily, ordinary events. This different information processing strategy stands out in attention, memory, dissociation, cognitive beliefs, cognition-affect processes and coping strategies. In the present paper, research on how these constructs that are parts of the information processing in cognitive systems function in PTSD will be reviewed.

  7. Study of hybrid laser / MAG welding process: characterization of the geometry and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool and development of a 3D thermal model; Etude du procede de soudage hybride laser/MAG: Caracterisation de la geometrie et de l'hydrodynamique du bain de fusion et developpement d'un modele 3D thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, E.

    2010-11-15

    Hybrid laser/MIG-MAG welding shows high advantages compared to laser welding or GMAW arc welding used separately. Thanks to this process, higher productivity can be gained through higher welding speed, higher squeeze tolerance moreover possible improvement of the metallurgical properties of the weld seam can be obtained. However, many operating parameters have to be set up in order to achieve optimal process. The complex physical phenomena, which govern welding process, have to be understood in order to use efficiently this technique in mass production. Understanding of these phenomena is also necessary to program numerical simulations which fit to this process. In the first step, experimental studies have been carried out with GMAW, laser and hybrid welding on samples of S355 steel. Influence of operating parameters has been analyzed through films performed with speed camera and macro-graphies of weld seam cross section. Surface deformations of the melt pool, induced by the arc pressure, weld pool length, droplet detachment and welding speed, have been analyzed precisely from images of the surface melt pool. In a second step, a numerical model was developed using the COMSOL Multiphysics software for MAG, laser and hybrid laser/MAG welding processes. A 3D quasi-stationary model has been calculated from the temperature field within the metal. The originality of the MAG and hybrid model lies in the prediction of the melt pool surface profile used to determine the 3D geometry, by taking into account the material input. The influence of different parameters such as arc power and speed welding on the efficiency as well as the distribution radius of the arc power and the arc pressure are analyzed through validations with different experimental results and different calculation configurations. (author)

  8. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  9. Mechanism of 3D domain swapping in bovine seminal ribonuclease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaccini, Roberta; Ercole, Carmine; Graziano, Giuseppe; Wechselberger, Rainer; Boelens, Rolf; Picone, Delia

    2014-01-01

    3D domain swapping (3D-DS) is a complex protein aggregation process for which no unique mechanism exists. We report an analysis of 3D-DS in bovine seminal ribonuclease, a homodimeric protein whose subunits are linked by two disulfide bridges, based on NMR and biochemical studies. The presence of the

  10. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  11. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  12. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  13. Effect of Joint Scale and Processing on the Fracture of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints: Application to Micro-bumps in 3D Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebanpour, B.; Huang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, I.

    2016-01-01

    In 3-dimensional (3D) packages, a stack of dies is vertically connected to each other using through-silicon vias and very thin solder micro-bumps. The thinness of the micro-bumps results in joints with a very high volumetric proportion of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), rendering them much more brittle compared to conventional joints. Because of this, the reliability of micro-bumps, and the dependence thereof on the proportion of IMC in the joint, is of substantial concern. In this paper, the growth kinetics of IMCs in thin Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu joints attached to Cu substrates were analyzed, and empirical kinetic laws for the growth of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn in thin joints were obtained. Modified compact mixed mode fracture mechanics samples, with adhesive solder joints between massive Cu substrates, having similar thickness and IMC content as actual micro-bumps, were produced. The effects of IMC proportion and strain rate on fracture toughness and mechanisms were investigated. It was found that the fracture toughness G C decreased with decreasing joint thickness ( h Joint). In addition, the fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rate. Aging also promoted alternation of the crack path between the two joint-substrate interfaces, possibly proffering a mechanism to enhance fracture toughness.

