WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d imaging system

  1. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  2. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  3. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  4. Laboratory 3D Micro-XRF/Micro-CT Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Liu, X.

    2011-09-01

    A prototype micro-XRF laboratory system based on pinhole imaging was developed to produce 3D elemental maps. The fluorescence x-rays are detected by a deep-depleted CCD camera operating in photon-counting mode. A charge-clustering algorithm, together with dynamically adjusted exposure times, ensures a correct energy measurement. The XRF component has a spatial resolution of 70 μm and an energy resolution of 180 eV at 6.4 keV. The system is augmented by a micro-CT imaging modality. This is used for attenuation correction of the XRF images and to co-register features in the 3D XRF images with morphological structures visible in the volumetric CT images of the object.

  5. Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vezhnevets

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2∼3 minutes.

  6. An Efficient 3D Imaging using Structured Light Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokwoo

    Structured light 3D surface imaging has been crucial in the fields of image processing and computer vision, particularly in reconstruction, recognition and others. In this dissertation, we propose the approaches to development of an efficient 3D surface imaging system using structured light patterns including reconstruction, recognition and sampling criterion. To achieve an efficient reconstruction system, we address the problem in its many dimensions. In the first, we extract geometric 3D coordinates of an object which is illuminated by a set of concentric circular patterns and reflected to a 2D image plane. The relationship between the original and the deformed shape of the light patterns due to a surface shape provides sufficient 3D coordinates information. In the second, we consider system efficiency. The efficiency, which can be quantified by the size of data, is improved by reducing the number of circular patterns to be projected onto an object of interest. Akin to the Shannon-Nyquist Sampling Theorem, we derive the minimum number of circular patterns which sufficiently represents the target object with no considerable information loss. Specific geometric information (e.g. the highest curvature) of an object is key to deriving the minimum sampling density. In the third, the object, represented using the minimum number of patterns, has incomplete color information (i.e. color information is given a priori along with the curves). An interpolation is carried out to complete the photometric reconstruction. The results can be approximately reconstructed because the minimum number of the patterns may not exactly reconstruct the original object. But the result does not show considerable information loss, and the performance of an approximate reconstruction is evaluated by performing recognition or classification. In an object recognition, we use facial curves which are deformed circular curves (patterns) on a target object. We simply carry out comparison between the

  7. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  8. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez-Arellano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  9. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  10. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  11. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  12. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and 3D exaggeration algorithm for the region of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We aslo comments on the GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of 3D exaggeraion algorithm for ROI by adjusting and synthesizing the disparity value of ROI (region of interest) in real time. We comment on the pattern of aperture for deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and clarify the reason why we can get more sharp and clear image by blocking some portion of aperture or geometric sampling. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  13. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  14. Image quality of a cone beam O-arm 3D imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Weir, Victor; Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Hsiang; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2009-02-01

    The O-arm is a cone beam imaging system designed primarily to support orthopedic surgery and is also used for image-guided and vascular surgery. Using a gantry that can be opened or closed, the O-arm can function as a 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy device or collect 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging data like a CT system. Clinical applications of the O-arm in spine surgical procedures, assessment of pedicle screw position, and kyphoplasty procedures show that the O-arm 3D mode provides enhanced imaging information compared to radiographs or fluoroscopy alone. In this study, the image quality of an O-arm system was quantitatively evaluated. A 20 cm diameter CATPHAN 424 phantom was scanned using the pre-programmed head protocols: small/medium (120 kVp, 100 mAs), large (120 kVp, 128 mAs), and extra-large (120 kVp, 160 mAs) in 3D mode. High resolution reconstruction mode (512×512×0.83 mm) was used to reconstruct images for the analysis of low and high contrast resolution, and noise power spectrum. MTF was measured using the point spread function. The results show that the O-arm image is uniform but with a noise pattern which cannot be removed by simply increasing the mAs. The high contrast resolution of the O-arm system was approximately 9 lp/cm. The system has a 10% MTF at 0.45 mm. The low-contrast resolution cannot be decided due to the noise pattern. For surgery where locations of a structure are emphasized over a survey of all image details, the image quality of the O-arm is well accepted clinically.

  15. GOTHIC CHURCHES IN PARIS ST GERVAIS ET ST PROTAIS IMAGE MATCHING 3D RECONSTRUCTION TO UNDERSTAND THE VAULTS SYSTEM GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capone

    2015-02-01

    benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  16. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering Architectures, Techniques and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lu; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Riding on the success of 3D cinema blockbusters and advances in stereoscopic display technology, 3D video applications have gathered momentum in recent years. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering: Architectures, Techniques and Challenges surveys depth-image-based 3D-TV systems, which are expected to be put into applications in the near future. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) significantly enhances the 3D visual experience compared to stereoscopic systems currently in use. DIBR techniques make it possible to generate additional viewpoints using 3D warping techniques to adjust the perceived depth of stereoscopic videos and provide for auto-stereoscopic displays that do not require glasses for viewing the 3D image.   The material includes a technical review and literature survey of components and complete systems, solutions for technical issues, and implementation of prototypes. The book is organized into four sections: System Overview, Content Generation, Data Compression and Transmission, and 3D V...

  17. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Michael; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space a...

  18. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas DB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David B Douglas,1 Emanuel F Petricoin,2 Lance Liotta,2 Eugene Wilson3 1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, 3Department of Radiology, Fort Benning, Columbus, GA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D augmented reality”. Materials and methods: A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results: The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion: The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. Keywords: augmented reality, 3D medical imaging, radiology, depth perception

  19. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  20. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen, E-mail: wli@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  1. A web-based 3D medical image collaborative processing system with videoconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sanbi; Han, Jun; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-07-01

    Three dimension medical images have been playing an irreplaceable role in realms of medical treatment, teaching, and research. However, collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical images on Internet is still one of the biggest challenges to support these activities. Consequently, we present a new application approach for web-based synchronized collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical Images. Meanwhile, a web-based videoconference function is provided to enhance the performance of the whole system. All the functions of the system can be available with common Web-browsers conveniently, without any extra requirement of client installation. In the end, this paper evaluates the prototype system using 3D medical data sets, which demonstrates the good performance of our system.

  2. Flatbed-type 3D display systems using integral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yuzo; Nagatani, Hiroyuki; Saishu, Tatsuo; Fukushima, Rieko; Taira, Kazuki

    2006-10-01

    We have developed prototypes of flatbed-type autostereoscopic display systems using one-dimensional integral imaging method. The integral imaging system reproduces light beams similar of those produced by a real object. Our display architecture is suitable for flatbed configurations because it has a large margin for viewing distance and angle and has continuous motion parallax. We have applied our technology to 15.4-inch displays. We realized horizontal resolution of 480 with 12 parallaxes due to adoption of mosaic pixel arrangement of the display panel. It allows viewers to see high quality autostereoscopic images. Viewing the display from angle allows the viewer to experience 3-D images that stand out several centimeters from the surface of the display. Mixed reality of virtual 3-D objects and real objects are also realized on a flatbed display. In seeking reproduction of natural 3-D images on the flatbed display, we developed proprietary software. The fast playback of the CG movie contents and real-time interaction are realized with the aid of a graphics card. Realization of the safety 3-D images to the human beings is very important. Therefore, we have measured the effects on the visual function and evaluated the biological effects. For example, the accommodation and convergence were measured at the same time. The various biological effects are also measured before and after the task of watching 3-D images. We have found that our displays show better results than those to a conventional stereoscopic display. The new technology opens up new areas of application for 3-D displays, including arcade games, e-learning, simulations of buildings and landscapes, and even 3-D menus in restaurants.

  3. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  4. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  5. Structured light 3D tracking system for measuring motions in PET brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Jørgensen, Morten Rudkjær; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold;

    2010-01-01

    with a DLP projector and a CCD camera is set up on a model of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT). Methods to reconstruct 3D point clouds of simple surfaces based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) are demonstrated. The projector and camera are calibrated using a simple stereo vision procedure......Patient motion during scanning deteriorates image quality, especially for high resolution PET scanners. A new proposal for a 3D head tracking system for motion correction in high resolution PET brain imaging is set up and demonstrated. A prototype tracking system based on structured light...... where the projector is treated as a camera. Additionally, the surface reconstructions are corrected for the non-linear projector output prior to image capture. The results are convincing and a first step toward a fully automated tracking system for measuring head motions in PET imaging...

