WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d photonic crystals

  1. Optical experiments on 3D photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, F.; Vos, W.

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystals are optical materials that have an intricate structure with length scales of the order of the wavelength of light. The flow of photons is controlled in a manner analogous to how electrons propagate through semiconductor crystals, i.e., by Bragg diffraction and the formation of band

  2. Large Area Printing of 3D Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, James J.; Beaulieu, Michael R.; Hendricks, Nicholas R.; Kothari, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a readily scalable print, lift, and stack approach for producing large area, 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was used to pattern grating structures comprised of highly filled nanoparticle polymer composite resists with tune-able refractive indices (RI). The gratings were robust and upon release from a support substrate were oriented and stacked to yield 3D PCs. The RI of the composite resists was tuned between 1.58 and 1.92 at 800 nm while maintaining excellent optical transparency. The grating structure dimensions, line width, depth, and pitch, were easily varied by simply changing the imprint mold. For example, a 6 layer log-pile stack was prepared using a composite resist a RI of 1.72 yielding 72 % reflection at 900 nm. The process is scalable for roll-to-roll (R2R) production. Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing - an NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

  3. 3D electron tomography of biological photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, Benjamin; Winter, Benjamin; Vieweg, Benito; Knoke, Isabel; Spallek, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann [CENEM, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Schroeder-Turk, Gerd; Mecke, Klaus [Theoretische Physik I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Photonic crystals, i.e. periodical nanostructures of materials with different dielectric constants, are highly interesting for applications in optics, optoelectronics, and sensing. By tailoring the geometrical parameters radically different and improved optical properties (e.g., optical band-gap structure, extreme refractive indices, or high anisotropy) can be achieved. Naturally occurring photonic crystals, like butterfly scales, exoskeletons of insects (chitin), or seashells (nacre), can serve as model systems for understanding the relationship between structure and optical properties. Butterfly scales are studied by TEM using a FEI Titan{sup 3} 80-300 instrument. An optimized FIB technique or ultramicrotome sectioning were used to prepare the sensitive specimens with desired thickness. Since the periodical structures have dimensions on the sub-{mu}m scale, HAADF-STEM tomography was employed for obtaining extended tilt series under conditions of atomic-number sensitive imaging. Since the solid crystal consists of chemically homogeneous chitin while the pores are unfilled, the distinct contrast in the images can easily be interpreted in terms of the local projected mass density allowing to reconstruct the chitin distribution within the optical unit cell of the scales with high 3D resolution.

  4. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing. PMID:26177830

  5. Micromorph silicon tandem solar cells with fully integrated 3D photonic crystal intermediate reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üpping, J.; Bielawny, A.; Fahr, S.; Rockstuhl, C.; Lederer, F.; Steidl, L.; Zentel, R.; Beckers, T.; Lambertz, A.; Carius, R.; Wehrspohn, R. B.

    2010-05-01

    A 3D photonic intermediate reflector for textured micromorph silicon tandem solar cells has been investigated. In thin-film silicon tandem solar cells consisting of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon with two junctions of a-Si/c-Si, efficiency enhancements can be achieved by increasing the current density in the a-Si top cell providing an optimized current matching at high current densities. For an ideal photon-management between top and bottom cell, a spectrally-selective intermediate reflective layer (IRL) is necessary. We present the first fully-integrated 3D photonic thin-film IRL device incorporated on a planar substrate. Using a ZnO inverted opal structure the external quantum efficiency of the top cell in the spectral region of interest could be enhanced. As an outlook we present the design and the preparation of a 3D self organized photonic crystal structure in a textured micromorph tandem solar cell.

  6. 3D photonic crystal interlayers for micromorph thin film silicon tandem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uepping, Johannes; Bielawny, Andreas; Otto, Martin; Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Institute of Physics, University of Halle, Wittenberg (Germany); Steidl, Lorenz; Zentel, Rudolf [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Mainz (Germany); Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Germany); Beckers, Thomas; Carius, Reinhard [Institute of Energy Research, IEF-5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A 3D photonic intermediate reflector for textured micromorph silicon tandem solar cells has been investigated. In thin-film silicon tandem solar cells consisting of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon with two junctions of a-Si/{mu}c-Si, efficiency enhancements can be achieved by increasing the current density in the a-Si top cell. It is one goal to provide an optimized current matching at high current densities. For an ideal photon-management between top and bottom cell, a spectrally selective intermediate reflective layer (IRL) is necessary. We show results toward the first fully integrated 3D photonic thin-film IRL device incorporated in a state-of-the-art textured tandem solar cell. The design and the preparation of a 3D self organized inverted opal photonic crystal structure in a textured micromorph tandem solar cell is presented.

  7. Ultralow-loss 3-dB photonic crystal waveguide splitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Zhuang, Yanxin;

    2004-01-01

    A photonic crystal waveguide splitter that exhibits ultralow-loss 3-dB splitting for TE-polarized light is fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material by use of deep UV lithography. The high performance is achieved by use of a Y junction, which is designed to ensure single-mode operation, and low...

  8. 3D photonic crystal interlayers for micromorph thin film silicon tandem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Uepping, Johannes; Miclea, Paul T.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Institute of Physics, University of Halle, Wittenberg (Germany); Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk [Institue of Physics, Solid States Optics, University of Jena (Germany); Peters, Marius [Freiburg Centre for Material Research, University of Freiburg (Germany); Steidl, Lorenz; Zentel, Rudolf [Dept. of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Earth Science, University of Mainz (Germany); Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Germany); Lambertz, Andreas; Carius, Reinhard [Institute of Energy Research, IEF-5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The concept of 3D photonic intermediate reflectors for micromorph silicon tandem cells has been investigated toward first prototype cells. The reflector enhances the absorption of spectrally selected light in the top cell and decreases the current mismatch between both junctions. Our device is an inverted opal structure made of ZnO and built using self organized nanoparticles and atomic layer deposition coating methods. This 3D photonic crystal intermediate layer is less dependent of the angle of incidence than other state of the art thickness dependent massive interlayers. We present design rules, preparation and characterization of a 3D photonic thin film device. A first prototype is compared to a state of the art reference silicon tandem cell.

  9. Reflectivity calculated for a 3D silicon photonic band gap crystal with finite support

    CERN Document Server

    Devashish, D; van der Vegt, J J W; Vos, Willem L

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the reflectivity of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a complete 3D photonic band gap, with the aim to interpret recent experiments. We employ the finite element method to study crystals with the cubic diamond-like inverse woodpile structure. The high-index backbone has a dielectric function similar to silicon. We study crystals with a range of thicknesses up to ten unit cells ($L \\leq 10 c$). The crystals are surrounded by vacuum, and have a finite support as in experiments. The polarization-resolved reflectivity spectra reveal Fabry-P{\\'e}rot fringes related to standing waves in the finite crystal, as well as broad stop bands with nearly $100~\\%$ reflectivity, even for thin crystals. From the strong reflectivity peaks, it is inferred that the maximum reflectivity observed in experiments is not limited by finite size. The frequency ranges of the stop bands are in excellent agreement with stop gaps in the photonic band structure, that pertain to infinite and perfect crystals. ...

  10. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons. PMID:27045887

  11. Percolation lithography: Tuning and freezing disorder in 3D photonic crystals using partial wetting and drying

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Theresa M. Kay; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Loncar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Although complex, hierarchical nanoscale geometries with tailored degrees of disorder are commonly found in biological systems, few simple self-assembly routes to fabricating synthetic analogues have been identified. We present two techniques that exploit basic capillary phenomena to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In the first, we exposed the structures to mixtures of ethanol and water that partially wet their pores, whe...

  12. Simulating 3D $Z_2$ Topological Nodes in Nonsymmorphic Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai-Xiao; Hang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Huanyang; Kee, Hae-Young; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-dielectric, space-time reversal symmetric photonics-crystal architecture that possess 3D Dirac points and line-nodes with nontrivial $Z_2$ topological charge, which can be realized at infrared and microwave frequencies. The protected degeneracy of bands is achieved via nonsymmorphic symmetries despite the lack of Kramers degeneracy in photonic crystal systems. Two orthogonal screw axes lead to 3D $Z_2$ Dirac points on high symmetry Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary line. On the other hand, twofold $Z_2$ line-nodes appear around the $\\Gamma$-point due to a combination of nonsymmorphic and point-group symmetries. The lowest line-node is deterministic because of degeneracy partner switching between Bloch states with opposite parities. A pair of Fermi arcs associated with $Z_2$ topological charge is emerged below light-line and protected by total internal reflection on certain photonic-crystal-air interfaces. These robust surface states offer an unique opportunity to realize "open cavity" with strong...

  13. Design of a 3D photonic band gap cavity in a diamond-like inverse woodpile photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Woldering, Léon A; Vos, Willem L

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the design of cavities in a three-dimensional (3D) inverse woodpile photonic crystal. This class of cubic diamond-like crystals has a very broad photonic band gap and consists of two perpendicular arrays of pores with a rectangular structure. The point defect that acts as a cavity is centred on the intersection of two intersecting perpendicular pores with a radius that differs from the ones in the bulk of the crystal. We have performed supercell bandstructure calculations with up to $5 \\times 5 \\times 5$ unit cells. We find that up to five isolated and dispersionless bands appear within the 3D photonic band gap. For each isolated band, the electric-field energy is localized in a volume centred on the point defect, hence the point defect acts as a 3D photonic band gap cavity. The mode volume of the cavities resonances is as small as 0.8 $\\lambda^{3}$ (resonance wavelength cubed), indicating a strong confinement of the light. By varying the radius of the defect pores we found that o...

  14. 3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uepping, Johannes; Miclea, Paul T.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Heinrich-Damerow-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk [Institute of Condensed Matter Theory and Solid States Optics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Peters, Marius [Freiburg Centre for Material Research, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Steidl, Lorenz; Zentel, Rudolf [Dept. of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Earth Science, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14 (Germany); Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambertz, Andreas; Carius, Reinhard [Institute of Energy Research, IEF-5 Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bielawny, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The concept of 3D photonic intermediate reflectors for micromorph silicon tandem solar cells has been investigated. In thin-film silicon tandem solar cells consisting of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon with two junctions of a-Si/{mu}c-Si, efficiency enhancements can be achieved by increasing the current density in the a-Si top cell. It is one goal to provide an optimized current matching at high current densities. For an ideal photon-management between top and bottom cell, a spectrally selective intermediate reflective layer (IRL) is necessary, which is less dependent of the angle of incidence than state-of-the-art thickness dependent massive interlayers. The design, preparation and characterization of a 3D photonic thin-film filter device for this purpose has been pursued straight forward in simulation and experimental realization. The inverted opal is capable of providing a suitable optical band stop with high reflectance and the necessary long wavelength transmittance as well and provides further options for improved light trapping. We have determined numerically the relative efficiency enhancement of an a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem solar cell using a conductive 3D-photonic crystal. We have further fabricated such structures by ZnO-replication of polymeric opals using chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer deposition techniques and present the results of their characterization. Thin film photonic IRL have been prepared at the rear side of a-Si solar cells. Completed with a back contact, this is the first step to integrate this novel technology into an a-Si/{mu}c-Si tandem solar cell process. The spectral response of the cell is presented and compared with reference cells. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Fabrication and optical properties of 3D composite photonic crystals of core-shell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanping [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan Zhijun [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lan Wei [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang Chunming [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Yinyue [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: wangyy@lzu.edu.cn

    2007-08-31

    Three-dimensional (3D) composite colloidal photonic crystals with SiO{sub 2} core and ZnO shell were fabricated on borosilicate glass (BSG) substrate by a two-stage deposition method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements show that both the pre-deposited SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/ZnO core-shell structures are oriented with their (1 1 1) axes parallel to the substrates. Optical measurement reveals that the periodic arrays exhibit a photonic band gap in the (1 1 1) direction. The optical properties of SiO{sub 2}/ZnO core-shell structures strongly depend on the size dispersions of colloidal spheres and the intrinsic defects in the sample.

  16. Percolation lithography: Tuning and freezing disorder in 3D photonic crystals using partial wetting and drying

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Ian B; Kay, Theresa M; Shneidman, Anna V; Cranshaw, Derek J; Loncar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Although complex, hierarchical nanoscale geometries with tailored degrees of disorder are commonly found in biological systems, few simple self-assembly routes to fabricating synthetic analogues have been identified. We present two techniques that exploit basic capillary phenomena to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In the first, we exposed the structures to mixtures of ethanol and water that partially wet their pores, where small adjustments to the ethanol content controlled the degree of partial wetting. In the second, we infiltrated the structures with thin films of volatile alkanes and observed a sequence of partial infiltration patterns as the liquid evaporated. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking was driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry that directed site-selective infiltration of liquids. The resulting patterns, well described by percolation theory, had significant effects on the photonic structur...

  17. Inorganic chiral 3-D photonic crystals with bicontinuous gyroid structure replicated from butterfly wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, Christian; Tyrode, Eric; Corkery, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized. The butterfly Callophrys rubi was used as a biotemplate. This material represents a significant addition to the small family of synthetic bicontinuous photonic crystals. QC 20110913

  18. Integration of 2D and 3D nanostructure fabrication with wafer-scale microelectronics: Photonic crystals and graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Arpiainen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    This Thesis considers different aspects of heterogeneous integration of 2- and 3-dimensional nanostructures with today's microelectronics process flow. The applications in the main focus are integrated 3D photonic crystals on a photonic chip and graphene biosensors, both exploiting directed self-assembly but at different length scales. View point is from the fabrication and integration challenges, but the future prospects of the selected fields of applications are also reviewed. Utilizatio...

  19. Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-10-14

    We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574

  20. Fabrication of fully undercut ZnO-based photonic crystal membranes with 3D optical confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandro Phil; Albert, Maximilian; Meier, Cedrik

    2016-09-01

    For studying nonlinear photonics, a highly controllable emission of photons with specific properties is essential. Two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) have proven to be an excellent candidate for manipulating photon emission due to resonator-based effects. Additionally, zinc oxide (ZnO) has high susceptibility coefficients and therefore shows pronounced nonlinear effects. However, in order to fabricate such a cavity, a fully undercut ZnO membrane is required, which is a challenging problem due to poor selectivity of the known etching chemistry for typical substrates such as sapphire or ZnO. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and characterize fully undercut photonic crystal membranes based on a thin ZnO film sandwiched between two layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on silicon substrates, from the initial growth of the heterostructure throughout the entire fabrication process. This process leads to a fully undercut ZnO-based membrane with adjustable optical confinement in all three dimensions. Finally, photonic resonances within the tailored photonic band gap are achieved due to optimized PhC-design (in-plane) and total internal reflection in the z-direction. The presented approach enables a variety of photon based resonator structures in the UV regime for studying nonlinear effects, including photon-exciton coupling and all-optical switching.

  1. Slow to superluminal light waves in thin 3D photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo-López, J F; Galli, M; Balestreri, A; Patrini, M; Andreani, L C; López, C

    2007-11-12

    Phase measurements on self-assembled three-dimensional photonic crystals show that the group velocity of light can flip from small positive (slow) to negative (superluminal) values in samples of a few mum size. This phenomenon takes place in a narrow spectral range around the second-order stop band and follows from coupling to weakly dispersive photonic bands associated with multiple Bragg diffraction. The observations are well accounted for by theoretical calculations of the phase delay and of photonic states in the finite-sized systems.

  2. Fabrication of holographic 3-D polymeric photonic crystals in near-Infrared band and study of Its optical property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sa-sa; WANG Qing-pu; ZHANG Xing-yu; CHEN Jia-qi; WANG Li

    2008-01-01

    A three-sidewalls-prism holographic method has been provided for the fabrication of 3-D fcc-type polymeric photonic crystal using negative photoresist.Special fabrication treatment has been introduced to ensure the stability of the fabricated nanostructures.The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the diffraction results testified the good dependability of the fabricared structures.The simulation of the partial band structure is in good agreement with the transmission and reflection spectra obtained by Fouricr transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. 3D FDTD simulations of photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In our contribution we will present the recent results on 3D simulations of photonic devices. Particularly, quantum well infrared photodetectors with embedded photonic crystal are optimized to achieve optimal light coupling and quantum efficiency. Furthermore, we study schemes of light coupling into SOI waveguides. Both optical fibre-SOI waveguide and laser-SOI waveguide coupling schemes are investigated. The results of investigations regarding the influence of disorder on the reflection peak in opal 3D photonic crystal will be also presented. This work was supported by the Austrian Nanoinitiative RPC PLATON. (author)

  4. Large Area 2D and 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals Fabricated by a Roll-to-Roll Langmuir-Blodgett Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchine, Mikhail; McGrath, Joe; Bardosova, Maria; Pemble, Martyn E

    2016-06-14

    We present our results on the fabrication of large area colloidal photonic crystals on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using a roll-to-roll Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) colloidal photonic crystals from silica nanospheres (250 and 550 nm diameter) with a total area of up to 340 cm(2) have been fabricated in a continuous manner compatible with high volume manufacturing. In addition, the antireflective properties and structural integrity of the films have been enhanced via the use of a second roll-to-roll process, employing a slot-die coating of an optical adhesive over the photonic crystal films. Scanning electron microscopy images, atomic force microscopy images, and UV-vis optical transmission and reflection spectra of the fabricated photonic crystals are analyzed. This analysis confirms the high quality of the 2D and 3D photonic crystals fabricated by the roll-to-roll LB technique. Potential device applications of the large area 2D and 3D colloidal photonic crystals on flexible PET film are briefly reviewed. PMID:27218474

  5. Finite section Chern number for a 3D photonic crystal and demonstration of the bulk-edge correspondence using a gaussian basis set

    CERN Document Server

    Oono, Shuhei; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We have characterized robust propagation modes of electromagnetic waves in helical structures by the section Chern number that is defined for two-dimensional (2D) section of the three-dimensional (3D) Brillouin zone. The Weyl point in the photonic bands is associated with a discontinuous jump of the section Chern number. A spatially localized gaussian basis set is used to calculate the section Chern numbers where we have implemented the divergence-free condition on the each basis function in 3D. Validity of the bulk-edge correspondence in a 3D photonic crystal is discussed in relation to the broken inversion symmetry.

  6. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  7. Electric transport in 3D photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üpping, J.; Bielawny, A.; Lee, S.; Knez, M.; Carius, R.; Wehrspohn, R. B.

    2009-08-01

    The progress of 3D photonic intermediate reflectors for micromorph silicon tandem cells towards a first prototype cell is presented. Intermediate reflectors enhance the absorption of spectrally-selected light in the top cell and decrease the current mismatch between both junctions. A numerical method to predict filter properties for optimal current matching is presented. Our device is an inverted opal structure made of ZnO and fabricated using self-organized nanoparticles and atomic layer deposition for conformal coating. In particular, the influence of ZnO-doping and replicated cracks during drying of the opal is discussed with respect to conductivity and optical properties. A first prototype is compared to a state-of-the-art reference cell.

  8. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals-A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H.; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-09-01

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructue CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing.

  9. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  10. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  11. Photonic Crystal VCSELs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.; S.; Song; J.; W.; Paek; K.; H.; Lee; Y.; H.; Lee

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (PC VCSELs) are reviewed. The PC VCSEL shows single-transverse-mode continuous wave operation in the entire current range with side mode suppression ratio 35-40 dB. A simple 3-D plane wave expansion method is found to be very effective in analyzing the modal properties of the PC VCSELs.

  12. Photonic Crystal VCSELs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. S. Song; J. W. Paek; K. H. Lee; Y. H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (PC VCSELs) are reviewed. The PC VCSEL shows single-transverse-mode continuous wave operation in the entire current range with side mode suppression ratio 35-40dB. A simple 3-D plane wave expansion method is found to be very effective in analyzing the modal properties of the PC VCSELs.

  13. Theoretical study of relative width of photonic band gap for the 3-D dielectric structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Johri; Akhilesh Tiwari; Saumya Saxena; Rajesh Sharma; Kuldeep Srivastava; Manoj Johri

    2002-03-01

    Calculations for the relative width (/0) as a function of refractive index and relative radius of the photonic band gap for the fcc closed packed 3-D dielectric microstructure are reported and comparison of experimental observations and theoretical predictions are given. This work is useful for the understanding of photonic crystals and occurrence of the photonic band gap.

  14. 2D and 3D heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    2014-03-01

    Exponential increases in the amount of data that need to be sensed, communicated, and processed are continuing to drive the complexity of our computing, networking, and sensing systems. High degrees of integration is essential in scalable, practical, and cost-effective microsystems. In electronics, high-density 2D integration has naturally evolved towards 3D integration by stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-vias. In photonics, too, we anticipate highdegrees of 3D integration of photonic components to become a prevailing method in realizing future microsystems for information and communication technologies. However, compared to electronics, photonic 3D integration face a number of challenges. This paper will review two methods of 3D photonic integration --- fs laser inscription and layer stacking, and discuss applications and future prospects.

  15. Polymer-based photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edrington, A.C.; Urbas, A.M.; Fink, Y.; Thomas, E.L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; DeRege, P. [Firmenich, Inc., Port Newark, NJ (United States); Chen, C.X.; Swager, T.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hadjichristidis, N. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry; Xenidou, M.; Fetters, L.J. [ExxonMobil Research Corp., Annandale, NJ (United States); Joannopoulos, J.D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2001-03-16

    The development of polymers as photonic crystals is highlighted, placing special emphasis on self-assembled block copolymers. 1D self-assembled multilayers as well as 2D and 3D self-assembled structures are examined, then intricate block polymer structures such as that shown in the Figure are discussed as are birefringent multilayer and elastomeric films. (orig.)

  16. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  17. Photonic Crystal Waveguide Fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Høvik, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This research is entirely devoted to the study and fabrication of structures with periodic dielectric constants, also known as photonic crystals (PhCs). These structures show interesting dispersion characteristics which give them a range of prohibited frequencies that are not allowed to propagate within the crystal. This property makes them suited for a wide array of photonic-based components. One-dimensional photonic crystals are already commercialized and are of widespread use in for exampl...

  18. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  19. Creating bio-inspired hierarchical 3D-2D photonic stacks via planar lithography on self-assembled inverse opals

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Ian B; Loncar, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Structural hierarchy and complex 3D architecture are characteristics of biological photonic designs that are challenging to reproduce in synthetic materials. Top-down lithography allows for designer patterning of arbitrary shapes, but is largely restricted to planar 2D structures. Self-assembly techniques facilitate easy fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, but controllable defect-integration is difficult. In this paper we combine the advantages of top-down and bottom-up fabrication, developing two techniques to deposit 2D-lithographically-patterned planar layers on top of or in between inverse-opal 3D photonic crystals and creating hierarchical structures that resemble the architecture of the bright green wing scales of the butterfly, Parides sesostris. These fabrication procedures, combining advantages of both top-down and bottom-up fabrication, may prove useful in the development of omnidirectional coloration elements and 3D-2D photonic crystal devices.

  20. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  1. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  2. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron;

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  3. Fractal Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Monsoriu, Juan A.; Zapata-Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Silvestre, Enrique; Furlan, Walter D.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new class of one-dimensional (1D) photonic waveguides: the fractal photonic crystal waveguides (FPCWs). These structures are photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) etched with fratal distribution of grooves such as Cantor bars. The transmission properties of the FPCWs are investigated and compared with those of the conventional 1D PCWs. It is shown that the FPCW transmission spectrum has self-similarity properties associated with the fractal distribution of grooves. Furthermore, FPCW...

  4. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  5. Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.

  6. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...... readers with a general interest in photonic crystals, as well as for scientists who are entering the field and desire a broad overview as well as a solid starting point for further specialized stuides. Teh book, therefore, covers bothe general aspects such as the link from classical optics to photonic...

  7. High-speed photodetectors in a photonic crystal platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta; Schubert, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a fast photodetector (f3dB > 40GHz) integrated into a high-index contrast photonic crystal platform. Device design, fabrication and characterization are presented.......We demonstrate a fast photodetector (f3dB > 40GHz) integrated into a high-index contrast photonic crystal platform. Device design, fabrication and characterization are presented....

  8. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei;

    2008-01-01

    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission...... is heavily dependent on the lattice position of the waveguide and its direction. Our experiments of defect inscription by 2-photon polymerization for the production of straight and bent waveguides in opal templates are reported....

  9. 3D Vectorial Time Domain Computational Integrated Photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, J S; Bond, T C; Koning, J M; Stowell, M L

    2007-02-16

    The design of integrated photonic structures poses considerable challenges. 3D-Time-Domain design tools are fundamental in enabling technologies such as all-optical logic, photonic bandgap sensors, THz imaging, and fast radiation diagnostics. Such technologies are essential to LLNL and WFO sponsors for a broad range of applications: encryption for communications and surveillance sensors (NSA, NAI and IDIV/PAT); high density optical interconnects for high-performance computing (ASCI); high-bandwidth instrumentation for NIF diagnostics; micro-sensor development for weapon miniaturization within the Stockpile Stewardship and DNT programs; and applications within HSO for CBNP detection devices. While there exist a number of photonics simulation tools on the market, they primarily model devices of interest to the communications industry. We saw the need to extend our previous software to match the Laboratory's unique emerging needs. These include modeling novel material effects (such as those of radiation induced carrier concentrations on refractive index) and device configurations (RadTracker bulk optics with radiation induced details, Optical Logic edge emitting lasers with lateral optical inputs). In addition we foresaw significant advantages to expanding our own internal simulation codes: parallel supercomputing could be incorporated from the start, and the simulation source code would be accessible for modification and extension. This work addressed Engineering's Simulation Technology Focus Area, specifically photonics. Problems addressed from the Engineering roadmap of the time included modeling the Auston switch (an important THz source/receiver), modeling Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs, which had been envisioned as part of fast radiation sensors), and multi-scale modeling of optical systems (for a variety of applications). We proposed to develop novel techniques to numerically solve the 3D multi-scale propagation problem for both the

  10. Registration of 3-D holograms of diamond crystals (Abstract Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, S. N.; Smirnova, S. N.

    1991-02-01

    Registration of 3D ho1orarns broadens the possibility of using single-crystal tool for imagining and investigating inner inhomogeneities and dynamic stresses in top area of gem diamond, study of which by other techniques,e.g. polarization optics, is difficult or impossible. The difficulty is that the diamond with significant refractive index of 2.42 has comparatively small angle of total internal reflection of 24°50. As a result, with random illumination of the tops of octahedron diamond crystals, both smooth- faceted and with polycentric facets, illuminating light is successively reflected from different farets and absorbed in the crystal or comes out of it in a spot and direction that are difficult to calculate. Optimal schemes of illuminating crystals for recording 3D holograms of smooth faceted octahedron diamonds are given. Analysis of illumination of the crystal with polycentric facets shows that correction of light in the diamond is determined by directivity diagram the width of which depends in inhomogeneity size of the diamond. 3D holograms of diamonds with different reflectivity were produced. For the first time the possibility is shown for registration of holograms for studying stresses in diamond top using single-crystal tool.

  11. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  12. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  13. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  14. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William J. Wadsworth; Jonathan C. Knight; William H. Reeves; Philip St.J. Russell

    2003-01-01

    By offering greatly enhanced control of light compared to conventional step-index structures, photonic crystal fibres are radically improving the performance of linear and nonlinear fibre devices, including gas-Raman cells, super-continuum generators, soliton systems and cladding-pumped lasers.

  15. 3D Reproduction of a Snow Crystal by Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Jun’ichi TAMAKI; Yanagi, Satoshi; Yuya AOKI; Kubo, Akihiko; KAMEDA, Takao; A.M.M. Sharif Ullah; 田牧, 純一; 久保, 明彦; 亀田, 貴雄

    2012-01-01

    A new method was proposed for replicating snow crystals that uses light-curing resin containing no harmful substances, as the replicating material, and the 3D reproduction of a snow crystal by stereolithography was conducted. It was found that a UV light irradiation density of at least 0.6 mW/cm2 was required to complete the light-hardening reaction within 15 min when polyene/polythiol resin (NOA81) was used as the light-curing resin. When the atmospheric temperature was 0 °C, the maximum tem...

  16. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  17. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  18. Hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Limin; Birks, T A; Loh, W H

    2011-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). A chemical surface treatment for making PCFs hydrophobic is introduced. This repels water from the holes of PCFs, so that their optical properties remain unchanged even when they are immersed in water. The combination of a hollow core and a water-repellent inner surface of the hydrophobic PCF provides an ultracompact dissolved-gas sensor element, which is demonstrated for the sensing of dissolved ammonia gas. PMID:22139276

  19. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  20. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  1. High-speed photodetectors in a photonic crystal platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta; Schubert, Martin; Yvind, Kresten; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano; Nguyen, Thanh Nam; Gay, Mathilde; Bramerie, Laurent; Simon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    International audience We demonstrate a fast photodetector (f 3dB > 40GHz) integrated into a high-index contrast photonic crystal platform. Device design, fabrication and characterization are presented.

  2. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, W.L.; Woldering, L.A.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pavesi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is Chapter 8 of the book "Light Localisation and Lasing: Random and Pseudorandom Photonic Structures", edited by Mher Ghulinyan and Lorenzo Pavesi (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015). It provides an overview of much recent work on 3D photonic crystals with a complete photonic b

  3. Photonic Crystal Optical Tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Benjamin K; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H; Lin, Lih Y

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive optical manipulation of particles has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for biological study and nanotechnology. In particular, trapping and rotation of cells, cell nuclei and sub-micron particles enables unique functionality for various applications such as tissue engineering, cancer research and nanofabrication. We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to rotate and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with photonic crystal nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 um down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, we demonstrated alignment of non-spherical particles using a 1-D photonic crystal structure. Bacterial cells were trapped, rotated and aligned with optical intensity as low as 17 uW/um^2. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the optical near-field and far-field above the photonic c...

  4. Photonic Crystals: Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sibilia, Concita; Marciniak, Marian; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work is give an overview of the activity in the field of Photonic Crystal developed in the frame of COST P11 action . The main objective of the COST P11 action was to unify and coordinate national efforts aimed at studying linear and nonlinear optical interactions with Photonic Crystals (PCs), without neglecting an important aspect related to the material research as idea and methods of realizations of 3D PC, together with the development and implementation of measurement techniques for the experimental evaluation of their potential applications in different area, as for example telecommunication with novel optical fibers, lasers, nonlinear multi-functionality, display devices , opto-electronics, sensors. The book contain contributions from authors who gave their lecture at the Cost P11 Training School. Training School was held at the Warsaw University (2007) and National Institute of Telecommunications (May 23), Warsaw. It was attended by 23 students. The focus of the School was on the work of...

  5. A novel method for polarization squeezing with Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanovic, Josip; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund;

    2010-01-01

    Photonic Crystal Fibers can be tailored to increase the effective Kerr nonlinearity, while producing smaller amounts of excess noise compared to standard silicon fibers. Using these features of Photonic Crystal Fibers we create polarization squeezed states with increased purity compared to standard...... Stokes parameter squeezing of −3.9 ±0.3dB and anti-squeezing of 16.2 ±0.3dB....

  6. Properties of directional couplers using photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2003-01-01

    Coupled photonic crystal waveguides have been designed and modelled with a 3D finite-difference-time-domain method, and fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material. Good agreement between modelled and measured results has been found.......Coupled photonic crystal waveguides have been designed and modelled with a 3D finite-difference-time-domain method, and fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material. Good agreement between modelled and measured results has been found....

  7. Dynamics of Spontaneous Emission Controlled by Local Density of States in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Nikolaev, Ivan S.; van Driel, A. Floris;

    2006-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter....