  14. Accepting the T3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  15. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  16. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  17. The GB/3D Type Fossils Online Web Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, T.; Howe, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils are the remains of once-living organisms that existed and played out their lives in 3-dimensional environments. The information content provided by a 3d representation of a fossil is much greater than that provided by a traditional photograph, and can grab the attention and imagination of the younger and older general public alike. The British Geological Survey has been leading a consortium of UK natural history museums including the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, the Sedgwick Museum Cambridge, the National Museum of Wales Cardiff, and a number of smaller regional British museums to construct a web portal giving access to metadata, high resolution images and interactive 3d models of type fossils from the UK. The web portal at www.3d-fossils.ac.uk was officially launched in August 2013. It can be used to discover metadata describing the provenance, taxonomy, and stratigraphy of the specimens. Zoom-able high resolution digital photographs are available, including for many specimens ';anaglyph' stereo images that can be viewed in 3d using red-cyan stereo spectacles. For many of the specimens interactive 3d models were generated by scanning with portable ';NextEngine 3D HD' 3d scanners. These models can be downloaded in zipped .OBJ and .PLY format from the web portal, or may be viewed and manipulated directly in certain web browsers. The images and scans may be freely downloaded subject to a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike Non-Commercial license. There is a simple application programming interface (API) allowing metadata to be downloaded, with links to the images and models, in a standardised format for use in data mash-ups and third party applications. The web portal also hosts ';open educational resources' explaining the process of fossilization and the importance of type specimens in taxonomy, as well as providing introductions to the most important fossil groups. We have experimented with using a 3d printer to create replicas of the

  18. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  19. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  20. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  1. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  2. Visual Fixation for 3D Video Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Seidel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual fixation is employed by humans and some animals to keep a specific 3D location at the center of the visual gaze. Inspired by this phenomenon in nature, this paper explores the idea to transfer this mechanism to the context of video stabilization for a hand-held video camera. A novel approach is presented that stabilizes a video by fixating on automatically extracted 3D target points. This approach is different from existing automatic solutions that stabilize the video by smoothing. To determine the 3D target points, the recorded scene is analyzed with a state-of-the-art structure-from-motion algorithm, which estimates camera motion and reconstructs a 3D point cloud of the static scene objects. Special algorithms are presented that search either virtual or real 3D target points, which back-project close to the center of the image for as long a period of time as possible. The stabilization algorithm then transforms the original images of the sequence so that these 3D target points are kept exactly in the center of the image, which, in case of real 3D target points, produces a perfectly stable result at the image center. Furthermore, different methods of additional user interaction are investigated. It is shown that the stabilization process can easily be controlled and that it can be combined with state-of-the-art tracking techniques in order to obtain a powerful image stabilization tool. The approach is evaluated on a variety of videos taken with a hand-held camera in natural scenes.

  3. 3D Reconstruction of Irregular Buildings and Buddha Statues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, M.-j.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional laser scanning could acquire object's surface data quickly and accurately. However, the post-processing of point cloud is not perfect and could be improved. Based on the study of 3D laser scanning technology, this paper describes the details of solutions to modelling irregular ancient buildings and Buddha statues in Jinshan Temple, which aiming at data acquisition, modelling and texture mapping, etc. In order to modelling irregular ancient buildings effectively, the structure of each building is extracted manually by point cloud and the textures are mapped by the software of 3ds Max. The methods clearly combine 3D laser scanning technology with traditional modelling methods, and greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy of the ancient buildings restored. On the other hand, the main idea of modelling statues is regarded as modelling objects in reverse engineering. The digital model of statues obtained is not just vivid, but also accurate in the field of surveying and mapping. On this basis, a 3D scene of Jinshan Temple is reconstructed, which proves the validity of the solutions.

  4. 3D technology in fine art and craft exploring 3D printing, scanning, sculpting and milling

    CERN Document Server

    Mongeon, Bridgette

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities for creation are endless with 3D printing, sculpting, scanning, and milling, and new opportunities are popping up faster than artists can keep up with them. 3D Technology in Fine Art and Craft takes the mystery out of these exciting new processes by demonstrating how to navigate their digital components and showing their real world applications. Artists will learn to incorporate these new technologies into their studio work and see their creations come to life in a physical form never before possible. Featuring a primer on 3D basics for beginners,interviews, tutorials, and ar