  6. Fusing Multiscale Charts into 3D ENC Systems Based on Underwater Topography and Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose an approach to fuse multiscale charts into three-dimensional (3D electronic navigational chart (ENC systems based on underwater topography and remote sensing image. This is the first time that the fusion of multiscale standard ENCs in the 3D ENC system has been studied. First, a view-dependent visualization technology is presented for the determination of the display condition of a chart. Second, a map sheet processing method is described for dealing with the map sheet splice problem. A process order called “3D order” is designed to adapt to the characteristics of the chart. A map sheet clipping process is described to deal with the overlap between the adjacent map sheets. And our strategy for map sheet splice is proposed. Third, the rendering method for ENC objects in the 3D ENC system is introduced. Fourth, our picking-up method for ENC objects is proposed. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system: automotive intelligent chart (AIC 3D electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS. And our method can handle the fusion problem well.

  7. Single Camera 3-D Coordinate Measuring System Based on Optical Probe Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new vision coordinate measuring system——single camera 3-D coordinate measuring system based on optical probe imaging is presented. A new idea in vision coordinate measurement is proposed. A linear model is deduced which can distinguish six freedom degrees of optical probe to realize coordinate measurement of the object surface. The effects of some factors on the resolution of the system are analyzed. The simulating experiments have shown that the system model is available.

  8. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p < 0.05). Comparisons between ventricle volumes from 3D US and MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  9. 3D transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy using a mechanical imaging and needle-guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Gil, Elena; Bluvol, Jeremy; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are generally limited to 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging for biopsy needle guidance. This limitation results in needle position ambiguity and an insufficient record of biopsy core locations in cases of prostate re-biopsy. We have developed a multi-jointed mechanical device that supports a commercially available TRUS probe with an integrated needle guide for precision prostate biopsy. The device is fixed at the base, allowing the joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting its weight throughout its full range of motion. Means are provided to track the needle trajectory and display this trajectory on a corresponding TRUS image. This allows the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate, providing true 3D navigation. The tracker has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe to generate 3D images. The tracker reduces the variability associated with conventional hand-held probes, while preserving user familiarity and procedural workflow. In a prostate phantom, biopsy needles were guided to within 2 mm of their targets, and the 3D location of the biopsy core was accurate to within 3 mm. The 3D navigation system is validated in the presence of prostate motion in a preliminary patient study.

  10. TBIdoc: 3D content-based CT image retrieval system for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimiao; Gong, Tianxia; Wang, Jie; Liu, Ruizhe; Tan, Chew Lim; Leong, Tze Yun; Pang, Boon Chuan; Lim, C. C. Tchoyoson; Lee, Cheng Kiang; Tian, Qi; Zhang, Zhuo

    2010-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is widely used in the diagnosis of TBI. Nowadays, large amount of TBI CT data is stacked in the hospital radiology department. Such data and the associated patient information contain valuable information for clinical diagnosis and outcome prediction. However, current hospital database system does not provide an efficient and intuitive tool for doctors to search out cases relevant to the current study case. In this paper, we present the TBIdoc system: a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system which works on the TBI CT images. In this web-based system, user can query by uploading CT image slices from one study, retrieval result is a list of TBI cases ranked according to their 3D visual similarity to the query case. Specifically, cases of TBI CT images often present diffuse or focal lesions. In TBIdoc system, these pathological image features are represented as bin-based binary feature vectors. We use the Jaccard-Needham measure as the similarity measurement. Based on these, we propose a 3D similarity measure for computing the similarity score between two series of CT slices. nDCG is used to evaluate the system performance, which shows the system produces satisfactory retrieval results. The system is expected to improve the current hospital data management in TBI and to give better support for the clinical decision-making process. It may also contribute to the computer-aided education in TBI.

  11. Image Processor Using 3D-DWT as Part of Health Care Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Eshraghian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power and high speed 3D-DWT (three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform architecture using stacked silicon dies for image compression of medical images. The interconnections of stacked chips are based on TSV (through silicon via techniques. Its low power operation is due to short signal paths between layers. The area of 3D architecture is much smaller than that of 2D counterpart having the same performance. Each circuit/system layer can be optimized since it can be fabricated using a different technology. The 3D-DWT architecture consists of two processing elements (PE: a PE-odd (processing elements-odd and a PE-even (processing elements-even layer. Each layer processes pixel data derived from rows of the y axis, scanning from left to right side of the image data. Each layer operates in parallel yielding high throughput. The architecture can be used to compress medical image such as X-ray, MRI, NRI, CT and endoscopy by processing images frame by frame.

  12. 3-D ultrasonic strain imaging based on a linear scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Bo; Ye, Pengfei; Chen, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces a 3-D strain imaging method based on a freehand linear scanning mode. We designed a linear sliding track with a position sensor and a height-adjustable holder to constrain the movement of an ultrasound probe in a freehand manner. When moving the probe along the sliding track, the corresponding positional measures for the probe are transmitted via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth in real time. In a single examination, the probe is scanned in two sweeps in which the height of the probe is adjusted by the holder to collect the pre- and postcompression radio-frequency echoes, respectively. To generate a 3-D strain image, a volume cubic in which the voxels denote relative strains for tissues is defined according to the range of the two sweeps. With respect to the post-compression frames, several slices in the volume are determined and the pre-compression frames are re-sampled to precisely correspond to the post-compression frames. Thereby, a strain estimation method based on minimizing a cost function using dynamic programming is used to obtain the 2-D strain image for each pair of frames from the re-sampled pre-compression sweep and the post-compression sweep, respectively. A software system is developed for volume reconstruction, visualization, and measurement of the 3-D strain images. The experimental results show that high-quality 3-D strain images of phantom and human tissues can be generated by the proposed method, indicating that the proposed system can be applied for real clinical applications (e.g., musculoskeletal assessments).

  13. A preliminary evaluation work on a 3D ultrasound imaging system for 2D array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Li, Chunyu; Song, Junjie; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary evaluation work on a pre-designed 3-D ultrasound imaging system. The system mainly consists of four parts, a 7.5MHz, 24×24 2-D array transducer, the transmit/receive circuit, power supply, data acquisition and real-time imaging module. The row-column addressing scheme is adopted for the transducer fabrication, which greatly reduces the number of active channels . The element area of the transducer is 4.6mm by 4.6mm. Four kinds of tests were carried out to evaluate the imaging performance, including the penetration depth range, axial and lateral resolution, positioning accuracy and 3-D imaging frame rate. Several strong reflection metal objects , fixed in a water tank, were selected for the purpose of imaging due to a low signal-to-noise ratio of the transducer. The distance between the transducer and the tested objects , the thickness of aluminum, and the seam width of the aluminum sheet were measured by a calibrated micrometer to evaluate the penetration depth, the axial and lateral resolution, respectively. The experiment al results showed that the imaging penetration depth range was from 1.0cm to 6.2cm, the axial and lateral resolution were 0.32mm and 1.37mm respectively, the imaging speed was up to 27 frames per second and the positioning accuracy was 9.2%.

  14. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  15. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Admovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  16. Detailed analysis of an optimized FPP-based 3D imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat; Thai, Anh; Duong, Kiet; Nguyen, Thanh; Nehmetallah, Georges

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present detail analysis and a step-by-step implementation of an optimized fringe projection profilometry (FPP) based 3D shape measurement system. First, we propose a multi-frequency and multi-phase shifting sinusoidal fringe pattern reconstruction approach to increase accuracy and sensitivity of the system. Second, phase error compensation caused by the nonlinear transfer function of the projector and camera is performed through polynomial approximation. Third, phase unwrapping is performed using spatial and temporal techniques and the tradeoff between processing speed and high accuracy is discussed in details. Fourth, generalized camera and system calibration are developed for phase to real world coordinate transformation. The calibration coefficients are estimated accurately using a reference plane and several gauge blocks with precisely known heights and by employing a nonlinear least square fitting method. Fifth, a texture will be attached to the height profile by registering a 2D real photo to the 3D height map. The last step is to perform 3D image fusion and registration using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm for a full field of view reconstruction. The system is experimentally constructed using compact, portable, and low cost off-the-shelf components. A MATLAB® based GUI is developed to control and synchronize the whole system.

  17. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  18. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, Ketut E.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Ooijen, van Peter M.A.; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G.M.; Sardjono, Tri A.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis wh

  19. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... beamforming. This is achieved partly because synthetic aperture imaging removes the limitation of a fixed transmit focal depth and instead enables dynamic transmit focusing. Lately, the major ultrasound companies have produced ultrasound scanners using 2-D transducer arrays with enough transducer elements...

