WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d isoelectric positioning

  1. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  2. Particle based 3D modeling of positive streamer inception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is introduced,

  3. A 3-D Hall Sensor for Precise Angular Position Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    DIMITROV, Konstantin Veselinov

    2007-01-01

    A 3-D silicon Hall effect sensor for precise angular-position measurement over 360° rotation is presented. This vector microtransducer functionally integrates into a common sensor region two parallel-field Hall devices for in-plane components of the magnetic field and one orthogonal Hall version for the perpendicular for the chip magnetic field. The advantages of this magnetometer are its low channel cross-sensitivities, remarkable simplified device design and high spatial resolution.

  4. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  5. The differences in the isoelectric points of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Kubesova, Anna; Pavlik, Tomas; Votava, Miroslav

    2010-03-01

    The isoelectric points of 39 Candida parapsilosis strains were determined by means of capillary isoelectric focusing. The value of the isoelectric point corresponded well with cell surface hydrophobicity, as well as with the ability to form biofilm in these yeasts.

  6. Propagation of positional error in 3D GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biljecki, Filip; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M.; Ledoux, Hugo; Stoter, Jantien

    2015-01-01

    While error propagation in GIS is a topic that has received a lot of attention, it has not been researched with 3D GIS data. We extend error propagation to 3D city models using a Monte Carlo simulation on a use case of annual solar irradiation estimation of building rooftops for assessing the eff

  7. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Shaw, H; Nefzger, C; Zoglauer, A; Schönfelder, V; Kanbach, G

    2000-01-01

    New gamma-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from gamma-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics in...

  8. An integrable 3D lattice model with positive Boltzmann weights

    CERN Document Server

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Sergeev, Sergey M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we construct a three-dimensional (3D) solvable lattice model with non-negative Boltzmann weights. The spin variables in the model are assigned to edges of the 3D cubic lattice and run over an infinite number of discrete states. The Boltzmann weights satisfy the tetrahedron equation, which is a 3D generalisation of the Yang-Baxter equation. The weights depend on a free parameter 03D lattice model with non-negative Boltzmann weights.

  9. The differences in the isoelectric points of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Kubesova, Anna; Pavlik, Tomas; Votava, Miroslav

    2010-03-01

    The isoelectric points of 39 Candida parapsilosis strains were determined by means of capillary isoelectric focusing. The value of the isoelectric point corresponded well with cell surface hydrophobicity, as well as with the ability to form biofilm in these yeasts. PMID:20079385

  10. Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, Tim

    2016-03-01

    As digital technologies are integrated into medical environments, they continue to transform the experience of contemporary health care. Importantly, medicine is increasingly visual. In the history of sonography, visibility has played an important role in accessing fetal bodies for diagnostic and entertainment purposes. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) rendering, sonography presents the fetus visually as already a child. The aesthetics of this process and the resulting imagery, made possible in digital networks, discloses important changes in the relationship between technology and biology, reproductive health and political debates, and biotechnology and culture. PMID:26164291

  11. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  12. Finding 3D Teeth Positions by Using 2D Uncalibrated Dental X-ray Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Bitra; Prasad, Dandey Venkata

    2010-01-01

    In Dental Radiology very often several radiographs (uncalibrated in position) are taken from the same person. The radiographs do not provide the depth details, and there is often requirement of three dimensional (3D) data to achieve better diagnosis by radiologist. The purpose of this project is a step forward to solve needs of dentists for evaluating the degree of severity of teeth cavities by 3D reconstruction implementing the uncalibrated radiographs. The 3D information retrieval from two ...

  13. 3D Tracking and Positioning of Surgical Instruments in Virtual Surgery Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoliang Duan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D tracking and positioning of surgical instruments is an indispensable part of virtual Surgery training system, because it is the unique interface for trainee to communicate with virtual environment. A suit of 3D tracking and positioning of surgical instruments based on stereoscopic vision is proposed. It can capture spatial movements of simulated surgical instrument in real time, and provide 6 degree of freedom information with the absolute error of less than 1 mm. The experimental results show that the 3D tracking and positioning of surgical instruments is highly accurate, easily operated, and inexpensive. Combining with force sensor and embedded acquisition device, this 3D tracking and positioning method can be used as a measurement platform of physical parameters to realize the measurement of soft tissue parameters.

  14. 3D Surface Imaging of the Human Female Torso in Upright to Supine Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Reece, Gregory P.; Merchant, Fatima; Andon, Johnny; Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K.; Weston, June; Fingeret, Michelle C.; Lane, Chris; Duncan, Kelly; Markey, Mia K.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of breasts is usually done with the patient in an upright position, which does not permit comparison of changes in breast morphology with changes in position of the torso. In theory, these limitations may be eliminated if the 3D camera system could remain fixed relative to the woman’s torso as she is tilted from 0 to 90 degrees. We mounted a 3dMDtorso imaging system onto a bariatric tilt table to image breasts at different tilt angles. The images were va...

  15. Radiological characterisation by means of 3D-laser modelling and positioning of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AB SVAFO is a nuclear waste technology and decommissioning company based in Sweden in the scenic surroundings of Studsvik on the Baltic coast. SVAFO is owned by the Swedish nuclear power industry. MultiInfo 3D Laser Scan Solution AB is a technical consult company focusing on the development and solution of 3D laser scanning techniques and its applications in different fields. For better viewing we are using a 3D-laser modelling of a building, national coordinates and using radiological measurements from a database. It is then possible to visualize the contamination situation in the whole building using a CAD-program. The results will be used for the upcoming R2-reactor decommissioning and for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. For better documentation of radioactivity distribution of a decommissioned facility any object in a building can be accurately measured in 3D and visualized in 3D-laser image in a CAD program (e.g. AutoCAD), and then link to a database (e.g. SVALA), which have stored the measurements of radioactivity by other tools (e.g. RFID-tags). The position of any measured object can also be identified in 3D model and laser image, so the situation of contamination levels and distribution can be monitored and visualized in 3D. The results will be used for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. AB SVAFO's main business is to take care of formerly state-owned spent nuclear waste at the site, including small amounts of nuclear fuel. Buildings are also included, mainly nuclear waste storage buildings and a research reactor. Some buildings have already been decommissioned with results of contamination shown in long and not very clear tables. With 3D-modelling the results are shown more clear. (authors)

  16. 3D Image-Guided Automatic Pipette Positioning for Single Cell Experiments in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Long; Lu Li; Ulf Knoblich; Hongkui Zeng; Hanchuan Peng

    2015-01-01

    We report a method to facilitate single cell, image-guided experiments including in vivo electrophysiology and electroporation. Our method combines 3D image data acquisition, visualization and on-line image analysis with precise control of physical probes such as electrophysiology microelectrodes in brain tissue in vivo. Adaptive pipette positioning provides a platform for future advances in automated, single cell in vivo experiments.

  17. Influence of hand position on the near-effect in 3D attention

    OpenAIRE

    Pollux, Petra; Bourke, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Voluntary reorienting of attention in real depth situations is characterized by an attentional bias to locations near the viewer once attention is deployed to a spatially cued object in depth. Previously this effect (initially referred to as the ‘near-effect’) was attributed to access of a 3D viewer-centred spatial representation for guiding attention in 3D space. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the near-bias could have been associated with the position of the response-hand, ...

  18. 3D measurement of the position of gold particles via evanescent digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Unno, Noriyuki; Nakata, Shuichiro; Taniguchi, Jun

    2016-08-01

    A new technique based on digital holography and evanescent waves was developed for 3D measurements of the position of gold nanoparticles in water. In this technique, an intensity profile is taken from a holographic image of a gold particle. To detect the position of the gold particle with high accuracy, its holographic image is recorded on a nanosized step made of MEXFLON, which has a refractive index close to that of water, and the position of the particle is reconstructed by means of digital holography. The height of the nanosized step was measured by using a profilometer and the digitally reconstructed height of the glass substrate had good agreement with the measured value. Furthermore, this method can be used to accurately track the 3D position of a gold particle in water.

  19. 3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nammoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  20. Retrieval of 3D-Position af a Passive Object Using Infrared LED's and Photodiodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    2005-01-01

    A sensor using infrared emitter/receiver pairs to determine the position of a passive object is presented. An array with a small number of infrared emitter/receiver pairs are proposed as sensing part to acquire information on the object position. The emitters illuminates the object and the intens...... experiments shows good accordance between actual and retrieved positions when tracking a ball. The ball has been successfully replaced by a human hand, and a "3D non-touch screen" with a human hand as "pointing device" is shown possible....

  1. Dynamic WIFI-Based Indoor Positioning in 3D Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Sohn, G.; Wang, L.; Lee, W.

    2013-11-01

    A web-based system based on the 3DTown project was proposed using Google Earth plug-in that brings information from indoor positioning devices and real-time sensors into an integrated 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world to visualize the dynamics of urban life within the 3D context of a city. We addressed limitation of the 3DTown project with particular emphasis on video surveillance camera used for indoor tracking purposes. The proposed solution was to utilize wireless local area network (WLAN) WiFi as a replacement technology for localizing objects of interest due to the wide spread availability and large coverage area of WiFi in indoor building spaces. Indoor positioning was performed using WiFi without modifying existing building infrastructure or introducing additional access points (AP)s. A hybrid probabilistic approach was used for indoor positioning based on previously recorded WiFi fingerprint database in the Petrie Science and Engineering building at York University. In addition, we have developed a 3D building modeling module that allows for efficient reconstruction of outdoor building models to be integrated with indoor building models; a sensor module for receiving, distributing, and visualizing real-time sensor data; and a web-based visualization module for users to explore the dynamic urban life in a virtual world. In order to solve the problems in the implementation of the proposed system, we introduce approaches for integration of indoor building models with indoor positioning data, as well as real-time sensor information and visualization on the web-based system. In this paper we report the preliminary results of our prototype system, demonstrating the system's capability for implementing a dynamic 3D indoor and outdoor virtual world that is composed of discrete modules connected through pre-determined communication protocols.

  2. Volumetric Next-best-view Planning for 3D Object Reconstruction with Positioning Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Irving Vasquez-Gomez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D object reconstruction is the process of building a 3D model of a real object. This task is performed by taking several scans of an object from different locations (views. Due to the limited field of view of the sensor and the object’s self-occlusions, it is a difficult problem to solve. In addition, sensor positioning by robots is not perfect, making the actual view different from the expected one. We propose a next best view (NBV algorithm that determines each view to reconstruct an arbitrary object. Furthermore, we propose a method to deal with the uncertainty in sensor positioning. The algorithm fulfills all the constraints of a reconstruction process, such as new information, positioning constraints, sensing constraints and registration constraints. Moreover, it improves the scan’s quality and reduces the navigation distance. The algorithm is based on a search-based paradigm where a set of candidate views is generated and then each candidate view is evaluated to determine which one is the best. To deal with positioning uncertainty, we propose a second stage which re-evaluates the views according to their neighbours, such that the best view is that which is within a region of the good views. The results of simulation and comparisons with previous approaches are presented.

  3. The possibility of isolated target 3-D position estimation and optimal receiver position determination in SS-BSAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Gheng; LONG Teng; ZENG Tao

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the generalized ambiguity function of bistatic SAR (BSAR), it is shown that 3-D point target estimation can be carried out in space-surface bistatic SAR (SS-BSAR). Appropriate analytical equations, based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), are derived and confirmed via computer simulation. Furthermore, the performance of the estimate using the Crammer-Rao bound is analyzed for the case in question, thus further revealing the possibility and potential of target 3-D position estimation. Setting the determinant maximum of the information matrix as the criterion, the optimal receiver position and multi-receiver configuration are analytically determined in the SS-BSAR system. Simulation results also validate the correctness of the analytical calculation.

  4. Robust 3D Position Estimation in Wide and Unconstrained Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Mossel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system for 3D position estimation in wide, unconstrained indoor environments is presented that employs infrared optical outside-in tracking of rigid-body targets with a stereo camera rig. To overcome limitations of state-of-the-art optical tracking systems, a pipeline for robust target identification and 3D point reconstruction has been investigated that enables camera calibration and tracking in environments with poor illumination, static and moving ambient light sources, occlusions and harsh conditions, such as fog. For evaluation, the system has been successfully applied in three different wide and unconstrained indoor environments, (1 user tracking for virtual and augmented reality applications, (2 handheld target tracking for tunneling and (3 machine guidance for mining. The results of each use case are discussed to embed the presented approach into a larger technological and application context. The experimental results demonstrate the system’s capabilities to track targets up to 100 m. Comparing the proposed approach to prior art in optical tracking in terms of range coverage and accuracy, it significantly extends the available tracking range, while only requiring two cameras and providing a relative 3D point accuracy with sub-centimeter deviation up to 30 m and low-centimeter deviation up to 100 m.

  5. 3D positional control of magnetic levitation system using adaptive control: improvement of positioning control in horizontal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Toshimasa; Fujitani, Yasuhiro; Kato, Norihiko; Tsuda, Naoaki; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish a technique that levitates and conveys a hand, a kind of micro-robot, by applying magnetic forces: the hand is assumed to have a function of holding and detaching the objects. The equipment to be used in our experiments consists of four pole-pieces of electromagnets, and is expected to work as a 4DOF drive unit within some restricted range of 3D space: the three DOF are corresponding to 3D positional control and the remaining one DOF, rotational oscillation damping control. Having used the same equipment, Khamesee et al. had manipulated the impressed voltages on the four electric magnetics by a PID controller by the use of the feedback signal of the hand's 3D position, the controlled variable. However, in this system, there were some problems remaining: in the horizontal direction, when translating the hand out of restricted region, positional control performance was suddenly degraded. The authors propose a method to apply an adaptive control to the horizontal directional control. It is expected that the technique to be presented in this paper contributes not only to the improvement of the response characteristic but also to widening the applicable range in the horizontal directional control.

  6. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Chung, Ming-Hsuan; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots.

  7. Detecting method of subjects' 3D positions and experimental advanced camera control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daiichiro; Abe, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Akio; Yamada, Mitsuho; Suzuki, Takahito; Kuwashima, Shigesumi

    1997-04-01

    Steady progress is being made in the development of an intelligent robot camera capable of automatically shooting pictures with a powerful sense of reality or tracking objects whose shooting requires advanced techniques. Currently, only experienced broadcasting cameramen can provide these pictures.TO develop an intelligent robot camera with these abilities, we need to clearly understand how a broadcasting cameraman assesses his shooting situation and how his camera is moved during shooting. We use a real- time analyzer to study a cameraman's work and his gaze movements at studios and during sports broadcasts. This time, we have developed a detecting method of subjects' 3D positions and an experimental camera control system to help us further understand the movements required for an intelligent robot camera. The features are as follows: (1) Two sensor cameras shoot a moving subject and detect colors, producing its 3D coordinates. (2) Capable of driving a camera based on camera movement data obtained by a real-time analyzer. 'Moving shoot' is the name we have given to the object position detection technology on which this system is based. We used it in a soccer game, producing computer graphics showing how players moved. These results will also be reported.

  8. Synergistic NGF/B27 gradients position synapses heterogeneously in 3D micropatterned neural cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kunze

    Full Text Available Native functional brain circuits show different numbers of synapses (synaptic densities in the cerebral cortex. Until now, different synaptic densities could not be studied in vitro using current cell culture methods for primary neurons. Herein, we present a novel microfluidic based cell culture method that combines 3D micropatterning of hydrogel layers with linear chemical gradient formation. Micropatterned hydrogels were used to encapsulate dissociated cortical neurons in laminar cell layers and neurotrophic factors NGF and B27 were added to influence the formation of synapses. Neurotrophic gradients allowed for the positioning of distinguishable synaptic densities throughout a 3D micropatterned neural culture. NGF and B27 gradients were maintained in the microfluidic device for over two weeks without perfusion pumps by utilizing a refilling procedure. Spatial distribution of synapses was examined with a pre-synaptic marker to determine synaptic densities. From our experiments, we observed that (1 cortical neurons responded only to synergistic NGF/B27 gradients, (2 synaptic density increased proportionally to synergistic NGF/B27 gradients; (3 homogeneous distribution of B27 disturbed cortical neurons in sensing NGF gradients and (4 the cell layer position significantly impacted spatial distribution of synapses.

  9. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tang Chao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots.

  10. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Chung, Ming-Hsuan; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2016-03-25

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots.

  11. Prediction of positive and negative elastic dilatancy in 2D and 3D liquid foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognon, P.; Molino, F.; Gay, C.

    2010-05-01

    Liquid foams have been observed to behave like immersed granular materials in at least one respect: deformation tends to raise their liquid contents, a phenomenon called dilatancy. While experimental observations evidenced the effect of a continuous deformation rate (dynamic dilatancy), we present a geometrical interpretation of both main contributions to elastic dilatancy (during elastic deformation) in foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams), which contain pseudo Plateau borders along the plates, and in 3D foams. The positive contribution is related to the increase in total Plateau border length while the negative contribution reflects the increase in total surface area of the foam. In 2D, we show that the negative dilatancy predicted by Weaire and Hutzler (Philos. Mag., 83 (2003) 2747) at very low liquid fractions is specific to ideal 2D foams (with no glass plates). In 3D, we predict that dilatancy should be positive at low liquid fractions (below 1%) and negative at moderate liquid fractions (above 4%).

  12. MuPIT interactive: webserver for mapping variant positions to annotated, interactive 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Noushin; Kim, Dewey; Kim, Ryangguk; Diekhans, Mark; Ryan, Michael; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Karchin, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Mutation position imaging toolbox (MuPIT) interactive is a browser-based application for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), which automatically maps the genomic coordinates of SNVs onto the coordinates of available three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. The application is designed for interactive browser-based visualization of the putative functional relevance of SNVs by biologists who are not necessarily experts either in bioinformatics or protein structure. Users may submit batches of several thousand SNVs and review all protein structures that cover the SNVs, including available functional annotations such as binding sites, mutagenesis experiments, and common polymorphisms. Multiple SNVs may be mapped onto each structure, enabling 3D visualization of SNV clusters and their relationship to functionally annotated positions. We illustrate the utility of MuPIT interactive in rationalizing the impact of selected polymorphisms in the PharmGKB database, somatic mutations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas study of invasive breast carcinomas, and rare variants identified in the exome sequencing project. MuPIT interactive is freely available for non-profit use at http://mupit.icm.jhu.edu .

  13. Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials—Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hofmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material engineering approaches have to be considered to overcome current limitations. An emerging method to produce complex biological products including cells or extracellular matrices in a controlled manner is a process called bioprinting or biofabrication, which effectively uses principles of rapid prototyping combined with cell-loaded biomaterials, typically hydrogels. 3D tissue printing is an approach to manufacture functional tissue layer-by-layer that could be transplanted in vivo after production. This method is especially advantageous for stem cells since a controlled environment can be created to influence cell growth and differentiation. Using printed tissue for biotechnological and pharmacological needs like in vitro drug-testing may lead to a revolution in the pharmaceutical industry since animal models could be partially replaced by biofabricated tissues mimicking human physiology and pathology. This would not only be a major advancement concerning rising ethical issues but would also have a measureable impact on economical aspects in this industry of today, where animal studies are very labor-intensive and therefore costly. In this review, current controlled material and cell positioning techniques are introduced highlighting approaches towards 3D tissue printing.

  14. Enhanced Antenna Position Implementation Over Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VNET) In 3D Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kanrar, Soumen

    2011-01-01

    The technology related to networking moves wired connection to wireless connection.The basic problem concern in the wireless domain, random packet loss for the end to end connection. In this paper we show the performance and the impact of the packet loss and delay, by the bit error rate throughput etc with respect to the real world scenario vehicular ad hoc network in 3-dimension space (VANET in 3D). Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. In this paper we consider the real world physical problem in three dimensional wireless domain and map the problem to analytical problem . In this paper we simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by using enhanced antenna position system (EAPS) mounted over the mobile node in 3D space. In this paper we convert the real world problem into lab oriented problem by using the EAPS -system and shown the performance in wireless domain in 3 dimensional spac...

  15. Enhanced Antenna Position Implementation Over Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VNET In 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Kanrar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The technology related to networking moves wired connection to wireless connection. The basic problem concern in the wireless domain, random packet loss for the end to end connection. Inthis paper we show the performance and the impact of the packet loss and delay, by the bit error rate throughput etc with respect to the real world scenario vehicular ad hoc network in 3-dimension space(VANET in 3D. Over the years software development has responded to the increasing growth of wireless connectivity in developing network enabled software. In this paper we consider the real world physicalproblem in three dimensional wireless domain and map the problem to analytical problem . In this paper we simulate that analytic problem with respect to real world scenario by using enhanced antenna position system (EAPS mounted over the mobile node in 3D space. In this paper we convert the real world problem into lab oriented problem by using the EAPS –system and shown the performance inwireless domain in 3 dimensional space.