  8. Natural photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  9. Natural photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  10. Photonic crystal fibers in biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Skibina, Julia S.; Malinin, Anton V.

    2011-12-01

    We observed recent experimental results in area of photonic crystal fibers appliance. Possibility of creation of fiberbased broadband light sources for high resolution optical coherence tomography is discussed. Using of femtosecond pulse laser allows for generation of optical radiation with large spectral width in highly nonlinear solid core photonic crystal fibers. Concept of exploitation of hollow core photonic crystal fibers in optical sensing is demonstrated. The use of photonic crystal fibers as "smart cuvette" gives rise to efficiency of modern optical biomedical analysis methods.

  11. Photonic crystals in epitaxial semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    La Rue, R M de

    1998-01-01

    The title of the paper uses the expression "photonic crystals". By photonic crystals, we mean regular periodic structures with a substantial refractive index variation in one-, two- or three- dimensional space. Such crystals can $9 exist naturally, for example natural opal, but are more typically fabricated by people. Under sufficiently strong conditions, i.e., sufficiently large refractive index modulation, correct size of structural components, and $9 appropriate rotational and translational symmetry, these crystals exhibit the characteristics of a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure. In a full photonic bandgap structure there is a spectral stop band for electromagnetic waves $9 propagating in any direction through the structure and with an arbitrary state of polarization. This behavior is of interest both from a fundamental viewpoint and from the point of view of novel applications in photonic devices. The $9 paper gives an outline review of work on photonic crystals carried out by the Optoelectronics Researc...

  12. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  13. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  14. Optimization of bandwidth in 60^o photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, P. F.; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2005-01-01

    A systematic scheme utilizing 2D and 3D finite-difference time-domain calculations to design 60^o photonic crystal waveguide bends is presented. The method results in an improved transmission bandwidth from 70 to 160 nm in 2D simulations, and from 50 to 100 nm in 3D simulations. The design...

  15. Optical tornadoes in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Masaru; Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Based on an optical analogy of spintronics, the generation of optical tornadoes is theoretically investigated in two-dimensional photonic crystals without space-inversion symmetry. We address its close relation to the Berry curvature in crystal momentum space, which represents the non-trivial geometric property of a Bloch state. It is shown that the Berry curvature is easily controlled by tuning two types of dielectric rods in a honeycomb photonic crystal. Then, Bloch states with large Berry ...

  16. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, W L

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent work on three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a "full and complete" 3D photonic band gap. We review five main aspects: 1) spontaneous emission inhibition, 2) spatial localization of light within a tiny nanoscale volume (aka "a nanobox for light"), 3) the introduction of a gain medium leading to thresholdless lasers, 4) breaking of the weak-coupling approximation of cavity QED, both in the frequency and in the time-domain, 5) decoherence, in particular the shielding of vacuum fluctuations by a 3D photonic bandgap. In addition, we list and evaluate all known photonic crystal structures with a demonstrated 3D band gap.

  17. Random photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth Lima, A., Jr.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Currently, optical cross-connects working on wavelength division multiplexing systems are based on optical fiber delay lines buffering. We designed and analyzed a novel photonic crystal optical memory, which replaces the fiber delay lines of the current optical cross-connect buffer. Optical buffering systems based on random photonic crystal optical memory have similar behavior to the electronic buffering systems based on electronic RAM memory. In this paper, we show that OXCs working with optical buffering based on random photonic crystal optical memories provides better performance than the current optical cross-connects.

  18. Optical properties of 3d-ions in crystals spectroscopy and crystal field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brik, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    "Optical Properties of 3d-Ions in Crystals: Spectroscopy and Crystal Field Analysis" discusses spectral, vibronic and magnetic properties of 3d-ions in a wide range of crystals, used as active media for solid state lasers and potential candidates for this role. Crystal field calculations (including first-principles calculations of energy levels and absorption spectra) and their comparison with experimental spectra, the Jahn-Teller effect, analysis of vibronic spectra, materials science applications are systematically presented. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in crystal spectroscopy, materials science and optical applications. Dr. N.M. Avram is an Emeritus Professor at the Physics Department, West University of Timisoara, Romania; Dr. M.G. Brik is a Professor at the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia.

  19. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  20. Pendellosung effect in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Savo, S; Miletto, C; Andreone, A; Dardano, P; Moretti, L; Mocella, V

    2008-01-01

    At the exit surface of a photonic crystal, the intensity of the diffracted wave can be periodically modulated, showing a maximum in the "positive" (forward diffracted) or in the "negative" (diffracted) direction, depending on the slab thickness. This thickness dependence is a direct result of the so-called Pendellosung phenomenon, consisting of the periodic exchange inside the crystal of the energy between direct and diffracted beams. We report the experimental observation of this effect in the microwave region at about 14 GHz by irradiating 2D photonic crystal slabs of different thickness and detecting the intensity distribution of the electromagnetic field at the exit surface and inside the crystal itself.

  1. Fabrication of 3D nano/microelectrodes via two-photon-polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abaddi, Mohammed Al-; Sasso, Luigi; Dimaki, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    The integration of two-photon polymerization technology with standard microfabrication techniques is imperative for the use of this tool in micro- and nanotechnology and especially for the future commercialization of the technology. In this work, we report a novel method for the fabrication of 3D...... polymeric structures via a two-photon polymerization based system. The method consists of combining a two-photon polymerization system with conventional photolithography techniques in order to create 3D polymer electrodes. The functionality of the final structures was confirmed by electrochemical...

  2. Modeling of photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated.......Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated....

  3. Quantum computation in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, D G; Yannopapas, V; Ekert, A; Angelakis, Dimitris G.; Santos, Marcelo Franca; Yannopapas, Vassilis; Ekert, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computers require technologies that offer both sufficient control over coherent quantum phenomena and minimal spurious interactions with the environment. We show, that photons confined to photonic crystals, and in particular to highly efficient waveguides formed from linear chains of defects doped with atoms can generate strong non-linear interactions which allow to implement both single and two qubit quantum gates. The simplicity of the gate switching mechanism, the experimental feasibility of fabricating two dimensional photonic crystal structures and integrability of this device with optoelectronics offers new interesting possibilities for optical quantum information processing networks.

  4. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  5. Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic-Hanic, S; Steel, M J; de Sterke, C Martijn; Salzman, J

    2006-04-17

    Diamond based technologies offer a material platform for the implementation of qubits for quantum computing. The photonic crystal architecture provides the route for a scalable and controllable implementation of high quality factor (Q) nanocavities, operating in the strong coupling regime for cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we compute the photonic band structures and quality factors of microcavities in photonic crystal slabs in diamond, and compare the results with those of the more commonly-used silicon platform. We find that, in spite of the lower index contrast, diamond based photonic crystal microcavities can exhibit quality factors of Q=3.0x10(4), sufficient for proof of principle demonstrations in the quantum regime. PMID:19516502

  6. Modelling of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the presenta ph.d. work a theoretical study of aspects of modelling photonic crystal fibres was carried out. Photonic crystal fibres form a class of optical waveguides where guidance is no longer provided by a difference in refractive index between core and cladding. Instead, guidance is...... provided by an arrangement of air-holes running along the length of the fibre. Depending on the geometry of the fibre, the guiding mechanism may be either arising from the formation of a photonic bandgap in the cladding structure (photonic bandgap fibre), or by an effect resembling total internal...... modes in contiguous fibre segments curved at different radii. Overall microbend loss is expressed as a statistical mean of mismatch losses. Extending a well proven, established formula for macrobending losses in stop index fibres, we provide an estimate of macrobend losses in an air-guiding photonic...

  7. Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Gross, Simon; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Williams, Robert J.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Ireland, Michael J.; Withford, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The first demonstration of narrowband spectral filtering of multimode light on a 3D integrated photonic chip using photonic lanterns and waveguide Bragg gratings is reported. The photonic lanterns with multi-notch waveguide Bragg gratings were fabricated using the femtosecond direct-write technique in boro-aluminosilicate glass (Corning, Eagle 2000). Transmission dips of up to 5 dB were measured in both photonic lanterns and reference single-mode waveguides with 10.4-mm-long gratings. The res...

  8. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  9. Photonic Band Gaps in 3D Network Structures with Short-range Order

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Schreck, Carl F; Dufresne, Eric R; O'Hern, Corey S; Cao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PAS) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PAS with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PAS, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PAS without long-range order.

  10. Topology Optimized Mode Conversion In a Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Elesin, Yuriy; Ding, Yunhong;

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an ultra-compact TE0-TE1 mode converter obtained in a photonic crystal waveguide by utilizing topology optimization and show a ~39 nm bandwidth around 1550 nm with an insertion loss lower than ~3 dB.......We experimentally demonstrate an ultra-compact TE0-TE1 mode converter obtained in a photonic crystal waveguide by utilizing topology optimization and show a ~39 nm bandwidth around 1550 nm with an insertion loss lower than ~3 dB....

  11. Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia

    2015-01-01

    Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…

  12. Three-dimensional photonic crystals created by single-step multi-directional plasma etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kitano, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-14

    We fabricate 3D photonic nanostructures by simultaneous multi-directional plasma etching. This simple and flexible method is enabled by controlling the ion-sheath in reactive-ion-etching equipment. We realize 3D photonic crystals on single-crystalline silicon wafers and show high reflectance (>95%) and low transmittance (communication wavelengths, suggesting the formation of a complete photonic bandgap. Moreover, our method simply demonstrates Si-based 3D photonic crystals that show the photonic bandgap effect in a shorter wavelength range around 0.6 μm, where further fine structures are required.

  13. Design of Tunable Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Filter as Photonic Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Seifan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By creating point defects and line defects in photonic crystals, we reach the new sort of photonic crystals. Which allow us to design photonic crystals filters. In this type of photonic crystals the ability to tune up central frequency of filter is important to attention. In this paper, we use foregoing points for designing photonic crystal filters. The main function of this type of filters is coupling between shield of point defect modes and directional line defect modes. By using liquid crystals in this structures we can tune up the central frequency. We exert electric field to excite liquid crystals and design photonic switch. This provided filter is promising to miniaturize integrated circuit photonic crystal

  14. Photonic band gap of 2D complex lattice photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chun-ying; YUAN Li-bo

    2009-01-01

    It is of great significance to present a photonic crystal lattice structure with a wide photonic bandgap. A two-dimension complex lattice photonic crystal is proposed. The photonic crystal is composed of complex lattices with triangular structure, and each single cell is surrounded by six scatterers in an hexagon. The photonic band gaps are calculated based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The results indicate that the photonic crystal has tunable large TM polarization band gap, and a gap-midgap ratio of up to 45.6%.

  15. Multiband processing of multimode light: combining 3D photonic lanterns with waveguide Bragg gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Williams, Robert J; Lawrence, Jon S; Ireland, Michael J; Withford, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The first demonstration of narrowband spectral filtering of multimode light on a 3D integrated photonic chip using photonic lanterns and waveguide Bragg gratings is reported. The photonic lanterns with multi-notch waveguide Bragg gratings were fabricated using the femtosecond direct-write technique in boro-aluminosilicate glass (Corning, Eagle 2000). Transmission dips of up to 5 dB were measured in both photonic lanterns and reference single-mode waveguides with 10.4-mm-long gratings. The result demonstrates efficient and symmetrical performance of each of the gratings in the photonic lantern. Such devices will be beneficial to space-division multiplexed communication systems as well as for units for astronomical instrumentation for suppression of the atmospheric telluric emission from OH lines.

  16. A real-time noise filtering strategy for photon counting 3D imaging lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

    2013-04-22

    For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day. PMID:23609635

  17. Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Têtu, Amélie; Kristensen, Martin;

    2007-01-01

    A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index...

  18. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  19. Imprinted photonic crystal chemical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Burghoorn, M.M.A.; Saalmink, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of Photonic Crystals as chemical sensors. These 2D nanostructured sensors were prepared by nano-imprint lithography during which a nanostructure is transferred from a nickel template into a responsive polymer, that is be specifically tuned to interact with the chemic

  20. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids.

  1. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong In Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  2. Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.P.; Moroz, A.; Blaaderen, A. van

    2002-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical transmission studies of thin three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals of high-dielectric ZnS-core and low-dielectric SiO2-shell colloidal particles. These samples were fabricated using a vertical controlled drying method. The spectral position and width of a

  3. Photonic crystal waveguides based on an antiresonant reflecting platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob;

    2005-01-01

    We apply the antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement to silicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides. Several layered structures with different combinations of materials (Si-SiO2, Si3N4-SiO2) and layer topology have been analysed. Numerical modelling using 3D Finite-Difference Time...

  4. A naturally grown three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianxiang; Lu, Dazhi; Yu, Haohai, E-mail: haohaiyu@sdu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaijin, E-mail: huaijinzhang@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, Jiyang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zhangyong@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion via three-dimensional (3D) quasi-phase matching (QPM) process is experimentally realized based on a Ba{sub 0.77}Ca{sub 0.23}TiO{sub 3} (BCT) crystal. The ferroelectric domains in BCT crystal are observed, and the results reveal that the antiparallel domains distribute in three dimensions and can provide 3D reciprocal lattice vectors for QPM processes. Broadband petal-like second-harmonic patterns are achieved, which are well consistent with the theoretical quasi-cubic model of 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Our work not only promotes the development of QPM technique but also builds a platform for 3D nonlinear optics and quantum optics.

  5. Ultrafast-laser-inscribed 3D integrated photonics: challenges and emerging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery that tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses can induce a highly localised and permanent refractive index modification in a large number of transparent dielectrics, the technique of ultrafast laser inscription has received great attention from a wide range of applications. In particular, the capability to create three-dimensional optical waveguide circuits has opened up new opportunities for integrated photonics that would not have been possible with traditional planar fabrication techniques because it enables full access to the many degrees of freedom in a photon. This paper reviews the basic techniques and technological challenges of 3D integrated photonics fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription as well as reviews the most recent progress in the fields of astrophotonics, optical communication, quantum photonics, emulation of quantum systems, optofluidics and sensing.

  6. Tunable Photonic Band Gaps In Photonic Crystal Fibers Filled With a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas; Tanggaard; Larsen; David; Sparre; Hermann; Anders; Bjarklev

    2003-01-01

    A photonic crystal fiber has been filled with a cholesteric liquid crystal. A temperature sensitive photonic band gap effect was observed, which was especially pronounced around the liquid crystal phase transition temperature.

  7. A Novel Woodpile Three-Dimensional Terahertz Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huan; YAO Jian-Quan; ZHENG Fang-Hua; XU De-Gang; WANG Peng

    2007-01-01

    A novel woodpile lattice structure is proposed. Based on plane wave expansion (PWE) method, the complete photonic band gaps (PBGs) of the novel woodpile three-dimensional (3D) terahertz (THz) photonic crystal (PC) with a decreasing symmetry relative to a face-centred-tetragonal (fct) symmetry are optimized by varying some structural parameters and the highest band gap ratio can reach 27.61%. Compared to the traditional woodpile lattice, the novel woodpile lattice has a wider range of the Riling ratios to gain high quality PBGs, which provides greater convenience for the manufacturing process. The novel woodpile 3D PC will be very promising for materials of THz functional components.

  8. FABRICATION OF PHOTONIC CRYSTAL WITH SUPERLATTICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng; Chen Haihua; Zhang Jizhong; Wei Hongmei; Gu Zhongze

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique was used to fabricate three-dimensional photonic crystals with superlattices. The super structure was fabricated by assembling monodispersed microspheres in the grooves of the scales of morpho butterfly, which makes the photonic crystal being composed of two kinds of different photonic structures (natural groove structure of butterfly wing and artificial microspherical colloids arrangement). The superstructural photonic crystal exhibits some unique optical properties different from both the butterfly wing and the colloidal crystal. The approach exhibited here provides a new way for fabricate photonic crystals with superlattices.

  9. 3D Photonic Nanostructures via Diffusion-Assisted Direct fs Laser Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabija Bickauskaite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our research into the fabrication of fully three-dimensional metallic nanostructures using diffusion-assisted direct laser writing, a technique which employs quencher diffusion to fabricate structures with resolution beyond the diffraction limit. We have made dielectric 3D nanostructures by multiphoton polymerization using a metal-binding organic-inorganic hybrid material, and we covered them with silver using selective electroless plating. We have used this method to make spirals and woodpiles with 600 nm intralayer periodicity. The resulting photonic nanostructures have a smooth metallic surface and exhibit well-defined diffraction spectra, indicating good fabrication quality and internal periodicity. In addition, we have made dielectric woodpile structures decorated with gold nanoparticles. Our results show that diffusion-assisted direct laser writing and selective electroless plating can be combined to form a viable route for the fabrication of 3D dielectric and metallic photonic nanostructures.

  10. Integrated photonic 3D waveguide arrays for quantum random walks on a circle

    CERN Document Server

    Linjordet, Trond

    2010-01-01

    Quantum random walks (QRWs) can be used to perform both quantum simulations and quantum algorithms. In order to exploit this potential, quantum walks on different types of graphs must be physically implemented. To this end this we design, model and experimentally fabricate, using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, a 3D tubular waveguide array within glass to implement a photonic quantum walk on a circle. The boundary conditions of a QRW on a circle naturally suggests a 3D waveguide implementation - allowing much simpler device design than what could be achieved using a 2D waveguide architecture. We show that, in some cases, three-dimensional photonic circuits can be more suited to the simulation of complex quantum phenomena.

  11. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states. (focus issue)

  12. Heat Treatment of the Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Seongwoo; Yoo; Jinchae; Kim; Hokyung; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We report heat treatment of the photonic crystal fiber. As the temperature was increased, the transmission of the photonic crystal fiber was increased, unlike conventional single mode fiber. The transmission increase at short wavelength region was larger than long wavelength region for the various temperatures. After crystallization of the silica glass, the spectra of the photonic crystal fiber were just decreased at all wavelength regions, but, in case of the single mode fiber, the absorption in visibl...

  13. Algorithms and technologies for photonic crystal modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Elizabeth E.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis an investigation into the behaviour of light when passing through photonic crystals was carried out using numerical methods. Photonic crystals are expensive and difficult to fabricate so there is a requirement for computer simulations that can quickly and accurately model how the crystal structure will affect the behaviour of light. A finite difference method was written to model two-dimensional photonic crystals. The results from the finite difference method mod...

  14. Preliminary Study for Dosimetric Characteristics of 3D-printed Materials with Megavoltage Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    In these days, 3D-printer is on the rise in various fields including radiation therapy. This preliminary study aimed to estimate the dose characteristics of the 3D-printer materials which could be used as the compensator or immobilizer in radiation treatment. The cubes which have 5cm length and different densities as 50%, 75% and 100% were printed by 3D-printer. A planning CT scans for cubes were performed using a CT simulator (Brilliance CT, Philips Medical System, Netherlands). Dose distributions behind the cube were calculated when 6MV photon beam passed through cube. The dose response for 3D-printed cube, air and water were measured by using EBT3 film and 2D array detector. When results of air case were normalized to 100, dose calculated by TPS and measured dose of 50% and 75% cube were 96~99. Measured and calculated doses of water and 100% cube were 82~84. HU values of 50%, 75% and 100% were -910, -860 and -10, respectively. From these results, 3D-printer in radiotherapy could be used for medical purpose...

  15. Three-dimensional photonic crystals containing designed defects achieved with two-photon photopolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Wei Zhang; Junjie Kong; Haifeng Yang; Lan Cai

    2009-01-01

    Two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) with femtosecond laser is a promising method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs). Based on the TPP principle, the micro-fabrication system has been built. The 3D woodpile PCs with rod space of 2000 nm are fabricated easily and different defects are introduced in order to form the cross-waveguide and the micro-laser structure PCs. Simulation results of the optical field intensity distributions using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method are given, which support the designs and implementation of the PC of two types in theory.

  16. 3-D Crystal Tectonics of Red Coral (Corallium Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielzeuf, D.; Garrabou, J.; Baronnet, A.; Grauby, O.; Marschal, C.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, SEM, TEM, and EMP) has been used to characterize the internal physico-chemical structure of the red coral (corallium rubrum) skeleton. A section normal to the skeleton axis shows an inner medullar zone with a bulbous-tip cross shape, surrounded by a large circular domain composed of concentric rings (width of each ring ca 150 microns). Growth rings are revealed by the cyclic variation of concentration of the organic matter (OM) and oscillations of the Mg/Ca ratio. Experiments carried out in natural environment show that the detected growth rings are annual. Thus, both oscillations of concentration of OM and Mg/Ca ratio can be used to determine the age of the red coral colonies, some of which can be as old as a few tens (or even a few hundreds) of years. Concentric ring are riddled and display a succession of wavelets (wavelength ca 300 microns). The internal structure of each wavelet is complex, both physically and chemically: it is formed by the accumulation of strata with locally tortuous interfaces due to the presence of micro protuberances (ca 30 microns). This interlocked structure confers an exceptional stiffness on the red coral skeleton. Interfaces between strata sometimes display sharp discontinuities indicating interruption of the mineralizing process. This fact has important consequences on the ability of the whole structure to register external forcings with accuracy. SEM and TEM studies show that each stratum is made of submicron crystalline units (ca 200 nm) organized or not in polycrystalline fibers or blades (ca 1 to 10 microns). Porosity can be observed at all scales between the various structural units. HRTEM studies show that in spite of displaying single crystal scattering behavior, the submicron crystalline units are made of 2-5 nm nanodomains with intercalated nanopores. We interpret the nanodomains as nanograins aggregated by a mechanism of oriented attachment. The red coral

  17. Photon Polarization in Photonic Crystal Fibers under Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; ZHANG Xiao-fu

    2007-01-01

    Using the quantum invariant theory and unitary transformation means, we study the influences of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering on the photon polarization in photonic crystal fibers(PCF). The results show that the photon polarization of the incident photon changes a lot due to scattered optical, and its general geometric phase factor, Hamiton number and evolution operator are definited both by the incident and scattered optical.

  18. Towards true 3D textural analysis; using your crystal mush wisely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerram, D. A.; Morgan, D. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The crystal cargo that is found in volcanic and plutonic rocks contains a wealth of information about magmatic mush processes, crystallisation history, crystal entrainment and recycling. Phenocryst populations predominantly record episodes of growth/nucleation and bulk geochemical changes within an evolving crystal-melt body. Ante- and xeno-crysts provide useful clues to the nature of mush interaction with wall rock and with principal magma(s). Furthermore, crystal evolutions (core to rim) record pathways through pressure, temperature and compositional space. These can often illustrate complex recycling within systems, describing the plumbing architecture. Understanding this architecture underpins our knowledge of how igneous systems can interact with the crust, grow, freeze, re-mobilise and prime for eruption. Initially, 2D studies produced corrected 3D crystal size distributions to help provide information about nucleation and residence times. It immediately became clear that crystal shape is an important factor in determining the confidence placed upon 3D reconstructions of 2D data. Additionally studies utilised serial sections of medium- to coarse-grain-size populations which allowed 3D reconstruction using modelling software to be improved, since size and shape etc. can be directly constrained. Finally the advent of textural studies using X-ray tomography has revolutionised the way in which we can inspect the crystal cargo in mushy systems, allowing us to image in great detail crystal packing arrangements, 3D CSDs, shapes and orientations etc. The latest most innovative studies use X-ray micro-computed tomography to rapidly characterise chemical populations within the crystal cargo, adding a further dimension to this approach, and implies the ability to untangle magmatic chemical components to better understand their individual and combined evolution. In this contribution key examples of the different types of textural analysis techniques in 2D and 3D

  19. An ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement for siliicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides with thin cores. 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals the reduction of losses with a promising potential for competing with membrane-like waveguides.......We employ an antiresonant reflecting layers arrangement for siliicon-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguides with thin cores. 3D FDTD numerical modelling reveals the reduction of losses with a promising potential for competing with membrane-like waveguides....

  20. Photonic crystals with topological defects

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Xiong, Wen; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We introduce topological defect to a square lattice of elliptical cylinders. Despite the broken translational symmetry, the long-range positional order of the cylinders leads to residual photonic bandgap in the density of optical states. However, the band-edge modes are strongly modified by the spatial variation of ellipse orientation. The $\\Gamma-X$ band-edge mode splits into four regions of high intensity and the output flux becomes asymmetric due to the formation of crystalline domains with different orientation. The $\\Gamma-M$ band-edge mode has the energy flux circulates around the topological defect center, creating an optical vortex. By removing the elliptical cylinders at the center, we create localized defect states which are dominated by either clockwise or counter-clockwise circulating waves. The flow direction can be switched by changing the ellipse orientation. The deterministic aperiodic variation of the unit cell orientation adds another dimension to the control of light in photonic crystals, e...

  1. Model-Based Estimation of 3-D Stiffness Parameters in Photonic-Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, P; Singh, A.S.G.; Bertseva, E.; Lekki, J.; Kulik, A. J.; Unser, M

    2010-01-01

    We propose a system to characterize the 3-D diffusion properties of the probing bead trapped by a photonic-force microscope. We follow a model-based approach, where the model of the dynamics of the bead is given by the Langevin equation. Our procedure combines software and analog hardware to measure the corresponding stiffness matrix. We are able to estimate all its elements in real time, including off-diagonal terms. To achieve our goal, we have built a simple analog computer that performs a...

  2. 3D imaging using combined neutron-photon fan-beam tomography: A Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J; Yazdanpanah, A Pour; Barzilov, A; Regentova, E

    2016-05-01

    The application of combined neutron-photon tomography for 3D imaging is examined using MCNP5 simulations for objects of simple shapes and different materials. Two-dimensional transmission projections were simulated for fan-beam scans using 2.5MeV deuterium-deuterium and 14MeV deuterium-tritium neutron sources, and high-energy X-ray sources, such as 1MeV, 6MeV and 9MeV. Photons enable assessment of electron density and related mass density, neutrons aid in estimating the product of density and material-specific microscopic cross section- the ratio between the two provides the composition, while CT allows shape evaluation. Using a developed imaging technique, objects and their material compositions have been visualized. PMID:26953978

  3. Preliminary study of the dosimetric characteristics of 3D-printed materials with megavoltage photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-07-01

    These days, 3D-printers are on the rise in various fields including radiation therapy. This preliminary study aimed to estimate the dose characteristics of 3D-printer materials that could be used as compensators or immobilizers in radiation treatment. The cubes with length of 5 cm and different densities of 50%, 75% and 100% were printed by using a 3D-printer. Planning CT scans of the cubes were performed by using a CT simulator (Brilliance CT, Philips Medical System, Netherlands). Dose distributions behind the cube were calculated after a 6 MV photon beam had passed through the cube. The dose responses for the 3D-printed cube, air and water were measured by using EBT3 film and a 2D array detector. When the results of air case were normalized to 100, the dose calculated by the TPS and the measured doses to 50% and 75% cube were of the 96 ~ 99. The measured and the calculated doses to water and to 100% of the cube were 82 ~ 84. The HU values for the 50%, 75% and 100% density cases were -910, -860 and -10, respectively. The dose characteristics of the 50% and the 75% products were similar to that of air while the 100% product seemed to be similar to that of water. This information will provide guidelines for making an immobilization tool that can play the role of a compensator and for making a real human phantom that can exactly describe the inside of the human body. This study was necessary for Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) based 3D-printer users who are planning to make something related to radiation therapy.

  4. Light-directing chiral liquid crystal nanostructures: from 1D to 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2014-10-21

    Endowing external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is a principal driving force in the bottom-up nanofabrication of molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media capable of self-organizing into optically tunable one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures represent such an elegant system. As a consequence, photoresponsive cholesteric LCs (CLCs), i.e., self-organized 1D helical superstructures, and LC blue phases (BPs), i.e., self-organized 3D periodic cubic lattices, are emerging as a new generation of multifunctional supramolecular 1D and 3D photonic materials in their own right because of their fundamental academic interest and technological significance. These smart stimuli-responsive materials can be facilely fabricated from achiral LC hosts by the addition of a small amount of a light-driven chiral molecular switch or motor. The photoresponsiveness of these materials is a result of both molecular interaction and geometry changes in the chiral molecular switch upon light irradiation. The doped photoresponsive CLCs undergo light-driven pitch modulation and/or helix inversion, which has many applications in color filters, polarizers, all-optical displays, optical lasers, sensors, energy-saving smart devices, and so on. Recently, we have conceptualized and rationally synthesized different light-driven chiral molecular switches that have very high helical twisting powers (HTPs) and exhibit large changes in HTP in different states, thereby enabling wide phototunability of the systems by the addition of very small amounts of the molecular switches into commercially available achiral LCs. The light-driven chiral molecular switches are based on well-recognized azobenzene, dithienylcyclopentene, and spirooxazine derivatives. We have demonstrated high-resolution and lightweight photoaddressable displays without patterned electronics on

  5. Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....

  6. Biased liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard;

    2008-01-01

    We simulate the director structure of all capillaries in a biased photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with liquid crystals. Various mode simulations for different capillaries show the necessity to consider the entire structure.......We simulate the director structure of all capillaries in a biased photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with liquid crystals. Various mode simulations for different capillaries show the necessity to consider the entire structure....

  7. Photonic crystals for broadband, omnidirectional self-collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Y.-C.; Suleski, T. J.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, multiple photonic crystal (PC) structures are proposed to improve three-dimensional (3D) self-collimation performance, including two 3D PCs (tetragonal lattice structures and a complex hexagonal lattice structure) and two two-dimensional (2D) PCs (triangular lattice structures and kagome lattice structures) with out-of-plane orientation. Different design strategies are investigated and compared in terms of the resulting self-collimation performance. Several desired 3D properties are numerically realized for the first time, including broadband 3D self-collimation, omnidirectional beam confinement and broadband omnidirectional self-collimation. These developments can enable future self-collimation applications, such as multiplexers, PC core fibers and solar light collection.

  8. Photonic crystal fibers for food quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A. V.; Zanishevskaja, A. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Skibina, Yu. S.; Silokhin, I. Y.

    2012-06-01

    The aspects of application of the hollow core photonic crystal waveguides for spectroscopic analysis of liquid medium were considered. The possibility of using these structures for analysis of a fruit juice was evaluated. The principles of processing of photonic crystal waveguide transmission spectra, which is sensitive to quality of juice, its composition, and main component concentration, were revealed.

  9. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B;

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy...... and the use of a transversal illumination setup....

  10. Numerical analysis of multicore photonic crystal fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfeng Li(栗岩锋); Qingyue Wang(王清月); Minglie Hu(胡明列)

    2003-01-01

    A Galerkin's method-based numerical procedure is extended to obtain the modal field distribution ofmulticore photonic crystal fibers for the first time to our knowledge, which can reveal how the air hole sizeinfluences the mode coupling and how the coupling strength varies with wavelength. These results will behelpful in the future design of multicore photonic crystal fibers with proper guidance properties.

  11. PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES WITH PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Planar optical waveguide comprising a core region and a cladding region comprising a photonic crystal material, said photonic crystal material having a lattice of column elements, wherein at least a number of said column elements are elongated substantially in an axial direction for said core...

  12. Application of Photonic Crystals in Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guang-yu; WANG Li-jun; ZHANG Yan; PENG Biao; SUN Yan-fang; LI Te; CUI Jin-jiang; NING Yong-qiang; QIN Li; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted much considerable research attention in the past two decades. They are artificially fabricated periodic dielectric structures. The periodic dielectric structures have photonic band gap (PBG) and are referred to as photonic band gap materials. This paper mainly introduces one-dimensional (1-D) and 2D PCs applied in the semiconductor lasers.