  20. 3D Body Scanning Measurement System Associated with RF Imaging, Zero-padding and Parallel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyung Tae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel signal processing method for high-speed 3D body measurements using millimeter waves with a general processing unit (GPU and zero-padding fast Fourier transform (ZPFFT. The proposed measurement system consists of a radio-frequency (RF antenna array for a penetrable measurement, a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC for significant data acquisition, and a general processing unit for fast signal processing. The RF waves of the transmitter and the receiver are converted to real and imaginary signals that are sampled by a high-speed ADC and synchronized with the kinematic positions of the scanner. Because the distance between the surface and the antenna is related to the peak frequency of the conjugate signals, a fast Fourier transform (FFT is applied to the signal processing after the sampling. The sampling time is finite owing to a short scanning time, and the physical resolution needs to be increased; further, zero-padding is applied to interpolate the spectra of the sampled signals to consider a 1/m floating point frequency. The GPU and parallel algorithm are applied to accelerate the speed of the ZPFFT because of the large number of additional mathematical operations of the ZPFFT. 3D body images are finally obtained by spectrograms that are the arrangement of the ZPFFT in a 3D space.

  1. Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Leem, J.; Nam, Y.; Choe, G. H. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.; Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.; Woo, D. S.; Kim, K. W. [School of Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ito, N. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Mase, A. [Ube National College of Technology, Ube-shi, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B{sub 0} = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE.

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  3. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  4. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  5. An efficient topology adaptation system for parametric active contour segmentation of 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhau, Jochen; Scherzer, Otmar

    2008-03-01

    Active contour models have already been used succesfully for segmentation of organs from medical images in 3D. In implicit models, the contour is given as the isosurface of a scalar function, and therefore topology adaptations are handled naturally during a contour evolution. Nevertheless, explicit or parametric models are often preferred since user interaction and special geometric constraints are usually easier to incorporate. Although many researchers have studied topology adaptation algorithms in explicit mesh evolutions, no stable algorithm is known for interactive applications. In this paper, we present a topology adaptation system, which consists of two novel ingredients: A spatial hashing technique is used to detect self-colliding triangles of the mesh whose expected running time is linear with respect to the number of mesh vertices. For the topology change procedure, we have developed formulas by homology theory. During a contour evolution, we just have to choose between a few possible mesh retriangulations by local triangle-triangle intersection tests. Our algorithm has several advantages compared to existing ones: Since the new algorithm does not require any global mesh reparametrizations, it is very efficient. Since the topology adaptation system does not require constant sampling density of the mesh vertices nor especially smooth meshes, mesh evolution steps can be performed in a stable way with a rather coarse mesh. We apply our algorithm to 3D ultrasonic data, showing that accurate segmentation is obtained in some seconds.

  6. Scalable, High-performance 3D Imaging Software Platform: System Architecture and Application to Virtual Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingl...

  7. Ultra-compact, High Resolution, LADAR system for 3D Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop an innovative, ultra-compact, high resolution, long range LADAR system to produce a 3D map of the exterior of any object in space such as...

  8. Using the 3D-SMS for finding starting configurations in imaging systems with freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satzer, Britta; Richter, Undine; Lippmann, Uwe; Metzner, Gerburg S.; Notni, Gunther; Gross, Herbert

    2015-09-01

    As the scientific field of the freeform optics is newly developing, there is only a small number of approved starting systems for the imaging lens design. We investigate the possibility to generate starting configurations of freeform lenses with the Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) method. Surface fit and transfer to the ray tracing program are discussed in detail. Based on specific examples without rotational symmetry, we analyze the potential of such starting systems. The tested systems evolve from Scheimpflug configurations or have arbitrarily tilted image planes. The optimization behavior of the starting systems retrieved from the 3D-SMS is compared to classical starting configurations, like an aspheric lens. Therefore we evaluate the root mean square (RMS) spot radius before and after the optimization as well as the speed of convergence. In result the performance of the starting configurations is superior. The mean RMS spot diameter is reduced about up to 17.6 % in comparison to an aspheric starting configuration and about up to 28 % for a simple plane plate.

  9. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  10. Region-Based 3d Surface Reconstruction Using Images Acquired by Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Z.; Al-Rawabdeh, A.; He, F.; Habib, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D surface reconstruction of our environment has become essential for an unlimited number of emerging applications. In the past few years, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are evolving as low-cost and flexible platforms for geospatial data collection that could meet the needs of aforementioned application and overcome limitations of traditional airborne and terrestrial mobile mapping systems. Due to their payload restrictions, these systems usually include consumer-grade imaging and positioning sensor which will negatively impact the quality of the collected geospatial data and reconstructed surfaces. Therefore, new surface reconstruction surfaces are needed to mitigate the impact of using low-cost sensors on the final products. To date, different approaches have been proposed to for 3D surface construction using overlapping images collected by imaging sensor mounted on moving platforms. In these approaches, 3D surfaces are mainly reconstructed based on dense matching techniques. However, generated 3D point clouds might not accurately represent the scanned surfaces due to point density variations and edge preservation problems. In order to resolve these problems, a new region-based 3D surface renostruction trchnique is introduced in this paper. This approach aims to generate a 3D photo-realistic model of individually scanned surfaces within the captured images. This approach is initiated by a Semi-Global dense Matching procedure is carried out to generate a 3D point cloud from the scanned area within the collected images. The generated point cloud is then segmented to extract individual planar surfaces. Finally, a novel region-based texturing technique is implemented for photorealistic reconstruction of the extracted planar surfaces. Experimental results using images collected by a camera mounted on a low-cost UAS demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for photorealistic 3D surface reconstruction.

  11. REGION-BASED 3D SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION USING IMAGES ACQUIRED BY LOW-COST UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate 3D surface reconstruction of our environment has become essential for an unlimited number of emerging applications. In the past few years, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS are evolving as low-cost and flexible platforms for geospatial data collection that could meet the needs of aforementioned application and overcome limitations of traditional airborne and terrestrial mobile mapping systems. Due to their payload restrictions, these systems usually include consumer-grade imaging and positioning sensor which will negatively impact the quality of the collected geospatial data and reconstructed surfaces. Therefore, new surface reconstruction surfaces are needed to mitigate the impact of using low-cost sensors on the final products. To date, different approaches have been proposed to for 3D surface construction using overlapping images collected by imaging sensor mounted on moving platforms. In these approaches, 3D surfaces are mainly reconstructed based on dense matching techniques. However, generated 3D point clouds might not accurately represent the scanned surfaces due to point density variations and edge preservation problems. In order to resolve these problems, a new region-based 3D surface renostruction trchnique is introduced in this paper. This approach aims to generate a 3D photo-realistic model of individually scanned surfaces within the captured images. This approach is initiated by a Semi-Global dense Matching procedure is carried out to generate a 3D point cloud from the scanned area within the collected images. The generated point cloud is then segmented to extract individual planar surfaces. Finally, a novel region-based texturing technique is implemented for photorealistic reconstruction of the extracted planar surfaces. Experimental results using images collected by a camera mounted on a low-cost UAS demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for photorealistic 3D surface reconstruction.

  12. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    Real-time ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in medical diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound systems offering real-time imaging in 3-D has emerged. However, the high complexity of the transducer probes and the considerable increase in data to be processed compared to conventional 2-D ultr...

  13. 2D-3D registration using gradient-based MI for image guided surgery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Yeny; Chen, Xuanyi; Wakid, Mike; Bielamowicz, Steve; Hahn, James

    2011-03-01

    Registration of preoperative CT data to intra-operative video images is necessary not only to compare the outcome of the vocal fold after surgery with the preplanned shape but also to provide the image guidance for fusion of all imaging modalities. We propose a 2D-3D registration method using gradient-based mutual information. The 3D CT scan is aligned to 2D endoscopic images by finding the corresponding viewpoint between the real camera for endoscopic images and the virtual camera for CT scans. Even though mutual information has been successfully used to register different imaging modalities, it is difficult to robustly register the CT rendered image to the endoscopic image due to varying light patterns and shape of the vocal fold. The proposed method calculates the mutual information in the gradient images as well as original images, assigning more weight to the high gradient regions. The proposed method can emphasize the effect of vocal fold and allow a robust matching regardless of the surface illumination. To find the viewpoint with maximum mutual information, a downhill simplex method is applied in a conditional multi-resolution scheme which leads to a less-sensitive result to local maxima. To validate the registration accuracy, we evaluated the sensitivity to initial viewpoint of preoperative CT. Experimental results showed that gradient-based mutual information provided robust matching not only for two identical images with different viewpoints but also for different images acquired before and after surgery. The results also showed that conditional multi-resolution scheme led to a more accurate registration than single-resolution.