  16. MuPIT Interactive: Webserver for mapping variant positions to annotated, interactive 3D structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Noushin; Kim, Dewey; Kim, Ryang Guk; Diekhans, Mark; Ryan, Michael; Stenson, Peter D.; Cooper, David N.; Karchin, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Mutation Position Imaging Toolbox (MuPIT) Interactive is a browser-based application for single nucleotide variants (SNVs), which automatically maps the genomic coordinates of SNVs onto the coordinates of available three-dimensional protein structures. The application is designed for interactive browser-based visualization of the putative functional relevance of SNVs by biologists who are not necessarily experts either in bioinformatics or protein structure. Users may submit batches of several thousand SNVs and review all protein structures that cover the SNVs, including available functional annotations such as binding sites, mutagenesis experiments, and common polymorphisms. Multiple SNVs may be mapped onto each structure, enabling 3D visualization of SNV clusters and their relationship to functionally annotated positions. We illustrate the utility of MuPIT Interactive in rationalizing the impact of selected polymorphisms in the PharmGKB database, somatic mutations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas study of invasive breast carcinomas, and rare variants identified in the Exome Sequencing Project. MuPIT Interactive is freely available for non-profit use at http://mupit.icm.jhu.edu. PMID:23793516

  17. Measurement of material uniformity using 3-D position sensitive CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    He, Z; Knoll, G F; Wehe, D K; Stahle, C M

    2000-01-01

    We present results from two 1 cm sup 3 CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers with full 3-D position sensitivity. To our knowledge, these are the first reported semiconductor spectrometers that provide independent spectral data for each of over 2000 volume elements. Energy resolutions of 1.5-1.6% FWHM and position resolutions of 0.7x0.7x0.5 mm were obtained at 662 keV gamma-ray energy from the central region of both detectors for single-pixel events. With the 3-D position sensing capability, variations in spectral response over the detector volume were recorded using a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source. These measurements allow a study of full-energy peak efficiency, mean ionization energy and electron trapping as a function of 3-D position. The effects of material non-uniformity on detector spectroscopic performance are discussed.

  18. Prediction of position estimation errors for 3D target trajetories estimated from cone-beam CT projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Keall, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) trajectory of an implanted tumor marker can be estimated from its projected 2D trajectory in a set of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections by a probability-based method[1]. The uncertainty in the position estimation depends on the trajectory and varies along a given trajectory...

  19. NUMERICAL MODELING FOR POSITIVE AND INVERSE PROBLEMS OF 3-D SEEPAGE IN DOUBLE FRACTURED MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-fang; GUO Geng-xin

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional seepage in double fractured media was modeled in this paper.The determination of hydraulic conductivity tensor of rock mass is a vital problem for the sea water intrusion or sea water encroachment and seepage of fissured medium.According to the geological and hydrogeological conditions for the 2nd-stage construction of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), the physical and mathematical models for the groundwater movement through the 3D double fractured media of rock mass during construction were established in this paper.Based on discontinuity-control inverse theory, some related parameters of double fractured media were inversed with flux being the known quantity and calibration of water table the objective function.Synchronously, the seepage field of the construction region was systematically analyzed and simulated, the results of which exhibit that the double fractured media model of fracture water can comprehensively and correctly describe the geological and hydrogeological conditions in the construction region.

  20. Retrieval of 3D-position of a Passive Object Using Infrared LED´s and Photodiodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    A sensor using infrared emitter/receiver pairs to determine the position of a passive object is presented. An array with a small number of infrared emitter/receiver pairs are proposed as sensing part to acquire information on the object position. The emitters illuminates the object and the intens...... experiments shows good accordance between actual and retrieved positions when tracking a ball. The ball has been successfully replaced by a human hand, and a "3D non-touch screen" with a human hand as "pointing device" is shown possible....

  1. 3-D Reciprocal Collision Avoidance on Physical Quadrotor Helicopters with On-Board Sensing for Relative Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Parker; Bareiss, Daman; Beall, Matt; Berg, Jur van den

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an implementation of 3-D reciprocal collision avoidance on real quadrotor helicopters where each quadrotor senses the relative position and velocity of other quadrotors using an on-board camera. We show that using our approach, quadrotors are able to successfully avoid pairwise collisions in GPS and motion-capture denied environments, without communication between the quadrotors, and even when human operators deliberately attempt to induce collisions. To our knowledg...

  2. Definition of anatomical zero positions for assessing shoulder pose with 3D motion capture during bilateral abduction of the arms

    OpenAIRE

    Rettig, Oliver; Krautwurst, Britta; Maier, Michael W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical interventions at the shoulder may alter function of the shoulder complex. Clinically, the outcome can be assessed by universal goniometry. Marker-based motion capture may not resemble these results due to differing angle definitions. Methods: The clinical inspection of bilateral arm abduction for assessing shoulder dysfunction is performed with a marker based 3D optical measurement method. An anatomical zero position of shoulder pose is proposed to determine absolute an...

  3. Assessment of accuracy and precision of 3D reconstruction of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in upright position using biplanar radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Dimitriou, Dimitris; Hosseini, Ali; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Torriani, Martin; Li, Guoan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of 3D reconstruction of UKA component position, contact location and lower limb alignment in standing position using biplanar radiograph. Two human specimens with 4 medial UKAs were implanted with beads for radiostereometric analysis (RSA). The specimens were frozen in standing position and CT-scanned to obtain relative positions between the beads, bones and UKA components. The specimens were then imaged using biplanar radiograph (EOS). The positions of the femur, tibia, UKA components and UKA contact locations were obtained using RSA- and EOS-based techniques. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for inter-observer reliability of the EOS technique. The average (standard deviation) of the differences between two techniques in translations and rotations were less than 0.18 (0.29) mm and 0.39° (0.66°) for UKA components. The root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of contact location along the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral directions were 0.84mm and 0.30mm. The RMSEs of the knee rotations were less than 1.70°. The ICCs for the EOS-based segmental orientations between two raters were larger than 0.98. The results suggest the EOS-based 3D reconstruction technique can precisely determine component position, contact location and lower limb alignment for UKA patients in weight-bearing standing position. PMID:27117422

  4. SHAPES - Spatial, High-Accuracy, Position-Encoding Sensor for multi-point, 3-D position measurement of large flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerheim, N. M

    1987-01-01

    An electro-optical position sensor for precise simultaneous measurement of the 3-D positions of multiple points on large space structures is described. The sensor data rate is sufficient for most control purposes. Range is determined by time-of-flight correlation of short laser pulses returned from retroreflector targets using a streak tube/CCD detector. Angular position is determined from target image locations on a second CCD. Experimental verification of dynamic ranging to multiple targets is discussed.

  5. Urban Positioning on a Smartphone: Real-time Shadow Matching Using GNSS and 3D City Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Groves, P. D.; Ziebart, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) user equipment in urban canyons is particularly poor in the cross-street direction. This is because more signals are blocked by buildings in the cross-street direction than along the street [1]. To address this problem, shadow matching has been proposed to improve cross-street positioning from street-level to lane-level (meters-level) accuracy using 3D city models. This is a new positioning method that uses the city model to predict...

  6. Combined error of patient positioning variability and prostate motion uncertainty in 3D conformal radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure the patient positioning and prostate motion variability and to estimate its influence on the calculated 3D dose distribution in 3D conformal radiotherapy of patients with localized prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patient positioning variability was determined retrospectively by comparing 54 orthogonal simulator films with 125 corresponding portal films from 27 patients. Prostate motion variability was determined by 107 computed tomography (CT) examinations with a CT simulator in 28 patients during radiotherapy. Results: In each observed direction, the patient positioning variability and prostate motion showed a normal distribution. This observation enabled the calculation of a combined error of both components. The standard deviation (1 SD) of the patient positioning error in three directions ranged from 3.1 to 5.4 mm; the prostate motion variability was significantly greater in the anterior-posterior direction (1 SD = 2.8 mm) than in the mediolateral direction (1 SD = 1.4 mm). The 1 SD of the estimated combined error was in the anterior-posterior direction 6.1 mm and in mediolateral direction 3.6 mm. Conclusion: The range of patient positioning variability and prostate motion were statistically predictable under the patient setup conditions used. Dose-volume histograms demonstrating the influence of the combined error of both components on the calculated dose distribution are presented

  7. Effects of Electrode Position on Spatiotemporal Auditory Nerve Fiber Responses: A 3D Computational Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cochlear implant (CI is an auditory prosthesis that enables hearing by providing electrical stimuli through an electrode array. It has been previously established that the electrode position can influence CI performance. Thus, electrode position should be considered in order to achieve better CI results. This paper describes how the electrode position influences the auditory nerve fiber (ANF response to either a single pulse or low- (250 pulses/s and high-rate (5,000 pulses/s pulse-trains using a computational model. The field potential in the cochlea was calculated using a three-dimensional finite-element model, and the ANF response was simulated using a biophysical ANF model. The effects were evaluated in terms of the dynamic range, stochasticity, and spike excitation pattern. The relative spread, threshold, jitter, and initiated node were analyzed for single-pulse response; and the dynamic range, threshold, initiated node, and interspike interval were analyzed for pulse-train stimuli responses. Electrode position was found to significantly affect the spatiotemporal pattern of the ANF response, and this effect was significantly dependent on the stimulus rate. We believe that these modeling results can provide guidance regarding perimodiolar and lateral insertion of CIs in clinical settings and help understand CI performance.

  8. Fast ray tracing method in 3-D structure and its proof of positive definiteness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Er-gen; Uk HAN; TENG Ji-wen

    2007-01-01

    Based on Fermat's principle. two-point ray tracing method was studied in three-dimensional structure.By means of first order Taylor's incomplete series expansion(i.e.no expansion to the length of the ray), a symmetry block tridiagonal matrix equation set was deduced.Further,the positive definiteness of coefficient matrix was discussed, and the positive definiteness was accurately proved in a mathematical way. It assured that the algorithm was well-posed. Associated with iterative method, the solution to ray tracing call be got through step-by-step linearized iteration of the nonlinear problem. An algorithm of the whole path iterative ray tracing method in three-dimensional velocity structure was obmined.This method shows a clear and simple as well as explicit computation formula, which makes ray tracing computation easily applicable in practice. The correction vector is obtained through finding the solution to the positive definite block tridiagonal equation set, which ensures the method is robust convergence. This study offers a new kind of feasible and efficient ray tracing method for three dimensional seismic migration and tomography. Meanwhile.it also provides the prerequisite guarantee to design a fast algorithm.

  9. Linearity of patient positioning detection. A phantom study of skin markers, cone beam computed tomography, and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhausen, Hendrik; Hieber, Sheila; Li, Minglun; Belka, Claus; Reiner, Michael [University Hospital of LMU, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Parodi, Katia [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Experimental Physics - Medical Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) is a modality complementary to kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) and skin markers for patient positioning detection. This study compares the linearity of evaluations based on measurements using a modern 3D-US system (Elekta Clarity {sup registered}; Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden), a kV-CBCT system (Elekta iView {sup registered}), and skin markers. An investigator deliberately displaced a multimodal phantom by up to ± 30 mm along different axes. The following data points were acquired: 27 along the lateral axis, 29 along the longitudinal axis, 27 along the vertical axis, and 27 along the space diagonal. At each of these 110 positions, the displacements according to skin' markers were recorded and scans were performed using both 3D-US and kV-CBCT. Shifts were detected by matching bony anatomy or soft tissue density to a reference planning CT in the case of kV-CBCT and for 3D-US, by matching ultrasound volume data to a reference planning volume. A consensus value was calculated from the average of the four modalities. With respect to this consensus value, the linearity (offset and regression coefficient, i.e., slope), average offset, systematic error, and random error of all four modalities were calculated for each axis. Linearity was similar for all four modalities, with regression coefficients between 0.994 and 1.012, and all offsets below 1 mm. The systematic errors of skin markers and 3D-US were higher than for kV-CBCT, but random errors were similar. In particular, 3D-US demonstrated an average offset of 0.36 mm to the right, 0.08 mm inferiorly, and 0.15 mm anteriorly; the systematic error was 0.36 mm laterally, 0.35 mm longitudinally, and 0.22 mm vertically; the random error was 0.15 mm laterally, 0.30 mm longitudinally, and 0.12 mm vertically. A total of 109 out of 110 (99 %) 3D-US measurements were within 1 mm of the consensus value on either axis. The linearity of 3D-US was no worse than that of skin

  10. Application development for automated positioning of 3D-representations of a modularized product

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents an application that performs positioning of modules automatically based on given data for every module, and the development of it. The basis of the application is from a previous thesis code. On top of that code, more features and error handling has been added, as well as fixes for various bugs. A stress test has been performed and further development possibilities are being presented. The thesis work was carried out at Toyota Material Handling Mjölby (TMH) and was made i...

  11. Propagator with Positive Cosmological Constant in the 3D Euclidian Quantum Gravity Toy Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bunting, William

    2014-01-01

    We study the propagator on a single tetrahedron in a three dimensional toy model of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is included in the model via q-deformation of the spatial symmetry algebra, that is, we use the Tuarev-Viro amplitude. The expected repulsive effect of dark energy is recovered in numerical and analytic calculations of the propagator at large scales comparable to the infrared cutoff. However, due to the simplicity of the model we do not obtain the exact Newton limit of the propagator. This is a first step toward the similar calculation in the full 3+1 dimensional theory with larger numbers of simplicies.

  12. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  13. A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)

  14. A Novel High-Order, Entropy Stable, 3D AMR MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code $\\texttt{FLASH}$ (http://flash.uchicago.edu). The accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a number of tests, including comparisons to available MHD implementations in $\\texttt{FLASH}$.

  15. Combination of pedCAT® for 3D Imaging in Standing Position With Pedography Shows No Statistical Correlation of Bone Position With Force/Pressure Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Martinus; Zech, Stefan; Hahn, Sarah; Naef, Issam; Merschin, David

    2016-01-01

    pedCAT(®) (CurveBeam, Warrington, PA) is a technology for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging with full weightbearing that has been proved to exactly visualize the 3D bone position. For the present study, a customized pedography sensor (Pliance; Novel, Munich, Germany) was inserted into the pedCAT(®). The aim of our study was to analyze the correlation of the bone position and force/pressure distribution. A prospective consecutive study of 50 patients was performed, starting July 28, 2014. All patients underwent a pedCAT(®) scan and simultaneous pedography with full weightbearing in the standing position. The following parameters were measured on the pedCAT(®) image for the right foot by 3 different investigators 3 times: lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, and minimum height of the fifth metatarsal base, second to fifth metatarsal heads, and medial sesamoid. From the pedography data, the following parameters were defined using the standardized software algorithm: midfoot contact area, maximum force of midfoot, maximum force of midfoot lateral, maximum force of entire foot, and maximum pressure of first to fifth metatarsal. The values of the corresponding pedCAT(®) and pedographic parameters were correlated (Pearson). The intra- and interobserver reliability of the pedCAT(®) measurements were sufficient (analysis of variance, p > .8 for each, power >0.8). No sufficient correlation was found between the pedCAT(®) and pedographic parameters (r -0.38).3D bone position did not correlate with the force and pressure distribution under the foot sole during simultaneous pedCAT(®) scanning and pedography. Thus, the bone positions measured with pedCAT(®) do not allow conclusions about the force and pressure distribution. However, the static pedographic parameters also do not allow conclusions about the 3D bone position.one position and force/pressure distribution are important parameters for diagnostics, planning, and follow-up examinations in foot

  16. Determination of the positions and orientations of concentrated rod-like colloids from 3D microscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, T H; Hermes, M; Kuijk, A; de Nijs, B; Deng, T-S; Dijkstra, M; Imhof, A; van Blaaderen, A

    2015-05-20

    Confocal microscopy in combination with real-space particle tracking has proven to be a powerful tool in scientific fields such as soft matter physics, materials science and cell biology. However, 3D tracking of anisotropic particles in concentrated phases remains not as optimized compared to algorithms for spherical particles. To address this problem, we developed a new particle-fitting algorithm that can extract the positions and orientations of fluorescent rod-like particles from three dimensional confocal microscopy data stacks. The algorithm is tailored to work even when the fluorescent signals of the particles overlap considerably and a threshold method and subsequent clusters analysis alone do not suffice. We demonstrate that our algorithm correctly identifies all five coordinates of uniaxial particles in both a concentrated disordered phase and a liquid-crystalline smectic-B phase. Apart from confocal microscopy images, we also demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to identify nanorods in 3D electron tomography reconstructions. Lastly, we determined the accuracy of the algorithm using both simulated and experimental confocal microscopy data-stacks of diffusing silica rods in a dilute suspension. This novel particle-fitting algorithm allows for the study of structure and dynamics in both dilute and dense liquid-crystalline phases (such as nematic, smectic and crystalline phases) as well as the study of the glass transition of rod-like particles in three dimensions on the single particle level. PMID:25922931

  17. Determination of the positions and orientations of concentrated rod-like colloids from 3D microscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confocal microscopy in combination with real-space particle tracking has proven to be a powerful tool in scientific fields such as soft matter physics, materials science and cell biology. However, 3D tracking of anisotropic particles in concentrated phases remains not as optimized compared to algorithms for spherical particles. To address this problem, we developed a new particle-fitting algorithm that can extract the positions and orientations of fluorescent rod-like particles from three dimensional confocal microscopy data stacks. The algorithm is tailored to work even when the fluorescent signals of the particles overlap considerably and a threshold method and subsequent clusters analysis alone do not suffice. We demonstrate that our algorithm correctly identifies all five coordinates of uniaxial particles in both a concentrated disordered phase and a liquid-crystalline smectic-B phase. Apart from confocal microscopy images, we also demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to identify nanorods in 3D electron tomography reconstructions. Lastly, we determined the accuracy of the algorithm using both simulated and experimental confocal microscopy data-stacks of diffusing silica rods in a dilute suspension. This novel particle-fitting algorithm allows for the study of structure and dynamics in both dilute and dense liquid-crystalline phases (such as nematic, smectic and crystalline phases) as well as the study of the glass transition of rod-like particles in three dimensions on the single particle level. (paper)

  18. Analysis of direct clinical consequences of MLC positional errors in volumetric-modulated arc therapy using 3D dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithiyanantham, Karthikeyan; Mani, Ganesh K; Subramani, Vikraman; Mueller, Lutz; Palaniappan, Karrthick K; Kataria, Tejinder

    2015-09-08

    In advanced, intensity-modulated external radiotherapy facility, the multileaf collimator has a decisive role in the beam modulation by creating multiple segments or dynamically varying field shapes to deliver a uniform dose distribution to the target with maximum sparing of normal tissues. The position of each MLC leaf has become more critical for intensity-modulated delivery (step-and-shoot IMRT, dynamic IMRT, and VMAT) compared to 3D CRT, where it defines only field boundaries. We analyzed the impact of the MLC positional errors on the dose distribution for volumetric-modulated arc therapy, using a 3D dosimetry system. A total of 15 VMAT cases, five each for brain, head and neck, and prostate cases, were retrospectively selected for the study. All the plans were generated in Monaco 3.0.0v TPS (Elekta Corporation, Atlanta, GA) and delivered using Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Systematic errors of +1, +0.5, +0.3, 0, -1, -0.5, -0.3 mm were introduced in the MLC bank of the linear accelerator and the impact on the dose distribution of VMAT delivery was measured using the COMPASS 3D dosim-etry system. All the plans were created using single modulated arcs and the dose calculation was performed using a Monte Carlo algorithm in a grid size of 3 mm. The clinical endpoints D95%, D50%, D2%, and Dmax,D20%, D50% were taken for the evaluation of the target and critical organs doses, respectively. A significant dosimetric effect was found for many cases even with 0.5 mm of MLC positional errors. The average change of dose D 95% to PTV for ± 1 mm, ± 0.5 mm, and ±0.3mm was 5.15%, 2.58%, and 0.96% for brain cases; 7.19%, 3.67%, and 1.56% for head and neck cases; and 8.39%, 4.5%, and 1.86% for prostate cases, respectively. The average deviation of dose Dmax was 5.4%, 2.8%, and 0.83% for brainstem in brain cases; 8.2%, 4.4%, and 1.9% for spinal cord in H&N; and 10.8%, 6.2%, and 2.1% for rectum in prostate cases, respectively. The average changes in dose followed a linear

  19. Development of fast patient position verification software using 2D-3D image registration and its clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve treatment workflow, we developed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-based patient positional verification software application and integrated it into carbon-ion scanning beam treatment. Here, we evaluated the basic performance of the software. The algorithm provides 2D/3D registration matching using CT and orthogonal X-ray flat panel detector (FPD) images. The participants were 53 patients with tumors of the head and neck, prostate or lung receiving carbon-ion beam treatment. 2D/3D-ITchi-Gime (ITG) calculation accuracy was evaluated in terms of computation time and registration accuracy. Registration calculation was determined using the similarity measurement metrics gradient difference (GD), normalized mutual information (NMI), zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC), and their combination. Registration accuracy was dependent on the particular metric used. Representative examples were determined to have target registration error (TRE) = 0.45 ± 0.23 mm and angular error (AE) = 0.35 ± 0.18° with ZNCC + GD for a head and neck tumor; TRE = 0.12 ± 0.07 mm and AE = 0.16 ± 0.07° with ZNCC for a pelvic tumor; and TRE = 1.19 ± 0.78 mm and AE = 0.83 ± 0.61° with ZNCC for lung tumor. Calculation time was less than 7.26 s. The new registration software has been successfully installed and implemented in our treatment process. We expect that it will improve both treatment workflow and treatment accuracy. (author)

  20. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  1. The Study of Positioning Strategy of Irregular 3D Plane in Sensor Networks%传感网中不规则复杂3D 平面定位策略研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽军; 陈敏

    2015-01-01

    Considering the large positioning error and high energy consumption concerning irregular and complex 3D plane with obstacles,this paper put forward a new strategy to locate the unknown nodes.This policy divides the complex three-dimensional plane into different logic layers and labels each layer node it belongs to.Then,sub-regions are divided and merged in horizontal layers.Finally,the positioning of 3D complex plane is possible by calculating the location coordinate of unknown nodes after atmospheric pres-sure sensor ranging.Compared with SV and COLA,the 3D-CCD positioning strategy in the average posi-tioning error is 5% less than SV and 8% less than COLA.Its positioning precision increases more than 6. 5%,and the energy consumption reduces 2.7% than SV and COLA.The 3D-CCD has great advantages in terms of positioning error,accuracy and energy.%针对具有障碍物的复杂3D 平面定位误差大以及能耗高的问题,如何进行未知节点的定位,提出了一种具有障碍物的不规则复杂3D 平面定位策略,该策略将复杂三维平面划分为水平逻辑层并标记节点的所属层,然后在具有障碍物的水平层进行子区域的划分及合并,最后利用大气压传感器测距进行计算未知节点的坐标从而得到3D 复杂平面的定位.通过与最新 SV 定位机制及 COLA 定位机制在定位误差及能耗进行综合仿真实验对比,本文的定位策略3D-CCD平均定位误差比 SV 少了5%,比 COLA 的平均定位误差少8%以上,定位精度上比 SV 和 COLA提高了6.5%以上,及在能耗上比 SV 和 COLA 减少了2.7%左右.因此该定位策略(3D-CCD)在解决复杂不规则图形的不确定节点具有较大的优越性.