  13. Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavity Array Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slab lasers. The main focus is on coupled photonic crystal cavity lasers which are examined in great detail. The cavity type which is mainly explored consists of a defect formed by a single missing hole...... are identified such as the size and material for the carrier wafer in the III-V etch and the importance of removing all remains of the e-beam lithography mask after the etch of the hard mask. Detailed simulations are shown for a simple system with two coupled cavities in different coupling directions....... The results are in good agreement with standard coupled mode theory. Also a novel type of photonic crystal structure is proposed called lambda shifted cavity which is a twodimensional photonic crystal laser analog of a VCSEL laser. Detailed measurements of the coupled modes in the photonic crystals...

  14. Photonic crystals physics, fabrication and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtaka, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    "Photonic Crystals" details recent progress in the study of photonic crystals, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date applications, in one unified treatment It covers most of the worldwide frontier fields in photonic crystals, including up-to-date fabrication techniques, recent and future technological applications, and our basic understanding of the various optical properties of photonic crystals Brand-new theoretical and experimental data are also presented The book is intended for graduate course students and specialists actively working in this field, but it will also be useful for newcomers, especially the extensive chapter dealing with fundamental aspects of photonic crystals, which paves the way to a full appreciation of the other topics addressed

  15. Surface states in photonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtíšek P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many unusual and interesting physical properties of photonic crystals (PhC, in recent years, the propagation of surface electromagnetic waves along dielectric PhC boundaries have attracted considerable attention, also in connection to their possible applications. Such surfaces states, produced with the help of specialized defects on PhC boundaries, similarly to surfaces plasmons, are localized surfaces waves and, as such, can be used in various sensing applications. In this contribution, we present our recent studies on numerical modelling of surface states (SS for all three cases of PhC dimensionality. Simulations of these states were carried out by the use of plane wave expansion (PWE method via the MIT MPB package.

  16. Heat Treatment of the Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Seongwoo Yoo; Jinchae Kim; Hokyung Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We report heat treatment of the photonic crystal fiber. As the temperature was increased, the transmission of the photonic crystal fiber was increased, unlike conventional single mode fiber. The transmission increase at short wavelength region was larger than long wavelength region for the various temperatures. After crystallization of the silica glass, the spectra of the photonic crystal fiber were just decreased at all wavelength regions, but, in case of the single mode fiber, the absorption in visible region around 450 nm increased with increasing temperature.

  17. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  18. Liquid crystal orientation control in photonic liquid crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychlowski, M. S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Woliński, T. R.

    2011-05-01

    Similarly to liquid crystal displays technology in photonic liquid crystal fibers (PLCFs) a molecular orientation control is a crucial issue that influences proper operation of PLCF-based devices. The paper presents two distinct configurations: planar and radial escaped orientation of the LC molecules inside capillaries as well as methods of their application to photonic liquid crystal fibers. Possibilities of LC orientation control influence both: attenuation and transmitting spectra of the PLCF The orienting method is based on creation of an additional orienting layer on the inner surface of the capillary or air hole of the photonic liquid crystal fiber. Aligning materials used in the experiment are commercially available polyimides SE1211 and SE130 which induce liquid crystal homeotropic and planar anchoring conditions. The orienting layer increase an order parameter of the liquid crystal improving propagation properties and stability of photonic liquid crystal fiber-based devices.

  19. Observation of Majorization Principle for quantum algorithms via 3-D integrated photonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Flamini, Fulvio; Giordani, Taira; Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicoló; Crespi, Andrea; Corrielli, Giacomo; Osellame, Roberto; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Majorization Principle is a fundamental statement governing the dynamics of information processing in optimal and efficient quantum algorithms. While quantum computation can be modeled to be reversible, due to the unitary evolution undergone by the system, these quantum algorithms are conjectured to obey a quantum arrow of time dictated by the Majorization Principle: the probability distribution associated to the outcomes gets ordered step-by-step until achieving the result of the computation. Here we report on the experimental observation of the effects of the Majorization Principle for two quantum algorithms, namely the quantum fast Fourier transform and a recently introduced validation protocol for the certification of genuine many-boson interference. The demonstration has been performed by employing integrated 3-D photonic circuits fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique, which allows to monitor unambiguously the effects of majorization along the execution of the algorithms. The measured ob...

  20. Increasing Surface Plasmons Propagation via Photonic Nanojets with Periodically Spaced 3D Dielectric Cuboids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Pacheco-Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A structure based on periodically arranged 3D dielectric cuboids connected by photonic nanojets (PNJs is proposed with the aim of increasing the propagation distance of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. The performance of the structure is evaluated and compared with the case without the cuboids demonstrating that the SPPs propagation length is enhanced by a factor greater than 2, reaching a value of approximately 19λ0, when the gap between the cuboids is 2.5λ0. Also, the dependence of the propagation length with the height of the cubes is evaluated, showing that this parameter is critical for a good performance of the chain. A subwavelength resolution is obtained for all the jets generated at the output of the cuboids.

  1. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  2. Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha

    2006-12-01

    The polarization-dependent photonic band gaps (TM and TE polarizations) in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of air holes in dielectric and vice versa i.e., dielectric rods in air, using the plane-wave expansion method are investigated. We then study, how the photonic band gap size is affected by the changing ellipticity of the constituent air holes/dielectric rods. It is observed that the size of the photonic band gap changes with changing ellipticity of the constituent air holes/dielectric rods. Further, it is reported, how the photonic band gap size is affected by the change in the orientation of the constituent elliptical air holes/dielectric rods in 2D photonic crystals.

  3. Segmentation, Reconstruction, and Analysis of Blood Thrombus Formation in 3D 2-Photon Microscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhiliang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of segmenting, reconstructing, and analyzing the structure growth of thrombi (clots in blood vessels in vivo based on 2-photon microscopic image data. First, we develop an algorithm for segmenting clots in 3D microscopic images based on density-based clustering and methods for dealing with imaging artifacts. Next, we apply the union-of-balls (or alpha-shape algorithm to reconstruct the boundary of clots in 3D. Finally, we perform experimental studies and analysis on the reconstructed clots and obtain quantitative data of thrombus growth and structures. We conduct experiments on laser-induced injuries in vessels of two types of mice (the wild type and the type with low levels of coagulation factor VII and analyze and compare the developing clot structures based on their reconstructed clots from image data. The results we obtain are of biomedical significance. Our quantitative analysis of the clot composition leads to better understanding of the thrombus development, and is valuable to the modeling and verification of computational simulation of thrombogenesis.

  4. Sidewall roughness measurement of photonic wires and photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Garnæs, Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    The performance of nanophotonic building blocks such as photonic wires and photonic crystals are rapidly improving, with very low propagation loss and very high cavity Q-factors being reported. In order to facilitate further improvements in performance the ability to quantitatively measure...

  5. Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Scolari, Lara;

    2009-01-01

    A simulation scheme for the transmission spectrum of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal and subject to an external bias is presented. The alignment of the biased liquid crystal is simulated using the finite element method to solve the relevant system of coupled...... partial differential equations. From the liquid crystal alignment the full tensorial dielectric permittivity in the capillaries is derived. The transmission spectrum for the photonic crystal fiber is obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem deriving from Maxwell’s equations using a vector...... element based finite element method. We demonstrate results for a splay aligned liquid crystal infiltrated into the capillaries of a four-ring photonic crystal fiber and compare them to corresponding experiments....

  6. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  7. Crystallization of Mefenamic Acid from Dimethylformamide Microemulsions: Obtaining Thermodynamic Control through 3D Nanoconfinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Nicholson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we showed how crystallization in microemulsions could lead directly to the most stable polymorph, thereby leapfrogging Ostwald’s rule of stages. Here we consider in more details the crystallization of mefenamic acid from dimethylformamide microemulsions. Crystallization of mefenamic acid from bulk DMF has previously been shown to produce only the metastable Form II irrespective of the supersaturation or temperature. In contrast, we show that stable Form I can be produced from DMF microemulsions provided the lowest supersaturations that can achieve crystallization are used; these correspond to initial supersaturations that are significantly higher than those commonly used in bulk solution crystallizations, owing to the large decrease in supersaturation that occurs when a nuclei grows in a 3D-nanoconfined droplet. Increasing the supersaturation above the minimum required for crystallization leads to increasing proportions of metastable Form II crystals. In compositions crystallizing a mixture of Form I and Form II crystals, the Form I crystals can nevertheless be obtained exclusively by slowly heating the microemulsions.

  8. Quantum Cascade Photonic Crystal lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Federico

    2004-03-01

    QC lasers have emerged in recent years as the dominant laser technology for the mid-to far infrared spectrum in light of their room temperature operation, their tunability, ultrahigh speed operation and broad range of applications to chemical sensing, spectroscopy etc. (Ref. 1-3). After briefly reviewing the latter, I will describe a new class of mid-infrared QC lasers, Quantum Cascade Photonic Crystal Surface Emitting Lasers (QCPCSELS), that combine electronic and photonic band structure engineering to achieve vertical emission from the surface (Ref. 4). Devices operating on bandedge mode and on defect modes will be discussed. Exciting potential uses of these new devices exist in nonlinear optics, microfluidics as well as novel sensors. Finally a bird's eye view of other exciting areas of QC laser research will be given including broadband QCLs and new nonlinear optical sources based on multiwavelength QCLs. 1. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Physics Today 55, 34 (May 2002) 2. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 6, 931 (2000). 3. F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, E. A. Whittaker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511 (2002) 4. R. Colombelli, K. Srivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho and F. Capasso, Science 302, 1374 (2003)

  9. Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

  10. Photonic crystal laser-driven accelerator structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs, including two- and three-dimensional planar structures and fibers. The discussion of 2D structures demonstrates guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in a photonic crystal lattice and reveals design considerations and trade-offs. With a three-dimensional lattice, we introduce a candidate geometry and discuss beam dynamics, coupling, and manufacturing techniques for that structure. In addition we discuss W-band scale tests of photonic crystal structures. The computational methods are also discussed.

  11. Tunable photonic Bloch oscillations in electrically modulated photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Ji Ping; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-10-01

    We exploit theoretically the occurrence and tunability of photonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) containing nonlinear composites. Because of the enhanced third-order nonlinearity (Kerr-type nonlinearity) of composites, photons undergo oscillations inside tilted photonic bands, which are achieved by the application of graded external-pump electric fields on such PCs, varying along the direction perpendicular to the surface of layers. The tunability of PBOs (including amplitude and period) is readily achieved by changing the field gradient. With an appropriate graded pump ac or dc electric field, terahertz PBOs can appear and cover a terahertz band in an electromagnetic spectrum.

  12. Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.

  13. A novel photonic crystal fibre switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Hermann, D.S.; Broeng, Jes;

    2003-01-01

    A new thermo-optic fibre switch is demonstrated, which utilizes the phase transitions of a thermochromic liquid crystal inside a photonic crystal fibre. We report an extinction ratio of 60 dB and an insertion loss of 1 dB.......A new thermo-optic fibre switch is demonstrated, which utilizes the phase transitions of a thermochromic liquid crystal inside a photonic crystal fibre. We report an extinction ratio of 60 dB and an insertion loss of 1 dB....

  14. Parametric solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    K Gallo; Stivala, S; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G

    2007-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations on the soliton dynamics associated to multiple second harmonic generation resonances in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals, highlighting a wealth of new possibilities for soliton management in such structures.

  15. Photonic crystal biosensor in spatial fourier domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hallynck, Elewout; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal biosensor, operating at a single wavelength, based on analysis of resonant guided modes in the spatial Fourier domain. Sensitivities of 65 degrees per RIU and more have been simulated.

  16. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard;

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  17. Photonic crystal fibers, devices, and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei JIN; Jian JU; Hoi Lut HO; Yeuk Lai HOO; Ailing ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews different types of air-silica photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), discusses their novel properties, and reports recent advances in PCF components and sensors as well as techniques for splicing PCFs to standard telecomm fibers.

  18. Recent Progress of Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsusuke; Tajima

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers are attractive since we can realize a wide variety of unique features in the PCFs, which cannot be realized in conventional single-mode fibers. We describe recent progress in the PCF.

  19. Electrically driven photonic crystal nanocavity devices

    CERN Document Server

    Shambat, Gary; Petykiewicz, Jan; Mayer, Marie A; Majumdar, Arka; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Interest in photonic crystal nanocavities is fueled by advances in device performance, particularly in the development of low-threshold laser sources. Effective electrical control of high performance photonic crystal lasers has thus far remained elusive due to the complexities associated with current injection into cavities. A fabrication procedure for electrically pumping photonic crystal membrane devices using a lateral p-i-n junction has been developed and is described in this work. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasing in our junctions with a threshold of 181 nA at 50K - the lowest threshold ever demonstrated in an electrically pumped laser. At room temperature we find that our devices behave as single-mode light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which when directly modulated, have an ultrafast electrical response up to 10 GHz corresponding to less than 1 fJ/bit energy operation - the lowest for any optical transmitter. In addition, we have demonstrated electrical pumping of photonic crystal nanobeam LEDs...

  20. Enhanced nonlinear effects in photonic crystal fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-feng; HU Ming-lie; CHAI Lu; WANG Ching-yue

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers are a new class of single-material optical fibers with wavelength-scale air holes running down the entire fiber length.Photonic crystal fibers were first developed in 1996 and have subsequently been the focus of increasing scientific and technological interest in the field of fiber optics.The manufacturing,principles,basic properties,and some applications of photonic crystal fibers are briefly described in this paper.A review of our recent work on the nonlinear effects in photonic crystal fibers is presented,and special emphasis is placed on such effects as supercontinuum generation,frequency conversion, and solitons observed when femtosecond light pulses propagate in these fibers.

  1. Photonic Crystals Mathematical Analysis and Numerical Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Dörfler, Willy; Plum, Michael; Schneider, Guido; Wieners, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This book concentrates on the mathematics of photonic crystals, which form an important class of physical structures investigated in nanotechnology. Photonic crystals are materials which are composed of two or more different dielectrics or metals, and which exhibit a spatially periodic structure, typically at the length scale of hundred nanometers. In the mathematical analysis and the numerical simulation of the partial differential equations describing nanostructures, several mathematical difficulties arise, e. g., the appropriate treatment of nonlinearities, simultaneous occurrence of contin

  2. Photonic crystal fiber modelling and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a microstructured air-silica cross section offer new optical properties compared to conventional fibers for telecommunication, sensor, and other applications. Recent advances within research and development of these fibers are presented.......Photonic crystal fibers having a microstructured air-silica cross section offer new optical properties compared to conventional fibers for telecommunication, sensor, and other applications. Recent advances within research and development of these fibers are presented....

  3. Selective gas sensing for photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    We facilitate photonic crystal lasers to sense gases via an additional swelling polymer film. We describe the transduction transfer function and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced ethanol vapor sensitivity over 15 dB with low humidity crosstalk.......We facilitate photonic crystal lasers to sense gases via an additional swelling polymer film. We describe the transduction transfer function and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced ethanol vapor sensitivity over 15 dB with low humidity crosstalk....

  4. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann;

    2012-01-01

    study of a 1 QW photonic crystal amplifier. Net gain is achieved which enables laser oscillation in photonic crystal micro cavities. The ability to freely tailor the dispersion in a semiconductor optical amplifier makes it possible to raise the optical gain considerably over a certain bandwidth. These...... results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  5. High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Knudsen, Erik;

    2001-01-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber.......A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber....

  6. Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity. S...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....

  7. Photonic crystal fibers: fundamentals to emerging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2005-01-01

    A review of the fundamental properties of photonic crystal fibers is presented. Special focus is held on the emerging fields of application within areas such as actively controlled fiber devices and high-power fiber lasers.......A review of the fundamental properties of photonic crystal fibers is presented. Special focus is held on the emerging fields of application within areas such as actively controlled fiber devices and high-power fiber lasers....

  8. Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; John, Sajeev

    2012-10-01

    It is suggested that using only 1 μm of silicon, sculpted in the form of a modulated nanowire photonic crystal, solar power conversion efficiency in the range of 15%-20% can be achieved. Choosing a specific modulation profile provides antireflection, light trapping, and back-reflection over broad angles in targeted spectral regions for high efficiency power conversion without solar tracking. Solving both Maxwell's equations in the 3D photonic crystal and the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations in each nanowire, we identify optimal junction and contact geometries and study the influence of the nanowire surface curvature on solar cell efficiency. We demonstrate that suitably modulated nanowires enable 20% efficiency improvement over their straight counterparts made of an equivalent amount of silicon. We also discuss the efficiency of a tandem amorphous and crystalline silicon nanowire photonic crystal solar cell. Opportunities for "hot carrier" collection and up-conversion of infrared light, enhanced by photonic crystal geometry, facilitate further improvements in power efficiency.

  9. Photonic crystal fibres - a variety of applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Riishede, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    lead to a new class of optical fibers, in which the cladding structure consists of a periodic system of air holes in a matrix of dielectric material-typically silica. These fibers have been given several names ranging from holey fibers, microstructured fibers, photonic crystal fibers, to photonic...

  10. Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Dridi, Kim;

    1998-01-01

    Approximate dispersion and bending properties of all-silica two-dimensional photonic crystal fibres are characterised by the combination of an effective-index model and classical analysis tools for optical fibres. We believe for the first time to have predicted the dispersion properties of photonic...

  11. Scattering of light by photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.; Doosje, M.; Knoester, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new method is developed to calculate the scattering of light at the surface of a photonic crystal. The problem is solved in terms of virtual surface-current distributions and the calculation takes full advantage of the infinite-space plane-wave expansion method for obtaining the photonic band stru

  12. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  13. Liquid Crystals and Photonic Bandgap Fiber Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Wei, Lei; Scolari, Lara;

    Liquid Crystal(LC)filled Photonic Crystal Fibers(PCFs) represent a promising platform for the design and the fabrication of tunable all-in fiber devices. Tunability is achieved by varying the refractive index of the LC thermally, optically or electrically. In this contribution we present important...

  14. A novel photonic crystal fibre switch

    OpenAIRE

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Hermann, D.S.; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2003-01-01

    A new thermo-optic fibre switch is demonstrated, which utilizes the phase transitions of a thermochromic liquid crystal inside a photonic crystal fibre. We report an extinction ratio of 60 dB and an insertion loss of 1 dB.

  15. Optimized planar photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend with more than 200 nm wide 1-dB transmission bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2005-01-01

    Topology optimization was used to design a planar photonic crystal waveguide 60o bend leading to a record-breaking transmission bandwidth of more than 200nm. The experimental results agree well with 3D finite-difference-time-domain simulations.......Topology optimization was used to design a planar photonic crystal waveguide 60o bend leading to a record-breaking transmission bandwidth of more than 200nm. The experimental results agree well with 3D finite-difference-time-domain simulations....

  16. Fabrication and optical transmission characteristics of polymers woodpile photonic crystal structures with different crystal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Jing; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The photonic band gap effect which originates from the translational invariance of the periodic lattice of dielectrics has been widely applied in the technical applications of microwave, telecommunication and visible wavelengths. Among the various examples, polymers based three dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PhCs) have attracted considerable interest because they can be easily fabricated by femo-second (fs) ultrafast laser direct writing (DLW) method. However, it is difficult to realize complete band gap in polymers PhCs due to the low index contrast between polymers and air. Here, we report the design and experimental realization of light's nonreciprocal propagation in woodpile PhCs fabricated with DLW method. Firstly, we fabricated several polymers woodpile PhCs on glass substrate with different crystal planes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements are in agreement with the theoretical predictions, which proves the validity and the accuracy of our DLW method. Further measurements of the transmission spectra with respect to the incident angle reveal that the surface crystal planes and incident wave vectors play important roles in the optical response. Furthermore, we designed and fabricated a 30° PhC wedge. And we find nonreciprocal transmission effect between the forward and backward waves, resulting from the nonsymmetrical refraction of the light in different planes. Our results may find potential applications in future 3D photonic integrated circuits and pave the way for the fabrication of other photonic and optical devices with DLW method.

  17. The X'tal cube PET detector with a monolithic crystal processed by the 3D sub-surface laser engraving technique: Performance comparison with glued crystal elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-09-21

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from six sides of the crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of a 3D crystal block with isotropic segments. Each face of the 3D crystal block is covered with a 4×4 array of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). Previously, in order to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. A dense arrangement of multiple micro-cracks carved by the laser beam works efficiently as a scattering wall for the scintillation photons. The X'tal cube with the laser-processed block showed excellent performance with respect to crystal identification and energy resolution. In this work, for characteristics comparison between the laser-processed block and the conventional segmented array block, we made the laser-processed block and two types of segmented array blocks, one with air gaps and the other with glued segmented small crystals. All crystal blocks had 3D grids of 2 mm pitch. The 4×4 MPPC arrays were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. When performance was evaluated using a uniform irradiation of 511 keV, we found that the X'tal cubes with the laser-processed block could easily achieve 2 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification. Also, the average energy resolution of each 3D grid was 11.1±0.7%. On the other hand, the glued segmented array block had a pinched distribution and crystals could not be separated clearly. The segmented array block with air gaps had satisfactory crystal identification performance; however, the laser-processed block had higher crystal identification performance. Also, the energy resolution of the laser-processed block was better than for the segmented array blocks. In summary, we found the laser-processed X'tal cube had

  18. Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal filled polymer photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Doudou; Chen, Guoxiang; Wang, Lili

    2016-05-01

    A highly tunable bandgap-guiding polymer photonic crystal fiber is designed by infiltrating the cladding air holes with liquid crystal 5CB. Structural parameter dependence and thermal tunability of the photonic bandgaps, mode properties and confinement losses of the designed fiber are investigated. Bandgaps red shift as the temperature goes up. Average thermal tuning sensitivity of 30.9 nm/°C and 20.6 nm/°C is achieved around room temperature for the first and second photonic bandgap, respectively. Our results provide theoretical references for applications of polymer photonic crystal fiber in sensing and tunable fiber-optic devices.

  19. A SiPM-based isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube with a three-dimensional array of 1 mm{sup 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawai, Hideyuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Watanabe, Mitsuo, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu 434-8601 (Japan)

    2011-11-07

    We are developing a novel, general purpose isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube which has high spatial resolution in all three dimensions. The research challenge for this detector is implementing effective detection of scintillation photons by covering six faces of a segmented crystal block with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, we developed the second prototype of the X'tal cube for a proof-of-concept. We aimed at realizing an ultimate detector with 1.0 mm{sup 3} cubic crystals, in contrast to our previous development using 3.0 mm{sup 3} cubic crystals. The crystal block was composed of a 16 x 16 x 16 array of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystals 0.993 x 0.993 x 0.993 mm{sup 3} in size. The crystals were optically glued together without inserting any reflector inside and 96 multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs, S10931-50P, i.e. six faces each with a 4 x 4 array of MPPCs), each having a sensitive area of 3.0 x 3.0 mm{sup 2}, were optically coupled to the surfaces of the crystal block. Almost all 4096 crystals were identified through Anger-type calculation due to the finely adjusted reflector sheets inserted between the crystal block and light guides. The reflector sheets, which formed a belt of 0.5 mm width, were placed to cover half of the crystals of the second rows from the edges in order to improve identification performance of the crystals near the edges. Energy resolution of 12.7% was obtained at 511 keV with almost uniform light output for all crystal segments thanks to the effective detection of the scintillation photons.

  20. Design of photonic crystal splitters/combiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangin; Park, Ikmo; Lim, Hanjo

    2004-10-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) structures or photonic crystals have attracted a lot of interest since one of their promising applications is to build compact photonic integrated circuits (PIC). One of key components in PICs is a 1 x 2 optical power splitter or a 2 x 1 combiner. Design of 1 x 2 optical power splitters based on photonic crystal has been investigated by several research groups, but no attention has been paid to the design of 2 x 1 optical combiners. In conventional dielectric waveguide based circuits, optical combiners are obtained just by operating the splitters in the opposite direction and the isolation between two input ports in the combiners is naturally achieved. In photonic crystal based circuits, however, we have found that reciprocal operation of the splitters as combiners will not provide proper isolation between the input ports of the combiners. In this work, microwave-circuit concept has been adopted to obtain isolation between two input ports of the combiner and compact optical power splitters/combiners of good performance have been designed using 2-D photonic crystal. Numerical analysis of the designed splitters/combiners has been performed with the finite-difference time-domain method. The designed splitters/combiners show good isolation between input ports in combiner operation with small return losses.

  1. Ultra-flat supercontinuum generation in cascaded photonic crystal fiber with picosecond fiber laser pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanian; Li, Ping

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, a new method for achieving ultra-flat supercontinuum generation is proposed. A picosecond fiber laser was used as the pump source, in a cascaded photonic crystal fiber, ultra-flat supercontinuum generation spectrum at 3 dB level from 1070 up to 1630 nm is obtained, to our knowledge, the 3 dB bandwidth of 560 nm is the most flat supercontinuum generation obtained in photonic crystal fibers, the results indicated that our method is efficient for achieving ultra-flat supercontinuum, which will promote the technical applications of supercontinuum.

  2. Ultra-High-Efficiency Apodized Grating Coupler Using a Fully Etched Photonic Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an apodized fiber-to-chip grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystal holes on the silicon-on-insulator platform. An ultra-high coupling efficiency of 1.65 dB (68%) with 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm is experimentally demonstrated.......We demonstrate an apodized fiber-to-chip grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystal holes on the silicon-on-insulator platform. An ultra-high coupling efficiency of 1.65 dB (68%) with 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm is experimentally demonstrated....

  3. Electron crystallography of ultrathin 3D protein crystals: atomic model with charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Koji; Kato, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Mitsuo; Tomita, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2015-03-17

    Membrane proteins and macromolecular complexes often yield crystals too small or too thin for even the modern synchrotron X-ray beam. Electron crystallography could provide a powerful means for structure determination with such undersized crystals, as protein atoms diffract electrons four to five orders of magnitude more strongly than they do X-rays. Furthermore, as electron crystallography yields Coulomb potential maps rather than electron density maps, it could provide a unique method to visualize the charged states of amino acid residues and metals. Here we describe an attempt to develop a methodology for electron crystallography of ultrathin (only a few layers thick) 3D protein crystals and present the Coulomb potential maps at 3.4-Å and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, obtained from Ca(2+)-ATPase and catalase crystals. These maps demonstrate that it is indeed possible to build atomic models from such crystals and even to determine the charged states of amino acid residues in the Ca(2+)-binding sites of Ca(2+)-ATPase and that of the iron atom in the heme in catalase.

  4. Chromatic Dispersion Compensation Using Photonic Crystal Fibers with Hexagonal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick E. Reyes-Vera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show various configurations of photonic crystal fiber with hexagonal holes distribution for compensation of chromatic dispersion in optical communications links. The vectorial finite element method with scattering boundary condition was used for the analysis of the fibers. From these results it was estimated variation of the dispersion and the dispersion slope with respect to change in the diameter of the holes in the microstructure. With the above was possible to obtain values of dispersion in the C and L bands of telecommunications close to -850 ps / nm * km, with confinement losses 10-3 dB / km

  5. 液晶材料与3D显示%Liquid Crystal Materials and 3D Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴; 郑成武; 李宁; 周兴丹; 李正强; 华瑞茂

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the basic principles of the 3D display, highlights the current mainstream 3D display types, including glasses 3D technology and naked eye 3D technology. Glasses 3D technology contains anaglyphic 3D, polarized 3D and active shutter 3D; naked eye 3D technology contains parallax barrier 3D, lenticular lens 3D, directional backlight 3D and multi-layer display 3D. The realization methods of 3D images and applications of the different 3D technologies mentioned above are described. Advantages and disadvantages of the 3D technologies concerning liquid crystal display are discussed in details. According to the characteristics of liquid crystal materials and 3D liquid crystal display, rapid response property of liquid crystal materials used in 3D display panels are concluded. Also requirements of the optical anisotropy parameters of liquid crystal materials are summarized.%介绍了3D显示的基本原理,重点介绍了目前3D显示的主流技术类型,包含了眼镜式3D技术以及裸眼式3D技术,其中眼镜式3D技术包含色差式3D技术、偏光式3D技术和主动快门式3D技术;裸眼式3D技术包含视差屏障式3D技术、柱状透镜式3D技术、指向光源式3D技术和多层显示式3D技术.阐述了各种3D显示技术的基本实现原理和应用领域、并对涉及液晶显示的几种3D技术的优缺点进行了对比.结合液晶材料的特点与3D液晶显示的实际要求,阐述了3D液晶面板对液晶材料快速响应方面的要求,以及液晶透镜对液晶材料光学各向异性参数的要求.

  6. Ultrafast Optical Switching Using Photonic Molecules in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yanhui; Qiu, Kangsheng; Gao, Yunan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    We study the coupling between photonic molecules and waveguides in photonic crystal slab structures using finite-difference time-domain method and coupled mode theory. In a photonic molecule with two cavities, the coupling of cavity modes results in two super-modes with symmetric and anti-symmetric field distributions. When two super-modes are excited simultaneously, the energy of electric field oscillates between the two cavities. To excite and probe the energy oscillation, we integrate photonic molecule with two photonic crystal waveguides. In coupled structure, we find that the quality factors of two super-modes might be different because of different field distributions of super-modes. After optimizing the radii of air holes between two cavities of photonic molecule, nearly equal quality factors of two super-modes are achieved, and coupling strengths between the waveguide modes and two super-modes are almost the same. In this case, complete energy oscillations between two cavities can be obtained with a p...

  7. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... quantum-dot-waveguide coupling. Such a structure is ideally suited for a number of applications in quantum information processing and among others we propose an on-chip spin-photon interface, a single photon transistor, and a deterministic cNOT gate....

  8. Photonic crystal nanofiber using an external grating

    CERN Document Server

    Sadgrove, M; Nayak, K P; Hakuta, K

    2013-01-01

    We implement a photonic crystal nanofiber device by reversibly combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating. Using the finite-difference time-domain method, we design the system for minimal optical loss while tailoring the resonant wavelength and bandwidth of the device. Experimentally we demonstrate that the combined system shows a strong photonic stop-band in good agreement with numerical predictions. The resulting device may be used to realize strong light-matter coupling near to the nanofiber surface.

  9. Optical properties of photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between the radiation field and matter is the most fundamen­ tal source of dynamics in nature. It brings about the absorption and emission of photons, elastic and inelastic light scattering, the radiative lifetime of elec­ tronic excited states, and so on. The huge amount of energy carried from the sun by photons is the source of all activities of creatures on the earth. The absorption of photons by chlorophylls and the successive electronic excita­ tion initiate a series of chemical reactions that are known as photosynthesis, which support all life on the earth. Radiative energy is also the main source of all meteorological phenomena. The fundamentals of the radiation field and its interaction with matter were clarified by classical electromagnetism and quantum electrodynamics. These theories, we believe, explain all electromagnetic phenomena. They not only provide a firm basis for contemporary physics but also generate a vast range of technological applications. These include television, ...

  10. Optimized 3D simulation method for modeling of out-of-plane radiation in silicon photonic integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Westerveld, W J; Yousefi, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an accurate and fast 3D simulation scheme for out-of-plane grating couplers, based on two dimensional rigorous (finite difference time domain) grating simulations, the effective index method (EIM), and the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula. In comparison with full 3D FDTD simulations, the rms difference in electric field is below 5% and the difference in power flux is below 3%. A grating coupler for coupling from a silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuit to an optical fiber positioned 0.1 mm above the circuit is designed as example.