  14. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  15. Twin robotic x-ray system for 2D radiographic and 3D cone-beam CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieselmann, Andreas; Steinbrener, Jan; Jerebko, Anna K.; Voigt, Johannes M.; Scholz, Rosemarie; Ritschl, Ludwig; Mertelmeier, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we provide an initial characterization of a novel twin robotic X-ray system. This system is equipped with two motor-driven telescopic arms carrying X-ray tube and flat-panel detector, respectively. 2D radiographs and fluoroscopic image sequences can be obtained from different viewing angles. Projection data for 3D cone-beam CT reconstruction can be acquired during simultaneous movement of the arms along dedicated scanning trajectories. We provide an initial evaluation of the 3D image quality based on phantom scans and clinical images. Furthermore, initial evaluation of patient dose is conducted. The results show that the system delivers high image quality for a range of medical applications. In particular, high spatial resolution enables adequate visualization of bone structures. This system allows 3D X-ray scanning of patients in standing and weight-bearing position. It could enable new 2D/3D imaging workflows in musculoskeletal imaging and improve diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  17. 3D自动成像系统%3D Automatic Imaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贻圳; 吴俊耦; 魏嘉裕; 吕燚

    2015-01-01

    针对传统摄影成本高、效率低下、拍摄质量不高、局限于平面化等问题,给出了3D自动成像系统的实现方案.以串口通信技术和图像合成技术为主要研究手段,突破传统摄影弊端,从此让产品摄影简单化、全景化.他们只需配备一台电脑和单反相机,系统通过3D自动成像软件控制单反相机及智能旋转平台对产品进行多角度拍摄,便能在短短的几分钟内可合成出html5格式的产品360°展示动画,而做出来的360°展示动画可以上传到他们的网站、网店、还可以给客户发送产品样板的360°全景展示效果,只要客户点开该360°全景展示动画,就能如实地观看到产品的不同角度跟细节,大大提高了用户体验度,从而增加产品销量.%In view of the problems such as high cost,low efficiency,low quality of shooting and limited to the plane, the implementation scheme of 3D automatic imaging system is given.It uses the serial communication technology as the main research means,breaking through of the traditional photography,and it makes product photography simple and panoramic from now on. They only need to equipped with a computer and Single Lens Reflex camera, the system control Single Lens Reflex camera and intelligent rotating platform for many angles shooting through 3D automatic imaging software,then can synthesize the html5 product that is 360 degrees display animation in a few minutes.And made out of the 360 degree display animation can be uploaded to the website and online shop and the sample of the 360 degrees panoramic display effect can be sent to customers. As long as the customer points to open the 360 degrees panoramic display animation; they can accurately view the product's different angles and details. It greatly improves the user experience, so as to increase product sales.

  18. Automated detection system for pulmonary emphysema on 3D chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iwano, Shingo; Itoh, Shigeki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2004-05-01

    An automatic extraction of pulmonary emphysema area on 3-D chest CT images was performed using an adaptive thresholding technique. We proposed a method to estimate the ratio of the emphysema area to the whole lung volume. We employed 32 cases (15 normal and 17 abnormal) which had been already diagnosed by radiologists prior to the study. The ratio in all the normal cases was less than 0.02, and in abnormal cases, it ranged from 0.01 to 0.26. The effectiveness of our approach was confirmed through the results of the present study.

  19. Computational Validation of a 3-D Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The microwave imaging system currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark is described and its performance tested on simulated data. The system uses an iterative Newton-based imaging algorithm for reconstructing the images in conjunction with an efficient method-of-moments sol...

  20. Evaluation of radiotherapy setup accuracy for head and neck cancer using a 3-D surface imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.-L.; Park, E.-T.; Kim, J.-Y.; Kwak, K.-S.; Kim, C.-J.; Ahn, K.-J.; Suh, T.-S.; Lee, Y.-K.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J.-K.; Lim, S.; Choi, Y.-M.; Park, S.-K.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy of a three-dimensional surface imaging system (3-D SIS) in comparison to a 3-laser system by analyzing the setup errors obtained from a RANDO Phantom and head and neck cancer patients. The 3-D SIS used for the evaluation of the setup errors was a C-RAD Sentinel. In the phantom study, the OBI setup errors without the thermoplastic mask of the 3-laser system vs. the 3-D SIS were measured. Furthermore, the setup errors with the thermoplastic mask of the 3-laser system vs. the 3-D SIS were measured. After comparison of the CBCT, setup correction about 1 mm was performed in a few cases. The probability of the error without the thermoplastic mask exceeding 1 mm in the 3-laser system vs. the 3-D SIS was 75.00% vs. 35.00% on the X-axis, 80.00% vs. 40.00% on the Y-axis, and 80.00% vs. 65.00% on the Z-axis. Moreover, the probability of the error with the thermoplastic mask exceeding 1 mm in the 3-laser system vs. the 3-D SIS was 70.00% vs. 15.00% on the X-axis, 75.00% vs. 25.00% on the Y-axis, and 70.00% vs. 35.00% on the Z-axis. These results showed that the 3-D SIS has a lower probability of setup error than the 3-laser system for the phantom. For the patients, the setup errors of the 3-laser system vs. the 3-D SIS were measured. The probability of the error exceeding more than 1 mm in the 3-laser system vs. the 3-D SIS was shown to be 81.82% vs. 36.36% on the X-axis, 81.82% vs. 45.45% on the Y-axis, and 86.36% vs. 72.73% on the Z-axis. As a result, the 3-D SIS also exhibited a lower probability of setup error for the cancer patients. Therefore, this study confirmed that the 3-D SIS is a promising method for setup verification.

  1. 3D molecular imaging SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Greg [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)]. E-mail: Greg.gillen@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Wagner, Matt [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Mahoney, Christine [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Thin monolayer and bilayer films of spin cast poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and PLA doped with several pharmaceuticals have been analyzed by dynamic SIMS using SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion bombardment. Each of these systems exhibited minimal primary beam-induced degradation under cluster ion bombardment allowing molecular depth profiles to be obtained through the film. By combing secondary ion imaging with depth profiling, three-dimensional molecular image depth profiles have been obtained from these systems. In another approach, bevel cross-sections are cut in the samples with the SF{sub 5} {sup +} primary ion beam to produce a laterally magnified cross-section of the sample that does not contain the beam-induced damage that would be induced by conventional focussed ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning. The bevel surface can then be examined using cluster SIMS imaging or other appropriate microanalysis technique.

  2. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    CERN Document Server

    Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spadon, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Defaults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal systems is a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with neither contrast agent nor a destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is a crucial tool for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries. In particular, it s...

  3. A normalized thoracic coordinate system for atlas mapping in 3D CT images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a normalized thoracic coordinate system (NTCS) is defined for rapidly mapping the 4D thoracic organ atlas into individual CT volume images. This coordinate system is defined based on the thoracic skeleton. The coordinate values are normalized by the size of the individual thorax so that this coordinate system is universal to different individuals. For compensating the respiratory motion of the organs, a 4D dynamic torso atlas is introduced. A method for mapping this dynamic atlas into the individual image using the NTCS is also proposed. With this method, the dynamic atlas was mapped into the clinical thoracic CT images and rough positions of the organs were found rapidly. This NTCS-based 4D atlas mapping method may provide a novel way for estimating the thoracic organ positions in low-resolution molecular imaging modalities, as well as in modern 4D medical images.

  4. Technical validation of the Di3D stereophotogrammetry surface imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winder, R.J.; Darvann, Tron Andre; McKnight, W.;

    2008-01-01

    measurements of physical linear distance with digital measurements. The three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry system had a mean error in the three-dimensional surfaces of 0.057 mm, a repeatability error (variance) of 0.0016 mm, a mean error of 0.6 mm in linear measurements compared with manual measurements......The purpose of this work was to assess the technical performance of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for geometric accuracy and maximum field of view. The system was designed for stereophotogrammetry capture of digital images from three-dimensional surfaces of the head, face, and neck....... A mannequin head was prepared for imaging by adding texture in the form of red paint, and facial landmarks as black ink dots. The mannequin was imaged at the manufacturer's recommended settings for human studies. Colour-coded surface difference images among repeated exposures were computed. We compared...