  2. Positional precision evaluation of 3 D laser scanner based on 3 D control field%基于三维控制场的三维激光扫描仪点位精度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史波; 郑敏

    2015-01-01

    为评定三维激光扫描仪的精度,设计了一个基于室内三维控制场的RIEGL VZ-400点位精度评定方案。通过实测得到其在距离10 m左右的外部、内部符合精度分别为±1.675 mm和±0.48 mm。详细介绍了室内全景三维控制场的布设、数据采集以及点位精度的评定方法。研究结果可为地面三维激光扫描仪的工程应用提供精度依据。%For evaluating the precision of a 3D laser scanner, we designed a positional precision evaluation solution for RIEGL VZ-400 on the basis of the 3D indoor panoramic control field. Through the evaluation, the precision of external and internal po-sition at distance of 10 m is ± 1. 675mm and ± 0. 48mm respectively. The layout, data collection way and the positional preci-sion evaluation method are introduced. The results could provide experiences and references for the application of ground 3D laser scanners.

  3. Development of a closed-loop fes system using a 3-d magnetic position and orientation measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosawa Kenji

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a closed-loop FES system using a magnetic 3-D position and orientation measurement system (FASTRAK, Polhemus Inc. The purpose of this development was to resolve some experimental difficulties involved in our previous goniometer-based experimental system. The new system enabled us to perform FES control experiments on the multi-joint musculoskeletal system of the upper limbs including forearm pronation/supination. In this paper, we evaluated the system by some single-joint tracking tasks in order to compare its control performance with that of the previous system. Four muscles (ECRL(B, ECU, FCR, and FCU of neurologically intact subjects were stimulated to control the wrist joint's two degrees of freedom movement. Stimulation currents were determined by a multi-channel PID controller that was designed for a musculoskeletal system with redundancy (i.e. the number of muscles stimulated is more than that of the degree-of-freedom of the movement. The results showed that the system had sufficient control performance on tracking desired trajectories. Moreover, the system could compensate for unwanted external disturbances.

  4. Locating and Positioning Solar Panels in a 3D City Model: A Case Study of Newcastle, UK. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2015 – Geospatial Minds for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hosaini, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of high quality, realistic 3D city models is creating new possibilities for analyses and visualisations of solar irradiance and photovoltaic (PV) potential at an urban level. A 3D city model of Newcastle (UK) is used to demonstrate potential applications for locating solar panels (i.e. which surfaces within the model), and positioning them (i.e. where on a given surface). After geometrically validating the model, a 3D PV assessment tool is developed for locating suitable sur...

  5. 观看3D 电视中正负视差图片的脑电信号研究%Research on EEG Signals of Watching Positive and Negative Parallax Images in 3 D TV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 钱志余; 金帅; 范海豪; 张庆召; 瞿诗华; 杜垚

    2014-01-01

    采集记录志愿者在观看正负视差图片时的脑电信号,探究3D产品的相关参数。用自行搭建的测试系统,对10名志愿者用正负视差图片刺激,记录其脑电信号数据,采用独立成分分析方法( ICA)来处理其脑电信号,并用统计学的相关方法分析脑电与图片刺激之间的关系。结果表明,志愿者在分别观看正负视差的3D图片后,其脑电信号变化表出现明显不同,经分析发现,观看负视差图片时所有导联的Pα/Pβ比值比观看正视差图片时要小,且导联T4、FCz、C3、Pz具有统计学意义。观看负视差图片比正视差图片更能引起人体兴奋;Pα/Pβ的比值可以作为检测3D影像作品的一个参考指标。%To collect and record volunteers′EEG when they watch positive and negative parallax images, to explore 3D product-related parameters.10 volunteers were selected to conduct experiments with self-built test system ,accepting positive and negative par-allax images stimuli respectively, their EEG data were recorded.The EEG were processed with the method of independent component a-nalysis( ICA) , and with the method of statistical analysis to analyse the relationship between EEG and picture stimuli.The results showed that after watching positive and negative parallax 3D images, EEG of all volunteers′changed obviously, it was found that com-pared with watching positive parallax images,Pα/Pβratio of all leads was smaller while watching positive parallax images, and the leads T4, FCz, C3, Pz had statistically signification.Watching negative parallax images is easier lead to excitement than the parallax images;Pα/Pβratio can work as a reference index to evaluate 3D product.

  6. Segmentation of heterogeneous or small FDG PET positive tissue based on a 3D-locally adaptive random walk algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoma, D P; Ruan, S; Thureau, S; Nkhali, L; Modzelewski, R; Monnehan, G A; Vera, P; Gardin, I

    2014-12-01

    A segmentation algorithm based on the random walk (RW) method, called 3D-LARW, has been developed to delineate small tumors or tumors with a heterogeneous distribution of FDG on PET images. Based on the original algorithm of RW [1], we propose an improved approach using new parameters depending on the Euclidean distance between two adjacent voxels instead of a fixed one and integrating probability densities of labels into the system of linear equations used in the RW. These improvements were evaluated and compared with the original RW method, a thresholding with a fixed value (40% of the maximum in the lesion), an adaptive thresholding algorithm on uniform spheres filled with FDG and FLAB method, on simulated heterogeneous spheres and on clinical data (14 patients). On these three different data, 3D-LARW has shown better segmentation results than the original RW algorithm and the three other methods. As expected, these improvements are more pronounced for the segmentation of small or tumors having heterogeneous FDG uptake.

  7. Imaging the position-dependent 3D force on microbeads subjected to acoustic radiation forces and streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Andreas; Lakämper, Stefan; Baasch, Thierry; Schaap, Iwan A T; Dual, Jurg

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic particle manipulation in microfluidic channels is becoming a powerful tool in microfluidics to control micrometer sized objects in medical, chemical and biological applications. By creating a standing acoustic wave in the channel, the resulting pressure field can be employed to trap or sort particles. To design efficient and reproducible devices, it is important to characterize the pressure field throughout the volume of the microfluidic device. Here, we used an optically trapped particle as probe to measure the forces in all three dimensions. By moving the probe through the volume of the channel, we imaged spatial variations in the pressure field. In the direction of the standing wave this revealed a periodic energy landscape for 2 μm beads, resulting in an effective stiffness of 2.6 nN m(-1) for the acoustic trap. We found that multiple fabricated devices showed consistent pressure fields. Surprisingly, forces perpendicular to the direction of the standing wave reached values of up to 20% of the main-axis-values. To separate the direct acoustic force from secondary effects, we performed experiments with different bead sizes, which attributed some of the perpendicular forces to acoustic streaming. This method to image acoustically generated forces in 3D can be used to either minimize perpendicular forces or to employ them for specific applications in novel acoustofluidic designs.

  8. Imaging the position-dependent 3D force on microbeads subjected to acoustic radiation forces and streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Andreas; Lakämper, Stefan; Baasch, Thierry; Schaap, Iwan A T; Dual, Jurg

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic particle manipulation in microfluidic channels is becoming a powerful tool in microfluidics to control micrometer sized objects in medical, chemical and biological applications. By creating a standing acoustic wave in the channel, the resulting pressure field can be employed to trap or sort particles. To design efficient and reproducible devices, it is important to characterize the pressure field throughout the volume of the microfluidic device. Here, we used an optically trapped particle as probe to measure the forces in all three dimensions. By moving the probe through the volume of the channel, we imaged spatial variations in the pressure field. In the direction of the standing wave this revealed a periodic energy landscape for 2 μm beads, resulting in an effective stiffness of 2.6 nN m(-1) for the acoustic trap. We found that multiple fabricated devices showed consistent pressure fields. Surprisingly, forces perpendicular to the direction of the standing wave reached values of up to 20% of the main-axis-values. To separate the direct acoustic force from secondary effects, we performed experiments with different bead sizes, which attributed some of the perpendicular forces to acoustic streaming. This method to image acoustically generated forces in 3D can be used to either minimize perpendicular forces or to employ them for specific applications in novel acoustofluidic designs. PMID:27302661

  9. Position tracking of moving liver lesion based on real-time registration between 2D ultrasound and 3D preoperative images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom, E-mail: jbra@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patient’s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a

  10. 4D CT amplitude binning for the generation of a time-averaged 3D mid-position CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to use amplitude binned 4D-CT (A-4D-CT) data for the construction of mid-position CT data and to compare the results with data created from phase-binned 4D-CT (P-4D-CT) data. For the latter purpose we have developed two measures which describe the regularity of the 4D data and we have tried to correlate these measures with the regularity of the external respiration signal. 4D-CT data was acquired for 27 patients on a combined PET-CT scanner. The 4D data were reconstructed twice, using phase and amplitude binning. The 4D frames of each dataset were registered using a quadrature-based optical flow method. After registration the deformation vector field was repositioned to the mid-position. Since amplitude-binned 4D data does not provide temporal information, we corrected the mid-position for the occupancy of the bins. We quantified the differences between the two mid-position datasets in terms of tumour offset and amplitude differences. Furthermore, we measured the standard deviation of the image intensity over the respiration after registration (σregistration) and the regularity of the deformation vector field ( Δ|J|-bar ) to quantify the quality of the 4D-CT data. These measures were correlated to the regularity of the external respiration signal (σsignal). The two irregularity measures, Δ|J|-bar and σregistration, were dependent on each other (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.80 for P-4D-CT, R2 = 0.74 for A-4D-CT). For all datasets amplitude binning resulted in lower Δ|J|-bar and σregistration and large decreases led to visible quality improvements in the mid-position data. The quantity of artefact decrease was correlated to the irregularity of the external respiratory signal. The average tumour offset between the phase and amplitude binned mid-position without occupancy correction was 0.42 mm in the caudal direction (10.6% of the amplitude). After correction this was reduced to 0.16 mm in caudal direction (4.1% of

  11. 4D CT amplitude binning for the generation of a time-averaged 3D mid-position CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Matthijs F; van de Kamer, Jeroen B; Belderbos, José S A; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel

    2014-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to use amplitude binned 4D-CT (A-4D-CT) data for the construction of mid-position CT data and to compare the results with data created from phase-binned 4D-CT (P-4D-CT) data. For the latter purpose we have developed two measures which describe the regularity of the 4D data and we have tried to correlate these measures with the regularity of the external respiration signal. 4D-CT data was acquired for 27 patients on a combined PET-CT scanner. The 4D data were reconstructed twice, using phase and amplitude binning. The 4D frames of each dataset were registered using a quadrature-based optical flow method. After registration the deformation vector field was repositioned to the mid-position. Since amplitude-binned 4D data does not provide temporal information, we corrected the mid-position for the occupancy of the bins. We quantified the differences between the two mid-position datasets in terms of tumour offset and amplitude differences. Furthermore, we measured the standard deviation of the image intensity over the respiration after registration (σregistration) and the regularity of the deformation vector field (Delta J) to quantify the quality of the 4D-CT data. These measures were correlated to the regularity of the external respiration signal (σsignal).The two irregularity measures, Delta J and σregistration, were dependent on each other (p<0.0001, R2=0.80 for P-4D-CT, R2=0.74 for A-4D-CT). For all datasets amplitude binning resulted in lower Delta J and σregistration and large decreases led to visible quality improvements in the mid-position data. The quantity of artefact decrease was correlated to the irregularity of the external respiratory signal.The average tumour offset between the phase and amplitude binned mid-position without occupancy correction was 0.42 mm in the caudal direction (10.6% of the amplitude). After correction this was reduced to 0.16 mm in caudal direction (4.1% of the amplitude

  12. 3D computational mechanics elucidate the evolutionary implications of orbit position and size diversity of early amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Sánchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluís; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in vertebrate palaeontology, the potential of joining Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Parametrical Analysis (PA) is used to shed new light on two different cranial parameters from the orbits to evaluate their biomechanical role and evolutionary patterns. The early tetrapod group of Stereospondyls, one of the largest groups of Temnospondyls is used as a case study because its orbits position and size vary hugely within the members of this group. An adult skull of Edingerella madagascariensis was analysed using two different cases of boundary and loading conditions in order to quantify stress and deformation response under a bilateral bite and during skull raising. Firstly, the variation of the original geometry of its orbits was introduced in the models producing new FEA results, allowing the exploration of the ecomorphology, feeding strategy and evolutionary patterns of these top predators. Secondly, the quantitative results were analysed in order to check if the orbit size and position were correlated with different stress patterns. These results revealed that in most of the cases the stress distribution is not affected by changes in the size and position of the orbit. This finding supports the high mechanical plasticity of this group during the Triassic period. The absence of mechanical constraints regarding the orbit probably promoted the ecomorphological diversity acknowledged for this group, as well as its ecological niche differentiation in the terrestrial Triassic ecosystems in clades as lydekkerinids, trematosaurs, capitosaurs or metoposaurs.

  13. 3D computational mechanics elucidate the evolutionary implications of orbit position and size diversity of early amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Sánchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluís; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in vertebrate palaeontology, the potential of joining Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Parametrical Analysis (PA) is used to shed new light on two different cranial parameters from the orbits to evaluate their biomechanical role and evolutionary patterns. The early tetrapod group of Stereospondyls, one of the largest groups of Temnospondyls is used as a case study because its orbits position and size vary hugely within the members of this group. An adult skull of Edingerella madagascariensis was analysed using two different cases of boundary and loading conditions in order to quantify stress and deformation response under a bilateral bite and during skull raising. Firstly, the variation of the original geometry of its orbits was introduced in the models producing new FEA results, allowing the exploration of the ecomorphology, feeding strategy and evolutionary patterns of these top predators. Secondly, the quantitative results were analysed in order to check if the orbit size and position were correlated with different stress patterns. These results revealed that in most of the cases the stress distribution is not affected by changes in the size and position of the orbit. This finding supports the high mechanical plasticity of this group during the Triassic period. The absence of mechanical constraints regarding the orbit probably promoted the ecomorphological diversity acknowledged for this group, as well as its ecological niche differentiation in the terrestrial Triassic ecosystems in clades as lydekkerinids, trematosaurs, capitosaurs or metoposaurs. PMID:26107295

  14. 3D computational mechanics elucidate the evolutionary implications of orbit position and size diversity of early amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Marcé-Nogué

    Full Text Available For the first time in vertebrate palaeontology, the potential of joining Finite Element Analysis (FEA and Parametrical Analysis (PA is used to shed new light on two different cranial parameters from the orbits to evaluate their biomechanical role and evolutionary patterns. The early tetrapod group of Stereospondyls, one of the largest groups of Temnospondyls is used as a case study because its orbits position and size vary hugely within the members of this group. An adult skull of Edingerella madagascariensis was analysed using two different cases of boundary and loading conditions in order to quantify stress and deformation response under a bilateral bite and during skull raising. Firstly, the variation of the original geometry of its orbits was introduced in the models producing new FEA results, allowing the exploration of the ecomorphology, feeding strategy and evolutionary patterns of these top predators. Secondly, the quantitative results were analysed in order to check if the orbit size and position were correlated with different stress patterns. These results revealed that in most of the cases the stress distribution is not affected by changes in the size and position of the orbit. This finding supports the high mechanical plasticity of this group during the Triassic period. The absence of mechanical constraints regarding the orbit probably promoted the ecomorphological diversity acknowledged for this group, as well as its ecological niche differentiation in the terrestrial Triassic ecosystems in clades as lydekkerinids, trematosaurs, capitosaurs or metoposaurs.

  15. Effect of anchor positioning on binding and diffusion of elongated 3D DNA nanostructures on lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskaia, Alena; Franquelim, Henri G.; Petrov, Eugene P.; Schwille, Petra

    2016-05-01

    DNA origami is a state-of-the-art technology that enables the fabrication of nano-objects with defined shapes, to which functional moieties, such as lipophilic anchors, can be attached with a nanometre scale precision. Although binding of DNA origami to lipid membranes has been extensively demonstrated, the specific requirements necessary for membrane attachment are greatly overlooked. Here, we designed a set of amphipathic rectangular-shaped DNA origami structures with varying placement and number of chol-TEG anchors used for membrane attachment. Single- and multiple-cholesteryl-modified origami nanostructures were produced and studied in terms of their membrane localization, density and dynamics. We show that the positioning of at least two chol-TEG moieties near the corners is essential to ensure efficient membrane binding of large DNA nanostructures. Quantitative fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data further confirm that increasing the number of corner-positioned chol-TEG anchors lowers the dynamics of flat DNA origami structures on freestanding membranes. Taken together, our approach provides the first evidence of the importance of the location in addition to the number of hydrophobic moieties when rationally designing minimal DNA nanostructures with controlled membrane binding.

  16. Diffractive centrosymmetric 3D-transmission phase gratings positioned at the image plane of optical systems transform lightlike 4D-WORLD as tunable resonators into spectral metrics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1999-08-01

    Diffractive 3D phase gratings of spherical scatterers dense in hexagonal packing geometry represent adaptively tunable 4D-spatiotemporal filters with trichromatic resonance in visible spectrum. They are described in the (lambda) - chromatic and the reciprocal (nu) -aspects by reciprocal geometric translations of the lightlike Pythagoras theorem, and by the direction cosine for double cones. The most elementary resonance condition in the lightlike Pythagoras theorem is given by the transformation of the grating constants gx, gy, gz of the hexagonal 3D grating to (lambda) h1h2h3 equals (lambda) 111 with cos (alpha) equals 0.5. Through normalization of the chromaticity in the von Laue-interferences to (lambda) 111, the (nu) (lambda) equals (lambda) h1h2h3/(lambda) 111-factor of phase velocity becomes the crucial resonance factor, the 'regulating device' of the spatiotemporal interaction between 3D grating and light, space and time. In the reciprocal space equal/unequal weights and times in spectral metrics result at positions of interference maxima defined by hyperbolas and circles. A database becomes built up by optical interference for trichromatic image preprocessing, motion detection in vector space, multiple range data analysis, patchwide multiple correlations in the spatial frequency spectrum, etc.

  17. Isoelectric focusing of urinary metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felley-Bosco, E; Hunziker, P E; Savolainen, H

    1990-05-01

    Isoelectric focusing of human urinary metallothionein at a pH range of 4.8 to 7.0 yielded a single protein band with a pI of 5.57 which co-migrated with authentic purified metallothionein I from human liver. Minimum pretreatment of the urine samples (160 ml) was needed. The preparatory steps included sample concentration with the original protein, enriched from 69 +/- 23 micrograms/ml to 2.0 +/- 1.4 mg/ml (+/- SD; n = 9), followed by heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 5 min (2.4 +/- 1.7 mg protein/ml). After focusing, the gels were stained with silver and the lanes were scanned with a laser scanner. Peak areas were used for quantitation with commercial beta 2-microglobulin as a standard. The urinary metallothionein ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 nmol/mmol creatinine, which is comparable with values reached by radio-immunoassay.

  18. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  19. Comparison of measurements from digital cephalometric radiographs and 3D MDCT-synthetized cephalometric radiographs and the effect of head position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To investigate the reproducibilities and compare the measurements in digital and MDCT-synthesized cephalometric radiograph, and to investigate the effect of head position on the measurement during imaging with MDCT. Twenty-two dry skulls (combined with mandible) were used in this study. Conventional digital cephalometric radiograph was taken in standard position, and MDCT was taken in standard position and two rotated position (10 .deg. C left rotation and 10 .deg. C right tilting). MDCT data were imported in OnDemand and lateral cephalometric radiograph were synthesized from 3D virtual models. Two types of rotated MDCT data were synthesized with default mode and with corrected mode using both ear rods. For all six images, sixteen angular and eleven linear measurements were made in V-Ceph three times. Reproducibility of measurements was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and ICC. Linear and angular measurements were compared between digital and five MDCTsynthesized images by Student t-test. All measurements in six types of cephalometric radiograph were not statistically different under ICC examination. Measurements were not different between digital and MDCT-synthesized images (P> .05). Measurements in MDCT-synthesized image in 10 .deg. C left rotation or 10 .deg. C right tilting position showed possibility of difference from digital image in some measurements, and possibility of improvement via realignment of head position using both ear rods. MDCT-synthesized cephalometric radiograph can substitute conventional cephalometric radiograph. The error on head position during imaging with MDCT have possibility that can produce measurement errors with MDCT-synthesized image, and these position error can be corrected by realignment of the head position using both ear rods.