  5. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  6. Localization of impaired kinesthetic processing post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Michael Kenzie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinesthesia is our sense of limb motion, and allows us to gauge the speed, direction, and amplitude of our movements. Over half of stroke survivors have significant impairments in kinesthesia, which leads to greatly reduced recovery and function in everyday activities. Despite the high reported incidence of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, very little is known about how damage beyond just primary somatosensory areas affects kinesthesia. Stroke provides an ideal model to examine structure-function relationships specific to kinesthetic processing, by comparing lesion location with behavioral impairment. To examine this relationship, we performed voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and statistical region of interest analyses on a large sample of sub-acute stroke subjects (N=142 and compared kinesthetic performance with stroke lesion location. Subjects with first unilateral, ischemic stroke underwent neuroimaging and a comprehensive robotic kinesthetic assessment (~9 days post-stroke. The robotic exoskeleton measured subjects’ ability to perform a kinesthetic mirror-matching task of the upper limbs without vision. The robot moved the stroke-affected arm and subjects’ mirror-matched the movement with the unaffected arm. We found that lesions both within and outside primary somatosensory cortex were associated with significant kinesthetic impairments. Further, sub-components of kinesthesia were associated with different lesion locations. Impairments in speed perception were primarily associated with lesions to the right post-central and supramarginal gyri whereas impairments in amplitude of movement perception were primarily associated with lesions in the right pre-central gyrus, anterior insula, and superior temporal gyrus. Impairments in perception of movement direction were associated with lesions to bilateral post-central and supramarginal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus and parietal operculum. All measures of impairment shared a common

  7. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia;

    2016-01-01

    by pyrolysis at 900ºC for 1h was developed. With this process, microelectrode chips with a three electrode configuration were fabricated and characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) using a 10mM potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. The 3D pyrolytic...

  8. 3D-mallinnus ja 3D-animaatiot biovoimalaitoksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltula, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin biovoimalaitoksen piirustuksista 3D-mallinnus ja animaatiot. Työn tarkoituksena oli saada valmiiksi Recwell Oy:lle markkinointiin tarkoitetut kuva- ja videomateriaalit. Työssä perehdyttiin 3D-mallintamisen perustietoihin ja lähtökohtiin sekä animaation laatimiseen. Työ laadittiin kokonaisuudessaan AutoCAD-ohjelmalla, ja työn aikana tutustuttiin huolellisesti myös ohjelman käyttöohjeisiin. Piirustusten mitoituksessa huomattiin jo alkuvaiheessa suuria puutteita, ...

  9. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  10. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; McCormick, T. W.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J. (Spire Corporation)

    1999-08-31

    This report describes work performed by Spire Corporation during Phase 1 of this three-phase PVMaT subcontract to develop new automated post-lamination processes for PV module manufacturing. These processes are applicable to a very broad range of module types, including those made with wafer-based and thin-film solar cells. No off-the-shelf automation was available for these processes prior to this program. Spire conducted a survey of PV module manufacturers to identify current industry practices and to determine the requirements for the automated systems being developed in this program. Spire also completed detailed mechanical and electrical designs and developed software for two prototype automation systems: a module buffer storage system, designated the SPI-BUFFER 350, and an integrated module testing system, designated the SPI-MODULE QA 350. Researchers fabricated, tested, and evaluated both systems with module components from several module manufacturers. A new size simulator , th e SPI-SUN SIMULATOR 350i, was designed with a test area that can handle most production modules without consuming excessive floor space. Spire's subcontractor, the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) at the University of Texas, developed and demonstrated module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing processes that are suitable for automation. The automated processes under development throughout this program are being designed to be combined together to create automated production lines. ARRI completed a cost study to determine the level of investment that can be justified by implementing automation for post-lamination assembly and testing processes. The study concluded that a module production line operating two shifts per day and producing 10 MW of modules per year can justify $2.37 million in capital equipment, assuming a 5-year payback period.