  11. High Power Photonic Crystal Fibre Raman Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Pei-Guang; RUAN Shuang-Chen; YU Yong-Qin; GUO Chun-Yu; GUO Yuan; LIU Cheng-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    A cw Raman laser based on a 100-m photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated with up to 3.8 W output power at the incident pump power of 12 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of about 31.6%. The second order Stokes light, which is firstly reported in a cw photonic crystal fibre Raman laser, is obtained at 1183nm with an output power of 1.6 W and a slope efficiency of about 45.7%.

  12. Plasmonic-photonic crystal coupled nanolaser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Taiping; Jamois, Cecile; Chevalier, Celine; Feng, Di; Belarouci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a hybrid photonic-plasmonic nanolaser that combines the light harvesting features of a dielectric photonic crystal cavity with the extraordinary confining properties of an optical nano-antenna. In that purpose, we developed a novel fabrication method based on multi-step electron-beam lithography. We show that it enables the robust and reproducible production of hybrid structures, using fully top down approach to accurately position the antenna. Coherent coupling of the photonic and plasmonic modes is highlighted and opens up a broad range of new hybrid nanophotonic devices.

  13. Adaptivity in Bandstructure Calculations of Photonic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals are refractive materials with a certain periodic structure. By the Floquet-Bloch transformation the Maxwell eigenvalue problem for the propagating frequencies in an infinite domain (modelling an infinite crystal) is reformulated into a set of eigenvalue problems in the elementary cell, parameterised by the quasi-momemtum k. The aim of this thesis is to develop adaptive techniques to deal with the family of eigenvalue problems.

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection by 3D Freehand Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Sinan Gültekin; Ahmet Oğuz Hasdemir; Emine Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    We herein present our first experience obtained by 3D freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (F-SPECT) guidance for sentinel lymph node detection (SLND) in two patients with early stage breast cancer. F-SPECT guidance was carried out using one-day protocol in one case and by the two-day protocol in the other one. SLND was performed successfully in both patients. Histopathologic evaluation showed that the excised nodes were tumor negative. Thus, patients underw...

  15. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Lahneman, David; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel artificial optical material, a photonic hyper-crystal, which combines the most interesting features of hyperbolic metamaterials and photonic crystals. Similar to hyperbolic metamaterials, photonic hyper-crystals exhibit broadband divergence in their photonic density of states due to the lack of usual diffraction limit on the photon wave vector. On the other hand, similar to photonic crystals, hyperbolic dispersion law of extraordinary photons is modulated by forbidden gaps near the boundaries of photonic Brillouin zones. Three dimensional self-assembly of photonic hyper-crystals has been achieved by application of external magnetic field to a cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid. Unique spectral properties of photonic hyper-crystals lead to extreme sensitivity of the material to monolayer coatings of cobalt nanoparticles, which should find numerous applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  16. Planar photonic crystal waveguides in silicon oxynitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haoling; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo;

    , at visible wavelengths they absorb light very strongly. In contrary, silicon oxynitride (SiON) glasses offer high transparency down to blue and ultraviolet wavelengths. Thus, SiON photonic crystal waveguides can open for new possibilities, e.g., within sensing and life sciences. We have fabricated Si...

  17. Silicon photonic crystals and spontaneous emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dood, Michiel Jacob Andries de

    2002-01-01

    Photonic crystals, i.e. materials that have a periodic variation in refractive index, form an interesting new class of materials that can be used to modify spontaneous emission and manipulate optical modes in ways that were impossible so far. This thesis is divided in three parts. Part I discusses

  18. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouba, J [BESSY GmbH, Anwenderzentrum fuer Mikrotechnik, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kubenz, M [Micro resist technology GmbH, Koepenicker Str. 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany); Mai, A [BESSY GmbH, Anwenderzentrum fuer Mikrotechnik, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ropers, G [BESSY GmbH, Anwenderzentrum fuer Mikrotechnik, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, W [BESSY GmbH, Anwenderzentrum fuer Mikrotechnik, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Loechel, B [BESSY GmbH, Anwenderzentrum fuer Mikrotechnik, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials.

  19. Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    These laboratory experiments are designed to explore aspects of nanoscale chemistry by constructing and spectroscopically analyzing thin films of photonic crystals. Films comprised of colloidal spheres and polydimethylsiloxane exhibit diffraction-based stop bands that shift reversibly upon exposure to some common solvents. Topics covered in these…

  20. Chaotic behaviour of photonic crystals resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.

    2015-02-08

    We show here theoretically and experimentally how chaotic Photonic Crystal resonators can be used for en- ergy harvesting applications and the demonstration of fundamental theories, like the onset of superradiance in quantum systems. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, D.; Zabel, T.; Hürlimann, T.;

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine...

  2. Temperature stabilization of optofluidic photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamutsch, Christian; Smith, Cameron L.C.; Graham, Alexandra;

    2009-01-01

    We present a principle for the temperature stabilization of photonic crystal (PhC) cavities based on optofluidics. We introduce an analytic method enabling a specific mode of a cavity to be made wavelength insensitive to changes in ambient temperature. Using this analysis, we experimentally...

  3. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pacholski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.

  4. Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    2007-01-01

    characterization, spectroscopy, optical communications, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). This thesis presents a study of SCG in photonic crystal fibre (PCF) using numerical modelling. The nonlinear physical mechanisms relevant for the thesis are reviewed. It is investigated how the SC spectrum can be shaped...

  5. All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Vannahme, Christoph;

    2015-01-01

    An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5x10-6 RIU when measured...

  6. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...

  7. Solitons in quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with modulation of both the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We derive averaged equations that include induced cubic nonlinearities, which can be defocusing, and we numerically find previously unknown soliton familie...

  8. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  9. low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2003-01-01

    Designs of low pump power optical amplifiers, based on photonic crystal fibres are presented. The potential of these fibre amplifiers is investigated, and it is demonstrated that such amplifiers may deliver gains of more than 15 dB at 1550 nm with less than 1 mW of optical pump power....

  10. All-optical tunable photonic crystal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Ou, Haiyan;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-small photonic crystal cavity with two resonant modes. An all-optical tuning operation based on the free-carrier plasma effect is, for the first time, realized utilizing a continuous wave light source. The termo-optical effect is minimized by isoproponal infiltration...

  11. Finite element analysis of photonic crystal fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Groesen, van E.

    2005-01-01

    A finite-element-based vectorial optical mode solver, furnished with Bayliss-Gunzburger-Turkel-like transparent boundary conditions, is used to rigorously analyze photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). Both the real and imaginary part of the modal indices can be computed in a relatively small computational

  12. Photon statistics in scintillation crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Vaibhav Joga Singh

    Scintillation based gamma-ray detectors are widely used in medical imaging, high-energy physics, astronomy and national security. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors are eld-tested, relatively inexpensive, and have good detection eciency. Semi-conductor detectors are gaining popularity because of their superior capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. However, they are relatively hard to manufacture and therefore, at this time, not available in as large formats and much more expensive than scintillation gamma-ray detectors. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors consist of: a scintillator, a material that emits optical (scintillation) photons when it interacts with ionization radiation, and an optical detector that detects the emitted scintillation photons and converts them into an electrical signal. Compared to semiconductor gamma-ray detectors, scintillation gamma-ray detectors have relatively poor capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. This is in large part attributed to the "statistical limit" on the number of scintillation photons. The origin of this statistical limit is the assumption that scintillation photons are either Poisson distributed or super-Poisson distributed. This statistical limit is often dened by the Fano factor. The Fano factor of an integer-valued random process is dened as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Therefore, a Poisson process has a Fano factor of one. The classical theory of light limits the Fano factor of the number of photons to a value greater than or equal to one (Poisson case). However, the quantum theory of light allows for Fano factors to be less than one. We used two methods to look at the correlations between two detectors looking at same scintillation pulse to estimate the Fano factor of the scintillation photons. The relationship between the Fano factor and the correlation between the integral of the two signals detected was analytically derived, and the Fano factor was estimated using the measurements for SrI2:Eu, YAP

  13. The Gain Properties of 1-D Active Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The terminology 'ID frequency'(w ID) is proposed after analyzing the 1D active photonic crystal based on the transfer matrix method. The relationship between wID and the structure parameters of the photonic crystal is investigated.

  14. Two-Dimentional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    1999-01-01

    dielectric function. This is analogous to semiconductors, where electronic bandgaps exist due to the periodic arrangement of atoms. As is also the case for semiconductor structures, photonic bandgap structures may become of even greater value when defects are introduced. In particular, point defects make...... possible a novel class of optical microcavities, whereas line defects make possible a novel class of waveguides. In this paper we will analyze two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides based on photonic crystals with rods arranged on a triangular and a square lattice using a plane-wave expansion method...... and a finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. Design parameters, i.e. dielectric constants, rod diameter and waveguide width, where these waveguides are single-moded and multi-moded will be given. We will also show our recent results regarding the energy-flow (the Poynting vector) in these waveguides...

  15. Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Erika L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Slopsema, Roelf [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

  16. Controlling Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Garcia, Pedro D.; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We prove Anderson localization in the slow-light regime of a photonic crystal waveguide by measuring the ensemble-averaged localization length which is controlled by the dispersion of the disordered photonic crystal waveguide.......We prove Anderson localization in the slow-light regime of a photonic crystal waveguide by measuring the ensemble-averaged localization length which is controlled by the dispersion of the disordered photonic crystal waveguide....

  17. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  18. Extreme low thermal conductivity in nanoscale 3D Si phononic crystal with spherical pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Si phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Si PnCs depends on the porosity, for example, the thermal conductivity of Si PnCs with porosity 50% is 300 times smaller than that of bulk Si. The phonon participation ratio spectra demonstrate that more phonons are localized as the porosity increases. The thermal conductivity is insensitive to the temperature changes from room temperature to 1100 K. The extreme-low thermal conductivity could lead to a larger value of ZT than unity as the periodic structure affects very little the electric conductivity.

  19. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1−xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique

  20. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu; Zuo, Jianmin; Braun, Paul V., E-mail: pbraun@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Sardela, Mauro [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Balaji, Manavaimaran; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Sun, Yan-Ting [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-12-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}P (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.

  1. Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Ford

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lasers were invented some 40 years ago and are now used in a plethora of applications. Stable liquid crystals were discovered at about the same time, and are now the basis of a large display industry. Both technologies involve photonics, the former in the creation and use of light and the latter in the control and manipulation of light. However, it is only recently that these two mature technologies have been combined to form liquid-crystal lasers, heralding a new era for these photonic materials and the potential for novel applications. We summarize the characteristics of liquid crystals that lead to laser devices, the wide diversity of possible laser systems, and the properties of the light produced.

  2. Effective index approximations of photonic crystal slabs: a 2-to-1-D assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Manfred; Ivanova, Olena V.

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of slab-like photonic crystals are often discussed on the basis of effective index (EI) approximations, where a 2-D effective refractive index profile replaces the actual 3-D structure. Our aim is to assess this approximation by analogous steps that reduce finite 2-D waveguide

  3. Direct experimental and numerical determination of extremely high group indices in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2005-01-01

    We report on time-of-flight experimental measurements and numerical calculations of the group-index dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide realized in silicon-on-insulator material. Experimentally group indices higher than 230 has been observed. Numerical 2D and 3D time-domain simulations show...

  4. Topology optimized mode conversion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in siliconon-insulator material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Elesin, Yuriy; Frellsen, Louise Floor;

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and for the first time experimentally verified a topology optimized mode converter with a footprint of ∼6.3 μm × ∼3.6 μm which converts the fundamental even mode to the higher order odd mode of a dispersion engineered photonic crystal waveguide. 2D and 3D topology optimization is...

  5. Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres reduces the scattering from air–glass interfaces during Bragg grating writing in many layered photonic crystal fibres. Within experimental uncertainty, the grating index modulation of a grating written in germanium-doped photonic crystal fibre with 10 rings...

  6. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, J. E.; Doti, R.; Sanchez, N.; de La Mora, M. B.; Del Rio, J. A.; Faubert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers is an example how to use light to generate a physical force. They have been used to levitate viruses, bacteria, cells, and sub cellular organisms. Nonetheless it would be beneficial to use such force to develop a new kind of applications. However the radiation pressure usually is small to think in moving larger objects. Currently, there is some research investigating novel photonic working principles to generate a higher force. Here, we studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals when light impinges on the off-axis direction. The photonic structure consists of a micro-cavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by a variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. We show experimental evidence of this force when the photonic structure is capable of making auto-oscillations and forced-oscillations. We measured peak displacements and velocities ranging from 2 up to 35 microns and 0.4 up to 2.1 mm/s with a power of 13 mW. Recent evidence showed that giant resonant light forces could induce average velocity values of 0.45 mm/s in microspheres embedded in water with 43 mW light power.

  7. Photonic crystal waveguides in PECVD glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haoling; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Têtu, Amélie;

    Silicon oxynitride (SiON) on silicon has found wide use as a robust and versatileplatform for integrated, optical devices. With plasma-enhanced chemical vapourdeposition (PECVD) the refractive index can be varied all the way from 1.5 (pure silica,SiO2) to 2.0 (pure silicon nitride, Si3N4). We hav...... fabricated glasses with refractive indexup to approximately 1.75, with which value it is possible to fabricate photonic crystalwaveguides. These structures have the advantage of being transparent in the whole of thevisible region, which makes them different from photonic crystals made...

  8. Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reininger, Peter, E-mail: peter.reininger@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Maxwell Andrews, Aaron; Gansch, Roman; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, Vienna 1040 (Austria)

    2013-12-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of a photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector (PCS-QCD). By employing a specifically designed resonant cavity, the performance of the photodetector is improved in three distinct ways. The PCS makes the QCD sensitive to surface normal incident light. It resonantly enhances the photon lifetime inside the active zone, thus increasing the photocurrent significantly. And, the construction form of the device inherently decreases the noise. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the PCS-QCD to a PCS - quantum well infrared photodetector and outline the advantages for certain fields of applications.

  9. Preliminary studies of 3D magnetophotonic crystals designed from a template stuffed by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, R.; Royer, F.; Blanc Mignon, M. F.; Goutaland, F.; Chatelon, J. P.; Tombacz, E.; Jamon, D.

    2010-05-01

    Based on the previous work of Nishijima [1], the aim of this work is to realize 3D magnetophotonic crystals (MPC) by a sol-gel approach, in order to obtain a magneto-optical material with a large merit factor. These MPC are made by immersion of an opal template of polystyrene spheres in a sol-gel TEOS preparation doped by magnetic nanoparticles. The template can be realized using centrifugation or sedimentation, and it is removed after the solidification of the doped matrix by an immersion in ethyl acetate. Calculations made on 1D structures confirm that a periodic arrangement of a magneto-optical material is a way to increase the Faraday Rotation and the merite factor. The characterization of the samples is made by SEM and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. In virtue of the SEM pictures we can establish that the template is well-structured, what is confirmed by a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) in the spectrophotometry spectral. The central wavelength of the PBG depends on the size of the polystyrene spheres. The final MPC obtained with a silica matrix doped by maghemite nanoparticles has also well-structured areas. Ongoing works concern the study of the Farady rotation as a function of the wavelength.

  10. Design of a compact mode and polarization converter in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Minghao

    2012-01-01

    A mode and polarization converter is proposed and optimized for 3D photonic integrated circuits based on photonic crystals (PhCs). The device converts the index-guided TE mode of a W1 solid-core (SC) waveguide to the band-gap-guided TM mode of a W1 hollow-core (HC) waveguide in 3D PhCs, and vice versa. The conversion is achieved based on contra-directional mode coupling. For a 25 mu m-long device, simulations show that the power conversion efficiency is over 98% across a wavelength range of 1...

  11. Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all......-spliced laser cavity based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065nm by applying...

  12. Single-photon pulsed-light indirect time-of-flight 3D ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisai, S; Bronzi, D; Villa, F A; Tisa, S; Tosi, A; Zappa, F

    2013-02-25

    "Indirect" time-of-flight is one technique to obtain depth-resolved images through active illumination that is becoming more popular in the recent years. Several methods and light timing patterns are used nowadays, aimed at improving measurement precision with smarter algorithms, while using less and less light power. Purpose of this work is to present an indirect time-of-flight imaging camera based on pulsed-light active illumination and a 32 × 32 single-photon avalanche diode array with an improved illumination timing pattern, able to increase depth resolution and to reach single-photon level sensitivity. PMID:23482043

  13. Light Localization in Slot Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; PENG Chao; LI Yan-Ping; WANG Zi-Yu

    2009-01-01

    A single-mode photonic crystal waveguide with a linear tapered slot is presented, which can localize light spatially by changing the slot width. Its effective bandwidth is 52nm, from 150Onto to 1552nm. Along the tapered structure, the slot width is reduced, and the corresponding band curve shifts. The group velocity of light becomes zero at the band edge. Therefore, different frequency components of the guided light are slowed down and finally localized at correspondingly different widths inside a tapered slot photonic crystal waveguide. Furthermore, this structure can confine light wave in a narrow slot waveguide, which may effectively enhance the interaction between light and the low-index wave-guiding materials filled in the slot.

  14. Dynamically Reconfigurable Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Ian W; McCutcheon, Murray W; Loncar, Marko

    2009-01-01

    Wavelength-scale, high Q-factor photonic crystal cavities have emerged as a platform of choice for on-chip manipulation of optical signals, with applications ranging from low-power optical signal processing and cavity quantum electrodynamics, to biochemical sensing. Many of these applications, however, are limited by the fabrication tolerances and the inability to precisely control the resonant wavelength of fabricated structures. Various techniques for post-fabrication wavelength trimming and dynamical wavelength control -- using, for example, thermal effects, free carrier injection, low temperature gas condensation, and immersion in fluids -- have been explored. However, these methods are often limited by small tuning ranges, high power consumption, or the inability to tune continuously or reversibly. In this letter, by combining nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) and nanophotonics, we demonstrate reconfigurable photonic crystal nanobeam cavities that can be continuously and dynamically tuned using elec...

  15. Nanoimprinted polymer photonic crystal dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron; Buss, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped...... with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. A compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (352 nm, 5 ns pulses) is used to pump the lasers from above the chip. The laser devices are 450 nm thick slab waveguides with a rectangular lattice of 100 nm deep air holes imprinted into the surface. The 2-dimensional rectangular...... lattice is described by two orthogonal unit vectors of length a and b, defining the P and X directions. The frequency of the laser can be tuned via the lattice constant a (187 nm - 215 nm) while pump light is resonantly coupled into the laser from an angle () depending on the lattice constant b (355 nm...

  16. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density

  17. Erbium doped tellurite photonic crystal optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sergio P.; Fernandez, Enver; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Cesar, Carlos L.; Barbosa, Luiz C.

    2005-04-01

    In this work we present the fabrication of tellurite glass photonic crystal fiber doped with a very large erbium concentration. Tellurite glasses are important hosts for rare earth ions due to its very high solubility, which allows up to 10,000 ppm Er3+ concentrations. The photonic crystal optical fibers and tellurite glasses can be, therefore, combined in an efficient way to produce doped fibers for large bandwidth optical amplifiers. The preform was made of a 10 mm external diameter tellurite tube filled with an array of non-periodic tellurite capillaries and an erbium-doped telluride rod that constitute the fiber core. The preform was drawn in a Heathway Drawing Tower, producing fibers with diameters between 120 - 140 μm. We show optical microscope photography of the fiber"s transverse section. The ASE spectra obtained with a spectra analyzer show a red shift as the length of the optical fiber increases.

  18. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A. [Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  19. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  20. Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Quantum Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Jenna Nicole

    Quantum information science and technology is a broad and fascinating field, encompassing diverse research areas such as materials science, atomic physics, superconductors, solid-state physics, and photonics. A goal of this field is to demonstrate the basic functions of information initialization, manipulation, and read-out in systems that take advantage of quantum physics to greatly enhance computing performance capabilities. In a hybrid quantum information network, different systems are used to perform different functions, to best exploit the advantageous properties of each system. For example, matter quantum bits (qubits) can be used for local data storage and manipulation while photonic qubits can be used for long-distance communication between storage points of the network. Our research focuses on the following two solid-state realizations of a matter qubit for the purpose of building such a hybrid quantum network: the electronic spin of a self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dot and the electronic spin of a nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond. Light--matter interactions are necessary to transfer the information from the matter qubit to the photonic qubit, and this interaction can be enhanced by embedding the spin system in an optical cavity. We focus on photonic crystal microcavities for this purpose, and we study interactions between the optical cavity modes and incorporated spin systems. To improve the performance of this spin--photon interface, it is important to maximize the coupling strength between the spin and photonic systems and to increase the read-out efficiency of information stored in the cavity. In this thesis, we present our work to deterministically couple a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a photonic crystal microcavity in gallium phosphide. This is achieved by nanopositioning a pre-selected diamond nanocrystal in the intensity maximum of the optical cavity mode. We also present an optimized design of a photonic crystal

  1. Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moulin, G.; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Lavrinenko, Andrei;

    report on the first experiments where a direct measure of the group velocity is performed; this is done by measuring the time delay of modulated light propagating through a photonic crystal waveguide. The structure is fabricated in silicon-on-insulator (SOI). A group index (c/vg) of up to almost 200 has...... been measured. Such a high group index makes the light-matter interaction extremely efficient, opening for new opportunities in micrometer-sized integrated lightwave circuits....

  2. Supercontinuum noise in tapered photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Moselund, Peter Morten;

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (PCF) has drawn a lot of attention for the last decade. Pumping such PCFs with high-power picosecond laser pulses enables the creation of broadband and intense light. Picosecond SCG is initiated by modulation instability ...... and as such contains some noise. It is thus of significant interest to reduce the noise. Here we focus on the noise properties of such supercontinuum (SC) generated in tapered PCFs....

  3. Photonic crystal fibres in the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny;

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) emerged as a research topic in the mid 1990'ies [1]. Today, 15 years later, these fibres are increasing deployed in various commercial markets. Here, we will address three of these markets; medical imaging, materials processing and sensors. We will describe how...... the PCFs provide radical improvements and illustrate the strong diversity in the evolution of PCFs to serve these different markets....

  4. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihab Fathy El-Kady

    2002-08-27

    In this work, the authors have undertaken a theoretical approach to the complex problem of modeling the flow of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. The focus is to address the feasibility of using the exciting phenomena of photonic gaps (PBG) in actual applications. The authors start by providing analytical derivations of the computational electromagnetic methods used in their work. They also present a detailed explanation of the physics underlying each approach, as well as a comparative study of the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Plane Wave expansion, Transfer Matrix, and Finite Difference time Domain Methods are addressed. They also introduce a new theoretical approach, the Modal Expansion Method. They then shift the attention to actual applications. They begin with a discussion of 2D photonic crystal wave guides. The structure addressed consists of a 2D hexagonal structure of air cylinders in a layered dielectric background. Comparison with the performance of a conventional guide is made, as well as suggestions for enhancing it. The studies provide an upper theoretical limit on the performance of such guides, as they assumed no crystal imperfections and non-absorbing media. Next, they study 3D metallic PBG materials at near infrared and optical wavelengths. The main objective is to study the importance of absorption in the metal and the suitability of observing photonic band gaps in such structures. They study simple cubic structures where the metallic scatters are either cubes or interconnected metallic rods. Several metals are studied (aluminum, gold, copper, and silver). The effect of topology is addressed and isolated metallic cubes are found to be less lossy than the connected rod structures. The results reveal that the best performance is obtained by choosing metals with a large negative real part of the dielectric function, together with a relatively small imaginary part. Finally, they point out a new direction in photonic crystal

  5. 3D near-infrared imaging based on a single-photon avalanche diode array sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata Pavia, J.; Charbon, E.; Wolf, M.

    2011-01-01

    An imager for optical tomography was designed based on a detector with 128x128 single-photon pixels that included a bank of 32 time-to-digital converters. Due to the high spatial resolution and the possibility of performing time resolved measurements, a new contact-less setup has been conceived in w

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection by 3D Freehand Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We herein present our first experience obtained by 3D freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT (F-SPECT guidance for sentinel lymph node detection (SLND in two patients with early stage breast cancer. F-SPECT guidance was carried out using one-day protocol in one case and by the two-day protocol in the other one. SLND was performed successfully in both patients. Histopathologic evaluation showed that the excised nodes were tumor negative. Thus, patients underwent breast-conserving surgery alone.

  7. Three-Dimensional Structure and Defects in Colloidal Photonic Crystals Revealed by Tomographic Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, Jan; van Schooneveld, Matti M.; Wang, Jian; de Smit, Emiel; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Raabe, Joerg; Hitchcock, Adam P.; Obst, Martin; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Petukhov, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled colloidal crystals have attracted major attention because of their potential as low-cost three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals. Although a high degree of perfection is crucial for the properties of these materials, little is known about their exact structure and internal defects. I

  8. Direct numerical and experimental determination of group index dispersion in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob;

    2005-01-01

    We report on direct numerical calculations and experimental measurements of the group-index dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material. The photonic crystal is defined by a triangular arrangement of holes and the waveguide is carved out by introducing...... a one-row line defect. Both the numerical and experimental methods are based on the time of flight approach for an optical pulse. An increase of the group index by approximately 45 times (from 4 to 155) has been observed when approaching the cutoff of the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. Numerical 2D...... and 3D simulations of pulse dynamics in the waveguide made by the time-domain method shows excellent agreement with measured data in most of the band. These group index values in a photonic crystal waveguide are to the best of our knowledge the largest numbers reported so far by direct tracking of pulse...

  9. Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Niclass, Cristiano; Rochas, Alexis; Besse, Pierre-André; Charbon, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    The design and characterization of an imaging system is presented for depth information capture of arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) objects. The core of the system is an array of 32 × 32 rangefinding pixels that independently measure the time-of-flight of a ray of light as it is reflected back from the objects in a scene. A single cone of pulsed laser light illuminates the scene, thus no complex mechanical scanning or expensive optical equipment are needed. Millimetric depth accuracies can b...

  10. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-04

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~ 200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc.

  11. Two-photon imaging of a magneto-fluorescent indicator for 3D optical magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hohjai; Brinks, Daan; Cohen, Adam E

    2015-10-19

    We developed an optical method to visualize the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic field strength around magnetic microstructures. We show that the two-photon-excited fluorescence of a chained donor-bridge-acceptor compound, phenanthrene-(CH2)12-O-(CH2)2-N,N-dimethylaniline, is sensitive to ambient magnetic field strength. A test structure is immersed in a solution of the magneto-fluorescent indicator and a custom two-photon microscope maps the fluorescence of this compound. The decay kinetics of the electronic excited state provide a measure of magnetic field that is insensitive to photobleaching, indicator concentration, or local variations in optical excitation or collection efficiency. PMID:26480460

  12. Degeneracy and Split of Defect States in Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓琴; 崔一平

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional photonic crystals with two or more structural defects are studied. We observed an interesting characteristic of transmission band structure of photonic crystals with defects using the transmission-matrixmethod simulation. The transmission states in the wide photonic band gap caused by defects revealdegeneracy and split in certain conditions. Every split state is contributed by coupling of all defects in a photonic crystal.Using the tight-binding method, we obtain an approximate analytic expression for the split frequency of photonic crystals with two structural defects.

  13. Fabrication of Metarodielectric Photonic Crystals for Microwave Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takinami, Yohei; Kirihara, Soshu, E-mail: y-takinami@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Smart Processing Reserch Center, Joining and Welding Reserch Institute, Osaka University (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Photonic crystals have inspired a great deal of interests as key platforms for effective control of electromagnetic wave. They can suppress incident waves at a certain frequency by Bragg diffraction and exhibit photonic band gap. Photonic band gap structures can be applied for effective and compact wave control equipments. In this investigation, metal photonic crystals were fabricated by stereolithography and heat treatment process. Furthermore, metal-dielectric crystal was created through impregnation process of dielectric media. This concept of metal-dielectric photonic crystal is expected to contribute for not only the downsizing of electromagnetic wave devices, but also thermal flow control.

  14. Add-drop filter based on dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavities in push-pull mode

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher V; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an add-drop filter based on a dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavity system that emulates the operation of a traveling-wave resonator and drops light on resonance to a single output port. Realized on an advanced SOI CMOS (IBM 45nm SOI) chip without any foundry process modifications, the device shows 16dB extinction in through port and 1dB loss in drop port with a 3dB bandwidth of 64GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a four-port add-drop filter based on photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

  15. Properties of photonic bandgap in one-dimensional multicomponent photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    Properties of photonic band gap and light propagation in one-dimensional multicomponent photonic crystal have been studied with the optical transfer matrix method.We mainly analyze the relation of photonic band-gap property with the arrangement of components,the refractive index and the geometrical thickness.In this study,the methods to change the width and the location of the existing photonic band-gaps in multicomponent photonic crystal are proposed.

  16. Effective thermal resistance of a photonic crystal microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haret, L-D; Ghrib, A; Checoury, X; Cazier, N; Han, Z; El Kurdi, M; Sauvage, S; Boucaud, P

    2014-02-01

    We present a simple method to accurately measure the effective thermal resistance of a photonic crystal microcavity. The cavity is embedded between two Schottky contacts forming a metal-semiconductor-metal device. The photocarriers circulating in the device provide a local temperature rise that can be dominated by Joule effect under certain conditions. We show that the effective thermal resistance (R(th)) can be experimentally deduced from the spectral shift of the cavity resonance wavelength measured at different applied bias. We deduce a value of R(th)1.6×10(4) KW(-1) for a microcavity on silicon-on-insulator, which is in good agreement with 3D thermal modeling by finite elements. PMID:24487839

  17. Thermal analysis of line-defect photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Ottaviano, Luisa; Chen, Yaohui;

    2015-01-01

    We report a systematic study of thermal effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers based on line-defect cavities. Two material platforms, InGaAsP and InP, are investigated experimentally and numerically. Lasers with quantum dot layers embedded in an InP membrane exhibit lasing at room temperature...... under CW optical pumping, whereas InGaAsP membranes only lase under pulsed conditions. By varying the duty cycle of the pump beam, we quantify the heating induced by optical pumping in the two material platforms and compare their thermal properties. Full 3D finite element simulations show the spatial...... temperature profile and are in good agreement with the experimental results concerning the thermal tolerance of the two platforms....

  18. Fractional decay of quantum dots in real photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, A. Femius; Lodahl, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    We show that fractional decay may be observable in experiments using quantum dots and photonic crystals with parameters that are currently achievable. We focus on the case of inverse opal photonic crystals and locate the position in the crystal where the effect is most pronounced. Furthermore, we...

  19. From Molecular to Macroscopic via the Rational Design of a Self-Assembled 3D DNA Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, J.; Birktoft, J; Yi, C; Tong, W; Ruojie, S; Constantinou, P; Ginell, S; Chenge, M; Seeman, N

    2009-01-01

    We live in a macroscopic three-dimensional (3D) world, but our best description of the structure of matter is at the atomic and molecular scale. Understanding the relationship between the two scales requires a bridge from the molecular world to the macroscopic world. Connecting these two domains with atomic precision is a central goal of the natural sciences, but it requires high spatial control of the 3D structure of matter1. The simplest practical route to producing precisely designed 3D macroscopic objects is to form a crystalline arrangement by self-assembly, because such a periodic array has only conceptually simple requirements: a motif that has a robust 3D structure, dominant affinity interactions between parts of the motif when it self-associates, and predictable structures for these affinity interactions. Fulfilling these three criteria to produce a 3D periodic system is not easy, but should readily be achieved with well-structured branched DNA motifs tailed by sticky ends2. Complementary sticky ends associate with each other preferentially and assume the well-known B-DNA structure when they do so3; the helically repeating nature of DNA facilitates the construction of a periodic array. It is essential that the directions of propagation associated with the sticky ends do not share the same plane, but extend to form a 3D arrangement of matter. Here we report the crystal structure at 4?Angstroms resolution of a designed, self-assembled, 3D crystal based on the DNA tensegrity triangle4. The data demonstrate clearly that it is possible to design and self-assemble a well-ordered macromolecular 3D crystalline lattice with precise control.