  20. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  1. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  2. Isoelectric points of proteins, determined by isoelectric focusing in the presence of urea and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelsema, W.J.; Ligny, C.L. de; Veen, N.G. van der

    1979-01-01

    Isoelectric points, pIapp, in sucrose-urea-water and glycerol-ethanol-water mixtures and isoelectric points, pI, in water have been determined at 25° for some carrier ampholytes. The differences, pIapp---pI, are shown to account for the primary medium effect and the pH measuring cell effect on the i

  3. Ischemia detection using Isoelectric Energy Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been proposed for the detection of ischemia using an isoelectric energy function (IEEF) resulting from ST segment deviations in ECG signals. The method consists of five stages: pre-processing, delineation, measurement of isoelectric energy, a beat characterization algorithm and detection of ischemia. The isoelectric energy threshold is used to differentiate ischemic beats from normal beats for ischemic episode detection. Then, ischemic episodes are classified as transmural or subendocardial. The method is validated for recordings of the annotated European ST-T database (EDB). The results show 98.12% average sensitivity (SE) and 98.16% average specificity (SP). These results are significantly better than those of existing methods cited in the literature. The advantage of the proposed method includes simplicity, ruggedness and automatic discarding of noisy beats. PMID:26623944

  4. Characterization of a sub-assembly of 3D position sensitive cadmium zinc telluride detectors and electronics from a sub-millimeter resolution PET system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Gu, Yi; Reynolds, Paul D.; Levin, Craig S.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) offers key advantages for small animal positron emission tomography (PET), including high spatial and energy resolution and simple metal deposition for fabrication of very small pixel arrays. Previous studies have investigated the intrinsic spatial, energy, and timing resolution of an individual sub-millimeter resolution CZT detector. In this work we present the first characterization results of a system of these detectors. The 3D position sensitive dual-CZT detector module and readout electronics developed in our lab was scaled up to complete a significant portion of the final PET system. This sub-system was configured as two opposing detection panels containing a total of twelve 40~\\text{mm}× 40~\\text{mm}× 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals for proof of concept. System-level characterization studies, including optimizing the trigger threshold of each channel’s comparators, were performed. 68Ge and 137Cs radioactive isotopes were used to characterize the energy resolution of all 468 anode channels in the sub-system. The mean measured global 511 keV photopeak energy resolution over all anodes was found to be 7.35+/- 1.75 % FWHM after correction for photon interaction depth-dependent signal variation. The measured global time resolution was 37 ns FWHM, a parameter to be further optimized, and the intrinsic spatial resolution was 0.76 mm FWHM.

  5. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  6. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  7. Solid works 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Yeong

    2004-02-15

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  8. Solid works 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  9. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  10. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  11. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains.

  12. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains. PMID:17157942

  13. Study on Detection of 3D Laser Scanner Positional Accuracy%三维激光扫描仪点位精度检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣霄; 戴相喜; 王正强

    2013-01-01

    3D laser scanner is a new fast mean to acquire 3d coordinates of ground objects ,has many increasing in-comparable advantages than traditional measuring means and has wide application prospect .Aim to obtain the actual ac-curacy of its scanning data ,so as to confirm its range of application;this paper designed an experiment ,detection accuracy through surveying the same area using both 3 d laser scanner and total station instrument ,finally get the general accuracy information of 3 d laser scanner ,offer data support to confirm its application range .%三维激光扫描仪扫描作为一种新型的地物三维坐标快速获取手段,具有传统测量手段很多无法比拟的优势,具有广阔的应用前景。为了解其扫描所得点的实际精度,以便确定其适用领域,本文设计实验,采用三维激光扫描仪和全站仪重复测量的方法对其进行检测,得到三维激光扫描仪精度的基本情况,为确定其适用范围提供数据支持。

  14. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  15. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  16. Positional isomeric tunable two Co(II) 6-connected 3-D frameworks with pentanuclear to binuclear units: structures, ion-exchange and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min-Le; Duan, Ya-Ping; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Two new Co(II) based metal-organic frameworks, namely {[Co5(μ3-OH)2(m-pda)3(bix)4]·2ClO4}n (1) and {[Co2(p-pda)2(bix)2(H2O)]·H2O}n (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of Co(II) salt with two isomeric dicarboxyl tectons 1,3-phenylenediacetic acid (m-pda) and 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid (p-pda), along with 1,3-bis(imidazol-L-ylmethyl)benzene (bix). Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a 6-connected 3-D pcu cationic framework with pentanuclear [Co5(μ3-OH)2(COO)6(bix)2](2+) units, while 2 exhibits a 6-connected 3-D msw net based on [Co2(μ2-H2O)(COO)2](2+) clusters. The results indicate that the different dispositions of the carboxylic groups of dicarboxylates have an important effect on the overall coordination frameworks. Perchlorate anions in 1 can be partly exchanged by thiocyanate and azide anions, however they are unavailable to nitrate anions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions. PMID:25190003

  17. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  18. 4D-SPECT/CT in orthopaedics: a new method of combined quantitative volumetric 3D analysis of SPECT/CT tracer uptake and component position measurements in patients after total knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Helmut; Falkowski, Anna L.; Forrer, Flavio [Kantonsspital Baselland, Institute for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Henckel, Johann [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Hirschmann, Michael T. [Kantonsspital Baselland, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of combined quantitative 3D-volumetric single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT analysis including size, intensity and localisation of tracer uptake regions and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) position. Tc-99m-HDP-SPECT/CT of 100 knees after TKA were prospectively analysed. The anatomical areas represented by a previously validated localisation scheme were 3D-volumetrically analysed. The maximum intensity was recorded for each anatomical area. Ratios between the respective value and the mid-shaft of the femur as the reference were calculated. Femoral and tibial TKA position (varus-valgus, flexion-extension, internal rotation- external rotation) were determined on 3D-CT. Two consultant radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians interpreted the SPECT/CTs twice with a 2-week interval. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was determined (ICCs). Kappa values were calculated for the area with the highest tracer uptake between the observers. The measurements of tracer uptake intensity showed excellent inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all regions (tibia, femur and patella). Only the tibial shaft area showed ICCs <0.89. The kappa values were almost perfect (0.856, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.778, 0.922). For measurements of the TKA position, there was strong agreement within and between the readings of the two observers; the ICCs for the orientation of TKA components for inter- and intra-observer reliability were nearly perfect (ICCs >0.84). This combined 3D-volumetric standardised method of analysing the location, size and the intensity of SPECT/CT tracer uptake regions (''hotspots'') and the determination of the TKA position was highly reliable and represents a novel promising approach to biomechanics. (orig.)

  19. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  20. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  1. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  2. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-01-01

    In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot o...

  3. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  4. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  5. Automatic 3D video format detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  6. Galpha/LGN-mediated asymmetric spindle positioning does not lead to unequal cleavage of the mother cell in 3-D cultured MDCK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Zhuoni; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zheng, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The position of the mitotic spindle plays a key role in spatial control of cell division. It is generally believed that when a spindle is positioned asymmetrically in a dividing cell, the resulting daughter cells are usually unequal in size due to eccentric cleavage of the mother cell. Molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of unequal sized daughter cells have been extensively studied in Drosophila neuroblast and C elegans zygote where the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G proteins a...

  7. Iso-electric point of fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Iso-electric point(IEP) is the PH, at which the $\\zeta$ potential is measured to be zero. The occurrence of IEP has been understood due to the neutralization of surface charge density (SCD) at the solid-liquid interface. In this work, we use the potential trap model to study the sources of the surface charge density at verious PC and PH, by taking the water-silica system as an example. It is revealed that in the case of $PH9$. Due to the mass action law, the dissociation of water molecules is suppressed at the PH close to IEP, leading to a zero surface charge density. In this way, zero $\\zeta$ potential is obtained at the IEP. It has also been obtained that the increase of the salt concentration in the water can decrease the $\\zeta$ potential, but increase the surface charge density.

  8. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  9. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  10. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy.

  11. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy. PMID:26811117

  12. Preparative-scale isoelectric focusing separation of enantiomers using a multicompartment electrolyzer with isoelectric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhovskiy, P; Landers, T A; Vigh, G

    2000-03-01

    The IsoPrime multicompartment electrolyzer, equipped with a series of isoelectric membranes with closely spaced pI values, was used for the first time for the preparative-scale separation of the enantiomers of dansyl phenylalanine with hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin as resolving agent. The final separation conditions could be established easily in three successive experiments by rationally narrowing the pH steps between the neighboring isoelectric membranes. The final separation yielded products with an enantiomeric excess greater than 99.9%, at production rates of about 0.1 mg/h. The greatest experimental difficulty was caused by the relatively high salt content of the hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin used, which resulted in high conductivity and limited the maximum field strength one could use. PMID:10733219

  13. 对3D打印机喷头XYZ三个方向位置控制的优化设计探究%Research on the optimal design of the three directions of 3D position control printer nozzle XYZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞玲

    2014-01-01

    本文提出了对喷头XYZ三个方向位置控制的优化方案,并对其进行了理论数据论证;本文对3D打印机完整的基本功能列写了各个部位的功能设计及具体实现,并提出了一些使3D打印机能够更有效利用的措施。%This paper presents the nozzle XYZ three optimization scheme of position control,and has carried on the theoretical data argument;the basic functions of the 3D printer complete column and concrete realization of the various parts of the design,write,and puts forward some 3D printers to more effective use of measures.

  14. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ruurd; Godart, J.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Langendijk, J. A.; van't Veld, A. A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a

  15. Sensitivity of CIPS-computed PVC location to measurement errors in ECG electrode position: the need for the 3D Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, P.M. van; Gordon, J.P.; Laks, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cardiac Isochrone Positioning System (CIPS) is a non-invasive method able to localize the origins of PVCs, VT and WPW from the 12 lead ECG. The CIPS model integrates a standard 12-lead ECG with an MRI derived model of the heart, lungs, and torso in order to compute the precise electr

  16. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  17. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  18. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  19. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  20. Expression of the DYRK1A gene correlates with its 3D positioning in the interphase nucleus of Down syndrome cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Nerea; Felipe-Blanco, Izaskun; Royo, Félix; Zabala, Amaia; Guerra-Merino, Isabel; García-Orad, África; Zugaza, José L; Parada, Luis A

    2015-06-01

    Down syndrome is a common birth defect caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Chromosomes occupy distinct territories in interphase nuclei, and their distribution within the nuclear space is nonrandom. In humans with Down syndrome, two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. Here, we investigated the nuclear organization of DYRK1A and SOD1, two genes mapping to chromosome 21 that greatly contribute to the pathology. We found that DYRK1A conserves its central positioning between normal and trisomic cells, whereas SOD1 adopts more peripheral distribution in trisomic cells. We also found that the relative position of these genes with respect to each other varies among the different copies of chromosome territories 21 within a cell, and that this distinct distribution is associated with differences in their expression levels. All together, our results may explain, at least in part, the difference in the expression level of these two genes implicated in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. PMID:25645734

  1. Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andringa, Roel; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered `massive 3D gravity'. Another is a `new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  2. Massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A; De Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: O.Hohm@rug.n, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.ed, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-21

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered 'massive 3D gravity'. Another is a 'new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  3. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    ABSTRACT: Lack of productivity in construction is a well known issue. Despite the fact that causes hereof are multiple, the introduction of information technology is a frequently observed response to almost any challenge. ICT in construction is a thoroughly researched matter, however, the current...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  4. Comparative evaluation of stresses in tooth implant connected fixed partial denture by varying the implant design and position: A 3D finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Pratheep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims at evaluating stresses generated in a fixed tooth to implant connected fixed partial denture (FPD by finite element method by varying implant design and position, in unilateral distal extension cases, i.e. for replacing mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars. Materials and Methods: Four models were created, Model 1-A finite element model (FEA model of a crestal implant-tooth connected metal ceramic FPD with pontic in 36 region. The 35 region simulated the second premolar. Model 2-A FEA model of a basal implant-tooth connected metal ceramic FPD. Model 3-A FEA model of a crestal implant in 36 region connected to tooth 35 and cantilevered posteriorly with pontic in 37 region, made of metal ceramic. Model 4-A FEA model of a basal implant in 36 region connected to tooth 35 and cantilevered posteriorly with pontic in 37 region, made of metal ceramic. A vertical force of 100N directed evenly on the nodes on the occlusal surface of each of the three crowns. The models displayed stress both numerically and by color coding. Results: On comparing models 1 and 2, the model 1 showed comparatively more stresses in crestal bone area of the implant. On comparing models 3 and 4, model 3 showed lesser von misses stress values. Conclusion: In case of tooth implant connected FPDs without any cantilevers, basal implants show better stress distribution when compared to crestal implants. In case of cantilever designs, crestal implant design showed lower stress values, but the difference in stresses were less.

  5. Improving intra-fractional target position accuracy using a 3D surface surrogate for left breast irradiation using the respiratory-gated deep-inspiration breath-hold technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Rong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a surrogate for respiratory gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH for left breast irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH treatment for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB and DIBH computed tomography (CT simulation scans to determine dosimetric benefits from DIBH. The Real-time Position Management (RPM system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CT scans were generated and transferred to the "AlignRT" system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired during treatment for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. RESULTS: Reduction in heart dose can be achieved using DIBH for left breast/chest wall radiation. RPM was shown to have inferior correlation with the actual target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. Therefore, RPM alone may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a superior correlation with the actual target positioning during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommended threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The RPM system alone may not be sufficient for the required level of accuracy in left-sided breast/CW DIBH treatments. The 3D surface imaging can be used to ensure patient setup and monitor inter- and intra- fractional motions

  6. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  7. Devices, systems, and methods for microscale isoelectric fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-08-09

    Embodiments of the present invention provide devices, systems, and methods for microscale isoelectric fractionation. Analytes in a sample may be isolated according to their isoelectric point within a fractionation microchannel. A microfluidic device according to an embodiment of the invention includes a substrate at least partially defining a fractionation microchannel. The fractionation microchannel has at least one cross-sectional dimension equal to or less than 1 mm. A plurality of membranes of different pHs are disposed in the microchannel. Analytes having an isoelectric point between the pH of the membranes may be collected in a region of the fractionation channel between the first and second membranes through isoelectric fractionation.

  8. Devices, systems, and methods for microscale isoelectric fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K

    2015-04-14

    Embodiments of the present invention provide devices, systems, and methods for microscale isoelectric fractionation. Analytes in a sample may be isolated according to their isoelectric point within a fractionation microchannel. A microfluidic device according to an embodiment of the invention includes a substrate at least partially defining a fractionation microchannel. The fractionation microchannel has at least one cross-sectional dimension equal to or less than 1 mm. A plurality of membranes of different pHs are disposed in the microchannel. Analytes having an isoelectric point between the pH of the membranes may be collected in a region of the fractionation channel between the first and second membranes through isoelectric fractionation.

  9. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  10. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. 3D monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Szkandera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací systému, který umožní obraz scény zobrazovaný na ploše vnímat prostorově. Prostorové vnímání 2D obrazové informace je umožněno jednak stereopromítáním a jednak tím, že se obraz mění v závislosti na poloze pozorovatele. Tato práce se zabývá hlavně druhým z těchto problémů. This Bachelor's thesis goal is to design and realize system, which allows user to perceive 2D visual information as three-dimensional. 3D visual preception of 2D image i...

  12. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  13. X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Leonard; Brutzman, Don

    2007-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.905889 Extensible 3D (X3D) is the open standard for Web-delivered three-dimensional (3D) graphics. It specifies a declarative geometry definition language, a run-time engine, and an application program interface (API) that provide an interactive, animated, real-time environment for 3D graphics. The X3D specification documents are freely available, the standard can be used without paying any royalties,...

  14. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  15. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  16. 3D modelling and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  17. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  18. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Morales, Jose A.

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  19. Poliarquia em 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Wanderley Guilherme dos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article takes issue with positions that reduce representative systems to democratic linearity, considering how the latter is restricted to variations in forms of government and electoral systems that do not correspond to the growing complexity of national organizations. It is proposed that a third dimension be added to Robert Dahl?s bidimensional model that is, eligibility from which it is possible to derive minimalist yet strict definitions of authoritarian systems, of representative systems in general, and of their oligarchical and polyarchical variations.

  20. Radioimmunofixation of human ferritin following serum isoelectric focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunofixation of human ferritin following isoelectric focusing of serum was developed to study the microheterogeneity of this protein in native serum without previous purification or concentration. This method requires only 2-10 μl of serum and can be used with levels of ferritin as low as 10 μg/l. In this way, the extensive microheterogeneity of this protein was revealed, since in some cases it produced as many as 35 bands with isoelectric points in a pH range of 4.95-5.9. Very different isoelectric focusing patterns (spectrotypes) of ferritin were observed during the investigation of pathological sera. The high sensitivity of this technique makes it useful for the investigation of serum ferritin in diseases involving modifications of the metabolism of this protein. (orig.)

  1. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  2. 3D-skannaukseen perehtyminen

    OpenAIRE

    Santaluoto, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä tarkastellaan erilaisia 3D-skannaustekniikoita ja menetelmiä. Työssä myös kerrotaan esimerkkien avulla eri 3D-skannaustekniikoiden käyttökohteista. 3D-skannaus on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, siksi eri tekniikat ja käyttömahdollisuudet ovat monille tuntemattomia. 3D-skanneri on laite, jolla tutkitaan reaalimaailman esineitä tai ympäristöä keräämällä dataa kohteen muodoista. 3D-skannerit ovat hyvin paljon vastaavia tavallisen kameran kanssa. Kuten kameroilla, 3D...

  3. 3D Printing Functional Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yew Juan

    2016-01-01

    3D printing presents the ability of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing. Techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition molding (FDM) have been developed and utilized since the inception of 3D printing. In such techniques, polymers represent the most commonly used material for 3D printing due to material properties such as thermo plasticity as well as its ability to be polymerized from monomers. Polymer nanocomposites are polymers with nanomaterials composited into the ...

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  6. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  7. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  8. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  9. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  10. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen;

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  11. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  12. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  13. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    position with respect to the rest of the debris field had never been mapped before now. This new insight into the structure of Cas A gained from this 3-D visualization is important for astronomers who build models of supernova explosions. Now, they must consider that the outer layers of the star come off spherically, but the inner layers come out more disk-like with high-velocity jets in multiple directions.

  14. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  15. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  16. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  17. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  18. A 3D Position Algorithm Based on Euclidean for Wireless Sensor Networks%一种基于Euclidean的无线传感器网络三维定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐良瑞; 宫月; 罗艺婷; 柯珊珊

    2012-01-01

    According to the application of wireless sensor networks in three dimensions,a novel 3D positioning algorithm based on Euclidean for wireless sensor networks is proposed.The problem of the distance calculation between an unknown node and an anchor node is transformed into a solution of the distance between the vertices in Hexahedral.It can be realized by the method of coordinates.The coverage is increased by the way of cyclic iterative method.Simulation results indicate that the performance of the algorithm is good and the algorithm can effectively realize the position of nodes for wireless sensor networks in three dimensions.%针对传感器网络在三维空问的应用,基于Euclidean定位算法,提出了对无线传感器节点进行三维定位的算法.将计算未知节点与锚节点间距离问题抽象为求解六面体顶点间的距离.根据问题的抽象,本文使用所提出的坐标法进行求解,并采用循环迭代的方式来提高节点的定位比例.仿真结果表明,三维空间的Euclidean定位算法各项指标均为良好,能有效地实现:三维环境中的传感器节点定位.

  19. 3-D Video Processing for 3-D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kwanghoon; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Yongtae

    One of the most desirable ways of realizing high quality information and telecommunication services has been called "The Sensation of Reality," which can be achieved by visual communication based on 3-D (Three-dimensional) images. These kinds of 3-D imaging systems have revealed potential applications in the fields of education, entertainment, medical surgery, video conferencing, etc. Especially, three-dimensional television (3-D TV) is believed to be the next generation of TV technology. Figure 13.1 shows how TV's display technologies have evolved , and Fig. 13.2 details the evolution of TV broadcasting as forecasted by the ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute). It is clear that 3-D TV broadcasting will be the next development in this field, and realistic broadcasting will soon follow.

  20. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  1. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  2. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  3. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  4. 3D on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Puntar, Matej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of already established and new technologies of displaying 3D content in a web browser. The thesis begins with a short presentation of the history of 3D content available on the internet and its development together with advantages and disadvantages of individual technologies. The latter two are described in detail as well is their use and the differences among them. Special emphasis has been given to WebGL, the newest technology of 3D conte...

  5. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  6. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  7. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  8. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HAp, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and usnic acid (UA. The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    traditionel keramisk produktionssammenhæng. Problemstillingen opmuntrede endvidere til i et samarbejde med en programmør at udvikle et 3d digitalt redskab, der er blevet kaldt et digitalt interaktivt formgivningsredskab (DIF). Eksperimentet undersøger interaktive 3d digitale dynamiske systemer, der...... samarbejder med designere fra fagområder som interaktionsdesign og programmering. Afhandlingen peger på et fremtidigt forskningsfelt indenfor generative og responderende digitale systemer til 3d formgivning, der ligeledes inkluderer følesansen. Endvidere er det relevant at forske i, hvordan de RP teknikker...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...