  11. Post-processing of high-contrast observations of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladysz S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-processing of images delivered by the eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO instrumentation is a crucial step which can increase achievable contrast even by two orders of magnitude. In this communication I present a new class of algorithms for detection of extrasolar planets from a sequence of adaptive-optics-corrected images. In general, the methods discriminate between real sources and stellar PSF features based on statistics of recorded intensity. The methods are particularly useful in dealing with static speckles which are the greatest obstacle in detecting exoplanets.

  12. Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R

    2007-01-01

    In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.

  13. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  14. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  15. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  16. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tsung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Results. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Conclusion. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  17. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  18. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2, 0) theory of type A N -1 on a 3-manifold M . The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,C) ) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T N [ M ]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T [SU( N )], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N > 2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2 T N [ M ] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper [1], which summarizes our main results.

  19. A Novel Method for 3D Face Detection and Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Niese

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available When automatically analyzing images of human faces, either for recognition in biometry applications or facial expression analysis in human machine interaction, one has to cope with challenges caused by different head pose, illumination and expression. In this article we propose a new stereo based method for effectively solving the pose problem through 3D face detection and normalization. The proposed method applies a model-based matching and is especially intended for the study of facial features and the description of their dynamic changes in image sequences under the assumption of non-cooperative persons. In our work, we are currently implementing a new application to observe and analyze single faces of post-operative patients. In the proposed method, face detection is based on color driven clustering of 3D points derived from stereo. A mesh model is matched with the post-processed face cluster using a variant of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm (ICP. Pose is derived from correspondence. Then, pose and model information is used for the synthesis of the face normalization. Results show, stereo and color are powerful cues for finding the face and its pose under a wide range of poses, illuminations and expressions (PIE. Head orientation may vary in out of plane rotations up to ±45°.

  20. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  1. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  2. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  3. VirtoScan - a mobile, low-cost photogrammetry setup for fast post-mortem 3D full-body documentations in x-ray computed tomography and autopsy suites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Sören; Ebert, Lars C; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Braun, Marcel; Thali, Michael J; Gascho, Dominic

    2017-03-01

    Injuries such as bite marks or boot prints can leave distinct patterns on the body's surface and can be used for 3D reconstructions. Although various systems for 3D surface imaging have been introduced in the forensic field, most techniques are both cost-intensive and time-consuming. In this article, we present the VirtoScan, a mobile, multi-camera rig based on close-range photogrammetry. The system can be integrated into automated PMCT scanning procedures or used manually together with lifting carts, autopsy tables and examination couch. The VirtoScan is based on a moveable frame that carries 7 digital single-lens reflex cameras. A remote control is attached to each camera and allows the simultaneous triggering of the shutter release of all cameras. Data acquisition in combination with the PMCT scanning procedures took 3:34 min for the 3D surface documentation of one side of the body compared to 20:20 min of acquisition time when using our in-house standard. A surface model comparison between the high resolution output from our in-house standard and a high resolution model from the multi-camera rig showed a mean surface deviation of 0.36 mm for the whole body scan and 0.13 mm for a second comparison of a detailed section of the scan. The use of the multi-camera rig reduces the acquisition time for whole-body surface documentations in medico-legal examinations and provides a low-cost 3D surface scanning alternative for forensic investigations.

  4. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  5. Interior Reconstruction Using the 3d Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, R.-C.; Borrmann, D.; Nüchter, A.

    2013-02-01

    Laser scanners are often used to create accurate 3D models of buildings for civil engineering purposes, but the process of manually vectorizing a 3D point cloud is time consuming and error-prone (Adan and Huber, 2011). Therefore, the need to characterize and quantify complex environments in an automatic fashion arises, posing challenges for data analysis. This paper presents a system for 3D modeling by detecting planes in 3D point clouds, based on which the scene is reconstructed at a high architectural level through removing automatically clutter and foreground data. The implemented software detects openings, such as windows and doors and completes the 3D model by inpainting.

  6. Determining 3D flow fields via multi-camera light field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L

    2013-03-06

    In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture (1). Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet.