  20. Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désévédavy, Frédéric; Renversez, Gilles; Troles, Johann; Houizot, Patrick; Brilland, Laurent; Vasilief, Ion; Coulombier, Quentin; Traynor, Nicholas; Smektala, Frédéric; Adam, Jean-Luc

    2010-09-01

    We report the first hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC PCF) in chalcogenide glass. To design the required HC PCF profiles for such high index glass, we use both band diagram analysis to define the required photonic bandgap and numerical simulations of finite size HC PCFs to compute the guiding losses. The material losses have also been taken into account to compute the overall losses of the HC PCF profiles. These fibers were fabricated by the stack and draw technique from TeAsSe (TAS) glass. The fibers we drew in this work are composed of six rings of holes and regular microstructures. Two profiles are presented, one is known as a kagome lattice and the other one corresponds to a triangular lattice. Geometrical parameters are compared to the expected parameters obtained by computation. Applications of such fibers include power delivery or fiber sensors among others.

  1. Slab photonic crystals with dimer colloid bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Erin K.; Liddell Watson, Chekesha M., E-mail: cliddell@ccmr.cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, 128 Bard Hall Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-14

    The photonic band gap properties for centered rectangular monolayers of asymmetric dimers are reported. Colloids in suspension have been organized into the phase under confinement. The theoretical model is inspired by the range of asymmetric dimers synthesized via seeded emulsion polymerization and explores, in particular, the band structures as a function of degree of lobe symmetry and degree of lobe fusion. These parameters are varied incrementally from spheres to lobe-tangent dimers over morphologies yielding physically realizable particles. The work addresses the relative scarcity of theoretical studies on photonic crystal slabs with vertical variation that is consistent with colloidal self-assembly. Odd, even and polarization independent gaps in the guided modes are determined for direct slab structures. A wide range of lobe symmetry and degree of lobe fusion combinations having Brillouin zones with moderate to high isotropy support gaps between odd mode band indices 3-4 and even mode band indices 1-2 and 2-3.

  2. Two-photon luminescence thermometry: towards 3D high-resolution thermal imaging of waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruiyun; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Pedrola, Ginés Lifante; Chen, Feng; Jaque, Daniel

    2016-07-11

    We report on the use of the Erbium-based luminescence thermometry to realize high resolution, three dimensional thermal imaging of optical waveguides. Proof of concept is demonstrated in a 980-nm laser pumped ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide in Er:Yb phosphate glass. Multi-photon microscopy images revealed the existence of well confined intra-waveguide temperature increments as large as 200 °C for moderate 980-nm pump powers of 120 mW. Numerical simulations and experimental data reveal that thermal loading can be substantially reduced if pump events are separated more than the characteristic thermal time that for the waveguides investigated is in the ms time scale. PMID:27410882

  3. Broadband photon-photon interactions mediated by cold atoms in a photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that photon-photon attraction can be engineered in the continuum of scattering states for pairs of photons propagating in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with cold atoms. The atoms are regularly spaced in an optical lattice configuration and the photons are resonantly tuned to an internal atomic transition. We show that the hard-core repulsion resulting from saturation of the atomic transitions induces bunching in the photonic component of the collective atom-photon modes (polaritons). Bunching is obtained in a frequency range as large as tens of GHz, and can be controlled by the inter-atomic separation. We provide a fully analytical explanation for this phenomenon by proving that correlations result from a mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons in the continuum. Even stronger correlations can be observed for in-gap two-polariton bound states. Our theoretical results use parameters relevant for current experiments and suggest a simple and feasible way to induce interactions between photons.

  4. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    We present a device based on a tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber that allows active all-in-fiber filtering. The resulting Photonic Bandgap Fiber device provides a Gaussian filter covering the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm......We present a device based on a tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber that allows active all-in-fiber filtering. The resulting Photonic Bandgap Fiber device provides a Gaussian filter covering the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm...

  5. Electrical Control of Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity by Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Arka; Kim, Jonghwan; Vuckovic, Jelena; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Efficient conversion of electrical signal to optical signal in nano-photonics enables solid state integration of electronics and photonics. Combination of graphene with photonic crystals is promising for electro-optic modulation. In this paper, we demonstrate that by electrostatic gating a single layer of graphene on top of a photonic crystal cavity, the cavity resonance can be changed significantly. A ~2nm change in the cavity resonance linewidth and almost 400% (6 dB) change in resonance re...

  6. Reversed Doppler effect in photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J; Soljacić, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D

    2003-09-26

    Nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shifts have never been observed in nature and have only been speculated to occur in pathological systems with simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability. This Letter presents a different, new physical phenomenon that leads to a nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shift in light. It arises when light is reflected from a moving shock wave propagating through a photonic crystal. In addition to reflection of a single frequency, multiple discrete reflected frequencies or a 10 GHz periodic modulation can also be observed when a single carrier frequency of wavelength 1 microm is incident.

  7. Supercontinuum Generation in a Photonic Crystal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Pei-Guang; RUAN Shuang-Chen; LIN Hao-Jia; DU Chen-Lin; YU Yong-Qin; LU Ke-Cheng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nearly 1000-nm broad continuum from 390nm to 1370nm is generated in a 2-m long photonic crystal fibre. The maximum total power of supercontinuum is measured to be 60mW with the pumping power of 800mW output from a 200-fs Ti:sapphire laser. The evolution of the pumping light into supercontinuum is experimentally studied in detail. It is found that the mechanism for supercontinuum generation has direct relations with Raman effect and soliton effect, and the four-wave mixing plays an important role in the last phase of the supercontinuum generation.

  8. Reciprocity theorem and perturbation theory for photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, D; Peschel, U; Wächter, C; Bräuer, A

    2003-12-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations we derive a reciprocity theorem for photonic crystal waveguides. A set of strongly coupled discrete equations results, which can be applied to the simulation of perturbed photonic crystal waveguides. As an example we analytically study the influence of the dispersion of a two level system on the band structure of a photonic crystal waveguide. In particular, the formation of polariton gaps is discussed.

  9. Imaging by Photonic Crystal Using Reflection and Negative Refraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yun-Tuan; SUN Hai-Jin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Point imaging by a photonic crystal slab due to the negative refraction is studied by the finite-difference timedomain method. With a layer metal coating on one termination of a photonic crystal (PC) slab which intensifies the light reflection, one image occurs in the same side with the point source by negative refraction and reflection at the two sides of the photonic crystal slab, which brings about a new kind of imaging for the PC slab.

  10. Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Harpøth, Anders; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2004-01-01

    Topology optimization is used to design a planar photonic crystal waveguide component resulting in significantly enhanced functionality. Exceptional transmission through a photonic crystal waveguide Z-bend is obtained using this inverse design strategy. The design has been realized in a silicon......-on-insulator based photonic crystal waveguide. A large low loss bandwidth of more than 200 nm for the TE polarization is experimentally confirmed....

  11. Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Organic Photonic Crystal Microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping; HU Xiao-Yong; YANG Hong; GONG Qi-Huang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A two-dimensional polystyrene photonic crystal microcavity is fabricated by the method of focused ion beam etching. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmittance spectrum are used to characterize the properties of the photonic crystal microcavity. The quality factor and the transmittance of the photonic crystal microcavity is more than 530 and 90%, respectively. The measured results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  12. Photonic crystal waveguides by direct writing of e-beam on self-assembled photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Kedia; R Vijaya

    2011-04-01

    Direct electron beam lithography technique is used for writing a variety of waveguide structures on thin films of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and self-assembled three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystals made up of PMMA colloidal spheres. The waveguide structures fabricated on both these type of samples are characterized by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images.

  13. Superlens Biosensor with Photonic Crystals in Negative Refraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dorrani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have presented the study on one structure fabricated with photonic crystals for use as biosensors with superlensing property in dimensions of nano and micro with negative refractive index. In a special frequency, this type of photonic crystal acts as Left-Handed Metamaterial (LHM. It is shown that by a suitable choice of design parameters, such as, dimensions of bars, it is possible to reach sensing property by this structure in two-dimensional triangular photonic crystals. The structure investigated in three size and results shows the slab of photonic crystals prosperous process that, with sensing applications can has imaging applications.

  14. Bragg gratings in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Hougaard, Kristian G.; Libori, S.E. Barkou;

    2002-01-01

    A numerical investigation of coupling coefficients of Bragg-gratings in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres is presented. It is shown that index-guiding photonic crystal fibres have larger coupling coefficients for fibres with small core areas than step-index fibres.......A numerical investigation of coupling coefficients of Bragg-gratings in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres is presented. It is shown that index-guiding photonic crystal fibres have larger coupling coefficients for fibres with small core areas than step-index fibres....

  15. A 3D pencil-beam-based superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillikainen, L.; Helminen, H.; Torsti, T.; Siljamäki, S.; Alakuijala, J.; Pyyry, J.; Ulmer, W.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, a novel three-dimensional superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation is presented. The dose calculation is performed as a superposition of pencil beams, which are modified based on tissue electron densities. The pencil beams have been derived from Monte Carlo simulations, and are separated into lateral and depth-directed components. The lateral component is modeled using exponential functions, which allows accurate modeling of lateral scatter in heterogeneous tissues. The depth-directed component represents the total energy deposited on each plane, which is spread out using the lateral scatter functions. Finally, convolution in the depth direction is applied to account for tissue interface effects. The method can be used with the previously introduced multiple-source model for clinical settings. The method was compared against Monte Carlo simulations in several phantoms including lung- and bone-type heterogeneities. Comparisons were made for several field sizes for 6 and 18 MV energies. The deviations were generally within (2%, 2 mm) of the field central axis dmax. Significantly larger deviations (up to 8%) were found only for the smallest field in the lung slab phantom for 18 MV. The presented method was found to be accurate in a wide range of conditions making it suitable for clinical planning purposes.

  16. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Roschger, Paul; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N.; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  17. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  18. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  19. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  20. Negative Refraction experiments in Photonic Crystal prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodo, Plarenta; Parimi, Patanjali. V.; Lu, Wentao. T.; di Gennaro, Emiliano; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2004-03-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated negative refraction in metallic photonic crystal (PC) prisms [1]. The refracted fields in the parallel plate waveguide (PPW) are measured by an automated dipole antenna, which scans the desired area, while the free space (FS) measurements, performed in a anechoic chamber, are measured by a rectangular X-band horn that swings in an arc in far field area. Both TE and TM excitation modes are used in FS experiments. Numerical calculations of the band structure and equi-frequency surface simulations are used to determine frequency regions of negative refraction of the triangular lattice PC. Angle of refraction determined by theoretical simulations and experimental results, are in exceptional good agreement, yielding the negative refraction index. FS and PPW refraction experimental results agree remarkably with simulations. 1. "Negative Refraction and Left-handed electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals", P.V Parimi, W.T Lu, P.Vodo J. Sokoloff and S.Sridhar, cond-mat/0306109 (2003)

  1. Optical characterisation of photonic wire and photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Lavrinenko, Andrei;

    2006-01-01

    We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography....

  2. Photonic crystals: features and applications (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book is focused on the study of unprecedented control and manipulation of light by photonic crystals (PCs) and their applications. These are micro- or usually nano-structures composed of periodic indexes of refraction of dielectrics with high refractive index contrast. They exhibit optical frequency band gaps in analogy to electronic bands for a periodic potential of a semiconductor crystal lattice. The gemstone opal and butterflys feathers colours are already referred to as natural examples of photonic crystals. The characteristics of such supper-lattices were first reported by Yablonovitch in 1987. The exploitation of photonic crystals is a promising tool in communication, sensors, optical computing, and nanophotonics. Discussed are the various features of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals, photonic quasi crystals, heterostuctures and PC fibres under a variety of conditions using several materials, and metamaterials. It also focuses on the applications of PCs in opt...

  3. Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic-crystal band-gap structures

    CERN Document Server

    Men, Han; Freund, Robert M; Peraire, Jaime; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    We perform full 3D topology optimization (in which "every voxel" of the unit cell is a degree of freedom) of photonic-crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and simple-cubic lattices. Even without imposing the constraints of any fabrication process, the resulting optimal gaps are only slightly larger than previous hand designs, suggesting that current photonic crystals are nearly optimal in this respect. However, optimization can discover new structures, e.g. a new fcc structure with the same symmetry but slightly larger gap than the well known inverse opal, which may offer new degrees of freedom to future fabrication technologies. Furthermore, our band-gap optimization is an illustration of a computational approach to 3D dispersion engineering which is applicable to many other problems in optics, based on a novel semidefinite-program formulation for nonconvex eigenvalue optimization combined with other techniq...

  4. Modelling Defect Cavities Formed in Inverse Three-Dimensional Rod-Connected Diamond Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Taverne, M P C; Zheng, X; Liu, S; Chen, L -F; Lopez-Garcia, M; Rarity, J G

    2016-01-01

    Defect cavities in 3D photonic crystal can trap and store light in the smallest volumes allowable in dielectric materials, enhancing non-linearities and cavity QED effects. Here, we study inverse rod-connected diamond (RCD) crystals containing point defect cavities using plane-wave expansion and finite-difference time domain methods. By optimizing the dimensions of the crystal, wide photonic band gaps are obtained. Mid-bandgap resonances can then be engineered by introducing point defects in the crystal. We investigate a variety of single spherical defects at different locations in the unit cell focusing on high-refractive-index contrast (3.3:1) inverse RCD structures; quality factors (Q-factors) and mode volumes of the resonant cavity modes are calculated. By choosing a symmetric arrangement, consisting of a single sphere defect located at the center of a tetrahedral arrangement, small mode volumes are obtained.

  5. Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection efficiency than that of slab-based nanocavities, and eliminates the need for a pre-existing membrane. The nanobeam is fabricated by Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) patterning. The cavity is characterized by a confocal photoluminescence. The modes display quality factors of Q ~220 and are deviated in wavelength by only ~1.7nm from the NV- color center zero phonon line (ZPL). The measured results are found in good agreement with 3D Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations. A more advanced cavity design with Q=22,000 is model...

  6. Single-Photon Technologies Based on Quantum-Dots in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    In this thesis, the application of semiconductor quantum-dots in photonic crystals is explored as aresource for single-photon technology.Two platforms based on photonic crystals, a cavity and a waveguide, are examined as platformssingle-photon sources. Both platforms demonstrate strong single-photon...... purity under quasi-resonantexcitation. Furthermore the waveguide based platform demonstrates indistinguishable single-photonsat timescales up to 13 ns.A setup for active demultiplexing of single-photons to a three-fold single-photon state is proposed.Using a fast electro-optical modulator, single-photons...... from a quantum-dot are routed on timescalesof the exciton lifetime. Using active demultiplexing a three-fold single-photon state is generated at anextracted rate of 2:03 ±0:49 Hz.An on-chip power divider integrated with a quantum-dot is investigated. Correlation measurementof the photon statistic...

  7. Flat-top Drop Filter based on a Single Topology Optimized Photonic Crystal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Elesin, Yuriy; Guan, Xiaowei;

    2015-01-01

    Outperforming conventional design concepts, a flat-top drop filter has been designed byapplying 3D topology optimization to a single waveguide-coupled L3 photonic crystal cavity.Measurements on the design fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material reveal that the pass-band ofthe drop channel...... is flat within 0.44 dB over a wavelength range of 9.7 nm with an insertion losslower than 0.85 dB....

  8. Very high coupling of TM polarised light in photonic crystal directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Thorhauge, Morten; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2003-01-01

    The experimental and simulated spectra for TE and TM polarised light for the transmission through photonic crystal directional couplers are presented. The 3D FDTD simulations successfully explain all the major features of the experimental spectra as well as the actual transmission level. Especially...... noteworthy is the transmission level, experimentally found to be above -3 dB in the wavelength range 1520-1690 nm, for TM polarised light in the coupled channel. It is noted that even though band calculations show that the propagation of the TM polarisation takes place below the TM valence band, very high...... and spectrally smooth coupling is observed for the TM polarisation in this wavelength range....

  9. Coherent Cherenkov radiation and laser oscillation in a photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, T; Lee, J H H; van der Meer, R; Strooisma, A; van der Slot, P J M; Vos, W L; Boller, K J

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that photonic crystals can be used to generate powerful and highly coherent laser radiation when injecting a beam of free electrons. Using theoretical investigations we present the startup dynamics and coherence properties of such laser, in which gain is provided by matching the optical phase velocity in the photonic crystal to the velocity of the electron beam.

  10. Numerical characterization of nanopillar photonic crystal waveguides and directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically characterize a novel type of a photonic crystal waveguide, which consists of several rows of periodically arranged dielectric cylinders. In such a nanopillar photonic crystal waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection. A nanopillar waveguide is a multimode...

  11. Design and Fabrication of SOI-based photonic crystal components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    We present examples of ultra-compact photonic crystal components realized in silicon-on-insulator material. We have fabricated several different types of photonic crystal waveguide components displaying high transmission features. This includes 60° and 120° bends, different types of couplers, and...

  12. [Recent advancement of photonic-crystal-based analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Guo, Zhenpeng; Wang, Jinyi; Chen, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Photonic crystals are a type of novel materials with ordered structure, nanopores/channels and optical band gap. They have hence important applications in physics, chemistry, biological science and engineering fields. This review summarizes the recent advancement of photonic crystals in analytical chemistry applications, with focus on sensing and separating fields happening in the nearest 5 years.

  13. 2D InP photonic crystal fabrication process development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, B.; Van der Drift, E.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Salemink, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a reliable process to fabricate high quality 2D air-hole and dielectric column InP photonic crystals with a high aspect ratio on a STS production tool using ICP N2+Cl2 plasma. The photonic crystals have a triangular lattice with lattice constant of 400 nm and air-hole and dielectri

  14. Photonic Crystal Fibres: A New Calss of Optical Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevstev, D.; Barkou, Stig Eigil;

    1999-01-01

    Remarkable properties of optical fibers with a high-index core region and sorrounding silica/ air photonic crystal cladding have recently been reported. Here we discuss the physics, the special guiding properties, and the theoretical tools developed for the modeling of these photonic crystal fibers...

  15. A photonic crystal fiber with zero dispersion at 1064 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas

    2002-01-01

    We report on the dispersion properties of a single mode, large core photonic crystal fiber. Using white light interferometry the fiber is found to have zero dispersion at 1064 nm......We report on the dispersion properties of a single mode, large core photonic crystal fiber. Using white light interferometry the fiber is found to have zero dispersion at 1064 nm...

  16. Microbending in photonic crystal fibres - an ultimate loss limit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Hansen, Theis Peter; Hougaard, Kristian G.;

    2001-01-01

    Microbending losses are for the first time estimated in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres, and comparisons with standard step-index fibres are made. The results indicate that typical photonic crystal fibres are significantly less sensitive (one order of magnitude smaller loss) towards...

  17. Increased polarization-entangled photon flux via thinner crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the scaling laws that govern the production of polarization-entangled photons via type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). We demonstrate experimentally that thin nonlinear crystals can generate a higher number of entangled photons than thicker crystals, basically because they generate a broader spectrum

  18. Passive integrated circuits utilizing slow light in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Têtu, Amélie; Yang, Lirong;

    2006-01-01

    We report thorough investigations of photonic crystal waveguide properties in the slow light regime. The transmission and the group index near the cutoff wavelengths oscillate in phase in close analogy with the ID photonic crystal behavior. The influence of having a finite number of periods in th...

  19. Calculation of the Slip System Activity in Deformed Zinc Single Crystals Using Digital 3-D Image Correlation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florando, J; Rhee, M; Arsenlis, A; LeBlanc, M; Lassila, D

    2006-02-21

    A 3-D image correlation system, which measures the full-field displacements in 3 dimensions, has been used to experimentally determine the full deformation gradient matrix for two zinc single crystals. Based on the image correlation data, the slip system activity for the two crystals has been calculated. The results of the calculation show that for one crystal, only the primary slip system is active, which is consistent with traditional theory. The other crystal however, shows appreciable deformation on slip systems other than the primary. An analysis has been conducted which confirms the experimental observation that these other slip system deform in such a manner that the net result is slip which is approximately one third the magnitude and directly orthogonal to the primary system.

  20. Photonic crystal chips for optical communications and quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk; Fushman, Ilya; Faraon, Andrei; Ellis, Bryan; Vučković, Jelena

    2008-08-01

    We discuss recent our recent progress on functional photonic crystals devices and circuits for classical and quantum information processing. For classical applications, we have demonstrated a room-temperature-operated, low threshold, nanocavity laser with pulse width in the picosecond regime; and an all-optical switch controlled with 60 fJ pulses that shows switching time on the order of tens of picoseconds. For quantum information processing, we discuss the promise of quantum networks on multifunctional photonic crystals chips. We also discuss a new coherent probing technique of quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal nanocavities and demonstrate amplitude and phase nonlinearities realized with control beams at the single photon level.

  1. Photonic Crystal Fiber Source of Quantum Correlated Photon Pairs in the 1550 nm Telecom Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A source of quantum correlated photon pairs in the 1550nm telecom band obtained by a pumping 11m photonic crystal fiber with 10 ps pulse trains is experimentally demonstrated. We investigate how the birefringence of the fiber influences the purity of the photon pairs. We also present the frequency correlation of the signal and idler photon pairs. The experimental results are useful for developing a compact source of photon pairs well suited for quantum communication

  2. Two-photon-induced singlet fission in rubrene single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Galstyan, Gegham; Zhang, Keke; Kloc, Christian; Sun, Handong; Soci, Cesare; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E; Gurzadyan, Gagik G

    2013-05-14

    The two-photon-induced singlet fission was observed in rubrene single crystal and studied by use of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The location of two-photon excited states was obtained from the nondegenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum. Time evolution of the two-photon-induced transient absorption spectra reveals the direct singlet fission from the two-photon excited states. The TPA absorption coefficient of rubrene single crystal is 52 cm∕GW at 740 nm, as obtained from Z-scan measurements. Quantum chemical calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory support our experimental data. PMID:23676057

  3. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui;

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers...

  4. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  5. Photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report about the fabrication and analysis of high Q photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky-contacts. The structures are based on GaAs n-i membranes with an InGaAs quantum well in the i-region and nanostructured low ohmic metal top-gates. They are designed for photocurrent readout within the cavity and fast electric manipulations. The cavity structures are characterized by photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy under resonant excitation. We find strong cavity resonances in the photocurrent spectra and surprisingly high Q-factors up to 6500. Temperature dependent photocurrent measurements in the region between 4.5 K and 310 K show an exponential enhancement of the photocurrent signal and an external quantum efficiency up to 0.26

  6. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  7. Enhanced photoacoustic detection using photonic crystal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Kaiyang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McClelland, John [Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lu, Meng, E-mail: menglu@iastate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    This paper demonstrates the enhanced photoacoustic sensing of surface-bound light absorbing molecules and metal nanoparticles using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) substrate. The PC structure functions as an optical resonator at the wavelength where the analyte absorption is strong. The optical resonance of the PC sensor provides an intensified evanescent field with respect to the excitation light source and results in enhanced optical absorption by surface-immobilized samples. For the analysis of a light absorbing dye deposited on the PC surface, the intensity of photoacoustic signal was enhanced by more than 10-fold in comparison to an un-patterned acrylic substrate. The technique was also applied to detect gold nanorods and exhibited more than 40 times stronger photoacoustic signals. The demonstrated approach represents a potential path towards single molecule absorption spectroscopy with greater performance and inexpensive instrumentation.

  8. Large Mode Area Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Dybendal

    2004-01-01

    The photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is a novel single-material optical waveguide realized by an arrangement of air-holes running along the full length of the fiber. Since the proposal of the PCF in 1996, the technology has developed into being a well-established area of research and commercialisation...... PCFs are presented. The first is a large-mode area fiber optimised for visible light applications. The second is a fiber optimised for the telecommunication band realizing a nonlinear effective area 5 times larger than state of the art conventional fibers. Two examples of alternative designs are....... The work presented in this thesis deals with the optical properties of large-mode area PCFs for which the mode-field diameter, typically, is an order of magnitude larger than the free-space optical wavelength. Special emphasis is put on the description of relevant mechanisms of attenuation in these...

  9. Density of states governs light scattering in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    García, P D; Froufe-Pérez, Luis S; López, C

    2008-01-01

    We describe a smooth transition from (fully ordered) photonic crystal to (fully disordered) photonic glass that enables us to make an accurate measurement of the scattering mean free path in nanostructured media and, in turn, establishes the dominant role of the density of states. We have found one order of magnitude chromatic variation in the scattering mean free path in photonic crystals for just $\\sim 3%$ shift around the band-gap ($\\sim 27$ nm in wavelength).

  10. Crystallization of Mefenamic Acid from Dimethylformamide Microemulsions: Obtaining Thermodynamic Control through 3D Nanoconfinement

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Catherine E.; Sharon J. Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Recently we showed how crystallization in microemulsions could lead directly to the most stable polymorph, thereby leapfrogging Ostwald’s rule of stages. Here we consider in more details the crystallization of mefenamic acid from dimethylformamide microemulsions. Crystallization of mefenamic acid from bulk DMF has previously been shown to produce only the metastable Form II irrespective of the supersaturation or temperature. In contrast, we show that stable Form I can be produced from DMF mic...

  11. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor is gr...

  12. Thermally Driven Photonic Actuator Based on Silica Opal Photonic Crystal with Liquid Crystal Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huihui; Li, Jun; Shi, Yang; Guo, Jinbao; Wei, Jie

    2016-04-13

    We have developed a novel thermoresponsive photonic actuator based on three-dimensional SiO2 opal photonic crystals (PCs) together with liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). In the process of fabrication of such a photonic actuator, the LCE precursor is infiltrated into the SiO2 opal PC followed by UV light-induced photopolymerization, thereby forming the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite film with a bilayer structure. We find that this bilayer composite film simultaneously exhibits actuation behavior as well as the photonic band gap (PBG) response to external temperature variation. When the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite film is heated, it exhibits a considerable bending deformation, and its PBG shifts to a shorter wavelength at the same time. In addition, this actuation is quite fast, reversible, and highly repeatable. The thermoresponsive behavior of the SiO2 opal PC/LCE composite films mainly derives from the thermal-driven change of nematic order of the LCE layer which leads to the asymmetric shrinkage/expansion of the bilayer structure. These results will be of interest in designing optical actuator systems for environment-temperature detection.

  13. Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.

  14. Photonic crystal fiber with novel dispersion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin LOU; Shujie LOU; Tieying GUO; Liwen WANG; Weiguo CHEN; Honglei LI; Shuisheng JIAN

    2009-01-01

    Our recent research on designing microstruc-tured fiber with novel dispersion properties is reported in this paper. Two kinds ofphotonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are introduced first. One is the highly nonlinear PCF with broadband nearly zero flatten dispersion. With introducing the germanium-doped (Ge-doped) core into highly non-linear PCF and optimizing the diameters of the first two inner rings of air holes, a new structure of highly non-linear PCF was designed with the nonlinear coefficient up to 47 W-1·km-1 at the wavelength 1.55 μm and nearly zero flattened dispersion of ±0.5 ps/(km·nm) in telecom-munication window (1460-1625nm). Another is the highly negative PCF with a ring of fluorin-doped (F-doped) rods to form its outer ring core while pure silica rods to form its inner core. The peak dispersion - 1064 ps/(km·nm) in 8 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) wavelength range and -365ps/(km·nm) in 20nm (FWHM) wavelength range can be reached by adjusting the structure parameters. Then, our recent research on the fabrication of PCFs is reported. Effects of draw parameters such as drawing temperature, feed speed, and furnace temperature on the geometry of the final photonic crystal fiber are investigated.

  15. Nonlinear optics in high refractive index contrast photonic crystal microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Allan Ralph

    2005-07-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and experimental research on the nonlinear response of high refractive index contrast (HRIC) optical microcavities. An intuitive, numerically efficient model of second harmonic reflection from two dimensional (2D), planar photonic crystals made of sub-wavelength thick, non-centrosymmetric semiconductors is developed. It predicts that appropriate 2D texture can result in orders of magnitude enhancement of the reflected second order signal when harmonic plane waves are used to excite leaky photonic crystal eigenmodes. Local field enhancement in the textured slab, and other physical processes responsible for these enhancements are explained. A different formalism is developed to treat the Kerr-related bistable response of a 3D microcavity coupled to a single mode waveguide. This model predicts that optical bistability should be observed using only milliwatts of power to excite a cavity fabricated in Al0.18 Ga0.82As, having a quality factor of Q = 4000 and a mode volume of 0.05 mum 3. Two-photon absorption is shown to only slightly hinder the performance in Al0.18Ga0.82 As. By including nonresonant downstream reflections in the model, novel hysteresis loops are predicted, and their stability is analyzed. A coupled waveguide-microcavity structure is fabricated by selectively cladding a silicon ridge-Bragg grating waveguide with photoresist. Three-dimensionally localized optical modes are realized with Q values ranging from 200 to 1200, at ˜1.5 mum. Using 100 fs pulses, the transmission spectra of these structures is studied as a function of input power. The output power saturates when the cavity mode and pulse centre frequencies are resonant, and the output exhibits superlinear growth when they are appropriately detuned. These results are explained in terms of the filtering action of the microcavity on the nonlinear spectral distortion of the input pulse as it propagates through the waveguide. PbSe nanocrystals are deposited on a

  16. Air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber with improved triangular air-silica photonic crystal cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, M; Shum, P

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a small-core air-guiding photonic crystal fiber whose cladding is made of improved air-silica photonic crystal with non-circular air holes placed in triangular lattice. The fiber achieves un-disturbed bandgap guidance over 350nm wavelength range.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of 3D Nematic Liquid Crystal near Phase Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; TAO Rui-Bao

    2002-01-01

    Phase transition between nematic and isotropic liquid crystal is a very weak first order phase transition.We avoid to use the normal Landau-de Gennes's free energy that reduces a strong first order transition, and set up adata base of free energy calculated by means of Tao-Sheng Lin's extended molecular field theory that can explain theexperiments of the equilibrium properties of nematic liquid crystal very well. Then we use the free energy method oflattice Boltzmann developed by Oxford group to study the phase decomposition, pattern formation in the flow of theliquid crystal near transition temperature.

  18. Photonic and plasmonic guiding modes in graphene-silicon photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Tingyi; Hao, Yufeng; Li, Yilei; Hone, James; Wong, Chee Wei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Low, Tony; Heinz, Tony F

    2015-01-01

    We report systematic studies of plasmonic and photonic guiding modes in large-area chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene on nanostructured silicon substrates. Light interaction in graphene with substrate photonic crystals can be classified into four distinct regimes depending on the photonic crystal lattice constant and the various modal wavelengths (i.e. plasmonic, photonic and free-space). By optimizing the design of the substrate, these resonant modes can magnify the graphene absorption in infrared wavelength, for efficient modulators, filters, sensors and photodetectors on silicon photonic platforms.