  10. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  11. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  12. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  13. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  14. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  15. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  16. Isoelectric focusing technology quantifies protein signaling in 25 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Roger A.; Bhamidipati, Arunashree; Bi, Xiahui; Deb-Basu, Debabrita; Cahill, Linda; Ferrante, Jason; Gentalen, Erik; Glazer, Marc; Gossett, John; Hacker, Kevin; Kirby, Celeste; Knittle, James; Loder, Robert; Mastroieni, Catherine; MacLaren, Michael; Mills, Thomas; Nguyen, Uyen; Parker, Nineveh; Rice, Audie; Roach, David; Suich, Daniel; Voehringer, David; Voss, Karl; Yang, Jade; Yang, Tom; Vander Horn, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    A previously undescribed isoelectric focusing technology allows cell signaling to be quantitatively assessed in <25 cells. High-resolution capillary isoelectric focusing allows isoforms and individual phosphorylation forms to be resolved, often to baseline, in a 400-nl capillary. Key to the method is photochemical capture of the resolved protein forms. Once immobilized, the proteins can be probed with specific antibodies flowed through the capillary. Antibodies bound to their targets are detected by chemiluminescence. Because chemiluminescent substrates are flowed through the capillary during detection, localized substrate depletion is overcome, giving excellent linearity of response across several orders of magnitude. By analyzing pan-specific antibody signals from individual resolved forms of a protein, each of these can be quantified, without the problems associated with using multiple antibodies with different binding avidities to detect individual protein forms. PMID:17053065

  17. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  18. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 × 376 × 630 voxels. Conclusions: The proposed needle segmentation

  19. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  20. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  1. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  2. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  3. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  4. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  5. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich;

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  6. Crowded Field 3D Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, T; Roth, M M; Becker, Thomas; Fabrika, Sergei; Roth, Martin M.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative spectroscopy of stellar objects in complex environments is mainly limited by the ability of separating the object from the background. Standard slit spectroscopy, restricting the field of view to one dimension, is obviously not the proper technique in general. The emerging Integral Field (3D) technique with spatially resolved spectra of a two-dimensional field of view provides a great potential for applying advanced subtraction methods. In this paper an image reconstruction algorithm to separate point sources and a smooth background is applied to 3D data. Several performance tests demonstrate the photometric quality of the method. The algorithm is applied to real 3D observations of a sample Planetary Nebula in M31, whose spectrum is contaminated by the bright and complex galaxy background. The ability of separating sources is also studied in a crowded stellar field in M33.

  7. 3D-grafiikkamoottori mobiililaitteille

    OpenAIRE

    Vahlman, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä käydään läpi mobiililaitteille suunnatun yksinkertaisen 3D-grafiikkamoottorin suunnittelu ja toteutus käyttäen OpenGL ES -rajapintaa. Työssä esitellään grafiikkamoottorin toteutuksessa käytettyjä tekniikoita sekä tutustutaan moottorin rakenteeseen ja toteutuksellisiin yksityiskohtiin. Työn alkupuolella tutustutaan myös modernin 3D-grafiikan yleisiin periaatteisiin ja toimintaan sekä käydään läpi 3D-grafiikkaan liittyviä suorituskykyongelmia. Työn loppupuolella esitel...

  8. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  9. 3D Morphing Using Strain Field Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Bing Yan; Shi-Min Hu; Ralph R Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique based on strain fields to carry out 3D shape morphing for applicationsin computer graphics and related areas.Strain is an important geometric quantity used in mechanics to describe the deformation of objects.We apply it in a novel way to analyze and control deformation in morphing.Using position vector fields, the strain field relating source and target shapes can be obtained.By interpolating this strain field between zero and a final desired value we can obtain the position field for intermediate shapes.This method ensures that the 3D morphing process is smooth.Locally, volumes suffer minimal distortion, and no shape jittering or wobbling happens: other methods do not necessarily have these desirable properties.We also show how to control the method so that changes of shape (in particular, size changes) vary linearly with time.

  10. Factorising the 3D Topologically Twisted Index

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, path integral representations of the 3D topologically twisted index were studied. First, the index can be "factorised" into a couple of "blocks". The "blocks" being the partition functions of a type A semi-topological twisting of 3D N = 2 SYM placed on $\\mathbb{S}_2\\times (0, \\pi)$ and $\\mathbb{S}_2 \\times (\\pi, 2 \\pi)$ respectively. Second, as the path integral of the aforementioned theory over $\\mathbb{S}_2$ times $\\mathbb{S}_1$ with a point excluded. In this way we recover the sum over fluxes from integration over the real path and without sacrificing positive definiteness of the bosonic part of the localising action. We also reproduce the integration over the complex contour by using the localising term with positive definite bosonic part.

  11. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  12. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  13. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... beamforming. This is achieved partly because synthetic aperture imaging removes the limitation of a fixed transmit focal depth and instead enables dynamic transmit focusing. Lately, the major ultrasound companies have produced ultrasound scanners using 2-D transducer arrays with enough transducer elements...

  14. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  15. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  16. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  17. Lossless 3D Steganography Based on MST and Connectivity Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Philippe; Puech, William; Druon, Sébastien; Pedeboy, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience Data hiding has become increasingly important for many applications, like confidential transmission, video surveillance, military and medical applications. In this paper we present a new approach of 3D object data hiding without changing the position of vertices in the 3D space. The main idea of the proposed method is to find and to synchronize particular areas of the 3D objects used to embed the message. The embedding is carried out by changing the connectivity of e...

  18. 3D Face Apperance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations

  19. 3D Face Appearance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  1. When Art Meets 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  2. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu;

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  3. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  4. Viewing galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krajnović, Davor

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to a technique that reveals galaxies in 3D, astronomers can now show that many galaxies have been wrongly classified. Davor Krajnovi\\'c argues that the classification scheme proposed 85 years ago by Edwin Hubble now needs to be revised.

  5. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk

    OpenAIRE

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  6. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  7. 3D Cameras: 3D Computer Vision of Wide Scope

    OpenAIRE

    May, Stefan; Pervoelz, Kai; Surmann, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    First of all, a short comparison of range sensors and their underlying principles was given. The chapter further focused on 3D cameras. The latest innovations have given a significant improvement for the measurement accuracy, wherefore this technology has attracted attention in the robotics community. This was also the motivation for the examination in this chapter. On this account, several applications were presented, which represents common problems in the domain of autonomous robotics. For...

  8. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  9. Tuning the isoelectric point of graphene by electrochemical functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Zuccaro; Janina Krieg; Alessandro Desideri; Klaus Kern; Kannan Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control the charge-potential landscape at solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal to engineer novel devices for applications in sensing, catalysis and energy conversion. The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. Supported by theory, we present here a methodology to identify the pI/pzc of (functionalized) graphene, which also allows for estimating the nature ...

  10. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  11. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  14. MSV3d: database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin-Mihai; Walter, Vincent; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Toursel, Thierry; Thompson, Julie D; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the complex relationships linking genotypic and phenotypic variations to protein structure is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. We present MSV3d (Database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure), a new database that contains detailed annotation of missense variants of all human proteins (20 199 proteins). The multi-level characterization includes details of the physico-chemical changes induced by amino acid modification, as well as information related to the conservation of the mutated residue and its position relative to functional features in the available or predicted 3D model. Major releases of the database are automatically generated and updated regularly in line with the dbSNP (database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SwissVar releases, by exploiting the extensive Décrypthon computational grid resources. The database (http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d) is easily accessible through a simple web interface coupled to a powerful query engine and a standard web service. The content is completely or partially downloadable in XML or flat file formats. Database URL: http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d.

  15. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  16. INGRID, 3-D Mesh Generator for Program DYNA3D and NIKE3D and FACET and TOPAZ3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D (NESC 9909), NIKE3D (NESC 9725), FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The most important new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition. 2 - Method of solution: Geometries are described primarily using the index space notation of the INGEN program (NESC 975) with an additional type of notation, index progression. Index progressions provide a concise and simple method for describing complex structures; the concept was developed to facilitate defining multiple regions in index space. Rather than specifying the minimum and maximum indices for a region, one specifies the progression of indices along the I, J and K directions, respectively. The index progression method allows the analyst to describe most geometries including nodes and elements with roughly the same amount of input as a solids modeler

  17. Fast and precise 3D fluorophore localization by gradient fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongqiang; Xu, Jianquan; Jin, Jingyi; Gao, Ying; Lan, Li; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Astigmatism imaging is widely used to encode the 3D position of fluorophore in single-particle tracking and super-resolution localization microscopy. Here, we present a fast and precise localization algorithm based on gradient fitting to decode the 3D subpixel position of the fluorophore. This algorithm determines the center of the emitter by finding the position with the best-fit gradient direction distribution to the measured point spread function (PSF), and can retrieve the 3D subpixel position of the emitter in a single iteration. Through numerical simulation and experiments with mammalian cells, we demonstrate that our algorithm yields comparable localization precision to the traditional iterative Gaussian function fitting (GF) based method, while exhibits over two orders-of-magnitude faster execution speed. Our algorithm is a promising online reconstruction method for 3D super-resolution microscopy.

  18. Tehokas 3D-animaatiotuotanto

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Manu

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin tehokasta tapaa toteuttaa minuutin mittainen animaatio Scene.org Awards -tapahtuman avajaisseremoniaan. Kyseinen video toteutettiin osana opinnäytetyötä. Työhön osallistui tekijän lisäksi 3D-mallintaja sekä muusikko. Työkaluina käytettiin pääasiassa Autodesk 3ds Max-, sekä Adobe After Effects- ja Adobe Photoshop -ohjelmia. Opinnäytetyö koostuu animaatioprojektin tuotantoputken ja tiedostonhallintamallin perinpohjaisesta läpikäymisestä sekä sen asian tutkimisesta...

  19. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  1. How 3-D Movies Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铁雄

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  2. Rubella virion polypeptides. Characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and peptide mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho-Terry, L.; Cohen, A. (University Coll. Hospital Medical School, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    Four polypeptides with molecular weights of 55K, 47K, 45K, and 33K have been resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immune precipitated rubella virus. The 47K and 45K components have similar peptide maps but different isoelectric points so that the same polypeptide may exist in more than one charged form. The 55K and 45K components have similar isoelectric points but different peptide maps showing that similarity of isoelectric point is not evidence of identity.

  3. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Wu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  4. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Michael; Zirbel, Craig L; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B

    2008-01-01

    New methods are described for finding recurrent three-dimensional (3D) motifs in RNA atomic-resolution structures. Recurrent RNA 3D motifs are sets of RNA nucleotides with similar spatial arrangements. They can be local or composite. Local motifs comprise nucleotides that occur in the same hairpin or internal loop. Composite motifs comprise nucleotides belonging to three or more different RNA strand segments or molecules. We use a base-centered approach to construct efficient, yet exhaustive search procedures using geometric, symbolic, or mixed representations of RNA structure that we implement in a suite of MATLAB programs, "Find RNA 3D" (FR3D). The first modules of FR3D preprocess structure files to classify base-pair and -stacking interactions. Each base is represented geometrically by the position of its glycosidic nitrogen in 3D space and by the rotation matrix that describes its orientation with respect to a common frame. Base-pairing and base-stacking interactions are calculated from the base geometries and are represented symbolically according to the Leontis/Westhof basepairing classification, extended to include base-stacking. These data are stored and used to organize motif searches. For geometric searches, the user supplies the 3D structure of a query motif which FR3D uses to find and score geometrically similar candidate motifs, without regard to the sequential position of their nucleotides in the RNA chain or the identity of their bases. To score and rank candidate motifs, FR3D calculates a geometric discrepancy by rigidly rotating candidates to align optimally with the query motif and then comparing the relative orientations of the corresponding bases in the query and candidate motifs. Given the growing size of the RNA structure database, it is impossible to explicitly compute the discrepancy for all conceivable candidate motifs, even for motifs with less than ten nucleotides. The screening algorithm that we describe finds all candidate motifs whose

  5. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  6. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  8. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  9. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  10. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  11. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  12. Photopolymers in 3D printing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology with applications in several areas. The flexibility of the 3D printing system to use variety of materials and create any object makes it an attractive technology. Photopolymers are one of the materials used in 3D printing with potential to make products with better properties. Due to numerous applications of photopolymers and 3D printing technologies, this thesis is written to provide information about the various 3D printing technologies with particul...

  13. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of flexible polyanions complexing with whey proteins at their isoelectric point

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R.

    2004-02-01

    Electrostatic complexation of flexible polyanions with the whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The proteins are considered at their respective isoelectric points. Discrete charges on the model polyelectrolytes and proteins interact through Debye-Hückel potentials. Protein excluded volume is taken into account through a coarse-grained model of the protein shape. Consistent with experimental results, it is found that α-lactalbumin complexes much more strongly than β-lactoglobulin. For α-lactalbumin, strong complexation is due to localized binding to a single large positive "charge patch," whereas for β-lactoglobulin, weak complexation is due to diffuse binding to multiple smaller charge patches.

  15. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi;

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...... with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described...

  16. 3D Energy Harvester Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janicek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the characterization and evaluation of an MEMS based electrostatic generator, a part of the power supply unit of the self-powered microsystem[1,2,3]. The designed generator is based on electrostatic converter and uses the principle of conversion of non-electric energy into electrical energy by periodical modification of gap between electrodes of a capacitor [4]. The structure is designed and modeled as three-dimensional silicon based MEMS. Innovative approach involving the achievement of very low resonant frequency of the structure (about 100Hz by usage of modified long cantilever spring design, minimum area of the chip, 3D work mode, the ability to be tuned to reach desired parameters, proves promising directions of possible further development.

  17. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  18. 3D Monitoring of LHCb Inner Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Sainvitu, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The positions of the Inner Tracker (IT) detectors of the LHCb experiment installed in the LHC at CERN are impacted by the LHCb dipole magnet powering. In the past the movements of the stations have been measured using standard survey methods during magnet tests in shutdown periods. But the survey targets are visible only in very narrow spaces and the access to the IT is very difficult, even impossible in the central region when the detector is closed. Finally the precision of the standard survey measurement is affected by the poor configuration. In 2013 and 2014, during the first long shutdown of the LHC (LS1), the CERN Survey team (EN/MEF-SU) in collaboration with the LHCb Technical Coordination and the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de LAUSANNE, CH), developed a permanent monitoring system which has been tested and installed in order to allow the 3D position measurement of the IT stations, even during the run periods, with a precision of 100 microns at 1 sigma level. The 3D Monitoring system of the LH...

  19. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai

    2014-08-05

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place along the recording plane, not just along a receiver line. Moreover, the effect of enhancing the SNR can be limited because of the limitations in the number of survey lines, irregular line geometries, and azimuthal range of arrivals. We have developed a 3D SVI method to overcome these problems. By integrating along the source or receiver lines, the cross-correlation or the convolution result of a trace pair with the source or receiver at the stationary position can be calculated without the requirement of knowing the stationary locations. In addition, the amplitudes of the cross-correlation and convolution results are largely strengthened by integration, which is helpful to further enhance the SNR. In this paper, both synthetic and field data examples are presented, demonstrating that the super-virtual refractions generated by our method have accurate traveltimes and much improved SNR.

  20. 3D Virtual Dig: a 3D Application for Teaching Fieldwork in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is a material, embodied discipline; communicating this experience is critical to student success. In the context of lower-division archaeology courses, the present study examines the efficacy of 3D virtual and 2D archaeological representations of digs. This presentation aims to show a 3D application created to teach the archaeological excavation process to freshmen students. An archaeological environment was virtually re-created in 3D, and inserted in a virtual reality software application that allows users to work with the reconstructed excavation area. The software was tested in class for teaching the basics of archaeological fieldwork. The application interface is user-friendly and especially easy for 21st century students. The study employed a pre-survey, post-test, and post-survey design, used to understand the students' previous familiarity with archaeology, and test their awareness after the use of the application. Their level of knowledge was then compared with that of those students who had accessed written material only. This case-study demonstrates how a digital approach to laboratory work can positively affect student learning. Increased abilities to complete ill-defined problems (characteristic of the high-order thinking in the field, can, in fact, be demonstrated. 3D Virtual reconstruction serves, then, as an important bridge from traditional coursework to fieldwork.

  1. Asymmetries in perception of 3D orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C Dobbins

    Full Text Available Visual scene interpretation depends on assumptions based on the statistical regularities of the world. People have some preference for seeing ambiguously oriented objects (Necker cubes as if tilted down or viewed from above. This bias is a near certainty in the first instant (approximately 1 s of viewing and declines over the course of many seconds. In addition, we found that there is modulation of perceived orientation that varies with position--for example objects on the left are more likely to be interpreted as viewed from the right. Therefore there is both a viewed-from-above prior and a scene position-dependent modulation of perceived 3-D orientation. These results are consistent with the idea that ambiguously oriented objects are initially assigned an orientation consistent with our experience of an asymmetric world in which objects most probably sit on surfaces below eye level.

  2. 手持式三维激光扫描仪定位算法的研究%Research on the Positioning Algorithms of a Handheld 3d Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦绪红; 赵杰; 程俊廷

    2013-01-01

    Self-referencing algorithms of the handheld 3 d scanner was mainly dissussed.Finst the classical algorithms is introduced,including the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and the exhaustive distance algorithm,and it also introduces the defects that exist in these algorithms.Then three triangulation algorithms are introduced.Throagh experiment,the three triangulation algorithms is compared with the reference exhaustive-distance algorithm,and analysied the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms.The resalts are used to determine the best of the three.%研究了手持式三维扫描仪的自定位算法,并提出了改进算法以弥补ICP算法和穷举法等经典定位算法的局限性.通过实验对比Delaunay四面体法、ICP算法、最小三角形法和频率三角形法的重构效率,实验结果表明频率三角形法更高效更稳定,在各种环境下均具有可行性.

  3. Face validation using 3D information from single calibrated camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, N.; Pnevmatikakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    propose a novel face validation method based on 3D position estimates from a single calibrated camera. This is done by assuming a typical face width; hence the widths of the detected image regions lead to target position estimates. Detected image regions with extreme position estimates can...... then be discarded. We apply our method on the rich dataset of the CLEAR2007 evaluation campaign, comprising 49 thousand annotated indoors images, recorded at five different sites, from four different cameras per site, depicting approximately 122 thousand faces. Our method yields very accurate 3D position estimates...

  4. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  5. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  7. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  8. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  9. Stereoscopic 3D video games and their effects on engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Zerebecki, Chris; Tawadrous, Mina; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Urszula

    2012-03-01

    With television manufacturers developing low-cost stereoscopic 3D displays, a large number of consumers will undoubtedly have access to 3D-capable televisions at home. The availability of 3D technology places the onus on content creators to develop interesting and engaging content. While the technology of stereoscopic displays and content generation are well understood, there are many questions yet to be answered surrounding its effects on the viewer. Effects of stereoscopic display on passive viewers for film are known, however video games are fundamentally different since the viewer/player is actively (rather than passively) engaged in the content. Questions of how stereoscopic viewing affects interaction mechanics have previously been studied in the context of player performance but very few have attempted to quantify the player experience to determine whether stereoscopic 3D has a positive or negative influence on their overall engagement. In this paper we present a preliminary study of the effects stereoscopic 3D have on player engagement in video games. Participants played a video game in two conditions, traditional 2D and stereoscopic 3D and their engagement was quantified using a previously validated self-reporting tool. The results suggest that S3D has a positive effect on immersion, presence, flow, and absorption.

  10. Development of an automultiscopic true 3D display (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Russell M.; Pradhan, Ranjit D.; Aye, Tin M.; Yu, Kevin H.; Okorogu, Albert O.; Chua, Kang-Bin; Tun, Nay; Win, Tin; Schindler, Axel

    2005-05-01

    True 3D displays, whether generated by volume holography, merged stereopsis (requiring glasses), or autostereoscopic methods (stereopsis without the need for special glasses), are useful in a great number of applications, ranging from training through product visualization to computer gaming. Holography provides an excellent 3D image but cannot yet be produced in real time, merged stereopsis results in accommodation-convergence conflict (where distance cues generated by the 3D appearance of the image conflict with those obtained from the angular position of the eyes) and lacks parallax cues, and autostereoscopy produces a 3D image visible only from a small region of space. Physical Optics Corporation is developing the next step in real-time 3D displays, the automultiscopic system, which eliminates accommodation-convergence conflict, produces 3D imagery from any position around the display, and includes true image parallax. Theory of automultiscopic display systems is presented, together with results from our prototype display, which produces 3D video imagery with full parallax cues from any viewing direction.

  11. Glnemo2: Interactive Visualization 3D Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles

    2011-10-01

    Glnemo2 is an interactive 3D visualization program developed in C++ using the OpenGL library and Nokia QT 4.X API. It displays in 3D the particles positions of the different components of an nbody snapshot. It quickly gives a lot of information about the data (shape, density area, formation of structures such as spirals, bars, or peanuts). It allows for in/out zooms, rotations, changes of scale, translations, selection of different groups of particles and plots in different blending colors. It can color particles according to their density or temperature, play with the density threshold, trace orbits, display different time steps, take automatic screenshots to make movies, select particles using the mouse, and fly over a simulation using a given camera path. All these features are accessible from a very intuitive graphic user interface. Glnemo2 supports a wide range of input file formats (Nemo, Gadget 1 and 2, phiGrape, Ramses, list of files, realtime gyrfalcON simulation) which are automatically detected at loading time without user intervention. Glnemo2 uses a plugin mechanism to load the data, so that it is easy to add a new file reader. It's powered by a 3D engine which uses the latest OpenGL technology, such as shaders (glsl), vertex buffer object, frame buffer object, and takes in account the power of the graphic card used in order to accelerate the rendering. With a fast GPU, millions of particles can be rendered in real time. Glnemo2 runs on Linux, Windows (using minGW compiler), and MaxOSX, thanks to the QT4API.