  5. 3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan N. Khade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

  6. Development of a noncontact 3-D fluorescence tomography system for small animal in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Badea, Cristian; Jacob, Mathews; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging is an important tool for tracking molecular-targeting probes in preclinical studies. It offers high sensitivity, but nonetheless low spatial resolution compared to other leading imaging methods such CT and MRI. We demonstrate our methodological development in small animal in vivo whole-body imaging using fluorescence tomography. We have implemented a noncontact fluid-free fluorescence diffuse optical tomography system that uses a raster-scanned continuous-wave diode laser as the light source and an intensified CCD camera as the photodetector. The specimen is positioned on a motorized rotation stage. Laser scanning, data acquisition, and stage rotation are controlled via LabVIEW applications. The forward problem in the heterogeneous medium is based on a normalized Born method, and the sensitivity function is determined using a Monte Carlo method. The inverse problem (image reconstruction) is performed using a regularized iterative algorithm, in which the cost function is defined as a weighted sum of the L-2 norms of the solution image, the residual error, and the image gradient. The relative weights are adjusted by two independent regularization parameters. Our initial tests of this imaging system were performed with an imaging phantom that consists of a translucent plastic cylinder filled with tissue-simulating liquid and two thin-wall glass tubes containing indocyanine green. The reconstruction is compared to the output of a finite element method-based software package NIRFAST and has produced promising results.

  7. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pineros; Pierre-Luc Pradier; Nathanael M Shaw; Ithipong Assaranurak; Susan R McCouch; Craig Sturrock; Malcolm Bennett; Leon V Kochian; Brandon G Larson; Jon E Shaff; David J Schneider; Alexandre Xavier Falcao; Lixing Yuan; Randy T Clark; Eric J Craft; Tyler W Davis

    2016-01-01

    A plant’s ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architec-ture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyp-ing software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimen-sional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions.

  8. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions. PMID:26683583

  9. Proposed NRC portable target case for short-range triangulation-based 3D imaging systems characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Benjamin; MacKinnon, David; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2011-03-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is currently evaluating and designing artifacts and methods to completely characterize 3-D imaging systems. We have gathered a set of artifacts to form a low-cost portable case and provide a clearly-defined set of procedures for generating characteristic values using these artifacts. In its current version, this case is specifically designed for the characterization of short-range (standoff distance of 1 centimeter to 3 meters) triangulation-based 3-D imaging systems. The case is known as the "NRC Portable Target Case for Short-Range Triangulation-based 3-D Imaging Systems" (NRC-PTC). The artifacts in the case have been carefully chosen for their geometric, thermal, and optical properties. A set of characterization procedures are provided with these artifacts based on procedures either already in use or are based on knowledge acquired from various tests carried out by the NRC. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), a well-known terminology in the industrial field, was used to define the set of tests. The following parameters of a system are characterized: dimensional properties, form properties, orientation properties, localization properties, profile properties, repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility. A number of tests were performed in a special dimensional metrology laboratory to validate the capability of the NRC-PTC. The NRC-PTC will soon be subjected to reproducibility testing using an intercomparison evaluation to validate its use in different laboratories.

  10. 3D image of protein visualization in a whole rice grain using an automatic precision microtome system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiharu; Ohtani, Toshio; Sugiyama, Junichi; Hagiwara, Shoji; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Kudoh, Ken-ichi; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2000-05-01

    The 3D image formation technique using confocal microscopy has allows visualization of the 3D chemical structure in small parts of the bio-body. However, the large-scale 3D structure such as the distribution of chemical components throughout the whole body has not been shown. To allow such large scale visualization of the 3D internal analysis technique for bio-body has been developed.

  11. Detection of hidden objects using a real-time 3-D millimeter-wave imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon, Avihai; Levanon, Assaf; Abramovich, Amir; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, N. S.

    2014-10-01

    Millimeter (mm)and sub-mm wavelengths or terahertz (THz) band have several properties that motivate their use in imaging for security applications such as recognition of hidden objects, dangerous materials, aerosols, imaging through walls as in hostage situations, and also in bad weather conditions. There is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric degradation of THz radiation is relatively low for practical imaging distances. We recently developed a new technology for the detection of THz radiation. This technology is based on very inexpensive plasma neon indicator lamps, also known as Glow Discharge Detector (GDD), that can be used as very sensitive THz radiation detectors. Using them, we designed and constructed a Focal Plane Array (FPA) and obtained recognizable2-dimensional THz images of both dielectric and metallic objects. Using THz wave it is shown here that even concealed weapons made of dielectric material can be detected. An example is an image of a knife concealed inside a leather bag and also under heavy clothing. Three-dimensional imaging using radar methods can enhance those images since it can allow the isolation of the concealed objects from the body and environmental clutter such as nearby furniture or other people. The GDDs enable direct heterodyning between the electric field of the target signal and the reference signal eliminating the requirement for expensive mixers, sources, and Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs).We expanded the ability of the FPA so that we are able to obtain recognizable 2-dimensional THz images in real time. We show here that the THz detection of objects in three dimensions, using FMCW principles is also applicable in real time. This imaging system is also shown here to be capable of imaging objects from distances allowing standoff detection of suspicious objects and humans from large distances.

  12. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  13. ROAD SIGNS DETECTION AND RECOGNITION UTILIZING IMAGES AND 3D POINT CLOUD ACQUIRED BY MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS, it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1 detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2 filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3 road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  14. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dagel, Amber Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kast, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Collin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  15. Full-color holographic 3D imaging system using color optical scanning holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hayan; Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a full-color holographic three-dimensional imaging system that composes a recording stage, a transmission and processing stage and reconstruction stage. In recording stage, color optical scanning holography (OSH) records the complex RGB holograms of an object. In transmission and processing stage, the recorded complex RGB holograms are transmitted to the reconstruction stage after conversion to off-axis RGB holograms. In reconstruction stage, the off-axis RGB holograms are reconstructed optically.

  16. Calculation of the Slip System Activity in Deformed Zinc Single Crystals Using Digital 3-D Image Correlation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florando, J; Rhee, M; Arsenlis, A; LeBlanc, M; Lassila, D

    2006-02-21

    A 3-D image correlation system, which measures the full-field displacements in 3 dimensions, has been used to experimentally determine the full deformation gradient matrix for two zinc single crystals. Based on the image correlation data, the slip system activity for the two crystals has been calculated. The results of the calculation show that for one crystal, only the primary slip system is active, which is consistent with traditional theory. The other crystal however, shows appreciable deformation on slip systems other than the primary. An analysis has been conducted which confirms the experimental observation that these other slip system deform in such a manner that the net result is slip which is approximately one third the magnitude and directly orthogonal to the primary system.

  17. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  18. NeuroTerrain – a client-server system for browsing 3D biomedical image data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissanov Jonathan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three dimensional biomedical image sets are becoming ubiquitous, along with the canonical atlases providing the necessary spatial context for analysis. To make full use of these 3D image sets, one must be able to present views for 2D display, either surface renderings or 2D cross-sections through the data. Typical display software is limited to presentations along one of the three orthogonal anatomical axes (coronal, horizontal, or sagittal. However, data sets precisely oriented along the major axes are rare. To make fullest use of these datasets, one must reasonably match the atlas' orientation; this involves resampling the atlas in planes matched to the data set. Traditionally, this requires the atlas and browser reside on the user's desktop; unfortunately, in addition to being monolithic programs, these tools often require substantial local resources. In this article, we describe a network-capable, client-server framework to slice and visualize 3D atlases at off-axis angles, along with an open client architecture and development kit to support integration into complex data analysis environments. Results Here we describe the basic architecture of a client-server 3D visualization system, consisting of a thin Java client built on a development kit, and a computationally robust, high-performance server written in ANSI C++. The Java client components (NetOStat support arbitrary-angle viewing and run on readily available desktop computers running Mac OS X, Windows XP, or Linux as a downloadable Java Application. Using the NeuroTerrain Software Development Kit (NT-SDK, sophisticated atlas browsing can be added to any Java-compatible application requiring as little as 50 lines of Java glue code, thus making it eminently re-useable and much more accessible to programmers building more complex, biomedical data analysis tools. The NT-SDK separates the interactive GUI components from the server control and monitoring, so as to support

  19. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  20. High-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm x-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansis, Eberhard; Carroll, John D.; Schaefer, Dirk; Doessel, Olaf; Grass, Michael [Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Roentgenstrasse 24-26, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Health Sciences Center, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado 80262 (United States); Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Roentgenstrasse 24-26, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Roentgenstrasse 24-26, 22335 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the coronary arteries during a cardiac catheter-based intervention can be performed from a C-arm based rotational x-ray angiography sequence. It can support the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, treatment planning, and intervention guidance. 3-D reconstruction also enables quantitative vessel analysis, including vessel dynamics from a time-series of reconstructions. Methods: The strong angular undersampling and motion effects present in gated cardiac reconstruction necessitate the development of special reconstruction methods. This contribution presents a fully automatic method for creating high-quality coronary artery reconstructions. It employs a sparseness-prior based iterative reconstruction technique in combination with projection-based motion compensation. Results: The method is tested on a dynamic software phantom, assessing reconstruction accuracy with respect to vessel radii and attenuation coefficients. Reconstructions from clinical cases are presented, displaying high contrast, sharpness, and level of detail. Conclusions: The presented method enables high-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm system.