  19. Coupling light in photonic crystal waveguides: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Hemant Sankar; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Varun; Pal, Suchandan

    2016-07-01

    Submicron scale structures with high index contrast are key to compact structures for realizing photonic integrated structures. Ultra-compact optical devices in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates serve compatibility with semiconductor fabrication technology leading to reduction of cost and mass production. Photonic crystal structures possess immense potential for realizing various compact optical devices. However, coupling light to photonic crystal waveguide structures is crucial in order to achieve strong transmission and wider bandwidth of signal. Widening of bandwidth will increase potential for various applications and high transmission will make easy signal detection at the output. In this paper, the techniques reported so far for coupling light in photonic crystal waveguides have been reviewed and analyzed so that a comprehensive guide for an efficient coupling to photonic crystal waveguides can be made possible.

  20. Self-collimation in photonic crystals with anisotropic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. W. Haus; M. Siraj; P. Prasad; P. Markowicz

    2007-01-01

    @@ In a photonic crystal composed of anisotropic constituents we quantify the range of input angles and the degree of collimation of the beam inside the crystal. The optical properties of a photobleached 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystal are used in our model to demonstrate the efficacy of the self-collimation features.

  1. A 3D photon superposition/convolution algorithm and its foundation on results of Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, W.; Pyyry, J.; Kaissl, W.

    2005-04-01

    Based on previous publications on a triple Gaussian analytical pencil beam model and on Monte Carlo calculations using Monte Carlo codes GEANT-Fluka, versions 95, 98, 2002, and BEAMnrc/EGSnrc, a three-dimensional (3D) superposition/convolution algorithm for photon beams (6 MV, 18 MV) is presented. Tissue heterogeneity is taken into account by electron density information of CT images. A clinical beam consists of a superposition of divergent pencil beams. A slab-geometry was used as a phantom model to test computed results by measurements. An essential result is the existence of further dose build-up and build-down effects in the domain of density discontinuities. These effects have increasing magnitude for field sizes densities <=0.25 g cm-3, in particular with regard to field sizes considered in stereotaxy. They could be confirmed by measurements (mean standard deviation 2%). A practical impact is the dose distribution at transitions from bone to soft tissue, lung or cavities. This work has partially been presented at WC 2003, Sydney.

  2. Intracellular nanomanipulation by a photonic-force microscope with real-time acquisition of a 3D stiffness matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, E.; Singh, A. S. G.; Lekki, J.; Thévenaz, P.; Lekka, M.; Jeney, S.; Gremaud, G.; Puttini, S.; Nowak, W.; Dietler, G.; Forró, L.; Unser, M.; Kulik, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    A traditional photonic-force microscope (PFM) results in huge sets of data, which requires tedious numerical analysis. In this paper, we propose instead an analog signal processor to attain real-time capabilities while retaining the richness of the traditional PFM data. Our system is devoted to intracellular measurements and is fully interactive through the use of a haptic joystick. Using our specialized analog hardware along with a dedicated algorithm, we can extract the full 3D stiffness matrix of the optical trap in real time, including the off-diagonal cross-terms. Our system is also capable of simultaneously recording data for subsequent offline analysis. This allows us to check that a good correlation exists between the classical analysis of stiffness and our real-time measurements. We monitor the PFM beads using an optical microscope. The force-feedback mechanism of the haptic joystick helps us in interactively guiding the bead inside living cells and collecting information from its (possibly anisotropic) environment. The instantaneous stiffness measurements are also displayed in real time on a graphical user interface. The whole system has been built and is operational; here we present early results that confirm the consistency of the real-time measurements with offline computations.

  3. Magneto-photonic crystals for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Neluka

    Among the optical structures investigated for optical sensing purpose, a significant amount of research has been conducted on photonic crystal based sensors. A particular advantage of photonic crystal based sensors is that they show superior sensitivity for ultra-small volume sensing. In this study we investigate polarization changes in response to the changes in the cover index of magneto-optic active photonic band gap structures. One-dimensional photonic-band gap structures fabricated on iron garnet materials yield large polarization rotations at the band gap edges. The enhanced polarization effects serve as an excellent tool for chemical sensing showing high degree of sensitivity for photonic crystal cover refractive index changes. The one dimensional waveguide photonic crystals are fabricated on single-layer bismuth-substituted rare earth iron garnet films ((Bi, Y, Lu)3(Fe, Ga)5O12 ) grown by liquid phase epitaxy on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Band gaps have been observed where Bragg scattering conditions links forward-going fundamental waveguide modes to backscattered high-order waveguide modes. Large near-band-edge polarization rotations which increase progressively with backscattered-mode order have been experimentally demonstrated for multiple samples with different composition, film thickness and fabrication parameters. Experimental findings are supported by theoretical analysis of Bloch modes polarization states showing that large near stop-band edge rotations are induced by the magneto-photonic crystal. Theoretical and experimental analysis conducted on polarization rotation sensitivity to waveguide photonic crystal cover refractive index changes shows a monotonic enhancement of the rotation with cover index. The sensor is further developed for selective chemical sensing by employing Polypyrrole as the photonic crystal cover layer. Polypyrrole is one of the extensively studied conducting polymers for selective analyte detection. Successful

  4. Symmetric two dimensional photonic crystal coupled waveguide with point defect for optical switch application

    CERN Document Server

    Hardhienata, Hendradi

    2012-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals are well known for its ability to manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic wave inside the crystal. 1D and 2D photonic crystals are relatively easier to fabricate than 3D because the former work in the microwave and far infrared regions whereas the later work in the visible region and requires smaller lattice constants. In this paper, simulation for a modified 2D PC with two symmetric waveguide channels where a defect is located inside one of the channel is performed. The simulation results show that optical switching is possible by modifying the refractive index of the defect. If more than one structure is applied this feature can potentially be applied to produce a cascade optical switch.

  5. Direct growth of single-crystal Pt nanowires on Sn@CNT Nanocable: 3D electrodes for highly active electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhui; Zhang, Gaixia; Geng, Dongsheng; Chen, Yougui; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2010-01-18

    A newly designed and fabricated novel three dimensional (3D) nanocomposite composed of single-crystal Pt nanowires (PtNW) and a coaxial nanocable support consisting of a tin nanowire and a carbon nanotube (Sn@CNT) is reported. This nanocomposite is fabricated by the synthesis of Sn@CNT nanocables by means of a thermal evaporation method, followed by the direct growth with PtNWs through a facile aqueous solution approach at room temperature. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the PtNW--Sn@CNT 3D electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic performance in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), methanol oxidation (MOR) for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and CO tolerance compared with commercial ETEK Pt/C catalyst made of Pt nanoparticles. PMID:20024993

  6. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chun-Ying; SHI Jin-Hui; YUAN Li-Bo

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter(PBS)and a non-polarizing beam splitter(NPBS)based on a photonic crystal(PC)directional coupler are demonstrated.The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap.The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion(PWE)method.The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain(FDTD)method.

  7. Black Phosphorus based One-dimensional Photonic Crystals and Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, I

    2016-01-01

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of black phosphorus thin layers, towards the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for a their employment in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e. photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer black phosphorus is one of the components. The insertion of the 5 nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  8. Theory of Passively Mode-Locked Photonic Crystal Semiconductor Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We report the first theoretical investigation of passive mode-locking in photonic crystal mode-locked lasers. Related work has investigated coupled-resonator-optical-waveguide structures in the regime of active mode-locking [Opt. Express 13, 4539-4553 (2005)]. An extensive numerical investigation...... of the influence of key parameters of the active sections and the photonic crystal cavity on the laser performance is presented. The results show the possibility of generating stable and high quality pulses in a large parameter region. For optimized dispersion properties of the photonic crystal waveguide cavity...

  9. Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, Sabyasachi; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  10. Modeling induction heating and 3-D heat transfer for growth of rectangular crystals using FIDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, L. J.; Martin, R. W.

    1988-09-01

    We are developing a process to grow large rectangular crystals for use as solid state lasers by a Bridgman-like method. The process is based on induction heating of two graphite susceptors which transfer energy to an ampoule containing the melt and crystal. The induction heating version of FIDAP developed by Gresho and Derby is applied to this system to determine the power deposition profile in electrically conducting regions. The calculated power is subsequently used as a source term in the heat equation to calculate the temperature profile. Results are presented which examine the sensitivity of the system to electrical and thermal conductivities, and design modifications are illustrated which could improve the temperature field for crystal growth applications.

  11. Demonstration of a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity in a 〈110〉-layered diamond structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally demonstrate a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3D PC) nanocavity in a 〈110〉-layered diamond structure with a quality factor (Q-factor) of 12 800 at a wavelength of 1.1 μm. The observed Q is 1.2 times higher than that of a 3D PC nanocavity in a woodpile structure with the same in-plane size and the same number of stacked layers. This result indicates the potential importance of the 〈110〉-layered diamond structure for getting high Q 3D PC nanocavities within a limited in-plane space

  12. Quantitative analysis of crystal/grain sizes and their distributions in 2D and 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver;

    2011-01-01

    root) to calculate statistical parameters as the mean, median, mode or the skewness of a crystal size distribution. The finally calculated average grain sizes have to be compatible between the different grain size estimation approaches in order to be properly applied, for example, in paleo-piezometers...

  13. Design of a compact mode and polarization converter in three-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Minghao

    2012-08-27

    A mode and polarization converter is proposed and optimized for 3D photonic integrated circuits based on photonic crystals (PhCs). The device converts the index-guided TE mode of a W1 solid-core (SC) waveguide to the band-gap-guided TM mode of a W1 hollow-core (HC) waveguide in 3D PhCs, and vice versa. The conversion is achieved based on contra-directional mode coupling. For a 25 μm-long device, simulations show that the power conversion efficiency is over 98% across a wavelength range of 16 nm centered at 1550 nm, whereas the reflection remains below -20 dB. The polarization extinction ratio of the conversion is in principle infinitely high because both W1 waveguides operate in the single-mode regimes in this wavelength range. PMID:23037086

  14. Solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai

    2008-01-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of spatial solitons in the model of 1D photonic crystals, built as a periodic lattice of waveguiding channels, of width D, separated by empty channels of width L-D. The system is characterized by its structural "duty cycle", DC = D/L. In the case of the self-defocusing (SDF) intrinsic nonlinearity in the channels, one can predict new effects caused by competition between the linear trapping potential and the effective nonlinear repulsive one. Several species of solitons are found in the first two finite bandgaps of the SDF model, as well as a family of fundamental solitons in the semi-infinite gap of the system with the self-focusing nonlinearity. At moderate values of DC (such as 0.50), both fundamental and higher-order solitons populating the second bandgap of the SDF model suffer destabilization with the increase of the total power. Passing the destabilization point, the solitons assume a flat-top shape, while the shape of unstable solitons gets inverted, with loc...

  15. Photonic-crystal lasers light up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every laptop computer, PDA or mobile phone contains a microprocessor in which millions of interconnected transistors perform complex logical functions. Optical circuits, in contrast, are still at the pre-integrated- circuit stage. The optical fibres that form the backbone of the Internet, for example, are mostly connected individually between sources and detectors. Direct optical signal routing, on the other hand, would provide a reconfigurable network that fulfils the requirements of today's bandwidth-hungry applications, such as video-on-demand. Optical routing could even be used inside computers to connect the central processing unit to its peripherals. Now researchers in the US have brought the dream of all-optical circuits a little closer. Raffaele Colombelli of Bell Labs and co-workers at the California Institute of Technology and Harvard University have developed a new type of light source by combining a quantum cascade laser with a photonic crystal (Science 302 1374). The team used lithography to etch an array of holes in the semiconductor laser, which allowed the spectral and spatial properties of the output radiation to be controlled. The marriage of these two devices could form miniature chemical sensors for medical or environmental applications. (author)

  16. Quantum computation with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Azuma, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a method for implementing a quantum logic gate with photons whose wave function propagates in a one-dimensional Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystal. The photonic crystal causes the incident photons to undergo Bragg reflection by its periodic structure of dielectric materials and forms the photonic band structure, namely, the light dispersion relation. This dispersion relation reduces the group velocity of the wave function of the photons, so that it enhances nonlinear interaction of the photons. (Because variation of the group velocity against the wave vector is very steep, we have to tune up the wavelength of injected photons precisely, however.) If the photonic crystal includes layers of a Kerr medium, we can rotate the phase of the wave function of the incident photons by a large angle efficiently. We show that we can construct the nonlinear sign-shift (NS) gate proposed by Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn (KLM) by this method. Thus, we can construct the conditional sign-flip gate for tw...

  17. Tunable complete photonic band gap in anisotropic photonic crystal slabs with non-circular air holes using liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the tunability of complete photonic band gap of square and triangular photonic crystal slabs composed of square and hexagonal air holes in anisotropic tellurium background with SiO2 as cladding material. The non-circular holes are infiltrated with liquid crystal. Using the supercell method based on plane wave expansion, we study the variation of complete band gap by changing the optical axis orientation of liquid crystal. Our numerical results show that noticeable tunability of complete photonic band gap can be obtained in both square and triangular structures with non-circular holes.

  18. Pendellösung effect in photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savo, S.; di Gennaro, E.; Miletto, C.; Andreone, A.; Dardano, P.; Moretti, L.; Mocella, V.

    2008-06-01

    At the exit surface of a photonic crystal, the intensity of the diffracted wave can be periodically modulated, showing a maximum in the "positive" (forward diffracted) or in the "negative" (diffracted) direction, depending on the slab thickness. This thickness dependence is a direct result of the so-called Pendellosung phenomenon, consisting of the periodic exchange inside the crystal of the energy between direct and diffracted beams. We report the experimental observation of this effect in the microwave region at about 14 GHz by irradiating 2D photonic crystal slabs of different thickness and detecting the intensity distribution of the electromagnetic field at the exit surface and inside the crystal itself.

  19. Optical loss due to intrinsic structural variations of photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Koenderink, A F; Vos, Willem L.

    2004-01-01

    A bottleneck limiting the widespread application of photonic crystals is scattering of light by unavoidable variations in size and position of the crystals' building blocks. We present a new model for both 2 and 3-dimensional photonic crystals that relates the resulting loss length to the magnitude of the variations. The predicted lengths agree well with our experiments on high-quality opals and inverse opals over a wide frequency range, and with literature data analyzed by us. In state-of-the-art structures, control over photons is limited to distances of 50 lattice parameters (~ 15 micron). Consequently, applications of photonic crystals in optical integrated circuits remain a fata morgana, unless an unprecedented reduction of the random variations is achieved.

  20. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano;

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  1. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  2. Improving nanocavity switching using Fano resonances in photonic crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Elesin, Yuriy;

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple design for achieving Fano resonances in photonic crystal coupled waveguide-cavity structures. A coupled mode theory analysis shows an order of magnitude reduction in switching energy compared to conventional Lorentz resonances....

  3. The dominant role of chalcogen bonding in the crystal packing of 2D/3D aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Přáda, Adam; Padělková, Zdeňka; Pecina, Adam; Macháček, Jan; Lepšík, Martin; Holub, Josef; Růžička, Aleš; Hnyk, Drahomír; Hobza, Pavel

    2014-09-15

    The chalcogen bond is a nonclassical σ-hole-based noncovalent interaction with emerging applications in medicinal chemistry and material science. It is found in organic compounds, including 2D aromatics, but has so far never been observed in 3D aromatic inorganic boron hydrides. Thiaboranes, harboring a sulfur heteroatom in the icosahedral cage, are candidates for the formation of chalcogen bonds. The phenyl-substituted thiaborane, synthesized and crystalized in this study, forms sulfur⋅⋅⋅π type chalcogen bonds. Quantum chemical analysis revealed that these interactions are considerably stronger than both in their organic counterparts and in the known halogen bond. The reason is the existence of a highly positive σ-hole on the positively charged sulfur atom. This discovery expands the possibilities of applying substituted boron clusters in crystal engineering and drug design.

  4. Polarization Beam Splitter Based on a Self-Collimation Michelson Interferometer in a Silicon Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-Yao; LIN Gui-Min; LI Jun-Jun; XU Xiao-Fu; JIANG Jun-Zhen; QIANG Ze-Xuan; QIU Yi-Shen; LI Hui

    2012-01-01

    A polarization beam splitter based on a self-collimation Michelson interferometer (SMI) in a hole-type silicon photonic crystal is proposed and numerically demonstrated.Utilizing the polarization dependence of the transmission spectra of the SMI and polarization peak matching method,the SMI can work as a polarization beam splitter (PBS) by selecting an appropriate path length difference in the structure.Based on its novel polarization beam splitting mechanics,the polarization extinction ratios (PERs) for TM and TE modes are as high as 18.4 dB and 24.3 dB,respectively.Since its dimensions are only several operating wavelengths,the PBS may have practical applications in photonic integrated circuits.%A polarization beam splitter based on a self-collimation Michelson interferometer (SMI) in a hole-type silicon photonic crystal is proposed and numerically demonstrated. Utilizing the polarization dependence of the transmission spectra of the SMI and polarization peak matching method, the SMI can work as a polarization beam splitter (PBS) by selecting an appropriate path length difference in the structure. Based on its novel polarization beam splitting mechanics, the polarization extinction ratios (PERs) for TM and TE modes are as high as 18.4 dB and 24.3 dB, respectively. Since its dimensions are only several operating wavelengths, the PBS may have practical applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  5. Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elvira, David; Verma, V; Braive, Remy; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Sagnes, Isabelle; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo; Dauler, Eric A; Abram, Izo; Stevens, Martin J; Beveratos, Alexios

    2011-01-01

    We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-$\\beta$ nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single photon detector we measured g$^{(n)}(\\vec{0})$ with $n$=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of dipoles and photons involved in the lasing process.

  6. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices. Photoluminescence spectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from...

  7. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices.Photoluminescencespectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from a...

  8. Coherent Umklapp Scattering of Light from Disordered Photonic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sivachenko, A.Y.; Raikh, M. E.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical study of the coherent light scattering from disordered photonic crystal is presented. In addition to the conventional enhancement of the reflected light intensity into the backscattering direction, the so called coherent backscattering (CBS), the periodic modulation of the dielectric function in photonic crystals gives rise to a qualitatively new effect: enhancement of the reflected light intensity in directions different from the backscattering direction. These additional coher...

  9. Broadband tunable hybrid photonic crystal-nanowire light emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Christophe E; Xiong, Qihua; Soci, Cesare; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Dolfi, Daniel; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    We integrate about 100 single Cadmium Selenide semiconductor nanowires in self-standing Silicon Nitride photonic crystal cavities in a single processing run. Room temperature measurements reveal a single narrow emission linewidth, corresponding to a Q-factor as large as 5000. By varying the structural parameters of the photonic crystal, the peak wavelength is tuned, thereby covering the entire emission spectral range of the active material. A very large spectral range could be covered by heterogeneous integration of different active materials.

  10. Surface Bloch waves mediated heat transfer between two photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Joulain, Karl; Pryamikov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    submitted to Applied Physics Letters We theoretically investigate the non-radiative heat transfer between two photonic crystals separated by a small gap in non-equilibrium thermal situation. We predict that the surface Bloch states coupling supported by these media can make heat exchanges larger than those measured at the same separation distance between two massive homogeneous materials made with the elementary components of photonic crystals. These results could find broad applications i...

  11. Enhancement of polymer dye lasers by multifunctional photonic crystal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger;

    2009-01-01

    The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser.......The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser....

  12. A new approach to low loss photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Asger Christian; Zhang, Min; Groothoff, Nathaniel;

    Photonic crystal waveguides allow ultra-compact realization of integrated optical components because they have high group index. However, they also induce significant losses in effect reducing the scope of their applications. We find that by increasing the photonic crystal hole to pitch ratio r...... the results and show that the sharpness of the cutoffs can be explained by the spectral shape of the guiding mode in the band diagram....

  13. Highly efficient fluorescence sensing with hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Barth, Michael; Benson, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes.......We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes....

  14. Photonic Crystal Fibres - the State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Hansen, K. P.; Hansen, Theis Peter;

    2002-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres having microstructured air-silica cross sections offer new optical properties compared to conventional fibres. These include novel guiding mechanisms, unique spectral properties and nonlinear possibilities. Recent results within the field are reviewed.......Photonic crystal fibres having microstructured air-silica cross sections offer new optical properties compared to conventional fibres. These include novel guiding mechanisms, unique spectral properties and nonlinear possibilities. Recent results within the field are reviewed....

  15. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  16. Quantum effect of one-dimensional photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ba, Nuo; Chen, Wan-Jin; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Li, Heng-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the quantum transmission characteristics of one-dimensional photonic crystal with and without defect layer by the quantum theory approach, and compared the calculation results of classical with quantum theory. We have found some new quantum effects in the one-dimensional photonic crystal. When the incident angle $\\theta=0$, there is no quantum effect. When the incident angle $\\theta\

  17. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper;

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  18. Single Mode Photonic Crystal Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent D. Choquette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the design, fabrication, and performance of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs. Using a periodic pattern of etched holes in the top facet of the VCSEL, the optical cavity can be designed to support the fundamental mode only. The electrical confinement is independently defined by proton implantation or oxide confinement. By control of the refractive index and loss created by the photonic crystal, operation in the Gaussian mode can be insured, independent of the lasing wavelength.

  19. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  20. Simulation of Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated....

  1. Nonlocal gap soliton in liquid infiltrated photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, F.H.; Rosberg, C.R.; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard;

    We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure.......We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure....

  2. Distributed Feedback Effects in Active Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of slow-light effects in active photonic crystal waveguides. The presence of active material leads to coherent distributed feedback effects that significantly alter the magnitude and phase of output fields.......We present a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of slow-light effects in active photonic crystal waveguides. The presence of active material leads to coherent distributed feedback effects that significantly alter the magnitude and phase of output fields....

  3. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage.......Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage....

  4. Tailoring Dispersion properties of photonic crystal waveguides by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a systematic method for the tailoring of dispersion properties of slab-based photonic crystal waveguides. The method is based on the topology optimization method which consists in repeated finite element frequency domain analyzes, analytical sensitivity analyzes and gradient...... based design updates. The goal of the optimization process is to come up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. Two examples concerning reproduction of a specific dispersion...

  5. Studying The Effect of Various Parameters on The Characteristics of The Dielectric and Metallic Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmittance characteristics of two types of photonic crystals have been analysed using the transfer matrix method. The first one is the dielectric photonic crystal (DPC), and the second is the metallic photonic crystal (MPC). The effect of the most parameters on the transmission spectra of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystals has been studied

  6. Monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate a monolithic stable SESAM-modelocked self-starting Yb-fiber laser. A novel PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber is used for intra-cavity of dispersion management. The ex-cavity final pulse compression is performed in a spliced-on PM hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The laser...

  7. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 'top–down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New 3-D Open-framework Zincophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-Huan; CAO Yan-Ning; ZHANG Han-Hui; CHEN Yi-Ping; CHEN Xin-Xiang; CHAI Xiao-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    An open-framework zincophosphate, [C4N3H16][Zn4.5(PO4)4] 1, has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P(4) with a = 14.512(5), c = 8.914(3)(A), V = 1877.3(11) (A)3,C4H16N3O16P4Zn4.50, Mr = 780.24. Z = 4, Dc = 2.761 g/cm3,μ = 6.103 mm-1, F(000) = 1536, T=298(2) K, R = 0.0416 and wR = 0.0816. In the structure, ZnO4 and PO4 tetrahedra are linked to each other, forming four-membered rings which are connected variably to form two secondary building units (SBUs). The SBUs are connected so as to generate two chains along the c axis,which are further linked together alternatively via common oxygen atoms (Zn-O-P) giving rise to 8-ring-channels in the [001] direction, and the protonated guest diethylenetriamine (DETA)molecules sit in the middle of these channels. Other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, thermal analysis and IR and fluorescent spectra.

  9. CCT- and CRI-tuning of white light-emitting diodes using three-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal photonic crystals with photonic stop-bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Feng; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wang, Ming-Jye; Wu, Mau-Kuen

    2013-07-01

    This study exhibited the correlated color temperature (CCT)- and color-rendering index (CRI)-tuning behavior of light emission from white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) using three-dimensional non-close-packed (3D NCP) colloidal photonic crystals (CPhCs). The CCT of approximately 5300 K (characteristic of cold WLEDs) of white light propagated through the NCP CPhCs dropped to 3000 K (characteristic of warm WLEDs) because of the photonic stop-bands based on the photonic band structures of NCP CPhCs. This study successfully developed a novel technique that introduces lower-cost CCT- and CRI-tuning cold WLEDs with a CRI of over 90 that of warm WLEDs by using 3D NCP CPhCs. PMID:24104495

  10. Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Organic Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Yong; LI Yan; GONG Qi-Huang; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A high-quality two-dimensional polystyrene photonic crystal is fabricated by the method of focused ion beam etching. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the transmittance spectrum are used to characterize the properties of the photonic crystal. The measured transmittance spectrum is in agreement with the theoretical one. The influences of the disorders caused by the random perturbations in the diameter or the position of the air holes on the photonic band structure are analysed. It is found that the phtonic bandgap can tolerate less than 10% degree of disorder.

  11. Compact Design of an Electrically Tunable and Rotatable Polarizer Based on a Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, a compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal (LC) photonic bandgap fiber polarizer is designed and fabricated. A good fiber coupling quality between two single-mode fibers and one 10-mm-long LC-filled photonic crystal fiber is obtained and protected by using SU-8 fiber...... fixing structures during the device assembly. The total insertion loss of this all-in-fiber device is 2.7 dB. An electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio of 21.3 dB is achieved with 45$^{circ}$ rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in the wavelength range of 1300–1600 nm....

  12. Measuring nonlinear stresses generated by defects in 3D colloidal crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Neil Y C; Schall, Peter; Sethna, James P; Cohen, Itai

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical, structural and functional properties of crystals are determined by their defects and the distribution of stresses surrounding these defects has broad implications for the understanding of transport phenomena. When the defect density rises to levels routinely found in real-world materials, transport is governed by local stresses that are predominantly nonlinear. Such stress fields however, cannot be measured using conventional bulk and local measurement techniques. Here, we report direct and spatially resolved experimental measurements of the nonlinear stresses surrounding colloidal crystalline defect cores, and show that the stresses at vacancy cores generate attractive interactions between them. We also directly visualize the softening of crystalline regions surrounding dislocation cores, and find that stress fluctuations in quiescent polycrystals are uniformly distributed rather than localized at grain boundaries, as is the case in strained atomic polycrystals. Nonlinear stress measurements ...

  13. Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Binbin; Scott, Ryan P; Qin, Chuan; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Su, Tiehui; Ferrari, Carlo; Cappuzzo, Mark; Klemens, Fred; Keller, Bob; Earnshaw, Mark; Yoo, S J B

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

  14. Formation of collimated beams behind the woodpile photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally observe formation of narrow laser beams behind the woodpile photonic crystal, when the beam remains well collimated in free propagation behind the crystal. We show that the collimation depends on the input laser beam's focusing conditions, and we interpret theoretically the observed effect by calculating the spatial dispersion of propagation eigenmodes and by numerical simulation of paraxial propagation model.

  15. A study on new types of metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, I tried to synthesize a one dimension dielectric photonic crystal. I have succeeded in depositing single layers of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide on glass substrates. Each single layer was characterized by a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, A Mirue interferometer, and a spectrophotometer. The refractive indices, extinction coefficients, and absorption coefficients of each single layer were calculated from the measured transmittance, reflectance, and thickness data. Using the calculated parameters (refractive indices) and measured parameters (thicknesses) the transmission spectrum of the one dimension photonic crystal composed of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide was modelled. Using the transfer matrix method, a comparative study of the one dimension-dielectric and metallic photonic crystals was done. Effect of the refractive index difference, filling factor, number of periods, Plasmon frequency, damping coefficient, and incidence angle on the transmittance of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystal was carried out. A multilayered structure composed of Silver and Gallium Nitride was designed to transmit in the visible region, block UV frequencies, and reflect the IR and microwave frequencies. Using a combination of MaxwellGarnett Approximation and the transfer matrix method; the properties of a nanocomposite photonic crystal consisting of Cryolite and spherical nanoparticles of silver distributed in a dielectric matrix of titanium dioxide was studied. Effect of the nanoparticle concentration, lattice constant and incidence angle on the polaritonic and structure photonic band gap were studied.

  16. Hybrid genetic optimization for design of photonic crystal emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, R. R.; Farfan, B. G.; Su, M. F.; El-Kady, I.; Reda Taha, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    A unique hybrid-optimization technique is proposed, based on genetic algorithms (GA) and gradient descent (GD) methods, for the smart design of photonic crystal (PhC) emitters. The photonic simulation is described and the granularity of photonic crystal dimensions is considered. An innovative sliding-window method for performing local heuristic search is demonstrated. Finally, the application of the proposed method on two case studies for the design of a multi-pixel photonic crystal emitter and the design of thermal emitter in thermal photovoltaic is demonstrated. Discussion in the report includes the ability of the optimal PhC structures designed using the proposed method, to produce unprecedented high emission efficiencies of 54.5% in a significantly long wavelength region and 84.9% at significantly short wavelength region.

  17. The research and progress of micro-fabrication technologies of two-dimensional photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XingSheng; ZHANG DaoZhong

    2007-01-01

    The novel material of photonic crystal makes it possible to control a photon, and the photonic integration will have breakthrough progress due to the application of photonic crystal. It is based on the photonic crystal device that the photonic crystal integration could be realized. Therefore, we should first investigate photonic crystal devices based on the active and the passive semiconductor materials,which may have great potential application in photonic integration. The most practical and important method to fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal is the micro-manufacture method. In this paper,we summarize and evaluate the fabrication methods of two-dimensional photonic crystal in near-infrared region, including electron beam lithography, selection of mask, dry etching, and some works of ours. This will be beneficial to the study of the photonic crystal in China.

  18. Study on a novel photonic crystal temperature sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hai-wei; ZHAO Hui; QIAO Xue-guang; LI Yan; ZHAO Da-zhuang; YONG Zhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a model of photonic crystal temperature sensor based on crystal microcavity in a straight photonic crystal waveguide is proposed.The transmission characteristics of light in the sensor under different temperatures are simulated by using finite-differenee time-domain (FDTD) method.The thermal expansion and thermal-optic effects of silicon are taken into account.The results show that the resonant wavelength of microcavity increases linearly as the temperature rising.The wavelength shift along with temperature is 6.6 pm / ℃.

  19. Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ptasinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the negative thermo-optic properties of liquid crystal claddings for passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic integrated circuits. Photonic circuits are playing an increasing role in communications and computing, but they suffer from temperature dependent performance variation. Most existing techniques aimed at compensation of thermal effects rely on power hungry Joule heating. We show that integrating a liquid crystal cladding helps to minimize the effects of a temperature dependent drift. The advantage of liquid crystals lies in their high negative thermo-optic coefficients in addition to low absorption at the infrared wavelengths.

  20. Photonic and Plasmonic Guided Modes in Graphene-Silicon Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tingyi; Andryieuski, Andrei; Hao, Yufeng;

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of systematic studies of plasmonic and photonic guided modes in large-area single-layer graphene integrated into a nanostructured silicon substrate. The interaction of light with graphene and substrate photonic crystals can be classified in distinct regimes depending on the ...