  12. A Legendre orthogonal moment based 3D edge operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SHU Huazhong; LUO Limin; J. L. Dillenseger

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new 3D edge operator based on Legendre orthogonal moments. This operator can be used to extract the edge of 3D object in any window size,with more accurate surface orientation and more precise surface location. It also has full geometry meaning. Process of calculation is considered in the moment based method.We can greatly speed up the computation by calculating out the masks in advance. We integrate this operator into our rendering of medical image data based on ray casting algorithm. Experimental results show that it is an effective 3D edge operator that is more accurate in position and orientation.

  13. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  14. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  15. GammaModeler 3-D gamma-ray imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system was used to survey a portion of the facility and provide 3-D visual and radiation representation of contaminated equipment located within the facility. The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system software was used to deconvolve extended sources into a series of point sources, locate the positions of these sources in space and calculate the 30 cm. dose rates for each of these sources. Localization of the sources in three dimensions provides information on source locations interior to the visual objects and provides a better estimate of the source intensities. The three dimensional representation of the objects can be made transparent in order to visualize sources located within the objects. Positional knowledge of all the sources can be used to calculate a map of the radiation in the canyon. The use of 3-D visual and gamma ray information supports improved planning decision-making, and aids in communications with regulators and stakeholders

  16. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  17. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  18. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  19. Validation of 3D multimodality roadmapping in interventional neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijters, Daniel; Homan, Robert; Mielekamp, Peter; van de Haar, Peter; Babic, Drazenko

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional multimodality roadmapping is entering clinical routine utilization for neuro-vascular treatment. Its purpose is to navigate intra-arterial and intra-venous endovascular devices through complex vascular anatomy by fusing pre-operative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) with the live fluoroscopy image. The fused image presents the real-time position of the intra-vascular devices together with the patient's 3D vascular morphology and its soft-tissue context. This paper investigates the effectiveness, accuracy, robustness and computation times of the described methods in order to assess their suitability for the intended clinical purpose: accurate interventional navigation. The mutual information-based 3D-3D registration proved to be of sub-voxel accuracy and yielded an average registration error of 0.515 mm and the live machine-based 2D-3D registration delivered an average error of less than 0.2 mm. The capture range of the image-based 3D-3D registration was investigated to characterize its robustness, and yielded an extent of 35 mm and 25° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) with CT, and 15 mm and 20° for >80% of the datasets for registration of 3DRA with MR data. The image-based 3D-3D registration could be computed within 8 s, while applying the machine-based 2D-3D registration only took 1.5 µs, which makes them very suitable for interventional use.

  20. Face Detection with a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu, Adrian; Lay, Nathan; Gramajo, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a part-based face detection approach where the spatial relationship between the face parts is represented by a hidden 3D model with six parameters. The computational complexity of the search in the six dimensional pose space is addressed by proposing meaningful 3D pose candidates by image-based regression from detected face keypoint locations. The 3D pose candidates are evaluated using a parameter sensitive classifier based on difference features relative to the 3D pose. A...

  1. 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium & Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu; Taylor, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The IMI /3M BIC 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium and Workshop was hosted by 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on March 17th 2015. The event was attended by the major players in precision engineering, 3D additive design and manufacturing: Representatives from EOS, Renishaw, HK 3D Printing IMI Plc Senior Management team, design engineers, programmers and academics from the University of Huddersfield School of Art Design & Architecture, 3M Buckley centre 3D printing management and designers shared...

  2. Forward ramp in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) with the same "minimal" bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new "minimal massive gravity" has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  4. Experiments for possible hydroacoustic discrimination of free-swimming juvenile gadoid fish by analysis of broadband pulse spectra as well as 3D fish position form video images and split beam acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80–220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad-bandwidth ec......Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80–220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad...

  5. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  6. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  7. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  8. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  9. The isoelectric region of proteins: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Widmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Binding of proteins in ion exchange chromatography is dominated by electrostatic interactions and can be tuned by adjusting pH and ionic strength of the solvent. Therefore, the isoelectric region (IER, the pH region of almost zero charge near the pI, has been used to predict the binding properties of proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Usually the IER is small and binding and elution is carried out at pH values near to the pI. However, some proteins with an extended IER have been shown to bind and elute far away from its pI. To analyze factors that mediate the size of the IER and to identify proteins with an extended IER, two protein families consisting of more than 7000 proteins were systematically investigated. Most proteins were found to have a small IER and thus are expected to bind or elute near to their pI, while only a small fraction of less than 2% had a large IER. CONCLUSIONS: Only four factors, the number of histidines, the pI, the number of titratable amino acids and the ratio of acidic to basic residues, are sufficient to reliably classify proteins by their IER based on their sequence only, and thus to predict their binding and elution behaviour in ion exchange chromatography.

  10. Tuning the isoelectric point of graphene by electrochemical functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Laura; Krieg, Janina; Desideri, Alessandro; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2015-07-01

    The ability to control the charge-potential landscape at solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal to engineer novel devices for applications in sensing, catalysis and energy conversion. The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. Supported by theory, we present here a methodology to identify the pI/pzc of (functionalized) graphene, which also allows for estimating the nature and extent of ion adsorption. The pI of bare graphene (as-prepared, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown) is found to be less than 3.3, which we can continuously modify up to 7.5 by non-covalent electrochemical attachment of aromatic amino groups, preserving the favorable electronic properties of graphene throughout. Modelling all the observed results with detailed theory, we also show that specific adsorption of ions and the substrate play only an ancillary role in our capability to tune the pI of graphene.

  11. Tuning the isoelectric point of graphene by electrochemical functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Laura; Krieg, Janina; Desideri, Alessandro; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control the charge-potential landscape at solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal to engineer novel devices for applications in sensing, catalysis and energy conversion. The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. Supported by theory, we present here a methodology to identify the pI/pzc of (functionalized) graphene, which also allows for estimating the nature and extent of ion adsorption. The pI of bare graphene (as-prepared, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown) is found to be less than 3.3, which we can continuously modify up to 7.5 by non-covalent electrochemical attachment of aromatic amino groups, preserving the favorable electronic properties of graphene throughout. Modelling all the observed results with detailed theory, we also show that specific adsorption of ions and the substrate play only an ancillary role in our capability to tune the pI of graphene. PMID:26134956

  12. Identification of Pacific rockfish (Sebastes) species by isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, R C

    1983-07-01

    Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is currently the most reliable method available for the identification of fish species. The high resolution of this method usually allows discrimination between even closely related species. One genus, the Sebastes, does present a problem however. Using both low and high resolution, IEF is unable to differentiate several species. Disc electrophoresis, used in an AOAC official final action method, does not differentiate the rockfish reliably. Using IEF, identical protein patterns were obtained for Pacific Ocean perch (Sebastes alutus), Bocaccio rockfish (S. paucispinis), and yelloweye rockfish (S. ruberrimus). A second group, comprised of silvergray rockfish (S. brevispinis), yellowtail rockfish (S. flavidus), black rockfish (S. melanops), and canary rockfish (S. pinniger), also has identical protein patterns. Widow rockfish (S. entomelas) and chilipepper rockfish (S. goodei) each had a unique pattern, different from the above 2 groups and from each other. The actual taxonomic relationships of these rockfish species are not clear and further work with IEF may help in this regard. Users of IEF and disc electrophoresis for identification purposes should be aware of this problem when working with the Sebastes.

  13. Analysis of User Requirements in Interactive 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyue Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of three dimensional (3D display technologies has resulted in a proliferation of 3D video production and broadcasting, attracting a lot of research into capture, compression and delivery of stereoscopic content. However, the predominant design practice of interactions with 3D video content has failed to address its differences and possibilities in comparison to the existing 2D video interactions. This paper presents a study of user requirements related to interaction with the stereoscopic 3D video. The study suggests that the change of view, zoom in/out, dynamic video browsing, and textual information are the most relevant interactions with stereoscopic 3D video. In addition, we identified a strong demand for object selection that resulted in a follow-up study of user preferences in 3D selection using virtual-hand and ray-casting metaphors. These results indicate that interaction modality affects users’ decision of object selection in terms of chosen location in 3D, while user attitudes do not have significant impact. Furthermore, the ray-casting-based interaction modality using Wiimote can outperform the volume-based interaction modality using mouse and keyboard for object positioning accuracy.

  14. Investigating Mobile Stereoscopic 3D Touchscreen Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Ashley; Hakkila, Jonna; SCHOENING, Johannes; Posti, Maaret

    2013-01-01

    3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in tou...

  15. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality......3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest...

  16. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  17. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  18. Esiselvitys elintarvikkeiden 3D-tulostamisesta

    OpenAIRE

    Teva, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia esiselvitys 3D-tulostamisesta elintarvikealalla. 3D-tulostaminen on uusi ja jatkuvasti kehittyvä ala, joka tulee vaikuttamaan myös elintarvikealan kehittymiseen. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää elintarvikenäkökulmasta 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Aiheen toimeksiantajana oli Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu ja kohderyhmänä elintarvikealan Pk-yritykset. Opinnäytetyössä esitellään yleisimpiä 3D-tulostusmenetelmiä ja selvitetään 3D-tulostamista tietokone...

  19. PRIPRAVA MODELOV ZA 3D - TISK

    OpenAIRE

    Črešnik, Igor

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu predstavljamo pripravo modela na 3D-tisk. V prvem delu smo preleteli zgodovino tiska. Predstavili smo tehnologijo 3D-tiska ter različne tehnike tiskanja, ki jih uporabljajo določeni tiskalniki. V nadaljevanju smo pregledali različne tipe 3D-tiskalnikov, ki se uporabljajo za domačo ali komercialno uporabo ter izpostavili njihove prednosti in slabosti. V zadnjem delu diplomskega dela smo na praktičnem primeru 3D-modela hiše prikazali proces priprave modela za 3D-tisk. Pri delu...

  20. 3D-tulostimien tutkiminen painotalolle

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli perehtyä 3D-tulostamiseen ja tutkia painotaloon sopivia 3D-tulostimia ja 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekniikoita. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös pohtia painotalolle mahdollisia 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tuotekonsepteja yrityksille ja yksityisille kuluttajille. Painoalan yrityksen tarkoituksena on sijoittaa lähitulevaisuudessa 3D-tulostimeen, joten opinnäytetyö oli ajankohtainen tutkimustyö yritykselle. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi painoalan yritys. ...

  1. BUILDING A HOMEMADE 3D PRINTER

    OpenAIRE

    Tunc, Baran

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been attracted much attention around the world due to its high potential of new application fields. In this respect, developing and inventing new filament materials for 3D printers or new techniques of 3D printing are the main interest of the many materials scientists. This paper reports a comprehensive overview of 3D printing followed by a summary of my ongoing study of building a composite homemade 3D printer. At this stage of this study, a CNC router was successfully conver...

  2. 3D Printing our future: Now

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver, Ertu

    2015-01-01

    This 3D Printing our Future:Now talk and visual presentation was given to delegates at the IMI 3D Workshop held at 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on 17th March 2015. The event was hosted by 3Mbuckley Innovation Centre for IMI plc a global engineering company, 3M, and leading 3D additive manufacturing technology providers: EOS, Renishaw and HK 3D printing to disseminate and share their experience on the latest 3D additive design and manufacturing technologies available to the engineering an...

  3. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  4. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  5. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  6. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  7. 3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan N. Khade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

  8. Performance Analysis of a 3D Ionosphere Tomographic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi-zhao; Gao Yang

    2003-01-01

    A 3D high precision ionospheric model is developed based on tomography technique. This tomographic model employs GPS data observed by an operational network of dual-frequency GPS receivers. The methodology of developing a 3D ionospheric tomography model is briefly summarized. However emphasis is put on the analysis and evaluation of the accuracy variation of 3D ionosphere modeling with respect to the change of GPS data cutoff angle.Three typical cutoff angle values (15°, 20° and 25°) are tested. For each testing cutoff angle, the performances of the3D ionospheric model constructed using tomography technique are assessed by calibrating the model predicted ionospheric TEC with the GPS measured TEC and by employing the model predicted TEC to a practical GPS positioning application single point positioning (SPP).Test results indicate the 3D model predicted VTEC has about 0.4 TECU improvement in accuracy when cutoff angle rises from 15° to 20°. However, no apparent improvement is found from 20° to 25°. The model's improvement is also validated by the better SPP accuracy of 3D model than its counterpart-dual frequency model in the 20° and 25° cases.

  9. 3D roadmap in neuroangiography: technique and clinical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, Michael; Andersson, T. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Babic, D.; Homan, R. [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    We present the first clinical results obtained with a novel technique: the three-dimensional [3D] roadmap. The major difference from the standard 2D digital roadmap technique is that the newly developed 3D roadmap is based on a rotational angiography acquisition technique with the two-dimensional [2D] fluoroscopic image as an overlay. Data required for an accurate superimposition of the previously acquired 3D reconstructed image on the interactively made 2D fluoroscopy image, in real time, are stored in the 3D workstation and constitute the calibration dataset. Both datasets are spatially aligned in real time; thus, the 3D image is accurately superimposed on the 2D fluoroscopic image regardless of any change in C-arm position or magnification. The principal advantage of the described roadmap method is that one contrast injection allows the C-arm to be positioned anywhere in the space and allows alterations in the distance between the x-ray tube and the image intensifier as well as changes in image magnification. In the clinical setting, the 3D roadmap facilitated intravascular neuronavigation with concurrent reduction of procedure time and use of contrast medium. (orig.)

  10. From 2D to 3D: Using Illumination Cones to Build 3d Face Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, S S; Jin, M [TianJin University, Collage of Precision Instrument and Opto-Ectronics Engineering (China)

    2006-10-15

    To solve the problem derivate by lighting condition and position of the camera, a new method using illumination cones to build 3d face model has been proposed. Due to illumination variability, the same object can show dramatic difference even as being viewed in fixed pose. To handle this variability, an object recognition system must employ a representation that is either invariant to, or can model this variability. The proposed technique presents an appearance-based method for modeling the variability due to illumination in the images of objects. The method differs from past appearance-based methods. Evenmore, a small set of training images is used to generate a representation that the illumination cone models the complete set of images of an object with Lambertian reflectance surface under a combination of arbitrary point light sources at infinity. After building up the illumination cones, researches focus on how to present the 3d model of the face. Combining illumination and texture feature to build up 3d model of the face make it easy solving the problem in recognition of face under different pose.

  11. From 2D to 3D: Using Illumination Cones to Build 3d Face Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To solve the problem derivate by lighting condition and position of the camera, a new method using illumination cones to build 3d face model has been proposed. Due to illumination variability, the same object can show dramatic difference even as being viewed in fixed pose. To handle this variability, an object recognition system must employ a representation that is either invariant to, or can model this variability. The proposed technique presents an appearance-based method for modeling the variability due to illumination in the images of objects. The method differs from past appearance-based methods. Evenmore, a small set of training images is used to generate a representation that the illumination cone models the complete set of images of an object with Lambertian reflectance surface under a combination of arbitrary point light sources at infinity. After building up the illumination cones, researches focus on how to present the 3d model of the face. Combining illumination and texture feature to build up 3d model of the face make it easy solving the problem in recognition of face under different pose

  12. Electrostatic Steering Accelerates C3d:CR2 Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rohith R; Huber, Gary A; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-25

    Electrostatic effects are ubiquitous in protein interactions and are found to be pervasive in the complement system as well. The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2) has evolved to become a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Electrostatic interactions have been suggested to be the driving factor for the association of the C3d:CR2 complex. In this study, we investigate the effects of ionic strength and mutagenesis on the association of C3d:CR2 through Brownian dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that the formation of the C3d:CR2 complex is ionic strength-dependent, suggesting the presence of long-range electrostatic steering that accelerates the complex formation. Electrostatic steering occurs through the interaction of an acidic surface patch in C3d and the positively charged CR2 and is supported by the effects of mutations within the acidic patch of C3d that slow or diminish association. Our data are in agreement with previous experimental mutagenesis and binding studies and computational studies. Although the C3d acidic patch may be locally destabilizing because of unfavorable Coulombic interactions of like charges, it contributes to the acceleration of association. Therefore, acceleration of function through electrostatic steering takes precedence to stability. The site of interaction between C3d and CR2 has been the target for delivery of CR2-bound nanoparticle, antibody, and small molecule biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutics. A detailed knowledge of the physicochemical basis of C3d:CR2 association may be necessary to accelerate biomarker and drug discovery efforts. PMID:27092816

  13. 3D annotation and manipulation of medical anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Schaller, Christian; Hahn, Dieter; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    Although the medical scanners are rapidly moving towards a three-dimensional paradigm, the manipulation and annotation/labeling of the acquired data is still performed in a standard 2D environment. Editing and annotation of three-dimensional medical structures is currently a complex task and rather time-consuming, as it is carried out in 2D projections of the original object. A major problem in 2D annotation is the depth ambiguity, which requires 3D landmarks to be identified and localized in at least two of the cutting planes. Operating directly in a three-dimensional space enables the implicit consideration of the full 3D local context, which significantly increases accuracy and speed. A three-dimensional environment is as well more natural optimizing the user's comfort and acceptance. The 3D annotation environment requires the three-dimensional manipulation device and display. By means of two novel and advanced technologies, Wii Nintendo Controller and Philips 3D WoWvx display, we define an appropriate 3D annotation tool and a suitable 3D visualization monitor. We define non-coplanar setting of four Infrared LEDs with a known and exact position, which are tracked by the Wii and from which we compute the pose of the device by applying a standard pose estimation algorithm. The novel 3D renderer developed by Philips uses either the Z-value of a 3D volume, or it computes the depth information out of a 2D image, to provide a real 3D experience without having some special glasses. Within this paper we present a new framework for manipulation and annotation of medical landmarks directly in three-dimensional volume.

  14. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  15. The use of 3D scanning for sporting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Kevin; Ajjimaporn, Pann; Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the process and research that went into creating a set of 3D models to characterize a golf swing. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how a 3D scanner could be used for assessing athlete performance in sporting applications. In this case, introductory work has been performed to show how the scanner could be used to show the errors a golfer made in a swing. Multiple factors must be taken into account when assessing golfers' swings including the position and movement of the golfer's hands, arms, and foot placement as well as the position of the club head and shaft of the golf club.

  16. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  17. 3D-tulostus : case Printrbot

    OpenAIRE

    Arvekari, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää 3D-tulostustekniikan perusteita ja 3D-tulostuksen nykytilannetta. 3D-tulostukseen sopivien mallien luomista tutkitaan ja mallin tekemiseen on etsitty toimivia ohjesääntöjä. Tärkeä osa työtä on tutkia mitä vaiheita 3D-tulostimen hankinnassa kotikäyttöön tulee vastaan. Käytännön kokeita varten opinnäytetyössä on case Printrbot, jossa on tutustuttu edulliseen 3D-tulostuslaitteeseen kokoonpanosta lähtien. Työn kuluessa selvisi että edulliset 3D-tulos...

  18. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  19. Spatial data modelling for 3D GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Rahman, Alias

    2007-01-01

    This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of ""true"" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.

  20. Compression of 3D models with NURBS

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz Ducci, Diego; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-01-01

    With recent progress in computing, algorithmics and telecommunications, 3D models are increasingly used in various multimedia applications. Examples include visualization, gaming, entertainment and virtual reality. In the multimedia domain 3D models have been traditionally represented as polygonal meshes. This piecewise planar representation can be thought of as the analogy of bitmap images for 3D surfaces. As bitmap images, they enjoy great flexibility and are particularly well suited to des...

  1. Extraordinary 3D Surface Materials: A practice based exhibition of 3D learning artefacts and prototypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Harris, Joanne; Unver, Ertu; Lewis, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A collection of 3D prototyped research learning artefacts were exhibited at Surface Design Show 2011. The artefacts on display provided tacit evidence of the 3D concept modelling and reflective learning experiences of a final year BA (Hons) Surface Design for Fashion & Interiors student group using 3D polygon modelling software and additive prototyping technologies (3D Printing) for the first time. The student authored project blog http://extraordinary-3d-materials.blogspot.co.uk/ documen...

  2. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; P. J. M. Van Oosterom; T. C. Hua; Sharkawi, K.H.; E. E. Duncan; Azri, N.; Hassan, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D cadastre since more and more related agencies attempt to develop or embed 3D components into the MPC. We also intend to describe the initiative by Malaysian national mapping and cadastral agency (...

  3. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  4. Can 3D Printing change your business?

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is given to businesses / companies with an interest in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing in West Yorkshire, UK Organised by the Calderdale and Kirklees Manufacturing Alliance. http://www.ckma.co.uk/ by Dr Ertu Unver Senior Lecturer / Product Design / MA 3D Digital Design / University of Huddersfield Location : 3M BIC, Date : 11th April, Time : 5.30 – 8pm Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional (3D) objects from...

  5. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  6. Virtual Realization using 3D Password

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.Gadicha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed; however, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3D password. The 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3D password. The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space.

  7. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  8. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  9. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    OpenAIRE

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D mod...