  7. MSV3d: database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin-Mihai; Walter, Vincent; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Toursel, Thierry; Thompson, Julie D; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the complex relationships linking genotypic and phenotypic variations to protein structure is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. We present MSV3d (Database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure), a new database that contains detailed annotation of missense variants of all human proteins (20 199 proteins). The multi-level characterization includes details of the physico-chemical changes induced by amino acid modification, as well as information related to the conservation of the mutated residue and its position relative to functional features in the available or predicted 3D model. Major releases of the database are automatically generated and updated regularly in line with the dbSNP (database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SwissVar releases, by exploiting the extensive Décrypthon computational grid resources. The database (http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d) is easily accessible through a simple web interface coupled to a powerful query engine and a standard web service. The content is completely or partially downloadable in XML or flat file formats. Database URL: http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d.

  8. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Yıldırımlı

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that remind the traumatic event. The cognitive approach asserts that cognitions play a triggering and maintaining role for these symptoms and tries to explain them with the information processing framework. According to this approach, the traumatic event that is experienced is processed differently from daily, ordinary events. This different information processing strategy stands out in attention, memory, dissociation, cognitive beliefs, cognition-affect processes and coping strategies. In the present paper, research on how these constructs that are parts of the information processing in cognitive systems function in PTSD will be reviewed.

  9. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Chae

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing has been embraced by early adopters to produce medical imaging-guided 3D printed biomodels that facilitate various aspects of clinical practice. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. With increasing accessibility, investigators are now able to convert standard imaging data into Computer Aided Design (CAD files using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography (SLA, multijet modeling (MJM, selective laser sintering (SLS, binder jet technique (BJT, and fused deposition modeling (FDM. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without out-sourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. In this review the existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice, spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative aesthetics, are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, patient and surgical trainee education, and the development of intraoperative guidance tools and patient-specific prosthetics in everyday surgical practice.

  10. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  11. 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Klaus; Holzner, Markus; Guala, Michele; Liberzon, Alexander; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang [Swiss Federal Institut of Technology Zurich, Institut fuer Hydromechanik und Wasserwirtschaft, Zuerich (Switzerland); Luethi, Beat [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-11-01

    In this article, we present an experimental setup and data processing schemes for 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV), which expands on the classical 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) through changes in the illumination, image acquisition and analysis. 3D PTV is a flexible flow measurement technique based on the processing of stereoscopic images of flow tracer particles. The technique allows obtaining Lagrangian flow information directly from measured 3D trajectories of individual particles. While for a classical PTV the entire region of interest is simultaneously illuminated and recorded, in SPTV the flow field is recorded by sequential tomographic high-speed imaging of the region of interest. The advantage of the presented method is a considerable increase in maximum feasible seeding density. Results are shown for an experiment in homogenous turbulence and compared with PTV. SPTV yielded an average 3,500 tracked particles per time step, which implies a significant enhancement of the spatial resolution for Lagrangian flow measurements. (orig.)

  12. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  14. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  15. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  16. When Art Meets 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  17. The development of a 3D risk analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Yet-Pole; Cheng, Te-Lung

    2008-05-01

    Much attention has been paid to the quantitative risk analysis (QRA) research in recent years due to more and more severe disasters that have happened in the process industries. Owing to its calculation complexity, very few software, such as SAFETI, can really make the risk presentation meet the practice requirements. However, the traditional risk presentation method, like the individual risk contour in SAFETI, is mainly based on the consequence analysis results of dispersion modeling, which usually assumes that the vapor cloud disperses over a constant ground roughness on a flat terrain with no obstructions and concentration fluctuations, which is quite different from the real situations of a chemical process plant. All these models usually over-predict the hazardous regions in order to maintain their conservativeness, which also increases the uncertainty of the simulation results. On the other hand, a more rigorous model such as the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model can resolve the previous limitations; however, it cannot resolve the complexity of risk calculations. In this research, a conceptual three-dimensional (3D) risk calculation method was proposed via the combination of results of a series of CFD simulations with some post-processing procedures to obtain the 3D individual risk iso-surfaces. It is believed that such technique will not only be limited to risk analysis at ground level, but also be extended into aerial, submarine, or space risk analyses in the near future.