  1. Subpicosecond shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurenko, DA; Kerst, R; Dijkhuis, JI; Akimov, AV; Golubev, VG; Kaplyanskii, AA; Kurdyukov, DA; Pevtsov, AB

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral shifting of the photonic band gap in a three-dimensional photonic crystal within a time of less than 350 fs. Single 120 fs high-power optical pulses are capable to induce the transition from the semiconductor to the metallic phase of VO2 in the pores of our artificial silica

  2. Beam Steering at Higher Photonic Bands and Design of a Directional Cloak Formed by Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Subramanian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam steering due to anomalous dispersion at higher photonic bands in dielectric photonic crystal is reported in this work. Based on this concept, directional cloak is designed that conceals a larger dimensional scattering object against the normal incident, linearly polarizedelectromagnetic waves.

  3. Experimental investigation of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers with five photonic band-gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jin-hui; HOU Lan-tian; WEI Dong-bin; WANG Hai-yun; ZHOU Gui-yao

    2008-01-01

    The hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs) with integrity structure have been fabricated with an improved twice stack-and-draw technique. The transmission spectrum shows that five photonic band-gaps within 450-1100 nm have been obtained.And the green light transmission in the HC-PCFs'has been observed remarkably.

  4. Broadband Transmission Loss Using the Overlap of Resonances in 3D Sonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lardeau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic properties of a three-dimensional sonic crystal made of square-rod rigid scatterers incorporating a periodic arrangement of quarter wavelength resonators are theoretically and experimentally reported in this work. The periodicity of the system produces Bragg band gaps that can be tuned in frequency by modifying the orientation of the square-rod scatterers with respect to the incident wave. In addition, the quarter wavelength resonators introduce resonant band gaps that can be tuned by coupling the neighbor resonators. Bragg and resonant band gaps can overlap allowing the wave propagation control inside the periodic resonant medium. In particular, we show theoretically and experimentally that this system can produce a broad frequency band gap exceeding two and a half octaves (from 590 Hz to 3220 Hz with transmission lower than 3%. Finite element methods were used to calculate the dispersion relation of the locally resonant system. The visco-thermal losses were accounted for in the quarter wavelength resonators to simulate the wave propagation in the semi-infinite structures and to compare the numerical results with the experiments performed in an echo-free chamber. The simulations and the experimental results are in good agreement. This work motivates interesting applications of this system as acoustic audible filters.

  5. The calculation of the band structure in 3D phononic crystal with hexagonal lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryadoust, Mahrokh; Salehi, H. [University of Shahid Chamran, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystals (PCs) of three dimensions with the hexagonal (HEX) lattice is studied theoretically. The PCs are constituted of nickel (Ni) spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and the density of states are performed using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). In this study, we analyse the dependence of the band structures inside (the complete band gap width) on c/a and filling fraction in the irreducible part of the first BZ. Also, we have analysed the band structure of the ALHA and MLHKM planes. The results show that the maximum width of absolute elastic band gap (AEBG) (0.045) in the irreducible part of the BZ of HEX lattice is formed for c/a=6 and filling fraction equal to 0.01. In addition, the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0884 and 0.0474, respectively, in the MLHKM plane, and the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0851 and 0.0431, respectively, in the ALHA plane.

  6. Lead tungstate crystal of the ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A consignment of 500 lead tungstate crystals arrived at CERN from the northern Russian town of Apatity in May. Destined for the ALICE heavy-ion experiment in preparation for the Large Hadron Collider, each crystal is an 18 cm long rod with a 2.2 cm square section, and weighs some 750 g. A total of 17 000 crystals will make up the experiment's photon spectrometer.

  7. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Adam K., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Pogue, Brian W., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.

  8. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm3 volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water

  9. Modeling the crystal distribution of lead-sulfate in lead-acid batteries with 3D spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Moritz; Badeda, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-04-01

    For the reliability of lead-acid batteries it is important to have an accurate prediction of its response to load profiles. A model for the lead-sulfate growth is presented, which is embedded in a physical-chemical model with 3D spatial resolution is presented which is used for analyzing the different mechanism influencing the cell response. One import factor is the chemical dissolution and precipitation of lead-sulfate, since its dissolution speed limits the charging reaction and the accumulation of indissolvable of lead-sulfate leads to capacity degradation. The cell performance/behavior is not only determined by the amount of the sulfate but also by the radii and distribution of the crystals. The presented model can be used to for an improved understanding of the interaction of the different mechanisms.

  10. Analysis on characteristics of 1-D apodized and chirped photonic crystals containing negative refractive materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Kai; CUI Wei-wei; XU Xiao-hui; LI Zhi-quan

    2008-01-01

    Using transfer matrix method, the optical transmission properties of 1-D photonic crystals composed partially of negativerefraction media are analyzed. The transmission spectra of periodic photonic crystal, chirped photonic crystal and apodizedphotonic crystal are numerically simulated respectively. By contrast with optical transmission properties of ordinary photo-nic crystals made of positive refraction media, the transmission spectra of apodized photonic crystal become unregular, theBragg flat-headed area recurs but the peak of transmission does not change significantly. Futhermore, the band gap rangeof chirped photonic crystal diminishes gradually.

  11. Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding (μTM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although μTM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional μTM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-μTM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-μTM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed

  12. Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae-Hwang Lee

    2006-08-09

    This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and

  13. Chromatic dispersion of liquid crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We consider chromatic dispersion of capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals. A perturbative scheme for inclusion of material dispersion of both liquid crystal and the surrounding waveguide material is derived. The method is used to calculate the chromatic disp...

  14. Photonic gap vanishing in one-dimensional photonic crystals with single-negative metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yihang, E-mail: kallenmail@sina.com [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yu; Leung, C.W.; Hu, Mingzhe; Chan, H.L.W. [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-06-13

    The properties of photonic band gap in one-dimensional photonic crystals composed of single-negative metamaterials are studied theoretically. Our study shows that the photonic gap will vanish at a certain incident angle when both the phase-match and impedance-match conditions are satisfied simultaneously, suggesting that the bandwidth and location of the photonic gap are strongly dependent on the incident angle and polarization. However, the photonic gap will not vanish and may become insensitive to the incident angle when the two match conditions cannot be met. Our study also shows that losses in metamaterials have little effect on the properties of the photonic gap. -- Highlights: → Photonic gap of 1D photonic crystal containing metamaterials was investigated. → The gap can be designed to be sensitive or insensitive to the incident angle. → The gap can be designed to be close at a specific incident angle. → Conditions for photonic gap vanishing were proposed. → Losses of metamaterials have little effect on the properties of the photonic gap.

  15. Photonic crystals composed of virtual pillars with magnetic walls: Photonic band gaps and double Dirac cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Han; Kim, Soeun; Kee, Chul-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Photonic crystals composed of virtual pillars with magnetic walls are proposed. A virtual pillar with a magnetic wall can be created inside a parallel perfect electric conductor plate waveguide by introducing a circular perfect magnetic conductor patch in the upper perfect electric conductor plate of the waveguide. The virtual pillar mimics a perfect magnetic conductor pillar with a radius less than that of the circular patch because electromagnetic waves can slightly penetrate the wall. Furthermore, the photonic band structures of a triangular photonic crystal composed of virtual pillars for the transverse electromagnetic modes of the waveguide are investigated. They are very similar to those of a triangular photonic crystal composed of infinitely long perfect electric conductor cylinders for transverse magnetic modes. The similarity between the two different photonic crystals is well understood by the boundary conditions of perfect electric and magnetic conductor surfaces. A double Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone is observed and thus the virtual pillar triangular photonic crystal can act a zero-refractive-index material at the Dirac point frequency.

  16. Photon irradiation response of photonic crystal fibres and flat fibres at radiation therapy doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects of photon irradiation in pure Photonic Crystal Fibres (PCF) and Flat fibres (FF) are still much less investigated in thermoluminescense dosimetry (TLD). We have reported the TL response of PCF and FF subjected to 6 MV photon irradiation. The proposed dosimeter shows good linearity at doses ranging from 1 to 4 Gy. The small size of these detectors points to its use as a dosimeter at megavoltage energies, where better tissue-equivalence and the Bragg–Gray cavity theory prevails. - Highlights: • First study about radiation effects of photon irradiation in pure Photonic Crystal Fibres (PCF) and Flat fibres (FF). • PCF and FF. have been found to have good dose linearity (up to 4 Gy). • The value of Zeff obtained is in the range of 10.3–11.3 and 11.3–11.8 for PCF and FF respectively

  17. Modelling and design of complete photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and variation of complete photonic band gap size with the introduction of asymmetry in the constituent dielectric rods with honeycomb lattices in two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC) using the plane-wave expansion (PWE) method. Two examples, one consisting of elliptical rods and the other comprising of rectangular rods in honeycomb lattices are considered with a view to estimate the design parameters for maximizing the complete photonic band gap. Further, it has been shown that complete photonic band gap size changes with the variation in the orientation angle of the constituent dielectric rods.

  18. Photonic-crystal-based all-optical NOT logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahm Raj; Rawal, Swati

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we have utilized the concept of photonic crystals for the implementation of an optical NOT gate inverter. The designed structure has a hexagonal arrangement of silicon rods in air substrate. The logic function is based on the phenomenon of the existence of the photonic bandgap and resulting guided modes in defect photonic crystal waveguides. We have plotted the transmission, extinction ratio, and tolerance analysis graphs for the structure, and it has been observed that the maximum output is obtained for a telecom wavelength of 1.554 μm. Dispersion curves are obtained using the plane wave expansion method, and the transmission is simulated using the finite element method. The proposed structure is applicable for photonic integrated circuits due to its simple structure and clear operating principle. PMID:26831380

  19. Quantum Storage of Photonic Entanglement in a Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen, Christoph; Bussieres, Felix; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Entanglement is the fundamental characteristic of quantum physics. Large experimental efforts are devoted to harness entanglement between various physical systems. In particular, entanglement between light and material systems is interesting due to their prospective roles as "flying" and stationary qubits in future quantum information technologies, such as quantum repeaters and quantum networks. Here we report the first demonstration of entanglement between a photon at telecommunication wavelength and a single collective atomic excitation stored in a crystal. One photon from an energy-time entangled pair is mapped onto a crystal and then released into a well-defined spatial mode after a predetermined storage time. The other photon is at telecommunication wavelength and is sent directly through a 50 m fiber link to an analyzer. Successful transfer of entanglement to the crystal and back is proven by a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality by almost three standard deviations (S=2.64+/-0....

  20. Compact Couplers for Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystal waveguides are promising candidates for laser-driven accelerator structures because of their ability to confine a speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure. Because of the difference between the group velocity of the waveguide mode and the particle bunch velocity, fields must be coupled into the accelerating waveguide at frequent intervals. Therefore efficient, compact couplers are critical to overall accelerator efficiency. We present designs and simulations of high-efficiency coupling to the accelerating mode in a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide from a waveguide adjoining it at 90o. We discuss details of the computation and the resulting transmission. We include some background on the accelerator structure and photonic crystal-based optical acceleration in general.

  1. Dispersion Properties in Total Internal Reflective Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hua; HAO Dong-shan

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion properties in the short wavelength region of total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber have been studied by using the models of the equivalent twin waveguide soliton coupling,effective refractive index, effective normalized frequency and dispersion management solitons. It is shown that the dispersion in the cladding waveguide of the total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber is a positive dispersion,and the dispersion of its core waveguide is a negative dispersion. The method of the compensated probing laser diffraction by the phase hole induced by the stationary pumping laser in the cladding waveguide enables the average dispersion value of the total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber to be close to zero and the zero dispersion point to shift to the short wavelength region.

  2. Optical modulator based on coupled photonic crystal cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimovich, Pavel G.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an optical signal modulator based on two-photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled through a waveguide. The suggested modulator shifts the resonant frequency over a scalable range. We design a compact optical modulator based on photonic crystal nanobeams cavities that exhibits high stability to manufacturing. Photonic crystal waveguide tuning in the low-intensity region of the resonant mode is demonstrated. The advantages of the suggested approach over the single-resonator optical modulator approaches include the possibilities to shift the modulator frequency over a scalable range that depends on switching energy level and to effectively electrically tune the device in the low-intensity region of the resonant mode.

  3. Diamond-Structured Photonic Crystals with Graded Air Spheres Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichen Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A diamond-structured photonic crystal (PC with graded air spheres radii was fabricated successfully by stereolithography (SL and gel-casting process. The graded radii in photonic crystal were formed by uniting different radii in photonic crystals with a uniform radius together along the Г‑Х direction. The stop band was observed between 26.1 GHz and 34.3 GHz by reflection and transmission measurements in the direction. The result agreed well with the simulation attained by the Finite Integration Technique (FIT. The stop band width was 8.2 GHz and the resulting gap/midgap ratio was 27.2%, which became respectively 141.4% and 161.9% of the perfect PC. The results indicate that the stop band width of the diamond-structured PC can be expanded by graded air spheres radii along the Г‑Х direction, which is beneficial to develop a multi bandpass filter.

  4. Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Bayn, Igal; Meyler, Boris; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection e...

  5. Remote macroscopic entanglement on a photonic crystal architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Flayac, H.; Minkov, M; Savona, V.

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding progress in nanostructure fabrication and cooling technologies allows what was unthinkable a few decades ago: bringing single-mode mechanical vibrations to the quantum regime. The coupling between photon and phonon excitations is a natural source of nonclassical states of light and mechanical vibrations, and its study within the field of cavity optomechanics is developing lightning fast. Photonic crystal cavities are highly integrable architectures that have demonstrated the s...

  6. Parametric down-conversion in photonic crystal waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Weihs, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    Photonic crystals create dramatic new possibilities for nonlinear optics. Line defects are shown to support modes suitable for the production of pairs of photons by the material's second order nonlinearity even if the phase-matching conditions cannot be satisfied in the bulk. These structures offer the flexibility to achieve specific dispersion characteristics and potentially very high brightness. In this work, two phase matching schemes are identified and analyzed regarding their dispersive ...

  7. Direct fiber-coupled single photon source based on a photonic crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon, E-mail: seygene@kaist.ac.kr; Lee, Chang-Min; Lim, Hee-Jin [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schlereth, Thomas W.; Kamp, Martin [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Lee, Yong-Hee [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-24

    A single photon source plays a key role in quantum applications such as quantum computers and quantum communications. Epitaxially grown quantum dots are one of the promising platforms to implement a good single photon source. However, it is challenging to realize an efficient single photon source based on semiconductor materials due to their high refractive index. Here we demonstrate a direct fiber coupled single photon source with high collection efficiency by employing a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide and a tapered micro-fiber. To confirm the single photon nature, the second-order correlation function g{sup (2)}(τ) is measured with a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup. The measured g{sup (2)}(0) value is 0.15, and we can estimate 24% direct collection efficiency from a quantum dot to the fiber.

  8. Direct fiber-coupled single photon source based on a photonic crystal waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single photon source plays a key role in quantum applications such as quantum computers and quantum communications. Epitaxially grown quantum dots are one of the promising platforms to implement a good single photon source. However, it is challenging to realize an efficient single photon source based on semiconductor materials due to their high refractive index. Here we demonstrate a direct fiber coupled single photon source with high collection efficiency by employing a photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide and a tapered micro-fiber. To confirm the single photon nature, the second-order correlation function g(2)(τ) is measured with a Hanbury Brown-Twiss setup. The measured g(2)(0) value is 0.15, and we can estimate 24% direct collection efficiency from a quantum dot to the fiber

  9. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Lili [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    We study the emission and absorption properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials using Comsol Multiphysics and Ansoft HFSS as simulation tools. We calculate the emission properties of metallic designs using drude model and the results illustrate that an appropriate termination of the surface of the metallic structure can significantly increase the absorption and therefore the thermal emissivity. We investigate the spontaneous emission rate modifications that occur for emitters inside two-dimensional photonic crystals and find the isotropic and directional emissions with respect to different frequencies as we have expected.

  10. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Gloria G. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G. [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 154 Mechanical Engineering Building, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1270 Digital Computer Laboratory, MC-278, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  11. Lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong-Da; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Han Li-Hong; Liu Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Using the finite element method, this paper investigates lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in a pho-tonic crystal fibre of hexagonal symmetry. The results of simulation show the strong stress dependence of effective index of the fundamental guided mode, phase modal birefringence and confinement loss. It also finds that the contribution of the geometrical effect that is related only to deformation of the photonic crystal fibre and the stress-related contribution to phase modal birefringence and confinement loss are entirely different. Furthermore, polarization-dependent stress sensitivity of confinement loss is proposed in this paper.

  12. Entangling Gate of Dipolar Molecules Coupled to a Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Peng

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid entangling gate is proposed by using the coherent interaction between dipolar molecules and a photonic crystal microcavity, which is effected by virtual electric dipole transitions. Noise is included in the present model and high feasibility of the scheme with current experimental conditions is shown.%@@ A hybrid entangling gate is proposed by using the coherent interaction between dipolar molecules and a photonic crystal microcavity,which is effected by virtual electric dipole transitions.Noise is included in the present model and high feasibility of the scheme with current experimental conditions is shown.

  13. Inhibited coupling hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabid, F.; Gérôme, F.; Vincetti, L.; Debord, B.; Alharbi, M.; Bradley, T.

    2014-02-01

    We review the recent progress on the enhanced inhibited coupling in kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber by introducing negative curvature in the fiber-core shape. We show that increasing the hypocycloid contour curvature leads to a dramatic decrease in transmission loss and optical overlap with the silica surround and to a single modedness. Fabricated hypocycloid-core hollow-core photonic crystal fibers with a transmission loss in the range of 20-40 dB/km and for a spectral range of 700 nm-2000 nm have now become typical.

  14. Photonic-crystal diplexers for terahertz-wave applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yata, Masahiro; Fujita, Masayuki; Nagatsuma, Tadao

    2016-04-01

    A compact diplexer is designed using a silicon photonic-crystal directional coupler of length comparable to the incident wavelength. The diplexer theoretically and experimentally exhibits a cross state bandwidth as broad as 2% of the operation frequency, with over 40-dB isolation between the cross and bar ports. We also demonstrate 1.5-Gbit/s frequency-division communication in the 0.32- and 0.33-THz bands using a single-wavelength-sized diplexer, and discuss the transmission bandwidth. Our study demonstrates the potential for application of photonic crystals as terahertz-wave integration platforms.

  15. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure

  16. Optical fiber tips functionalized with semiconductor photonic crystal cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shambat, Gary; Rivoire, Kelley; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and rapid epoxy-based method for transferring photonic crystal cavities to the facets of optical fibers. Passive Si cavities were measured via fiber taper coupling as well as direct transmission from the fiber facet. Active quantum dot containing GaAs cavities showed photoluminescence that was collected both in free space and back through the original fiber. Cavities maintain a high quality factor (2000-4000) in both material systems. This new design architecture provides a practical mechanically stable platform for the integration of photonic crystal cavities with macroscale optics and opens the door for novel research on fiber-coupled cavity devices.

  17. Theoretical analysis of a biased photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Wei, Lei; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the PBG mode of a biased Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) infiltrated with a Liquid Crystal (LC) with negative dielectric anisotropy. We analyse the voltage induced change of the transmission spectrum, dispersion and losses and compare them to the experimental values.......We simulate the PBG mode of a biased Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) infiltrated with a Liquid Crystal (LC) with negative dielectric anisotropy. We analyse the voltage induced change of the transmission spectrum, dispersion and losses and compare them to the experimental values....

  18. Photonic Bandgap Properties of Atom-lattice Photonic Crystals in Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Lin; WANG Dian; SUN Gui-ting; NIU Li-gang; YANG Han; SONG Jun-feng

    2011-01-01

    The present paper covers the various photonic crystals(PhCs) structures mimicking real atom-lattice structures in electronic crystals by using the femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 resin. The bandgap properties were investigated by varying the crystal orientations in <111>, <110> and <100> of diamond-lattice PhCs. lhe photonic stop gaps were present at λ=3.88 μm in <111> direction, λ=4.01 μtm in <110> direction and λ=5.30 μm in <100> direction, respectively. In addition, defects were introduced in graphite-lattice PhCs and the strong localization of photons in this structure with defects at λ=5 μm was achieved. All the above work shows the powerful capability of femtosecond laser fabrication in manufacturing various complicated threedimensional photonic crystals and of controlling photons by inducing defects in the PhCs samples.

  19. Coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian;

    is coupled efficiently to a single enhanced mode. One popular approach has been to couple single quantum dots to a nanocavity but a limiting factor in this configuration is that in order to apply the photon it should subsequently be coupled out of the cavity, reducing the overall efficiency significantly....... An alternative approach is to couple the quantum dot directly to the propagating mode of a photonic waveguide. We demonstrate the coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide using time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements. A pronounced effect is seen in the decay rates of dots coupled...

  20. Fused combiners for photonic crystal bers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny

    fibers in the bundle, more detailed observations of large astronomical objects can be achieved. The second component was a further development of the MM to SM converters or photonic lanterns. These components were developed for the field of astrophotonics, where the transformation of MM starlight...

  1. Spatially adjusted spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals embedded light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu-Feng; Lin, Yen-Chen; Liu, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Huang, JianJang

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the angular light output enhancements of LEDs were investigated from the spontaneous emission and light scattering of devices with different photonic crystal (PhC) geometries. The emitted photon coupled into a leaky mode is differentiated by the manipulation of the quality factor in various spatial frequencies. Therefore, light extraction in this light-emitting device is determined by the modal extraction lengths and the quality factor obtained from the measured photonic bands. Furthermore, the higher- and lower-order mode spontaneous emissions are affected by the nonradiative process in the PhC structures with different periods. In our cases, the photonic crystal device with the largest period of 500 nm exhibits the highest lower-order mode extraction and quality factor. As a result, a self-collimation behavior toward the surface-normal is demonstrated in the 3D far-field pattern of such a device. We conclude that, with the coherent light scattering from the PhC region, the spontaneous emission of the material and spatial behavior of the extracted mode can be both managed by the proper design of the device.

  2. Macroporous photonic crystal-based anti-ultraviolet and anti-near-infrared materials by doctor blade coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chang-Yun; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chen, Ying-Chu; Yang, Hongta

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we report a roll-to-roll compatible bottom-up self-assembly approach to fabricate double-multilayer macroporous polymer photonic crystals consisting of a multilayer of three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal close-packed (HCP) 200 nm spherical pores and a multilayer of 3D HCP 500 nm spherical pores. Both optical measurements and theoretical predictions reveal that the as-prepared polymer film exhibits anti-ultraviolet and anti-near-infrared properties caused by the Bragg's diffractive of incident ultraviolet radiation and near-infrared radiation from the crystalline lattice of air cavities in the polymer film.

  3. Formation of collimated beams behind the woodpile photonic crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Trull Silvestre, José Francisco; Maigyte, Lina; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Cojocaru, Crina; Rutkauskas, Marius; Peckus, Martynas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally observe formation of narrow laser beams behind the woodpile photonic crystal, when the beam remains well collimated in free propagation behind the crystal. We show that the collimation depends on the input laser beam’s focusing conditions, and we interpret theoretically the observed effect by calculating the spatial dispersion of propagation eigenmodes and by numerical simulation of paraxial propagation model. Peer Reviewed

  4. Three-dimensional metallic photonic crystals with optical bandgaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilantonakis, Nikos; Terzaki, Konstantina; Sakellari, Ioanna; Purlys, Vytautas; Gray, David; Soukoulis, Costas M; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria

    2012-02-21

    The fabrication of fully three-dimensional photonic crystals with a bandgap at optical wavelengths is demonstrated by way of direct femtosecond laser writing of an organic-inorganic hybrid material with metal-binding moieties, and selective silver coating using electroless plating. The crystals have 600-nm intralayer periodicity and sub-100 nm features, and they exhibit well-defined diffraction patterns. PMID:22278944

  5. Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal Phase Transition and Segmented Thermochromic Luminescence in a Dynamic 3D Interpenetrated Ag(I) Coordination Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Li-Wei; Yu, Si-Qi; Wang, Xing-Po; Sun, Di

    2016-02-01

    A new 3D Ag(I)-based coordination network, [Ag2(pz)(bdc)·H2O]n (1; pz = pyrazine and H2bdc = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid), was constructed by one-pot assembly and structurally established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at different temperatures. Upon cooling from 298 to 93 K, 1 undergo an interesting single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition from orthorhombic Ibca (Z = 16) to Pccn (Z = 32) at around 148 K. Both phases show a rare 2-fold-interpenetrated 4-connected lvt network but incorporate different [Ag2(COO)2] dimeric secondary building units. It is worth mentioning that complex 1 shows red- and blue-shifted luminescences in the 290-170 and 140-80 K temperature ranges, respectively. The variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies suggest that the argentophilic interactions and rigidity of the structure dominated the luminescence chromism trends at the respective temperature ranges. Upon being mechanically ground, 1 exhibits a slight mechanoluminescence red shift from 589 to 604 nm at 298 K. PMID:26828950

  6. Volumetric modulated arc planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using conventional and unflattened photon beams: a dosimetric comparison with 3D technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequently, three-dimensional (3D) conformal beams are used in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Recently, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was introduced as a new treatment modality. VMAT techniques shorten delivery time, reducing the possibility of intrafraction target motion. However dose distributions can be quite different from standard 3D therapy. This study quantifies those differences, with focus on VMAT plans using unflattened photon beams. A total of 15 lung cancer patients previously treated with 3D or VMAT SBRT were randomly selected. For each patient, non-coplanar 3D, coplanar and non-coplanar VMAT and flattening filter free VMAT (FFF-VMAT) plans were generated to meet the same objectives with 50 Gy covering 95% of the PTV. Two dynamic arcs were used in each VMAT plan. The couch was set at ± 5° to the 0° straight position for the two non-coplanar arcs. Pinnacle version 9.0 (Philips Radiation Oncology, Fitchburg WI) treatment planning system with VMAT capabilities was used. We analyzed the conformity index (CI), which is the ratio of the total volume receiving at least the prescription dose to the target volume receiving at least the prescription dose; the conformity number (CN) which is the ratio of the target coverage to CI; and the gradient index (GI) which is the ratio of the volume of 50% of the prescription isodose to the volume of the prescription isodose; as well as the V20, V5, and mean lung dose (MLD). Paired non-parametric analysis of variance tests with post-tests were performed to examine the statistical significance of the differences of the dosimetric indices. Dosimetric indices CI, CN and MLD all show statistically significant improvement for all studied VMAT techniques compared with 3D plans (p < 0.05). V5 and V20 show statistically significant improvement for the FFF-VMAT plans compared with 3D (p < 0.001). GI is improved for the FFF-VMAT and the non-coplanar VMAT plans (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively

  7. Sensors Based on Plasmonic-Photonic Coupling in Metallic Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoguang Pang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An optical sensor based on the coupling between the plasmonic and photonic resonance modes in metallic photonic crystals is investigated. Large-area metallic photonic crystals consisting of periodically arranged gold nanostructures with dimensions down to sub-100 nm are fabricated using solution-processible gold nanoparticles in combination with interference lithography or interference ablation, which introduces a variety of fabrication techniques for the construction of this kind of sensor device. Sensitivity of the plasmonic response of the gold nanostructures to the changes in the environmental refractive index is enhanced through the coupling between the narrow-band photonic resonance mode and the relatively broad-band plasmon resonance, which is recognized as a Fano-like effect and is utilized to explore sensors. Theoretical modeling shows the characterization and the optimization of the sensitivity of this kind of sensor device. Theoretical and experimental results are demonstrated for the approaches to improve the sensitivity of the sensor device.

  8. Dual concentric crystal low energy photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, R.A.

    A photon detector for biological samples includes a block of NaI(T1) having a hole containing a thin walled cylinder of CsI(T1). At least three photo multiplier tubes are evenly spaced around the parameter of the block. Biological samples are placed within the hole, and emissions which are sensed by at least two of the photo multipliers from only the NaI(T1) detector are counted.

  9. Photonic crystal with left-handed components

    CERN Document Server

    Markos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We show that the periodic array of left-handed cylinders possesses a rich spectrum of guided modes when the negative permeability of cylinders equals exactly to minus value of permeability of embedding media. These resonances strongly influences propagation of electromagnetic waves through photonic structures made from left-handed materials. A series of Fano resonances excited by incident wave destroys the band frequency spectrum of square array of left-handed cylinders and increases considerably the absorption of transmitted waves.

  10. Seven 3d-4f coordination polymers of macrocyclic oxamide with polycarboxylates: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Na; Sun, Ya-Qiu; Zheng, Yan-Feng; Xu, Yan-Yan; Gao, Dong-Zhao; Zhang, Guo-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Seven new 3d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers, [Ln(CuL)2(Hbtca)(btca)(H2O)]·2H2O (Ln = TbIII1, PrIII2, SmIII3, EuIII4, YbIII5), [Nd(NiL)(nip)(Rnip)]·0·25H2O·0.25CH3OH (R= 0.6CH3, 0.4H) 6 and [Nd2(NiL)(nip)3(H2O)]·2H2O 7(CuL or NiL, H2L = 2, 3-dioxo-5, 6, 14, 15-dibenzo-1, 4, 8, 12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7, 13-dien; H2btca = benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid; H2nip = 5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized by a solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-5 exhibit a double-strand meso-helical chain structures formed by [LnIIICuII2] units via the oxamide and benzotriazole-5-carboxylate bridges, while complex 6 exhibits a four-strand meso-helical chain formed by NdNi unit via the oxamide and 5-nitroisophthalate bridges. Complex 7 consists of a 2D layer framework formed by four-strand meso-helical chain via the nip2- bridges. Moreover, the magnetic properties of them were investigated, and the best-fit analysis of χMT versus T show that the anisotropic contribution of Ln(III) ions (arising from the spin-orbit coupling or the crystal field perturbation) dominates (weak exchange limit) in these complexes(for 3, λ = 214.6 cm-1, zj' = -0.33 cm-1, gav = 1.94; for 5, Δ = 6.98 cm-1, zj' = 1.53 cm-1, gav = 1.85).

  11. Design, Fabrication and Computational Characterization of a 3D Micro-Valve Built by Multi-Photon Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratos Galanopoulos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design, modeling and fabrication by multi-photon polymerization of a complex medical fluidic device. The physical dimensions of the built micro-valve prototype are compared to those of its computer-designed model. Important fabrication issues such as achieving high dimensional resolution and ability to control distortion due to shrinkage are presented and discussed. The operational performance of both multi-photon and CAD-created models under steady blood flow conditions was evaluated and compared through computational fluid dynamics analysis.

  12. Designing finite-height two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Kristensen, Martin;

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines for designing planar waveguides based on introducing line-defects in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs are obtained by comparing calculations on two-dimensional structures with dispersion relations for the media above and below the slab. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  13. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron reson

  14. Spontaneous emission of quantum dots in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of single semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide with engineered disorder. Random high-Q cavities, that are signature of Anderson localization, are measured in photoluminescence experiments and appear...

  15. Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Paulsen, H.N.; Thøgersen, J.;

    2003-01-01

    The onset of supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber is investigated experimentally and numerically as a function of pump wavelength and intensity with 100-fs pulses. Soliton formation is found to be the determining factor in the initial step. The formation and behavior of a...

  16. Ultraflat supercontinuum generation in soft-glass photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, J. J.; Silvestre, E.; Andrés, P.

    2009-05-01

    We recognize some photonic-crystal-fiber structures, made up of soft glass, that generate ultrawide (over an octave), very smooth and highly coherent supercontinuum spectrum when illuminated with femtosecond pulsed light around 1.55 μm. The design of soft-glass microstructured fiber geometry with nearly ultraflattened, positive and low dispersion is crucial to accomplish the above goals.