  1. 3D mouse shape reconstruction based on phase-shifting algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Dianwen; Baikejiang, Reheman; Li, Changqing

    2015-11-10

    This work introduces a fast, low-cost, robust method based on fringe pattern and phase shifting to obtain three-dimensional (3D) mouse surface geometry for fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging. We used two pico projector/webcam pairs to project and capture fringe patterns from different views. We first calibrated the pico projectors and the webcams to obtain their system parameters. Each pico projector/webcam pair had its own coordinate system. We used a cylindrical calibration bar to calculate the transformation matrix between these two coordinate systems. After that, the pico projectors projected nine fringe patterns with a phase-shifting step of 2π/9 onto the surface of a mouse-shaped phantom. The deformed fringe patterns were captured by the corresponding webcam respectively, and then were used to construct two phase maps, which were further converted to two 3D surfaces composed of scattered points. The two 3D point clouds were further merged into one with the transformation matrix. The surface extraction process took less than 30 seconds. Finally, we applied the Digiwarp method to warp a standard Digimouse into the measured surface. The proposed method can reconstruct the surface of a mouse-sized object with an accuracy of 0.5 mm, which we believe is sufficient to obtain a finite element mesh for FMT imaging. We performed an FMT experiment using a mouse-shaped phantom with one embedded fluorescence capillary target. With the warped finite element mesh, we successfully reconstructed the target, which validated our surface extraction approach. PMID:26560789

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Philip; Kosik, Ivan; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a hybrid imaging modality that integrates the strengths from both optical imaging and acoustic imaging while simultaneously overcoming many of their respective weaknesses. In previous work, we reported on a real-time 3D PAI system comprised of a 32-element hemispherical array of transducers. Using the system, we demonstrated the ability to capture photoacoustic data, reconstruct a 3D photoacoustic image, and display select slices of the 3D image every 1.4 s, where each 3D image resulted from a single laser pulse. The present study aimed to exploit the rapid imaging speed of an upgraded 3D PAI system by evaluating its ability to perform dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. The contrast dynamics can provide rich datasets that contain insight into perfusion, pharmacokinetics and physiology. We captured a series of 3D PA images of a flow phantom before and during injection of piglet and rabbit blood. Principal component analysis was utilized to classify the data according to its spatiotemporal information. The results suggested that this technique can be used to separate a sequence of 3D PA images into a series of images representative of main features according to spatiotemporal flow dynamics.

  3. Full Parallax Integral 3D Display and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gook Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Full parallax integral 3D display is one of the promising future displays that provide different perspectives according to viewing direction. In this paper, the authors review the recent integral 3D display and image processing techniques for improving the performance, such as viewing resolution, viewing angle, etc.Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, to improve the viewing resolution of 3D images in the integral imaging display with lenslet array, the authors present 3D integral imaging display with focused mode using the time-multiplexed display. Compared with the original integral imaging with focused mode, the authors use the electrical masks and the corresponding elemental image set. In this system, the authors can generate the resolution-improved 3D images with the n×n pixels from each lenslet by using n×n time-multiplexed display. Secondly, a new image processing technique related to the elemental image generation for 3D scenes is presented. With the information provided by the Kinect device, the array of elemental images for an integral imaging display is generated.Findings – From their first work, the authors improved the resolution of 3D images by using the time-multiplexing technique through the demonstration of the 24 inch integral imaging system. Authors’ method can be applied to a practical application. Next, the proposed method with the Kinect device can gain a competitive advantage over other methods for the capture of integral images of big 3D scenes. The main advantage of fusing the Kinect and the integral imaging concepts is the acquisition speed, and the small amount of handled data.Originality / Value – In this paper, the authors review their recent methods related to integral 3D display and image processing technique.Research type – general review.

  4. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, David; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson,Eugene

    2016-01-01

    David B Douglas,1 Emanuel F Petricoin,2 Lance Liotta,2 Eugene Wilson3 1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, 3Department of Radiology, Fort Benning, Columbus, GA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensio...

  5. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  6. Commissioning of a 3D image-based treatment planning system for high-dose-rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongbok; Modrick, Joseph M; Pennington, Edward C; Kim, Yusung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present commissioning procedures to clinically implement a three-dimensional (3D), image-based, treatment-planning system (TPS) for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) for gynecological (GYN) cancer. The physical dimensions of the GYN applicators and their values in the virtual applicator library were varied by 0.4 mm of their nominal values. Reconstruction uncertainties of the titanium tandem and ovoids (T&O) were less than 0.4 mm on CT phantom studies and on average between 0.8-1.0 mm on MRI when compared with X-rays. In-house software, HDRCalculator, was developed to check HDR plan parameters such as independently verifying active tandem or cylinder probe length and ovoid or cylinder size, source calibration and treatment date, and differences between average Point A dose and prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms were validated using another independent TPS. Comprehensive procedures to commission volume optimization algorithms and process in 3D image-based planning were presented. For the difference between line and volume optimizations, the average absolute differences as a percentage were 1.4% for total reference air KERMA (TRAK) and 1.1% for Point A dose. Volume optimization consistency tests between versions resulted in average absolute differences in 0.2% for TRAK and 0.9 s (0.2%) for total treatment time. The data revealed that the optimizer should run for at least 1 min in order to avoid more than 0.6% dwell time changes. For clinical GYN T&O cases, three different volume optimization techniques (graphical optimization, pure inverse planning, and hybrid inverse optimization) were investigated by comparing them against a conventional Point A technique. End-to-end testing was performed using a T&O phantom to ensure no errors or inconsistencies occurred from imaging through to planning and delivery. The proposed commissioning procedures provide a clinically safe implementation technique for 3D image-based TPS for HDR

  7. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  8. A new efficient 2D combined with 3D CAD system for solitary pulmonary nodule detection in CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has become one of the leading causes of death in the world. Clear evidence shows that early discovery, early diagnosis and early treatment of lung cancer can significantly increase the chance of survival for patients. Lung Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD is a potential method to accomplish a range of quantitative tasks such as early cancer and disease detection. Many computer-aided diagnosis (CAD methods, including 2D and 3D approaches, have been proposed for solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs. However, the detection and diagnosis of SPNs remain challenging in many clinical circumstances. One goal of this work is to develop a two-stage approach that combines the simplicity of 2D and the accuracy of 3D methods. The experimental results show statistically significant differences between the diagnostic accuracy of 2D and 3Dmethods. The results also show that with a very minor drop in diagnostic performance the two-stage approach can significantly reduce the number of nodules needed to be processed by the 3D method, streamlining the computational demand. Finally, all malignant nodules were detected and a very low false-positive detection rate was achieved. The automated extraction of the lung in CT images is the most crucial step in a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system. In this paper we describe a method, consisting of appropriate techniques, for the automated identification of the pulmonary volume. The performance is evaluated as a fully automated computerized method for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography (CT scans in the identification of lung cancers that may be missed during visual interpretation.

  9. Advances and considerations in technologies for growing, imaging, and analyzing 3-D root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of a plant to mine the soil for nutrients and water is determined by how, where, and when roots are arranged in the soil matrix. The capacity of plant to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, is affected by root system architectu...

  10. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, M.M.; Bouakaz, A.; Krenning, B.J.; Lancée, C.; Cate, ten F.; Jong, de N.

    2004-01-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suit

  11. New microangiography system development providing improved small vessel imaging, increased contrast-to-noise ratios, and multiview 3D reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Andrew T.; Patel, Vikas; Ionita, Ciprian; Noël, Peter B.; Walczak, Alan M.; Rangwala, Hussain S.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    A new microangiographic system (MA) integrated into a c-arm gantry has been developed allowing precise placement of a MA at the exact same angle as the standard x-ray image intensifier (II) with unchanged source and object position. The MA can also be arbitrarily moved about the object and easily moved into the field of view (FOV) in front of the lower resolution II when higher resolution angiographic sequences are needed. The benefits of this new system are illustrated in a neurovascular study, where a rabbit is injected with contrast media for varying oblique angles. Digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) images were obtained and compared using both the MA and II detectors for the same projection view. Vessels imaged with the MA appear sharper with smaller vessels visualized. Visualization of ~100 μm vessels was possible with the MA whereas not with the II. Further, the MA could better resolve vessel overlap. Contrast to noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for vessels of varying sizes for the MA versus the II and were found to be similar for large vessels, approximately double for medium vessels, and infinitely better for the smallest vessels. In addition, a 3D reconstruction of selected vessel segments was performed, using multiple (three) projections at oblique angles, for each detector. This new MA/II integrated system should lead to improved diagnosis and image guidance of neurovascular interventions by enabling initial guidance with the low resolution large FOV II combined with use of the high resolution MA during critical parts of diagnostic and interventional procedures.