  18. AUTOMATED, HIGHLY ACCURATE VERIFICATION OF RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George L Mesina; David Aumiller; Francis Buschman

    2014-07-01

    Computer programs that analyze light water reactor safety solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics. In addition, these programs incorporate many other features and are quite large. RELAP5-3D[1] has over 300,000 lines of coding for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. Verification ensures that a program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications. Recently, there has been an increased importance on the development of automated verification processes that compare coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions[2]. For the first time, the ability exists to ensure that the data transfer operations associated with timestep advancement/repeating and writing/reading a solution to a file have no unintended consequences. To ensure that the code performs as intended over its extensive list of applications, an automated and highly accurate verification method has been modified and applied to RELAP5-3D. Furthermore, mathematical analysis of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons is provided.

  19. Precarious posted worlds : Posted migrant workers in the Dutch construction and meat processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The posting of migrant workers has become an important employment channel for cross-border employment within the European Union (EU). Although posted workers are not formally excluded from labour rights, regulations are enacted in such a way that de facto they often are, as posted workers face many

  20. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

  1. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  2. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  3. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Technologies for 3D Heterogeneous Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Jürgen; Klumpp, Armin; Reichl, H

    2008-01-01

    3D-Integration is a promising technology towards higher interconnect densities and shorter wiring lengths between multiple chip stacks, thus achieving a very high performance level combined with low power consumption. This technology also offers the possibility to build up systems with high complexity just by combining devices of different technologies. For ultra thin silicon is the base of this integration technology, the fundamental processing steps will be described, as well as appropriate handling concepts. Three main concepts for 3D integration have been developed at IZM. The approach with the greatest flexibility called Inter Chip Via - Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (ICV-SLID) is introduced. This is a chip-to-wafer stacking technology which combines the advantages of the Inter Chip Via (ICV) process and the solid-liquid-interdiffusion technique (SLID) of copper and tin. The fully modular ICV-SLID concept allows the formation of multiple device stacks. A test chip was designed and the total process sequenc...

  5. 3D seismic data processing technique for loess tableland area in Fuxian, North Shanxi Province%陕北富县黄土塬区三维地震资料处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏杰; 刘玉增; 孟祥顺; 王锡文; 王献杰

    2012-01-01

    At erosive loess tableland area in Fuxian, Shanxi Province, the surface is covered by huge loess with vertically and horizontally d istributed ravines and gullies. Meanwhile, the surface elevation varies seriously. Complex near-surface structure, serious high-frequency absorption and kinds of interference lead to low signal-to-noise ratio for the seismic data after conventional processing methods, which cannot satisfy the requirements of seismic imaging and reservoir prediction. As for the complex surface static correction problem in loess area, a new static correction idea of "low-frequency first, middle/high-frequency second and successive approximation" is generated and we achieved good results. Aiming at the characteristics of various kinds and broad distribution ranges of noise, cascaded noise attenuation technique of ' multi-domains u-nion, from strong to weak' is applied to carry out pre-stack high fidelity noise attenuation. The difference of amplitude and frequencies of seismic data is eliminated and the quality of data was unified by making use of amplitude consistency reservation. With 3D surface consistent deconvolution and post stack resolution enhancement processing methods realization, the effective band of seismic signal is expanded and resolution is improved. The processing results show that the signal-tcrnoise ratio, resolution and fidelity are effectively enhanced.%陕北富县黄土塬侵蚀地貌区地表巨厚的黄土盖层沟壑纵横,高程变化剧烈,复杂的近地表结构、严重的高频吸收衰减和多种类型的干扰波,导致常规处理方法获得的地震资料信噪比和分辨率较低,无法满足后续地震成像处理和储层预测的需求.针对黄土塬区复杂地表静校正难题,提出了“先低频、后中高频,逐步逼近”的静校正思路并取得了明显效果;针对该区噪声类型多、分布范围广的特点,采用“多域联合,先强后弱”的串联去噪配套技术进行叠前高保