  17. Near-field characterization of photonic crystal Y-splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Borel, Peter Ingo;

    2005-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to directly map the propagation of light in a specially designed 50/50 photonic crystal (PC) Y-splitter fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. SNOM images are obtained for TE- and TM-polarized light in the wavelength range 1425-157...

  18. Fiber Drawn 2D Polymeric Photonic Crystal THz Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on different polymeric 2D photonic crystal filters for THz frequencies which are fabricated by a standard fiber drawing technique. The bandstop filters were simulated and designed by the generalized multipole technique (GMT). The frequency and angle dependent transmission...

  19. Soft-glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Leonid; Khromova, Irina; Scherbakov, Andrey; Nikishin, Nikolay

    2005-09-01

    The results of numerical modeling and experimental investigations of manufactured diamond-shaped and large area hollow core photonic crystal fibers with periodical cladding (kagome-lattice and closely packed tubes) are presented. The use of soft glasses allows to fabricate high-quality structures with moderate losses. Numerical methods, designing strategies and fabrication issues of these promising fiber structures are discussed.

  20. Observation of soliton pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, P; Combrié, S; Sagnes, I; Wong, C W; De Rossi, A

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate soliton-effect pulse compression in mm-long photonic crystal waveguides resulting from strong anomalous dispersion and self-phase modulation. Compression from 3ps to 580fs, at low pulse energies(~10pJ), is measured via autocorrelation.

  1. Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...

  2. Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibers BUsing Asymmetric Core Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chun-Liu; Lu Chao; Yan Min; Wang Xiaoyan; Lou Junjun; Li Qin; Zhou Xiaoqun; Cai Qing; P.R.Chaudhuri

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber by utilizing the asymmetric core design. Based on spectral measurements of the polarization mode interfering, we estimate that the fiber has a beat length of about 0.33 mm at 1545 nm.

  3. Birefringent Bragg Gratings in Highly-Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Cook; John Canning; John Holdsworth

    2008-01-01

    Efficient writing of Bragg gratings in 12-ring highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers is described. Experimental and numerical investigations are performed to reveal the optimum angle for coupling UV writing light to the core. Furthermore, we show that the formation of a strongly briefringent grating is at a particular angle of orientation.

  4. Active Photonic Crystal Switches: Modeling, Design and Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Yu, Yi; Kristensen, Philip Trøst;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent progress in modeling, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of InP photonic crystal all-optical switches. Novel designs with increased flexibility and performance are presented, and their operation using high speed data signals is analyzed...

  5. Threshold Characteristics of Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa;

    2016-01-01

    The threshold properties of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers operating in the slow-light regime are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements show that, in contrast to conventional lasers, the threshold gain attains a minimum value for a specific cavity length. The experimental...

  6. Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Arentoft, J.;

    2002-01-01

    Using near-field optical microscopy, we directly map the propagation of light in the wavelength range of 1510-1560 nm along bent photonic crystal waveguides formed by removing a single row of holes in the triangular 400-nm-period lattice and connected to access ridge waveguides, the structure being...

  7. Brilliant camouflage : photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; Raedt, Hans De; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structur

  8. Nd3+ Doped Silicate Glass Photonic Crystal Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lu-Yun; CHEN Dan-Ping; XIA Jin-An; WANG Chen; JIANG Xiong-Wei; ZHU Cong-Shan; QIU Jian-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report on the fabrication of two kinds of large core area Nd3+ doped silicate glass photonic crystal fibres, and demonstration of the fibre waveguiding properties. The measured minimum loss of one kind ofibres is 2.5 db/m at 660nm. The fibres sustain only a single mode at least over the wavelength range from 660nm to 980nm.

  9. Vector–vortex solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, José R.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I study a system of two incoherently coupled components in a nonlinear Kerr-type photonic crystal fiber presenting angular momentum in one or both components. I classify the different families of solutions and study their bifurcations in the power dispersion diagram. Finally, I analyze the stability of the different nonlinear modes by means of numerical simulations.

  10. The analogy between photonic crystal fibres and step index fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, T.A.; Mogilevtsev, D.; Knight, J.C.;

    1999-01-01

    The propagation constant of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) can be approximated by substituting the effective V-value and NA into a formula valid for step index fibers (SIF), provided the V-value is defined with a core radius of 0.625 $Lambda@. V$PRM and NA must still be computed. Care must be taken...

  11. Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibers B Using Asymmetric Core Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Chun-Liu; Lu; Chao; Yan; Min; Wane; Xiaoyan; Lou; Junjun; Li; Qin; Zhou; Xiaoqun

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber by utilizing the asymmetric core design. Based on spectral measurements of the polarization mode interfering, we estimate that the fiber has a beat length of about 0.33 mm at 1545 nm.

  12. Percolation in photonic crystals revealed by Fano Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Pariente, Jose Angel; Pecharomán, Carlos; Blanco, Alvaro; García-Martín, Antonio; López, Cefe

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of how the arrangement of defects in photonic crystals impacts its photonic properties is cru-cial for the design of functional materials based thereon. By preparing photonic crystals with random missing scatterers we create crystals where disorder is embodied as vacancies in an otherwise perfect lattice rather than the usual positional or size disorder. We show that the amount of defects not only determines the intensity but also the nature of the light scattering. As the amount of defects varies, light scattering undergoes a transition whereby the usual signatures of photonic gaps (Bragg peak) suffer line-shape changes (Bragg dip) that can be readily described with the Fano resonance q parameter. When the amount of vacancies reaches the percolation threshold, q undergoes a sign change signaling the transition from a crystal to a mosaic of microcrystals through a state where scattering is maximum. Beyond that point the system reenters a state of low scattering that ap-pears in the guise of ...

  13. Formation of Optical Solitons in Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰胜; 陈雄文

    2004-01-01

    Relying on the huge group velocity dispersion available in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides, we observe the formation of both Bragg grating solitons and gap solitons in nonlinear PC waveguides in numericalexperiments. Also,we indicate the potential applications of optical solitons in optical limiting, optical delay, and pulse compression and the feasibility of observing optical solitons in practical experiments.

  14. Nanoengineering of photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum spectral shaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Sørensen, Thorkild; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation using picosecond pulses pumped into cobweb photonic crystal fibers is investigated. Dispersion profiles are calculated for several fiber designs and used to analytically investigate the influence of the fiber structural parameters (core size and wall thickness) on the lo...

  15. Active III-V Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Schubert, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced amplified spontaneous emission in a quantum well III-V semiconductor photonic crystal waveguide slab. The effect is described by enhanced light matter interaction with the decrease of the group velocity. These are promising results for future compact devices...... for terabit/s communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  16. Supercontinuum Generation in Uniform and Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Larsen, Casper;

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) is a striking phenomenon of extreme spectral broadening involving a wealth of beautiful nonlinear physics. The study of SCG and development of today’s commercial sources really took off with the invention of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF), in which light can...

  17. Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Felipe; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate optofluidic tuning of polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers with an imposed rectangular symmetry. The emission wavelength depends on both lattice constant and cladding refractive index. The emission wavelength is shown to change 1 nm with a cladding refractive index change of 10...

  18. Group-index limitations in slow-light photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2010-01-01

    the light near frequency band edges associated with symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Unfortunately, despite the impressive progress in fabrication of photonic crystals, real structures differ from the ideal structures in several ways including structural disorder, material absorption, out of plane...

  19. Giant anomalous self-steepening in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husko, Chad; Colman, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Self-steepening of optical pulses arises due to the dispersive contribution of the effective Kerr nonlinearity. In typical structures this response is on the order of a few femtoseconds with a fixed frequency response. In contrast, the effective Kerr nonlinearity in photonic crystal waveguides (P...

  20. Modelling of Active Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Waveguides and Robust Designs based on Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Wang, Fengwen; Ek, Sara;

    2011-01-01

    of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. We highlight topology optimization as a systematic and robust design methodology considering manufacturing imperfections in optimizing active photonic crystal device performances, and compare the performance of standard photonic crystal waveguides with optimized structures....

  1. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yasha; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Duan, Xiaoman; Zeng, Lirong

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  2. Super-resolved 3-D imaging of live cells organelles from bright-field photon transmission micrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Rychtarikova, Renata; Shi, Kevin; Malakhova, Daria; Machacek, Petr; Smaha, Rebecca; Urban, Jan; Stys, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Current biological and medical research is aimed at obtaining a detailed spatiotemporal map of a live cell's interior to describe and predict cell's physiological state. We present here an algorithm for complete 3-D modelling of cellular structures from a z-stack of images obtained using label-free wide-field bright-field light-transmitted microscopy. The method visualizes 3-D objects with a volume equivalent to the area of a camera pixel multiplied by the z-height. The computation is based on finding pixels of unchanged intensities between two consecutive images of an object spread function. These pixels represent strongly light-diffracting, light-absorbing, or light-emitting objects. To accomplish this, variables derived from R\\'{e}nyi entropy are used to suppress camera noise. Using this algorithm, the detection limit of objects is only limited by the technical specifications of the microscope setup--we achieve the detection of objects of the size of one camera pixel. This method allows us to obtain 3-D re...

  3. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  4. Angular Distribution of Photons in Coherent Bremsstrahlung in Deformed Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Parazian, V V

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of photons in the coherent bremsstrahlung process by high-energy electrons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross-section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the electron enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO2 single crystal and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by the acoustic wave of S -type.

  5. Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Kristensen, Anders; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate how two optical functionalities can be implemented in a single photonic crystal structure by carefully engineering dispersion in several different bands at several different wavelengths. We use the concept for optically pumped dye doped hybrid polymer band edge lasers and show how...... a rectangular photonic crystal lattice imprinted into the surface can provide both feedback for in-plane band edge lasing and couple pump light into the device plane, thus increasing the emitted intensity and lowering the lasing threshold by more than an order of magnitude....

  6. Non-linear photonic crystals as a source of entangled photons

    OpenAIRE

    de Dood, Michiel J. A.; Irvine, William T M; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Non-linear photonic crystals can be used to provide phase-matching for frequency conversion in optically isotropic materials. The phase-matching mechanism proposed here is a combination of form birefringence and phase velocity dispersion in a periodic structure. Since the phase-matching relies on the geometry of the photonic crystal, it becomes possible to use highly non-linear materials. This is illustrated considering a one-dimensional periodic Al$_{0.4}$Ga$_{0.6}$As / air structure for the...

  7. Highly-Ordered Ferroelectric Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Matsuura; Suxia Yang; Ping Sun; Harry E. Ruda

    2003-01-01

    Highly-ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, inverse opal thin films were fabricated using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The excellent crystal quality is evident from the SEM images and the good agreement between the theory and experiments.

  8. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    -doped liquid crystal gain medium for the realization of cheap and compact optically pumped, electrically tunable lasers. Finally, a transparent projection display is presented which uses sub-wavelength gratings for redirection of light guided inside a waveguide and facilitates electro-optic switching by means...

  9. Photonic bands and defect modes in metallo-dielectric photonic crystal slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotto, Simone; Sorba, Lucia; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Photonic components based on structured metallic elements show great potential for device applications where field enhancement and confinement of the radiation on a subwavelength scale is required. In this paper we report a detailed study of a prototypical metallo-dielectric photonic structure, where features well known in the world of dielectric photonic crystals, like band gaps and defect modes, are exported to the metallic counterpart, with interesting applications to infrared science and technology, as for instance in quantum well infrared photodetectors, narrow-band spectral filters, and tailorable thermal emitters.

  10. Two-photon absorption spectroscopy of rubrene single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkhin, Pavel; Biaggio, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    We determine the wavelength dependence of the two-photon absorption cross section in rubrene single crystals both by direct measurement of nonlinear transmission and from the two-photon excitation spectrum of the photoluminescence. The peak two-photon absorption coefficient for b-polarized light was found to be (4.6±1)×10-11 m/W at a wavelength of 850±10 nm. It is 2.3 times larger for c-polarized light. The lowest energy two-photon excitation peak corresponds to an excited state energy of 2.92±0.04 eV and it is followed by a vibronic progression of higher energy peaks separated by ˜0.14 eV.

  11. Broadband wave manipulation in surface-wave photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perfectly guide surface electromagnetic waves around ultra-sharp corners without back-scattering and radiation is in great demand for various photonic and plasmonic applications. This is fundamentally difficult to realize because of the dramatic momentum mismatch and wave nature of radiation at the sharp corners. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a simple photonic structure, a periodic square array of metallic cylinders standing on a metal surface, can behaves as a surface-wave photonic crystal with complete photonic band gap to overcome this bottleneck simply. A line-defect waveguide can support and guide surface waves around ultra-sharp corners without perceptible radiation and reflection, achieving almost perfect transmission efficiency in a broad frequency range. We also demonstrate an ideal T-shaped splitter to split input surface waves equally into two arms and a square radiation-suppressed plasmonic open resonator with high quality factors by simply inducing line-defects in this fu...

  12. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification based on photonic crystal fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang He-Lin; Yang Ai-Jun; Leng Yu-Xin; Wang Cheng; Xu Zhi-Zhan; Hou Lan-Tian

    2011-01-01

    A compact two-stage optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier based on photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated.A 1064-nm soliton pulse is obtained in a home-made photonic crystal fibre(PCF)with femtosecond pulse pumping and then amplified to 2 mJ in an Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier.After the amplified pulses pass through the LBO crystal,the 532-nm double-frequency light with an energy of 0.8 mJ and a duration of over 100 ps at 10-Hz repetition rate is generated as a pump source in the following two-stage optical parametric amplification(OPA).The 850-am chirped signal light gain from the stretcher is 1.5×104in the first-stage OPA while it is 120 in the second-stage OPA.The total signal gain of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification(OPCPA)can reach 1.8×106.

  13. Fabrication of PDMS (poly-dimethyl siloxane) molding and 3D structure by two-photon absorption induced by an ultrafast laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shin Wook; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Mi Jung; Kong, Hong Jin; Yang, Dong-Yol; Park, Sang-hu; Lim, Tae-woo; Kim, Ran Hee; Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2004-12-01

    Multi-photon absorption phenomena induced by ultra fast laser have been considered for many applications of microfabrications such as metal ablation, glass etching and photopolymerization. Among the applications, the photopolymerization by two-photon absorption (TPA) has been regarded as a new microfabricating method. It is possible to be used in photo mask correcting, diffractive optical element and micro machining. The TPA photopolymerization is made possible to fabricate a complicated three dimensional structure which the conventional photomask technology has not been able to make. Furthermore the TPA photopolymerization process applied to a two dimensional structure fabrication may take shorter time than the old process since the absence of etching and deposition processes. Recently we have made a simple 3D structure and applied the technique to PDMS(poly-dimethyl siloxane) molding.

  14. High-quality photonic crystals with a nearly complete band gap obtained by direct inversion of woodpile templates with titanium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Marichy, Catherine; Froufe-Pérez, Luis S; Scheffold, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Photonic crystal materials are based on a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant on length scales comparable to the wavelength of light. These materials can exhibit photonic band gaps; frequency regions for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden due to the depletion of the density of states. In order to exhibit a full band gap, 3D PCs must present a threshold refractive index contrast that depends on the crystal structure. In the case of the so-called woodpile photonic crystals this threshold is comparably low, approximately 1.9 for the direct structure. Therefore direct or inverted woodpiles made of high refractive index materials like silicon, germanium or titanium dioxide are sought after. Here we show that, by combining multiphoton lithography and atomic layer deposition, we can achieve a direct inversion of polymer templates into TiO$_{2}$ based photonic crystals. The obtained structures show remarkable optical properties in the near-infrared region with almost perfect sp...

  15. Room Temperature Operation of a Buried Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Quantum Cascade Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Peretti, R; Wolf, J M; Bonzon, C; Süess, M J; Lourdudoss, S; Metaferia, W; Beck, M; Faist, J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated room temperature operation of deep etched photonic crystal quantum cascade laser emitting around 8.5 micron. We fabricated buried heterostructure photonic crystals, resulting in single mode laser emission on a high order slow Bloch modes of the photonic crystal, between high symmetry points of the Brillouin.

  16. Novel photonic crystals: incorporation of nano-CdS into the natural photonic crystals within peacock feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Su, Huilan; Song, Fang; Gu, Jiajun; Di, Zhang; Jiang, Limin

    2009-03-01

    In this investigation, the natural 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) within peacock feathers are applied to incorporate CdS nanocrystallites. Peacock feathers are activated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic/dimethylformamide suspension to increase the reactive sites on the keratin component, on which CdS nanoparticles (nano-CdS) are in situ formed in succession and serve as the "seeds" to direct further incorporation during the following solvothermal procedure. Thus, homogeneous nano-CdS are loaded both on the feathers' surface layer and inside the 2D PhCs. The obtained nano-CdS/peacock feathers hybrids are novel photonic crystals whose photonic stop bands are markedly different from that of the natural PhCs within original peacock feathers, as observed by the reflection spectra.

  17. A complete 3D numerical study of the effects of pseudoscalar-photon mixing on quasar polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant [Carnegie Mellon University, McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Aluri, Pavan K.; Jain, Pankaj; Tiwari, Prabhakar [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Khanna, Udit [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)

    2012-03-15

    We present the results of three-dimensional simulations of quasar polarizations in the presence of pseudoscalar-photon mixing in the intergalactic medium. The intergalactic magnetic field is assumed to be uncorrelated in wave vector space but correlated in real space. Such a field may be obtained if its origin is primordial. Furthermore we assume that the quasars, located at cosmological distances, have negligible initial polarization. In the presence of pseudoscalar-photon mixing we show, through a direct comparison with observations, that this may explain the observed large scale alignments in quasar polarizations within the framework of big bang cosmology. We find that the simulation results give a reasonably good fit to the observed data. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of photonic crystal fiber sensor character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuan; LIU Feng; BI Wei-hong

    2007-01-01

    The special character of a PCF which is used as a gas or liquid sensor is discussed. The field distribution is analyzed when the solid core PCF is injected with different medium that has different relative dielectric constant (or refractive index). And the experiential formulas of the relation between refractive index of some kinds of liquid and their concentration are given,in order to measure the concentration of the relative liquid. At the same time, the effect of propagation constant on PCF sensor character is also discussed. Furthermore, the photonic band-gap (PBG) ofPCF (PBG-PCF) is calculated at different medium relative dielectric constant, when it is injected with different medium. That is the principle basis for this kind of PCF sensors.

  19. Study of 3-D stress development in parent and twin pairs of a hexagonal close-packed polycrystal: Part II - Crystal plasticity finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette;

    2015-01-01

    Stress heterogeneity within each individual grain of polycrystalline Zircaloy-2 is studied using a crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model. For this purpose, the weighted Voronoi tessellation method is used to construct 3D geometries of more than 2600 grains based on their center-of-mass p...

  20. Photonic crystal fibers based on chalcogenide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J. L.; Troles, J.; Brilland, L.; Coulombier, Q.; Chartier, T.

    2010-10-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are known for their large transparency in the mid-infrared and their high refractive index (>2). They present also a high non-linear coefficient (n2), 100 to 1000 times larger than for silica, depending on the composition. An original way to obtain single-mode fibers is to design microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). These fibers present unique optical properties thanks to the high degree of freedom in the design of their geometrical structure. A classical method to realize MOFs is the stack-and-draw technique. However, with chalcogenide glasses, that technique induces optical losses at the interfaces in the stack of capillaries. In consequence, we have developed a new casting method to fabricate the chalcogenide preform. This method permits to obtain optical losses around 1 dB/m at 1.55 μm and 0.3 dB/m in the mid-IR region. Various chalcogenide microstructured fibers working in the IR range were prepared in order to take advantage of the non-linear properties of these glasses and of the original MOF properties. For example, fibers with small effective mode area (Aeff supercontinuum sources. On the contrary, for military applications in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm windows, large effective mode area and single mode fibers have been designed to permit the propagation of high-power gaussian laser beams.

  1. Trapping a single atom with a fraction of a photon using a photonic crystal nanocavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, D.; Kuipers, L.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the interaction between a single rubidium atom and a photonic crystal nanocavity. Because of the ultrasmall mode volume of the nanocavity, an extremely strong coupling regime can be achieved in which the atom can shift the cavity resonance by many cavity linewidths. We show that this shi

  2. Time reversal constraint limits unidirectional photon emission in slow-light photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Ben; Oulton, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal waveguides are known to support C-points - point-like polarisation singularities with local chirality. Such points can couple with dipole-like emitters to produce highly directional emission, from which spin-photon entanglers can be built. Much is made of the promise of using slow-light modes to enhance this light-matter coupling. Here we explore the transition from travelling to standing waves for two different photonic crystal waveguide designs. We find that time-reversal symmetry and the reciprocal nature of light places constraints on using C-points in the slow-light regime. We observe two distinctly different mechanisms through which this condition is satisfied in the two waveguides. In the waveguide designs we consider, a modest group-velocity of $v_g \\approx c/10$ is found to be the optimum for slow-light coupling to the C-points.

  3. A Study of Properties of the Photonic Band Gap of Unmagnetized Plasma Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Song; ZHONG Shuangying; LIU Sanqiu

    2009-01-01

    In this study,the propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals(PPCs),namely,superlattice structures consisting alternately of a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma and dielectric material,is simulated numerically using the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) algorithm.A perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing technique is used in this simulation.The reflection and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic(EM)waves through PPCs are calculated.The characteristics of the photonic band gap(PBG)are discussed in terms of plasma density,dielectric constant ratios,number of periods,and introduced layer defect.These may provide some useful information for designing plasma photonic crystal devices.

  4. Fabrication and measurements on coupled photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    Quasi-three dimensional photonic crystals can be realized by fabricating thin membranes of high index material hanging in air patterned with sub-micron holes to create a photonic band gap for optical confinement in plane and total internal reflection for out of plane confinement. Introducing...... lasers have also a low output power. A promising way to increase the output power while keeping a low threshold is to couple a large number of cavities. We successfully fabricated several coupled cavity systems and measured on them in order to investigate the behaviour of the coupled systems and the...

  5. Optical Tamm States in Dielectric Photonic Crystal Heterostructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ji-Yong; SUN Yong; LI Hong-Qiang; ZHANG Ye-Wen; CHEN Hong

    2008-01-01

    We investigate one-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal and optical Tamm modes formed by superposition of two band gaps and find that this kind of mode can be explained by the single negative materials tunnelling effect. A finite-size dielectric photonic band gap can mimic one kind of effective single negative material and this property sensitively depends on the frequency Iocation in stop-band regions and surface termination and so on. The effective impedance match and effective phase match give the precise position of the optical Tamm mode. Complete transparency via tunnelling is achieved by two opaque media and demonstrates the validity of our approach.

  6. Generation of higher odd harmonics in a defective photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photonic crystal (AB)2(DB)(AB)2 with high refractive index medium as silicon and low refractive medium as air is considered. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmission properties as a function of wavelength with photonic band gaps has been obtained. We are able to demonstrate the generation of third, fifth, seventh and ninth harmonics in the present work. We show that if the air medium is removed in the defect, the defect modes are generated but not harmonics. It can be designed to have a frequency conversion, and have a potential for becoming the basis for the next generation of optical devices

  7. The optical transmission characteristics in metallic photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically studied electromagnetic wave propagation in a one-dimensional metal/dielectric photonic crystal (1D MDPC) consisting of alternating metallic and dielectric materials by using the transfer matrix method in visible and infrared regions. We have investigated the photonic band gap by using four kinds of metals: silver, lithium, gold and copper. We discuss the details of the calculated results in terms of the thickness of the metallic layer and different kinds of metals, and the plasma frequency. Our results have a potential for applications in optical devices because it is easy and cheap to manufacture.

  8. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Durá, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret Soler, Juan Antonio; Combrie, Sylvain; Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany Francoy, José; Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0 5...

  9. Transmission properties of 2D metamaterial photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Salazar, Jorge; Porras-Montenegro, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    By using the finite difference time domain technique, we have performed a theoretical study of the transmission properties in 2D photonic crystals composed by circular cilyndrical metamaterial rods. Numerical transmission spectra was compared with its corresponding photonic band structure in the case of an infinite periodic 2D array obtaining a very good agreement. On the other hand, we have characterized the corresponding symmetries for this system and the results were compared with its corresponding conventional plasmonic metamaterial counterpart. J.R. M-S is funded by the Colombian Agency COLCIENCIAS.

  10. Study on the propagation mechanism of evanescent waves in one-dimensional periodic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the evanescent waves theory, the formation condition and propagation mechanism of evanescent waves in one-dimensional periodic photonic crystal are studied. When the incident light travels through the periodic photonic crystal at a certain angle, the optical resonance will occur in the optically denser medium, and a unique photonic local feature will occur in photonic bandgap. Furthermore, the influences on transmission performance by the photonic crystal parameters are discussed respectively. The simulation results show that the structure mentioned above can achieve the performance of high transmission and high Q value, which can provide theoretical references for photonic crystal multi-channel filters

  11. A single photon detector array with 64x64 resolution and millimetric depth accuracy for 3D imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Niclass, Cristiano; Charbon, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode array uses single-photon counting to perform time-of-flight range-finding on a scene uniformly hit by 100ps 250mW uncollimated laser pulses. The 32x32 pixel sensor, fabricated in a 0.8μm CMOS process uses a microscanner package to enhance the effective resolution in the application to 64x64 pixels. The application achieves a measurement depth resolution of 1.3mm to a depth of 3.75m.

  12. Compact and broadband waveguide taper based on partial bandgap photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hou; Dingshan Gao; Huaming Wu; Zhiping Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Partial bandgap characteristics of parallelogram lattice photonic crystals are proposed to suppress the radiation modes in a compact dielectric waveguide taper so as to obtain high transmittance in a large wavelength range. Band structure of the photonic crystals shows that there exists a partial bandgap. The photonic crystals with partial bandgap are then used as the cladding of a waveguide taper to reduce the radiation loss efficiently. In comparison with the conventional dielectric taper and the complete bandgap photonic crystal taper, the partial bandgap photonic crystal taper has a high transmittance of above 85% with a wide band of 170 nm.

  13. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  14. Photonic band structure of two-dimensional metal/dielectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved plane wave expansion method for the numerical calculation of photonic bands of metal/dielectric photonic crystal (PC) are presented. This method is applied to two-dimensional PCs with frequency-dependent dielectric constants. We obtained the photonic band structure of three kinds of structures: sawtooth, cylinder and hole PCs. The results show that the lowest band-1 is relatively flat, and does not approach zero. Also, there is no complete band-gap that extends throughout the first Brillouin zone for these three structures. However, there are partial band-gaps in different directions in the first Brillouin zone. For the complementary cylinder and hole PCs, their photonic bands are similar except for the lowest three bands; the hole PC’s lowest frequency of band-1 is larger than that of cylinder PC for the configuration R/d  =  0.2. (paper)

  15. Time domain topology optimization of 3D nanophotonic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elesin, Yuriy; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient parallel topology optimization framework for design of large scale 3D nanophotonic devices. The code shows excellent scalability and is demonstrated for optimization of broadband frequency splitter, waveguide intersection, photonic crystal-based waveguide and nanowire-base......-based waveguide. The obtained results are compared to simplified 2D studies and we demonstrate that 3D topology optimization may lead to significant performance improvements. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Magneto-optical properties of biogenic photonic crystals in algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaka, M., E-mail: iwasaka-m@umin.ac.jp [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, 263-8522 Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 Saitama (Japan); Mizukawa, Y. [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, 263-8522 Chiba (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    In the present study, the effects of strong static magnetic fields on the structural colors of the cell covering crystals on a microalgae, coccolithophore, were investigated. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, generates a precise assembly of calcite crystals called coccoliths by biomineralization. The coccoliths attached to the cells exhibited structural colors under side light illumination, and the colors underwent dynamic transitions when the magnetic fields were changed between 0 T and 5 T, probably due to diamagnetically induced changes of their inclination under the magnetic fields. The specific light-scattering property of individual coccoliths separated from the cells was also observed. Light scattering from a condensed suspension of coccoliths drastically decreased when magnetic fields of more than 4 T were applied parallel to the direction of observation. The magnetically aligned cell-covering crystals of the coccolithophores exhibited the properties of both a photonic crystal and a minimum micromirror.

  17. Quantum Dot/Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites in Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Rodarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot/liquid crystal nano-composites are promising new materials for a variety of applications in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however, we need to control and stabilize nano-particle dispersion in different liquid crystal host phases and understand how the particles behave in an anisotropic fluid. An ideal system will allow for the controlled assembly of either well-defined nano-particle clusters or a uniform particle distribution. In this paper, we investigate mesogen-functionalized quantum dots for dispersion in cholesteric liquid crystal. These nanoparticles are known to assemble into dense stable packings in the nematic phase, and such structures, when localized in the liquid crystal defects, can potentially enhance the coupling between particles and a cholesteric cavity. Controlling the dispersion and assembly of quantum dots using mesogenic surface ligands, we demonstrate how resonant fluid photonic cavities can result from the co-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles in the presence of cholesteric liquid crystalline ordering.

  18. Photonics of liquid-crystal structures: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Blinov, L. M.; Barnik, M. I.; Lazarev, V. V.; Umanskii, B. A.; Shtykov, N. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    The original results of studies of the electro-optical and laser effects which have been performed at the Laboratory of Liquid Crystals of the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, over the last few years are reviewed. Cholesteric liquid crystals as vivid representatives of photonic structures and their behavior in an electric field are considered in detail. The formation of higher harmonics in the periodic distribution of the director field in a helical liquid crystal structure and, correspondingly, the new (anharmonic) mode of electro-optical effects are discussed. Another group of studies is devoted to bistable light switching by an electric field in chiral nematics. Polarization diffraction gratings controlled by an electric field are also considered. The results of studies devoted to microlasers on various photonic structures with cholesteric and nematic liquid crystals are considered in detail. Particular attention is given to the new regime: leaky-mode lasing. Designs of liquid crystal light amplifiers and their polarization, field, and spectral characteristics are considered in the last section.

  19. Photonics of liquid-crystal structures: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original results of studies of the electro-optical and laser effects which have been performed at the Laboratory of Liquid Crystals of the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, over the last few years are reviewed. Cholesteric liquid crystals as vivid representatives of photonic structures and their behavior in an electric field are considered in detail. The formation of higher harmonics in the periodic distribution of the director field in a helical liquid crystal structure and, correspondingly, the new (anharmonic) mode of electro-optical effects are discussed. Another group of studies is devoted to bistable light switching by an electric field in chiral nematics. Polarization diffraction gratings controlled by an electric field are also considered. The results of studies devoted to microlasers on various photonic structures with cholesteric and nematic liquid crystals are considered in detail. Particular attention is given to the new regime: leaky-mode lasing. Designs of liquid crystal light amplifiers and their polarization, field, and spectral characteristics are considered in the last section.

  20. Dispersion properties of transverse anisotropic liquid crystal core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion properties of liquid crystal core photonic crystal fibers for different core diameters have been calculated by a full vectorial finite difference method. In calculations, air holes are assumed to be arranged in a regular hexagonal array in fused silica and a central hole is filled with liquid crystal to create a core. In this study, three types of transverse anisotropic configurations, where liquid crystal molecules are oriented in a transverse plane, and a planar configuration, where liquid crystal molecules are oriented in a propagation direction, are considered. The large changes of the dispersion properties are found when the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is changed from a planar configuration to a uniform configuration, where all molecules are oriented in the same direction in a transverse plane. Since the orientation of liquid crystal molecules may be controlled by applying an electric field, it could be utilized for various applications including the spectral control of supercontinuum generation.