  12. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  13. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  14. 3D Motion Parameters Determination Based on Binocular Sequence Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Exactly capturing three dimensional (3D) motion information of an object is an essential and important task in computer vision, and is also one of the most difficult problems. In this paper, a binocular vision system and a method for determining 3D motion parameters of an object from binocular sequence images are introduced. The main steps include camera calibration, the matching of motion and stereo images, 3D feature point correspondences and resolving the motion parameters. Finally, the experimental results of acquiring the motion parameters of the objects with uniform velocity and acceleration in the straight line based on the real binocular sequence images by the mentioned method are presented.

  15. Aerial Images from AN Uav System: 3d Modeling and Tree Species Classification in a Park Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, R.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.

    2012-07-01

    The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment): it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes). Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs) were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  16. Studies on image quality, high contrast resolution and dose for the axial skeleton and limbs with a new, dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of 3D-CT imaging of the axial skeleton and different joints of the lower and upper extremities with a new dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D) based on a mobile isocentric C-arm image amplifier. Material and Methods: 27 cadaveric specimes of different joints of the lower and upper extremities and of the spinal column were examined with 3D-CT imaging (ISO-C-3d). All images were evaluated by 3 radiologists for image quality using a semiquantitative score (score value 1: poor quality; score value 4: excellent quality). In addition, dose measurements and measurements of high contrast resolution were performed in comparison to conventional and low-dose spiral CT using a high contrast phantom (Catphan, Phantom Laboratories). Results: Adequate image quality (mean score values 3-4) could be achieved with an applied dose comparable to low-dose CT in smaller joints such as wrist, elbow, ankle and knee. A remarkably inferior image quality resulted in imaging of the hip, lumbar and thoracic spine (mean score values 2-3) in spite of almost doubling the dose (dose increased by 85 percent). The image quality of shoulder examinations was insufficient (mean score value 1). Phantom studies showed a high-contrast resolution comparable to helical CT in the xy-axis (9 lp/cm). Conclusion: Preliminary results show, that image quality of C-arm-based CT-imaging (ISO-C-3D) seems to be adequate in smaller joints. ISO-C-3D images of the hip and axial skeleton show a decreased image quality, which does not seem to be sufficient for diagnosing subtle fractures. (orig.)

  17. 3D-image theater system using TLP770J LCD data projector; Ekisho data projector wo mochiita rittai eizo theater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasato, H. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In today's multimedia era, visual systems are widely used not only for two-dimensional images but also for the depiction of virtual reality and for simulated three-dimensional images. At the same time, the projection technology used in large-screen projectors is shifting from the cathode ray tube (CRT) to the liquid crystal display (LCD). Toshiba has developed a simplified 3D-image theater system using the TLP770J LCD data projector, which offers easy maintenance and lower costs. (author)

  18. 3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Goularas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible and the Maxillary, and the teeth segmentation allowing more specific dental examinations. Finally, these specific treatments are presented via a client/server application with the aim of allowing a telediagnosis and treatment.

  19. Performance evaluation of 3D-TV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kaptein, R.G.; Kuijsters, A.; Lambooij, M.T.M.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Heynderickx, I.

    2008-01-01

    The image quality circle is a commonly accepted framework to model the relation between the technology variables of a display and the resulting image quality. 3D-TV systems, however, go beyond the concept of image quality. Research has shown that, although 3D scenes are clearly more appreciated by s

  20. An ultrasound tomography system with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) moldings for coupling: in vivo results for 3-D pulse-echo imaging of the female breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Stiller, Florian; Lerch, Reinhard; Ermert, Helmut

    2015-02-01

    Full-angle spatial compounding (FASC) is a concept for pulse-echo imaging using an ultrasound tomography (UST) system. With FASC, resolution is increased and speckles are suppressed by averaging pulse-echo data from 360°. In vivo investigations have already shown a great potential for 2-D FASC in the female breast as well as for finger-joint imaging. However, providing a small number of images of parallel cross-sectional planes with enhanced image quality is not sufficient for diagnosis. Therefore, volume data (3-D) is needed. For this purpose, we further developed our UST add-on system to automatically rotate a motorized array (3-D probe) around the object of investigation. Full integration of external motor and ultrasound electronics control in a custom-made program allows acquisition of 3-D pulse-echo RF datasets within 10 min. In case of breast cancer imaging, this concept also enables imaging of near-thorax tissue regions which cannot be achieved by 2-D FASC. Furthermore, moldings made of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) have been developed as a new acoustic coupling concept. It has a great potential to replace the water bath technique in UST, which is a critical concept with respect to clinical investigations. In this contribution, we present in vivo results for 3-D FASC applied to imaging a female breast which has been placed in a PVA-H molding during data acquisition. An algorithm is described to compensate time-of-flight and consider refraction at the water-PVA-H molding and molding-tissue interfaces. Therefore, the mean speed of sound (SOS) for the breast tissue is estimated with an image-based method. Our results show that the PVA-H molding concept is applicable and feasible and delivers good results. 3-D FASC is superior to 2-D FASC and provides 3-D volume data at increased image quality.

  1. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    of planetary surfaces, but other purposes is considered as well. The system performance is measured with respect to the precision and the time consumption.The reconstruction process is divided into four major areas: Acquisition, calibration, matching/reconstruction and presentation. Each of these areas......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....

  2. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  3. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  4. A near field 3D radar imaging technique

    OpenAIRE

    Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm which recovers a 3D reflectivity image of a target from near-field scattering measurements. Spherical wave nearfield illumination is used, in order to avoid a costly compact range installation to produce a plane wave illumination. The system is described and some simulated 3D reconstructions are included. The paper also presents a first experimental validation of this technique. Peer Reviewed

  5. 3D Medical Image Segmentation Based on Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-hao; TIAN Yun; WANG Yi; HAO Chong-yang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method which uses multiple types of expert knowledge together in 3D medical image segmentation based on rough set theory. The focus of this paper is how to approximate a ROI (region of interest) when there are multiple types of expert knowledge. Based on rough set theory, the image can be split into three regions:positive regions; negative regions; boundary regions. With multiple knowledge we refine ROI as an intersection of all of the expected shapes with single knowledge. At last we show the results of implementing a rough 3D image segmentation and visualization system.

  6. DATA PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF AIRBORNE 3D IMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne 3D image which integrates GPS,attitude measurement unit (AMU),sca nning laser rangefinder (SLR) and spectral scanner has been developed successful ly.The spectral scanner and SLR use the same optical system which ensures laser point to match pixel seamlessly.The distinctive advantage of 3D image is that it can produce geo_referenced images and DSM (digital surface models) images wi thout any ground control points (GCPs).It is no longer necessary to sur vey GCPs and with some softwares the data can be processed and produce digital s urface models (DSM) and geo_referenced images in quasi_real_time,therefore,the efficiency of 3 D image is 10~100 times higher than that of traditional approaches.The process ing procedure involves decomposing and checking the raw data,processing GPS dat a,calculating the positions of laser sample points,producing geo_referenced im age,producing DSM and mosaicing strips.  The principle of 3D image is first introduced in this paper,and then we focus on the fast processing technique and algorithm.The flight tests and processed r esults show that the processing technique is feasible and can meet the requireme nt of quasi_real_time applications.

  7. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  8. Holoscopic 3D image depth estimation and segmentation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Alazawi, Eman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Today’s 3D imaging techniques offer significant benefits over conventional 2D imaging techniques. The presence of natural depth information in the scene affords the observer an overall improved sense of reality and naturalness. A variety of systems attempting to reach this goal have been designed by many independent research groups, such as stereoscopic and auto-stereoscopic systems....