  10. 3D-tulostuksen viipalointiohjelmien vertailu

    OpenAIRE

    Virolainen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selventää 3D-tulostamisen prosessia yksityisen käyttäjän näkökulmasta sekä luoda testitulostuksia, joiden perusteella pystytään vertailemaan prosessissa käytettävien viipalointiohjelmien toimintaa keskenään. Työssä perehdytään aluksi 3D-tulostuksen teoriataustaan, jonka jälkeen suoritetaan 3D-tulostimella testitulostukset käyttäen kolmea eri viipalointiohjelmaa. 3D-tulostamisella tarkoitetaan prosessia, jonka tarkoituksena on luoda kolmiulotteinen objekti käyt...

  11. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  12. BIM tietomalli ja 3D-tulostus

    OpenAIRE

    Myllykoski, Joonas; Palonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää miten Tekla Structures ohjelmalla luotu 3D-malli saadaan tulostettua koulun 3D-tulostimella sekä tutkittiin voidaanko Tekla Structuresin ominaisuuksia hyödyntää 3D-tulostamisessa ja miten tulostus onnistuu autocadilla. Selvitimme myös mahdollisia 3D-tulostusteknologian sovelluksia tulevaisuuden rakennustuotannossa ja sen näkymiä rakennusteollisuudessa sekä erilaisia tulostus menetelmiä joita voitaisiin mahdollisesti hyödyntää rakennusteollisuudess...

  13. 3D multimodality roadmapping in neuroangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijters, Daniel; Babic, Drazenko; Homan, Robert; Mielekamp, Peter; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Suetens, Paul

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach to using morphological datasets (such as CT or MR) in the minimally invasive image guidance of intra-arterial and intra-venous endovascular devices in neuroangiography interventions. Minimally invasive X-ray angiography procedures rely on the navigation of endovascular devices, such as guide wires and catheters, through human vessels, using C-arm fluoroscopy. While the bone structure may be visible, and the injection of iodine contrast medium allows to guide endovascular devices through the vasculature, the soft-tissue structures remain invisible in the fluoroscopic images. We intend to present a method for the combined visualization of morphological data, a 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) reconstruction and the live fluoroscopy data stream in a single image. The combination of the fluoroscopic image with the 3DRA vessel tree offers the advantage that endovascular devices can be located with respect to the vasculature, without additional contrast injection, while the position of the C-arm geometry can be altered freely. The additional visualization of the morphological data, adds contextual information to the position of endovascular devices. This article addresses the clinical applications, the real-time aspects of the registration algorithms and fast fused visualization of the proposed method.

  14. THE FEASIBILITY OF 3D POINT CLOUD GENERATION FROM SMARTPHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alsubaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referenced image-based 3D point cloud generated from low-cost sensors in smartphones. The smartphone’s motion sensors are used to directly acquire the Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs of the captured images. These EOPs, along with the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOPs of the camera/ phone, are used to reconstruct the image-based 3D point cloud. However, because smartphone motion sensors suffer from poor GPS accuracy, accumulated drift and high signal noise, inaccurate 3D mapping solutions often result. Therefore, horizontal and vertical linear features, visible in each image, are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure. These constraints correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution. Once the enhanced EOPs are estimated, the semi-global matching algorithm (SGM is used to generate the image-based dense 3D point cloud. Statistical analysis and assessment are implemented herein, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D point cloud generation from the consumer-grade sensors in smartphones.

  15. The Feasibility of 3d Point Cloud Generation from Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, N.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a new technique for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referenced image-based 3D point cloud generated from low-cost sensors in smartphones. The smartphone's motion sensors are used to directly acquire the Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs) of the captured images. These EOPs, along with the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOPs) of the camera/ phone, are used to reconstruct the image-based 3D point cloud. However, because smartphone motion sensors suffer from poor GPS accuracy, accumulated drift and high signal noise, inaccurate 3D mapping solutions often result. Therefore, horizontal and vertical linear features, visible in each image, are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure. These constraints correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution. Once the enhanced EOPs are estimated, the semi-global matching algorithm (SGM) is used to generate the image-based dense 3D point cloud. Statistical analysis and assessment are implemented herein, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D point cloud generation from the consumer-grade sensors in smartphones.

  16. 3-D Printed Ultem 9085 Testing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Daniel; Christensen, Sean; Fox, Emmet J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the mechanical properties of 3-D printed Ultem 9085. This document will focus on the capabilities, limitations, and complexities of 3D printing in general, and explain the methods by which this material is tested. Because 3-D printing is a relatively new process that offers an innovative means to produce hardware, it is important that the aerospace community understands its current advantages and limitations, so that future endeavors involving 3-D printing may be completely safe. This document encompasses three main sections: a Slosh damage assessment, a destructive test of 3-D printed Ultem 9085 samples, and a test to verify simulation for the 3-D printed SDP (SPHERES Docking Port). Described below, 'Slosh' and 'SDP' refer to two experiments that are built using Ultem 9085 for use with the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites) program onboard the International Space Station (ISS) [16]. The SPHERES Facility is managed out of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California.

  17. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  18. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  19. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  20. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  1. A novel alternative method for 3D visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a 3D model of a parasite from 2D illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723

  2. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  3. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyndrickx, I.; Kaptein, R.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads t

  4. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  5. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  6. 3D Cadastre modelling in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandysheva, N.; Tikhonov, V.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Stoter, J.E.; Ploeger, H.D.; Wouters, R.; Penkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the on-going project on 3D cadastre modelling in Russia. The aim of this project is to provide guidance in the development of a prototype and to create favourable legal and institutional conditions for the introduction of 3D cadastre modelling in Russia based on experience of the

  7. Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, G.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order

  8. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  9. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  10. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  11. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  12. Multiway calibration in 3D QSAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, J; de Jong, Sietse; Smilde, A

    1997-01-01

    We have introduced multilinear PLS in 3D QSAR and applied it to GRID descriptors from a set of benzamides with affinity to the dopamine D-3 receptor subtype, synthesized as potential drugs against schizophrenia. The key issue in 3D QSAR modelling is to obtain a predictive model that is easy to inter

  13. Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  14. Limited Feedback for 3D Massive MIMO under 3D-UMa and 3D-UMi Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For three-dimensional (3D massive MIMO utilizing the uniform rectangular array (URA in the base station (BS, we propose a limited feedback transmission scheme in which the channel state information (CSI feedback operations for horizontal domain and vertical domain are separate. Compared to the traditional feedback scheme, the scheme can reduce the feedback overhead, code word index search complexity, and storage requirement. Also, based on the zenith of departure angle (ZoD distribution in 3D-Urban Macro Cell (3D-UMa and 3D-Urban Micro Cell (3D-UMi scenarios, we propose the angle quantization codebook for vertical domain, while the codebook of long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced is still adopted in horizontal domain to preserve compatibility with the LTE-Advanced. Based on the angle quantization codebook, the subsampled 3-bit DFT codebook is designed for vertical domain. The system-level simulation results reveal that, to compromise the feedback overhead and system performance, 2-bit codebook for 3D-UMa scenario and 3-bit codebook for 3D-UMi scenario can meet requirements in vertical domain. The feedback period for vertical domain can also be extended appropriately to reduce the feedback overhead.

  15. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  16. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  17. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  18. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  19. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Herfray, Yannick; Scarinci, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern-Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any SU(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal SU(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  20. 3D Align overlay verification using glass wafers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.J.; Bijnen, F.C.G.; Slabbekoorn, J.; Van Zeijl, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the MEMS world, increasing attention is being given to 3D devices requiring dual-sided processing. This requires lithography tools that are able to align a wafer to both its back side as front side. Overlay describes how well front and back side layers are positioned with respect to each other. C

  1. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  2. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  3. 3D position tracking for all-terrain robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lamon, Pierre; Siegwart, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Rough terrain robotics is a fast evolving field of research and a lot of effort is deployed towards enabling a greater level of autonomy for outdoor vehicles. Such robots find their application in scientific exploration of hostile environments like deserts, volcanoes, in the Antarctic or on other planets. They are also of high interest for search and rescue operations after natural or artificial disasters. The challenges to bring autonomy to all terrain rovers are wide. In particular, it requ...

  4. 3D position tracking for all-terrain robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lamon, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Rough terrain robotics is a fast evolving field of research and a lot of effort is deployed towards enabling a greater level of autonomy for outdoor vehicles. Such robots find their application in scientific exploration of hostile environments like deserts, volcanoes, in the Antarctic or on other planets. They are also of high interest for search and rescue operations after natural or artificial disasters. The challenges to bring autonomy to all terrain rovers are wide. In particular, it requ...

  5. Ultrasound 3D positioning system for surgical instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents various aspects regarding the development of an ultrasound sensor systems for use in laparoscopic intervention. The accuracy achieved after using compensation technique for air flow disturbances or temperature variations remains in a convenient range of 200µm. Considering this high accuracy, the flexibility and the ergonomics achieved for this system, the final device may be adapted very easily and used also in other microsurgery applications.

  6. Ultrasound 3D positioning system for surgical instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents various aspects regarding the development of an ultrasound sensor systems for use in laparoscopic intervention. The accuracy achieved after using compensation technique for air flow disturbances or temperature variations remains in a convenient range of 200µm. Considering this

  7. 3D Position Tracking System for Flexible Cystoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Munehiro Nakamura; Yusuke Kajiwara; Tatsuhito Hasegawa; Haruhiko Kimura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible cystoscopy is an examination that allows physicians to look inside the bladder. In flexible cystoscopy, beginner physicians tend to lose track of the observation due to complex handling patterns of a flexible cystoscope and poor characteristics of the bladder. In this paper, as a diagnostic support tool for beginner physicians in flexible cystoscopy, we propose a system for tracking the observation using cystoscopic images. Our system discriminates three handling patterns of a flexib...

  8. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force–distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7–9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6–9.7.

  9. No-infill 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  10. 3D Medical Image Segmentation Based on Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-hao; TIAN Yun; WANG Yi; HAO Chong-yang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method which uses multiple types of expert knowledge together in 3D medical image segmentation based on rough set theory. The focus of this paper is how to approximate a ROI (region of interest) when there are multiple types of expert knowledge. Based on rough set theory, the image can be split into three regions:positive regions; negative regions; boundary regions. With multiple knowledge we refine ROI as an intersection of all of the expected shapes with single knowledge. At last we show the results of implementing a rough 3D image segmentation and visualization system.

  11. Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Hopkinson, G; Burt, D; Robbins, M; Holland, A

    2010-01-01

    Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.

  12. Object Recognition Using a 3D RFID System

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Se-gon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2009-01-01

    Up to now, object recognition in robotics has been typically done by vision, ultrasonic sensors, laser ranger finders etc. Recently, RFID has emerged as a promising technology that can strengthen object recognition. In this chapter, the 3D RFID system and the 3D tag were presented. The proposed RFID system can determine if an object as well as other tags exists, and also can estimate the orientation and position of the object. This feature considerably reduces the dependence of the robot on o...

  13. Semi- and virtual 3D dosimetry in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, 3D dosimetry is divided in three categories; "true" 3D, semi-3D and virtual 3D. Virtual 3D involves the use of measurement arrays either before or after beam entry in the patient/phantom, whereas semi-3D involves use of measurement arrays in phantoms mimicking the patient. True 3D...

  14. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  15. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  16. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah;

    2014-01-01

    objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA......) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, they extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested for single object, nearest neighbor and range search queries using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results...... are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a sub-interval of the ([0,1]) interval to the corresponding...

  18. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  19. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  20. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  1. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  2. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  3. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  4. Matching Feature Points in 3D World

    OpenAIRE

    Avdiu, Blerta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the most actual topic in Computer Vision field which is scene understanding and this using matching of 3D feature point images. The objective is to make use of Saab’s latest breakthrough in extraction of 3D feature points, to identify the best alignment of at least two 3D feature point images. The thesis gives a theoretical overview of the latest algorithms used for feature detection, description and matching. The work continues with a brief description of the simu...

  5. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  6. General Concept of 3D SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peter; Millos, Evangelous; Gu, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This chapter established an approach to solve the full 3D SLAM problem, applied to an underwater environment. First, a general approach to the 3D SLAM problem was presented, which included the models in 3D case, data association and estimation algorithm. For an underwater mobile robot, a new measurement system was designed for large area's globally-consistent SLAM: buoys for long-range estimation, and camera for short-range estimation and map building. Globally-consistent results could be obt...

  7. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, Soeren; Bilodid, Yuri; Fridman, Emil; Baier, Silvio; Grahn, Alexander; Gommlich, Andre; Nikitin, Evgeny; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  8. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  9. 3D tulostus - digitaalisesta mallista esineeksi

    OpenAIRE

    Muurinen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä esitellään 3D tulostuksen tekniikka ja materiaaleja, suunnitellaan ja tuotetaan esimerkkikappaleen digitaalinen malli, sekä tulostetaan muovinen esine digi-taalisen mallin pohjalta. Työn tavoitteena on perehdyttää lukija prosessiin, jossa itse tuotettu digitaalinen malli tulostetaan käyttäen harrastajakäyttöön tarkoitettua edullista 3D tulostinta. Esimerkkikappaleen eri osien mallinnusprosessi näytetään kokonaisuudessaan ja kerro-taan perusteita 3D mallinnuksesta...

  10. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  11. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  12. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. 3D grafika a hry

    OpenAIRE

    Vataščinová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis, I am going to introduce the topic of 3D graphics in the game environment. Firstly, I will provide a brief introduction of history of 3D graphics in general, but with the emphasis on history of game industry in particular. Next, I will present 3D graphics of RPG games in particular, and I will analyse the graphical side of digital work production. The main contribution of this thesis is provided in the practical part, which deals with creation of an environment for an an...

  18. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  19. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  20. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  1. 3D-hahmojen toteutus mobiilipeliin

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Mobiilipelien suosio on kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti viime vuosina älypuhelinten kehittymisen myötä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään kolmiulotteisen pelihahmon toteutusprosessi mobiilipeliin. Lisäksi pohditaan maksullisten ja ilmaisten ohjelmien eroja toteutuksessa. Pelihahmojen toteutus perustuu mobiilipeliprojektiin peliyrityksessä, jossa työskentelin graafikkona. Ohjelmien vertailussa on mukana 3D Studio Max, Blender 3D, Photoshop ja GIMP. Käytännön osuudessa käydään läpi 3D-pelihahmon...

  2. 3D-MR cholangio-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Shinichi [Isehara Kyohdoh Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kyoichi

    1995-04-01

    This report introduces a new 3D-MR cholangio-angiography technique using 3D Fast SE MR cholangiography and 3D phase contrast MR angiography for obstructive jaundice. In all eight cases, dilated biliary tracts as well as portal veins were clearly visualized in the same image. This new technique helped to determine the operability and surgical strategy for cases with obstructive jaundice. It also provided anatomical guidance for surgical procedures. This study suggests that this technique may replace the currently used modalities for obstructive jaundice. (author).

  3. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  4. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  5. Semantic 3D object maps for everyday robot manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, Radu Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The book written by Dr. Radu B. Rusu presents a detailed description of 3D Semantic Mapping in the context of mobile robot manipulation. As autonomous robotic platforms get more sophisticated manipulation capabilities, they also need more expressive and comprehensive environment models that include the objects present in the world, together with their position, form, and other semantic aspects, as well as interpretations of these objects with respect to the robot tasks.   The book proposes novel 3D feature representations called Point Feature Histograms (PFH), as well as frameworks for the acquisition and processing of Semantic 3D Object Maps with contributions to robust registration, fast segmentation into regions, and reliable object detection, categorization, and reconstruction. These contributions have been fully implemented and empirically evaluated on different robotic systems, and have been the original kernel to the widely successful open-source project the Point Cloud Library (PCL) -- see http://poi...

  6. The 3D Object Mediator : Handling 3D Models on Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.J.F.; Lawick van Pabst, J. van; Afsarmanesh, H.

    1997-01-01

    The 3D Object MEdiator (3DOME 3) offers two services for handling 3D models: a modelshop and a renderfarm. These services can be consulted through the Internet. The modelshop meets the demands for brokerage of geometric descriptions of 3D models. People who create geometric models of objects can sup

  7. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  8. 3D presentatie van geluid in de cockpit [3D sound presentation in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    A.W. Bronkhorst, 3D-presentatie van geluid in de cockpit 1 Using virtual acoustics, sound can be presented from virtual sources located in the 3D space around the listener. This 3D sound has interesting applications in the cockpit. Sounds can be used to convey directional information, and interferen

  9. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  10. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Asada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  11. Single-shot 3D motion picture camera with a dense point cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Willomitzer, Florian; Häusler, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method and a 3D-camera for single-shot 3D shape measurement, with unprecedented features: The 3D-camera does not rely on pattern codification and acquires object surfaces at the theoretical limit of the information efficiency: Up to 30% of the available camera pixels display independent (not interpolated) 3D points. The 3D-camera is based on triangulation with two properly positioned cameras and a projected multi-line pattern, in combination with algorithms that solve the ambig...

  12. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  13. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  14. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  15. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  16. Copper Electrodeposition for 3D Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Beica, Rozalia; Ritzdorf, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) integration has been the traditional approach for IC integration. Due to increasing demands for providing electronic devices with superior performance and functionality in more efficient and compact packages, has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Three-dimensional (3D) approaches address both miniaturization and integration required for advanced and portable electronic products. Vertical integration proved to be essential in achieving a greater integration flexibility of disparate technologies, reason for which a general trend of transition from 2D to 3D integration is currently being observed in the industry. 3D chip integration using through silicon via (TSV) copper is considered one of the most advanced technologies among all different types of 3D packaging technologies. Copper electrodeposition is one of technologies that enable the formation of TSV structures. Because of its well-known application for copper damascene, it was believed ...

  17. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  18. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  19. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  20. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  1. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  2. Cubical Cohomology Ring of 3D Photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio; Medrano, Belen; 10.1002/ima.20271

    2011-01-01

    Cohomology and cohomology ring of three-dimensional (3D) objects are topological invariants that characterize holes and their relations. Cohomology ring has been traditionally computed on simplicial complexes. Nevertheless, cubical complexes deal directly with the voxels in 3D images, no additional triangulation is necessary, facilitating efficient algorithms for the computation of topological invariants in the image context. In this paper, we present formulas to directly compute the cohomology ring of 3D cubical complexes without making use of any additional triangulation. Starting from a cubical complex $Q$ that represents a 3D binary-valued digital picture whose foreground has one connected component, we compute first the cohomological information on the boundary of the object, $\\partial Q$ by an incremental technique; then, using a face reduction algorithm, we compute it on the whole object; finally, applying the mentioned formulas, the cohomology ring is computed from such information.

  3. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  4. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...... shutter is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Camera delay is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. A 3-D image is constructed from a sequence of 50-100 2-D reflectivity images, where each frame integrates about 700 laser pulses on the CCD. In 50 Hz video mode...... we record a 2-D sequence in a second and process a 3-D image in few seconds. We compare 3-D images with a system performance model....

  5. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  6. Tvorba 3D modelů

    OpenAIRE

    Musálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Práce řeší 3D rekonstrukci objektu pomocí metody nasvícení vzorem. Projektor nasvěcuje měřený objekt definovaným vzorem a dvojice kamer z něj snímá body. Podstavec s objektem se otáčí, a během více měření je objekt sejmut z více úhlů. Body jsou identifikovány z naměřených snímků, transformovány na 3D pomocí stereovidění, spojeny do 3D modelu a zobrazeny. Thesis solves 3D reconstruction of an object by method of lighting by pattern. A projector lights the measured object by defined pattern ...

  7. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  8. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  9. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  10. Transportstromen verschuiven door toepassing 3-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    3-D printing is aan een gestage opmars bezig.ln een paar jaar tijd is er een miljardenmarkt ontstaan die exponentieel groeit. TNO deed onderzoek naar de impact van deze ontwikkelingen op supply chains.

  11. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  12. Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rahman; T. C. Hua; P. J. M. Van Oosterom

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). Currently, many national mapping and cadastral agencies (NMCAs) and users deal with complex situations, and we believe that 3D could enhance the understanding of the situations better. This paper descr...

  13. Luovasta konseptisuunnittelusta 3D-mainoselokuvaan

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoite oli luoda 3D-mainoselokuva myynnin tueksi ja nostaa esiin IT-alan yrityksen ja sen yksikön tuottamien palveluiden laajuutta ja yrityksen tapaa tuottaa tulostuspalvelua. Toteutettu mainoselokuva on tarkoitettu julkaistavaksi verkossa yrityksen omalla Youtube-kanavalla ja verkkosivuilla. 3D-mainoselokuvan suunnittelussa käytettiin luovan konseptisuunnittelun keinoja jalostaa tarina kohderyhmälähtöiseksi. Aluksi selvitettiin asiakasrajapinnan haastattelujen avulla kohde...

  14. 3D printing: technology and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to improve the process of 3D printing on the laboratory machine. In the study processes of designing, printing and post-print-ing treatment were improved. The study was commissioned by Mikko Ruotsalainen, head of the laboratory. The data was collected during the test work. All the basic information about 3D printing was taken from the Internet or library. As the results of the project higher model accuracy, solutions for post-printing treatment, printin...

  15. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  16. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host ...

  17. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  18. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    OpenAIRE

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-01-01

    LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic dataLandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model ca...

  19. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  20. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  1. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  2. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  3. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  4. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  5. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Zappettini, A.;

    2014-01-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using...