  6. Improved Micro Rain Radar snow measurements using Doppler spectra post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR is a compact Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW system that operates at 24 GHz. The MRR is a low-cost, portable radar system that requires minimum supervision in the field. As such, the MRR is a frequently used radar system for conducting precipitation research. Current MRR drawbacks are the lack of a sophisticated post-processing algorithm to improve its sensitivity (currently at +3 dBz, spurious artefacts concerning radar receiver noise and the lack of high quality Doppler radar moments. Here we propose an improved processing method which is especially suited for snow observations and provides reliable values of effective reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectral width. The proposed method is freely available on the web and features a noise removal based on recognition of the most significant peak. A dynamic dealiasing routine allows observations even if the Nyquist velocity range is exceeded. Collocated observations over 115 days of a MRR and a pulsed 35.2 GHz MIRA35 cloud radar show a very high agreement for the proposed method for snow, if reflectivities are larger than −5 dBz. The overall sensitivity is increased to −14 and −8 dBz, depending on range. The proposed method exploits the full potential of MRR's hardware and substantially enhances the use of Micro Rain Radar for studies of solid precipitation.

  7. A spiro-bifluorene based 3D electron acceptor with dicyanovinylene substitution for solution-processed non-fullerene organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Debin

    2015-04-20

    A novel electron acceptor, namely 2,2′-(12H,12′H-10,10′-spirobi[indeno[2,1-b]fluorene]-12,12′-diylidene)dimalononitrile (4CN-spiro), exhibiting a three-dimensional molecular structure was synthesized and its thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, crystal, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. The novel acceptor exhibits excellent thermal stability with a decomposition temperature of 460 °C, an absorption extending to 600 nm, and a LUMO level of −3.63 eV. Solution processed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells were fabricated using 4CN-spiro as an acceptor and polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) as a donor polymer. The effect of the donor-to-acceptor ratio and processing conditions on the device performance was investigated. A device processed from tetrachloroethane with a donor to acceptor weight ratio of 1 : 1 yielded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.80%.

  8. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    projection in the high-latitude ionosphere. EISCAT_3D can also be used to study solar system properties. Thanks to the high power and great accuracy, mapping of objects like the Moon and asteroids is possible. With the high power and large antenna aperture, incoherent scatter radars can be extraordinarily good monitors of extraterrestrial dust and its interaction with the atmosphere. Although incoherent scatter radars, such as EISCAT_3D, are few in number, the power and versatility of their measurement technique mean that they can measure parameters which are not obtainable otherwise, and thus also be a cornerstone in the international efforts to measure and predict space weather effects. Finally, over the years the EISCAT radars have served as a testbed for new ideas in radar coding and data analysis. EISCAT_3D will be the first of a new generation of "software radars" whose advanced capabilities will be realised not by its hardware but by the flexibility and adaptability of the scheduling, beam-forming, signal processing and analysis software used to control the radar and process its data. Thus, new techniques will be developed into standard observing applications for implementation in the next generation of software radars.

  9. PRODUCTION WITH 3D PRINTERS IN TEXTILES [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers are gaining more attention, finding different applications and 3D printing is being regarded as a ‘revolution’ of the 2010s for production. 3D printing is a production method that produces 3-dimensional objects by combining very thin layers over and over to form the object using 3D scanners or via softwares either private or open source. 3D printed materials find application in a large range of fields including aerospace, automotive, medicine and material science. There are several 3D printing methods such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, stereolithographic apparatus (SLA, selective laser sintering (SLS, inkjet 3D printing and laminated object manufacturing (LOM. 3D printing process involves three steps: production of the 3D model file, conversion of the 3D model file into G-code and printing the object. 3D printing finds a large variety of applications in many fields; however, textile applications of 3D printing remain rare. There are several textile-like 3D printed products mostly for use in fashion design, for research purposes, for technical textile applications and for substituting traditional textiles suchas weft-knitted structures and lace patterns. 3D printed textile-like structures are not strong enough for textile applications as they tend to break easily and although they have the drape of a textile material, they still lack the flexibility of textiles. 3D printing technology has to gain improvement to produce materials that will be an equivalent for textile materials, and has to be a faster method to compete with traditional textile production methods.

  10. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-02-14

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use