  6. Thin slice three dimentional (3D reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

  7. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  8. Multijunction Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Device Combined with Online Membrane-Assisted Buffer Exchanger Enables Isoelectric Point Fractionation of Intact Human Plasma Proteins for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    Prefractionation of proteins is often employed to improve analysis specificity in proteomics. Prefractionation based on the isoelectric point (pI) is particularly attractive because pI is a well-defined parameter and it is orthogonal to hydrophobicity on which reversed-phase chromatography is based. However, direct capillary electrophoresis of blood proteins is challenging due to its high content of salts and charged small molecules. Here, we couple an online desalinator device to our multijunction capillary isoelectric focusing (MJ-CIEF) instrument and perform direct isoelectric separation of human blood plasma. In a proof-of-principle experiment, pooled samples of patients with progressive mild cognitive impairment and corresponding healthy controls were investigated. Injection of 3 μL of plasma containing over 100 μg of proteins into the desalinator was followed by pI fractionation with MJ-CIEF in less than 1 h. Shotgun proteomics of 12 collected fractions from each of the 5 replicates of pooled samples resulted in the identification and accurate quantification (median CV between the replicates is <4%) of nearly 365 protein groups from 4030 unique peptides (with <1% FDR for both peptides and proteins). The obtained results include several proteins previously reported as AD markers. The isoelectric point of each quantified protein was calculated using a set of 7 synthetic peptides spiked into the samples. Several proteins with a significant pI shift between their isoforms in the patient and control samples were identified. The presented method is straightforward, robust, and scalable; therefore, it can be used in both biological and clinical applications.

  9. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  10. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies. (paper)

  11. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  12. 3D structure prediction of lignolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase based on homology modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAPNIL K. KALE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lignolytic enzymes have great biotechnological value in biopulping, biobleaching, and bioremediation. Manganese peroxidase (EC 1:11:1:13 and lignin peroxidase (EC 1:11:1:14 are extracellular and hem-containing peroxidases that catalyze H2O2-dependent oxidation of lignin. Because of their ability to catalyse oxidation of a wide range of organic compounds and even some inorganic compounds, they got tremendous industrial importance. In this study, 3D structure of lignin and manganese peroxidase has been predicted on the basis of homology modeling using Swiss PDB workspace. The physicochemical properties like molecular weight, isoelectric point, Grand average of hydropathy, instability and aliphatic index of the target enzymes were performed using Protparam. The predicted secondary structure of MnP has 18 helices and 6 strands, while LiP has 20 helices and 4 strands. Generated 3D structure was visualized in Pymol. The generated model for MnP and LiP has Z-score Qmean of 0.01 and -0.71, respectively. The predicted models were validated through Ramachandran Plot, which indicated that 96.1 and 95.5% of the residues are in most favored regions for MnP and LiP respectively. The quality of predicted models were assessed and confirmed by VERIFY 3D, PROCHECK and ERRAT. The modeled structure of MnP and LiP were submitted to the Protein Model Database.

  13. AUTOMATIC 3D MAPPING USING MULTIPLE UNCALIBRATED CLOSE RANGE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic three-dimensions modeling of the real world is an important research topic in the geomatics and computer vision fields for many years. By development of commercial digital cameras and modern image processing techniques, close range photogrammetry is vastly utilized in many fields such as structure measurements, topographic surveying, architectural and archeological surveying, etc. A non-contact photogrammetry provides methods to determine 3D locations of objects from two-dimensional (2D images. Problem of estimating the locations of 3D points from multiple images, often involves simultaneously estimating both 3D geometry (structure and camera pose (motion, it is commonly known as structure from motion (SfM. In this research a step by step approach to generate the 3D point cloud of a scene is considered. After taking images with a camera, we should detect corresponding points in each two views. Here an efficient SIFT method is used for image matching for large baselines. After that, we must retrieve the camera motion and 3D position of the matched feature points up to a projective transformation (projective reconstruction. Lacking additional information on the camera or the scene makes the parallel lines to be unparalleled. The results of SfM computation are much more useful if a metric reconstruction is obtained. Therefor multiple views Euclidean reconstruction applied and discussed. To refine and achieve the precise 3D points we use more general and useful approach, namely bundle adjustment. At the end two real cases have been considered to reconstruct (an excavation and a tower.

  14. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs. PMID:23757592

  15. Single-shot 3D motion picture camera with a dense point cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Willomitzer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method and a 3D-camera for single-shot 3D shape measurement, with unprecedented features: The 3D-camera does not rely on pattern codification and acquires object surfaces at the theoretical limit of the information efficiency: Up to 30% of the available camera pixels display independent (not interpolated) 3D points. The 3D-camera is based on triangulation with two properly positioned cameras and a projected multi-line pattern, in combination with algorithms that solve the ambiguity problem. The projected static line pattern enables 3D-acquisition of fast processes and the take of 3D-motion-pictures. The depth resolution is at its physical limit, defined by electronic noise and speckle noise. The requisite low cost technology is simple.

  16. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions

  17. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  18. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  19. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  20. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  1. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  2. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  3. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  4. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune;

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...... communication and visualisation media. It is largely experimental in nature and has a qualitative approach in analysing some of the actions and arguments which took place. These experiences and preliminary results form the basis for a discussion towards an understanding of virtual space and the varying...

  5. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  6. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  7. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  8. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application......Structural DNA nanotechnology has been heavily dependent on the development of dedicated software tools for the design of unique helical junctions, to define unique sticky-ends for tile assembly, and for predicting the products of the self-assembly reaction of multiple DNA strands [1-3]. Recently......, several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...

  9. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Freytag, B; Bonifacio, P

    2009-01-01

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  10. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toushmalani Reza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region

  11. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  12. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Correction of OBS Position and Recent Advances of 3D Seismic Exploration in the Central Sub-Basin of South China Sea%南海中央次海盆OBS位置校正及三维地震探测新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 赵明辉; 王建; 贺恩远; 敖威; 丘学林; 徐辉龙; 卫小冬; 张佳政

    2013-01-01

    南海中央次海盆首次开展的三维海底地震仪(ocean bottom seismometer,OBS)探测试验,对于全面认识南海扩张脊处速度展布特征及海底扩张历史有着重要意义.海底地震仪的位置是研究三维地震结构的关键参数之一,高精度的三维OBS数据处理,决定着后期地震结构反演模型的分辨率与准确性.利用直达水波走时信息,综合最小二乘法反演原理,并采用蒙特卡罗法模拟OBS降落海底的过程,完成了南海中央次海盆试验区39台OBS数据格式转换与位置校正工作;同时探讨了蒙特卡罗法应用于位置校正的精度问题.处理后OBS综合记录剖面中展示了多组清晰可靠、来自珍贝-黄岩火山链下深部结构中的P波震相,如Pg、PmP和Pn震相,为下一步南海中央次海盆的三维层析成像奠定了坚实数据基础.%A three-dimensional (3D) Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) seismic exploration is implemented for the first time in the central sub-basin of South China Sea (SCS). The velocity distribution in 3D high spatial variability is significant to understand the history of expansion and evolution of SCS. However, high-precision 3D data processing determines the resolution and accuracy for the further seismic structure, where OBS position is one of the key parameters in seismic structural study. We use the travel time data of direct water waves to simulate the process of OBS landing on seafloor employing the least squares method and Monte Carlo method. Finally the corrections of OBS positions have been achieved for a total of 39 OBSs in the central sub-basin of SCS experiment. Meanwhile the accuracy of Monte Carlo method for relocation has been discussed. A few clear and reliable P-wave seismic phases, such as Pg, PmP and Pn, were discovered in the OBS seismic record sections, which come from deep crust or upper mantle beneath the Zhenbei-Huangyan volcanic chains. These abundant seismic phases provide a strong data

  14. Design and Implementation of 3D Model Database for General-Purpose 3D GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weiping; ZHU Qing; DU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Yeting

    2010-01-01

    To improve the reusability of three-dimensional (3D) models and simplify the complexity of natural scene reconstruction, this paper presents a 3D model database for universal 3D GIS. After the introduction of its extensible function architecture,accompanied by the conclusion of implicit spatial-temporal hierarchy of models in any reconstructed scene of 3D GIS for general purpose, several key issues are discussed in detail, such as the storage and management of 3D models and related retrieval and load method, as well as the interfaces for further on-demand development. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this model database are proved through its application in the development of 3D visualization system of railway operation.

  15. X3d2pov. Traductor of X3D to POV-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castellanos Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality and low-quality interactive graphics represent two different approaches to computer graphics’ 3D object representation. The former is mainly used to produce high computational cost movie animation. The latter is used for producing interactive scenes as part of virtual reality environments. Many file format specifications have appeared to satisfy underlying model needs; POV-ray (persistence of vision is an open source specification for rendering photorealistic images with the ray tracer algorithm and X3D (extendable 3D as the VRML successor standard for producing web virtual-reality environments written in XML. X3D2POV has been introduced to render high-quality images from an X3D scene specification; it is a grammar translator tool from X3D code to POV-ray code.

  16. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  17. 3D-skannauksen hyödyntäminen 3D-tulostuksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusteknologioihin. Työssä käytiin läpi erilaiset 3D-tulostusmenetelmät ja esiteltiin erilaisia 3D-skannausmenetelmiä. Lisäksi käytiin läpi 3D-skannaus- ja 3D-tulostusprosessi. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä oli tutkia, kuinka nämä kaksi teknologiaa toimivat yhdessä. Tarkoituksena oli käydä läpi prosessi, jossa fyysinen kappale skannattiin digitaaliseen muotoon, jonka jälkeen se voidaan tulostaa uudeksi fyysiseksi kappaleeksi. Lisäksi tarko...

  18. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  19. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  20. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development...... of 3D city models....

  1. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  2. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  3. Creating a 3D Game Character Model

    OpenAIRE

    Paasikivi, Joni

    2014-01-01

    This thesis goes through the process of modeling a low poly 3D model for a video game project from the perspective of a novice 3D artist. The goal was to prepare a stylized low polygon model of less than 6000 triangles, based on pre-made design and a living person. The program used in this project was 3Ds Max. The process starts with the creation of the reference images for the 3Ds Max and goes through the process of modeling the wireframe model, unwrapping the model for texturizing, and crea...

  4. EAFIT 3D móvil

    OpenAIRE

    Hincapié Casas, Miguel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Se desarrollo una aplicación para celulares que permite visualizar un mundo virtual en 3D del campus universitario -- El objetivo de este desarrollo fue tener a disposición una herramienta que prestara el mismo servicio prestado por un mapa impreso del campus universitario -- Adicionalmente la aplicación permite hacer uso del GPS integrado en algunos celulares -- La escena 3D fue creada en 3DS Max y enfocada a tener la menor cantidad de polígonos posibles dada las limitaciones de ...

  5. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  6. SURVEY AND ANALYSIS OF 3D STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K .LAKSHMI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, eg., images, audio, and video files. The remarkable growth in computational power, increase in current security approaches and techniques are often used together to ensures security of the secret message. Steganography’s ultimate objectives, which are capacity and invisibility, are the main factors that separate it from related techniques. In this paper we focus on 3D models of steganography and conclude with some review analysis of high capacity data hiding and low-distortion 3D models.

  7. The Local Universe: Galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Here I present results from individual galaxy studies and galaxy surveys in the Local Universe with particular emphasis on the spatially resolved properties of neutral hydrogen gas. The 3D nature of the data allows detailed studies of the galaxy morphology and kinematics, their relation to local and global star formation as well as galaxy environments. I use new 3D visualisation tools to present multi-wavelength data, aided by tilted-ring models of the warped galaxy disks. Many of the algorithms and tools currently under development are essential for the exploration of upcoming large survey data, but are also highly beneficial for the analysis of current galaxy surveys.

  8. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  9. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  10. AutoCAD Civil 3D - Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Luketić, Antonio; Padovan, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    AutoCAD Civil 3D je vrlo kompleksan i napredan program za geodeziju i građevinarstvo. Survey izbornik predstavlja mali dio tog softvera. U programu je sadržana mogućnost kreiranja vlastitih kodova kao i naredbi kojima možemo ubrzati vizualizaciju izmjerenih objekata. Njegovim korištenjem se znatno skraćuje vrijeme obrade podataka. Članak je napisan na temelju jednostavnog, ali korisnog primjera kojime smo željeli upoznati čitatelje s prilično nepoznatom aplikacijom koju nudi AutoCAD Civil 3D....

  11. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  12. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  13. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity Unitarity Redux

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Townsend, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    A geometrical analysis of the bulk and anti-de Sitter boundary unitarity conditions of 3D "Minimal Massive Gravity" (MMG) (which evades the "bulk/boundary clash" of Topologically Massive Gravity) is used to extend and simplify previous results, showing that unitarity selects, up to equivalence, a connected region in parameter space. We also initiate the study of flat-space holography for MMG. Its relevant flat space limit is a deformation of 3D conformal gravity; the deformation is both non-l...

  14. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  15. 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, N.H.

    Statens Forsknings- og Uddannelsesbygninger har på forskellige nybyggerier eksperimenteret med anvendelse af 3D-visualisering i tilknytning til bedømmelsen af arkitektkonkurrencer. Interview af dommerkomitéen på konkurrencerne på Muskikkens Hus i Nordjylland og nye bygninger til Roskilde...... Universitetscenter har givet input til forslag om den fremtidige udvikling. Forslagene retter sig både mod arkitekternes kompetence og udvalgte forretningsstrategier og mod den professionelle bygherres fremtidige krav til 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer. Et indbudt seminar om rapportens anbefalinger samler...

  16. 3D FDTD simulations of photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In our contribution we will present the recent results on 3D simulations of photonic devices. Particularly, quantum well infrared photodetectors with embedded photonic crystal are optimized to achieve optimal light coupling and quantum efficiency. Furthermore, we study schemes of light coupling into SOI waveguides. Both optical fibre-SOI waveguide and laser-SOI waveguide coupling schemes are investigated. The results of investigations regarding the influence of disorder on the reflection peak in opal 3D photonic crystal will be also presented. This work was supported by the Austrian Nanoinitiative RPC PLATON. (author)

  17. Using 3D Scanning in 3D Character Modeling and Game Figure Production

    OpenAIRE

    guo, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this thesis was to discuss the theory of 3D scanning, focus on the flowchart of using 3D NextEngine Desktop Scanner hardware and software as well as the 3D game character exporting and importing in both 3ds Max and CryENGINE2 Sandbox2. The purpose of this final-year project was to scan models made of modeling paste using the 3D NextEngine ScanStudio. The models were developed and imported as raw files into 3dsMax. At the same step, the skeletons were adjusted an...

  18. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  19. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and its main competitor, the Israeli company Stratasys, held a combined market share of 37% split almost evenly and marketed products in all the same areas. However, a greater threat came from large mult...

  20. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  1. Seeing a Stellar Explosion in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    faster in some directions than others, leading to an irregular shape with some parts stretching out further into space. The first material to be ejected from the explosion travelled at an incredible 100 million km per hour, which is about a tenth of the speed of light or around 100 000 times faster than a passenger jet. Even at this breakneck speed it has taken 10 years to reach a previously existing ring of gas and dust puffed out from the dying star. The images also demonstrate that another wave of material is travelling ten times more slowly and is being heated by radioactive elements created in the explosion. "We have established the velocity distribution of the inner ejecta of Supernova 1987A," says lead author Karina Kjær. "Just how a supernova explodes is not very well understood, but the way the star exploded is imprinted on this inner material. We can see that this material was not ejected symmetrically in all directions, but rather seems to have had a preferred direction. Besides, this direction is different to what was expected from the position of the ring." Such asymmetric behaviour was predicted by some of the most recent computer models of supernovae, which found that large-scale instabilities take place during the explosion. The new observations are thus the first direct confirmation of such models. SINFONI is the leading instrument of its kind, and only the level of detail it affords allowed the team to draw their conclusions. Advanced adaptive optics systems counteracted the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere while a technique called integral field spectroscopy allowed the astronomers to study several parts of the supernova's chaotic core simultaneously, leading to the build-up of the 3D image. "Integral field spectroscopy is a special technique where for each pixel we get information about the nature and velocity of the gas," says Kjær. "This means that besides the normal picture we also have the velocity along the line of sight. Because we

  2. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  3. Frontal Conversion and Uniformity in 3D Printing by Photopolymerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vitale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the non-uniform spatio-temporal conversion, intrinsic to photopolymerisation, in the context of light-driven 3D printing of polymers. The polymerisation kinetics of a series of model acrylate and thiol-ene systems, both neat and doped with a light-absorbing dye, is investigated experimentally and analysed according to a descriptive coarse-grained model for photopolymerisation. In particular, we focus on the relative kinetics of polymerisation with those of 3D printing, by comparing the evolution of the position of the conversion profile (zf to the sequential displacement of the object stage (∆z. After quantifying the characteristic sigmoidal monomer-to-polymer conversion of the various systems, with a combination of patterning experiments, FT-IR mapping, and modelling, we compute representative regimes for which zf is smaller, commensurate with, or larger than ∆z. While non-monotonic conversion can be detrimental to 3D printing, for instance in causing differential shrinkage of inhomogeneity in material properties, we identify opportunities for facile fabrication of modulated materials in the z-direction (i.e., along the illuminated axis. Our simple framework and model, based on directly measured parameters, can thus be employed in photopolymerisation-based 3D printing, both in process optimisation and in the precise design of complex, internally stratified materials by coupling the z-stage displacement and frontal polymerisation kinetics.

  4. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  5. 胸段椎体转移癌放射治疗二维和三维位置验证的比较分析%Comparison of 2D kilovoltage-kilovoltage radiographs and 3D cone-beam computed tomography in position verification during thoracic spinal metastases cancer radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 徐细明; 胡健; 戈伟; 徐利明; 邓君健

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过VARIAN-OBI系统提供二维KV-KV和三维锥形束CT(CBCT)位置验证模式,对比分析其在胸段椎体骨转移癌的应用,找寻其最佳图像引导放射治疗(IGRT)方式.方法 选择50例胸段椎体骨转移癌患者,其中男性33例,女性17例,中位年龄为57岁.随机分为A、B组,每次治疗前位置验证,A组行二维KV-KV位置验证,图像配准后记录位移偏差值,移动治疗床治疗,治疗结束后评估患者疼痛症状,按照世界卫生组织的疼痛评分标准评分;B组行三维CBCT位置验证,图像配准后,记录位移偏移值(包括旋转偏差),移动治疗床执行治疗,并记录患者疼痛指数.统计并计算均值和标准差,对比分析两种验证方式的差异.结果 A组和B组各获取125组图像,位移偏差:A组在Vertical(Vrt)、Longitudinal (Lng)、Lateral (Lat)的位移偏差分别为(0.02±0.14) cm、(0.02±0.13) cm、(-0.01±0.17)cm;B组为(0.04±0.15) cm、(0.01±0.14) cm、(-0.03±0.16)cm,两组数据比较,差异无统计学意义(P=0.642、0.549、0.996> 0.05);疼痛指数:A组患者为2.21±0.77,B组患者为3.03±0.80(P=0<0.05);验证用时:二维KV-KV配准时间为(3.97±0.63) min,三维CBCT配准时间为(8.13±0.98) min(P=0<0.05).结论 二维KV-KV与三维CBCT位置验证在位置移动偏差值的比较无统计学意义,均能满足临床应用需求.二维KV-KV位置验证相对三维CBCT位置验证,整个验证需要时间是后者的1/2~ 1/3,二维KV-KV位置验证是疼痛症状明显的椎体骨转移患者的首选方式.%Objective To analyze the difference between two-dimension(2D) kilovoltage-kilovoltage(KV-KV) and three-dimension (3D) cone -beam computed tomography (CBCT) verification in thoracic spinal metastases cancer radiotherapy, and find the best application of IGRT for thoracic metastases cancer patients by two radiotherapy position verification 2D KV-KV and 3D CBCT from Varian-OBI system. Methods A total of 50 thoracic metastases cancer

  6. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  7. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  8. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  9. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involv...

  10. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: ohohm@mit.ed, E-mail: j.rosseel@rug.n, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-07

    We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N=4 supersymmetric 'general massive supergravity' and the maximally supersymmetric N=8 'new massive supergravity'. We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N=7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N=6 to be maximal at the nonlinear level.

  11. On Maximal Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric "general massive supergravity" and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 "new massive supergravity". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level.

  12. More on Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    Completing earlier work on three dimensional (3D) N=1 supergravity with curvature-squared terms, we construct the general supergravity extension of cosmological massive gravity theories. We expand about supersymmetric anti-de Sitter vacua, finding the conditions for bulk unitarity and the critical points in parameter space at which the spectrum changes. We discuss implications for the dual conformal field theory.

  13. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  14. Local orientation measurements in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    The 3 Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) method is presented and its potentials illustrated by examples. The 3DXRD method is based on diffraction of high energy X-rays and allows fast and nondestructive 3D characterization of the local distribution of crystallographic orientations in the bulk....

  15. Automated analysis of 3D echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stralen, Marijn van

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we aim at automating the analysis of 3D echocardiography, mainly targeting the functional analysis of the left ventricle. Manual analysis of these data is cumbersome, time-consuming and is associated with inter-observer and inter-institutional variability. Methods for reconstruction o

  16. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    Real-time ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in medical diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound systems offering real-time imaging in 3-D has emerged. However, the high complexity of the transducer probes and the considerable increase in data to be processed compared to conventional 2-D ultr...

  17. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing...

  18. MIM in 3D: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    Last decades great effort has been put in the development of 3D capacitors. These capacitors are used for RF decoupling and should therefore have a high capacitance density associated with a sufficient breakdown voltage. Increased capacitance densities have been achieved by exploring the use of the

  19. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  20. 3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, ...