  9. Accuracy of x-ray image-based 3D localization from two C-arm views: a comparison between an ideal system and a real device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Alexander; Strobel, Norbert; Yatziv, Liron; Gilson, Wesley; Meyer, Bernhard; Hornegger, Joachim; Lewin, Jonathan; Wacker, Frank

    2009-02-01

    arm X-ray imaging devices are commonly used for minimally invasive cardiovascular or other interventional procedures. Calibrated state-of-the-art systems can, however, not only be used for 2D imaging but also for three-dimensional reconstruction either using tomographic techniques or even stereotactic approaches. To evaluate the accuracy of X-ray object localization from two views, a simulation study assuming an ideal imaging geometry was carried out first. This was backed up with a phantom experiment involving a real C-arm angiography system. Both studies were based on a phantom comprising five point objects. These point objects were projected onto a flat-panel detector under different C-arm view positions. The resulting 2D positions were perturbed by adding Gaussian noise to simulate 2D point localization errors. In the next step, 3D point positions were triangulated from two views. A 3D error was computed by taking differences between the reconstructed 3D positions using the perturbed 2D positions and the initial 3D positions of the five points. This experiment was repeated for various C-arm angulations involving angular differences ranging from 15° to 165°. The smallest 3D reconstruction error was achieved, as expected, by views that were 90° degrees apart. In this case, the simulation study yielded a 3D error of 0.82 mm +/- 0.24 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) for 2D noise with a standard deviation of 1.232 mm (4 detector pixels). The experimental result for this view configuration obtained on an AXIOM Artis C-arm (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany) system was 0.98 mm +/- 0.29 mm, respectively. These results show that state-of-the-art C-arm systems can localize instruments with millimeter accuracy, and that they can accomplish this almost as well as an idealized theoretical counterpart. High stereotactic localization accuracy, good patient access, and CT-like 3D imaging capabilities render state-of-the-art C-arm systems ideal devices for X

  10. Procedure for making mannequins tailor for image quality control of PET by 3D printing systems; Procedimiento para la fabricacion de maniquies a medida, para control de calidad de imagen PET, mediante sistemas de impresion 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Chamorro, P. M.; Saez Beltran, F.; Diaz Pascual, V.; Benito Bejarado, M. A.; Sanz Freire, C. J.; Lopo Casqueiro, N.; Gonzalez Fernandez, M. P.; Lopez de Gamarra, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    There is a software free both for be the processes of modeling of the objects 3D to split of medical images, as for convert said modeling to file ready for be read and executed by the 3D printers (sequence or slicer). This lets make mannequins of Control of quality with a investment minimum. In this work is built a mannequin of brain refillable to measurement for be used in studies PET. (Author)

  11. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and synthesizing the depth of region of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We send the raw captured image data to the host computer by using WiFi wireless communication and then use GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of real time three-dimensional stereo image by synthesizing the depth of ROI(region of interest). We also try to find and declare the mechanism of deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and propose a deblurring model. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  12. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyndrickx, I.; Kaptein, R.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads t

  13. Imaging fault zones using 3D seismic image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Significant advances in structural analysis of deep water structure, salt tectonic and extensional rift basin come from the descriptions of fault system geometries imaged in 3D seismic data. However, even where seismic data are excellent, in most cases the trajectory of thrust faults is highly conjectural and still significant uncertainty exists as to the patterns of deformation that develop between the main faults segments, and even of the fault architectures themselves. Moreover structural interpretations that conventionally define faults by breaks and apparent offsets of seismic reflectors are commonly conditioned by a narrow range of theoretical models of fault behavior. For example, almost all interpretations of thrust geometries on seismic data rely on theoretical "end-member" behaviors where concepts as strain localization or multilayer mechanics are simply avoided. Yet analogue outcrop studies confirm that such descriptions are commonly unsatisfactory and incomplete. In order to fill these gaps and improve the 3D visualization of deformation in the subsurface, seismic attribute methods are developed here in conjunction with conventional mapping of reflector amplitudes (Marfurt & Chopra, 2007)). These signal processing techniques recently developed and applied especially by the oil industry use variations in the amplitude and phase of the seismic wavelet. These seismic attributes improve the signal interpretation and are calculated and applied to the entire 3D seismic dataset. In this contribution we will show 3D seismic examples of fault structures from gravity-driven deep-water thrust structures and extensional basin systems to indicate how 3D seismic image processing methods can not only build better the geometrical interpretations of the faults but also begin to map both strain and damage through amplitude/phase properties of the seismic signal. This is done by quantifying and delineating the short-range anomalies on the intensity of reflector amplitudes

  14. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  15. Super deep 3D images from a 3D omnifocus video camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2012-02-20

    When using stereographic image pairs to create three-dimensional (3D) images, a deep depth of field in the original scene enhances the depth perception in the 3D image. The omnifocus video camera has no depth of field limitations and produces images that are in focus throughout. By installing an attachment on the omnifocus video camera, real-time super deep stereoscopic pairs of video images were obtained. The deeper depth of field creates a larger perspective image shift, which makes greater demands on the binocular fusion of human vision. A means of reducing the perspective shift without harming the depth of field was found.

  16. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  17. 3D Image Synthesis for B—Reps Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正东; 彭群生; 等

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for generating 3D images of B-reps objects with trimmed surface boundaries.The 3D image is a discrete voxel-map representation within a Cubic Frame Buffer (CFB).The definition of 3D images for curve,surface and solid object are introduced which imply the connectivity and fidelity requirements.Adaptive Forward Differencing matrix (AFD-matrix) for 1D-3D manifolds in 3D space is developed.By setting rules to update the AFD-matrix,the forward difference direction and stepwise can be adjusted.Finally,an efficient algorithm is presented based on the AFD-matrix concept for converting the object in 3D space to 3D image in 3D discrete space.

  18. A full-field and real-time 3D surface imaging augmented DOT system for in-vivo small animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Steven X.; Yang, Bingcheng; Yin, Gongjie

    2010-02-01

    A crucial parameter in Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is the construction of an accurate forward model, which greatly depends on tissue boundary. Since photon propagation is a three-dimensional volumetric problem, extraction and subsequent modeling of three-dimensional boundaries is essential. Original experimental demonstration of the feasibility of DOT to reconstruct absorbers, scatterers and fluorochromes used phantoms or tissues confined appropriately to conform to easily modeled geometries such as a slab or a cylinder. In later years several methods have been developed to model photon propagation through diffuse media with complex boundaries using numerical solutions of the diffusion or transport equation (finite elements or differences) or more recently analytical methods based on the tangent-plane method . While optical examinations performed simultaneously with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI provide well-defined boundaries, very limited progress has been done so far in extracting full-field (360 degree) boundaries for in-vivo three-dimensional DOT stand-alone imaging. In this paper, we present a desktop multi-spectrum in-vivo 3D DOT system for small animal imaging. This system is augmented with Technest's full-field 3D cameras. The built system has the capability of acquiring 3D object surface profiles in real time and registering 3D boundary with diffuse tomography. Extensive experiments are performed on phantoms and small animals by our collaborators at the Center for Molecular Imaging Research (CMIR) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School. Data has shown successful reconstructed DOT data with improved accuracy.

  19. Deformable Surface 3D Reconstruction from Monocular Images

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Being able to recover the shape of 3D deformable surfaces from a single video stream would make it possible to field reconstruction systems that run on widely available hardware without requiring specialized devices. However, because many different 3D shapes can have virtually the same projection, such monocular shape recovery is inherently ambiguous. In this survey, we will review the two main classes of techniques that have proved most effective so far: The template-based methods that rely on establishing correspondences with a reference image in which the shape is already known, and non-rig

  20. IMAGE SELECTION FOR 3D MEASUREMENT BASED ON NETWORK DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fuse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D models have been widely used by spread of many available free-software. On the other hand, enormous images can be easily acquired, and images are utilized for creating the 3D models recently. However, the creation of 3D models by using huge amount of images takes a lot of time and effort, and then efficiency for 3D measurement are required. In the efficiency strategy, the accuracy of the measurement is also required. This paper develops an image selection method based on network design that means surveying network construction. The proposed method uses image connectivity graph. By this, the image selection problem is regarded as combinatorial optimization problem and the graph cuts technique can be applied. Additionally, in the process of 3D reconstruction, low quality images and similarity images are extracted and removed. Through the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed. Potential to efficient and accurate 3D measurement is implied.

  1. 3D wavefront image formation for NIITEK GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Ton, Tuan; Howard, Pete

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining (HD) Research and Development Program focuses on developing, testing, demonstrating, and validating new technology for immediate use in humanitarian demining operations around the globe. Beginning in the late 1990's, the U.S. Army Countermine Division funded the development of the NIITEK ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of anti-tank (AT) landmines. This work is concerned with signal processing algorithms to suppress sources of artifacts in the NIITEK GPR, and formation of three-dimensional (3D) imagery from the resultant data. We first show that the NIITEK GPR data correspond to a 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) database. An adaptive filtering method is utilized to suppress ground return and self-induced resonance (SIR) signals that are generated by the interaction of the radar-carrying platform and the transmitted radar signal. We examine signal processing methods to improve the fidelity of imagery for this 3D SAR system using pre-processing methods that suppress Doppler aliasing as well as other side lobe leakage artifacts that are introduced by the radar radiation pattern. The algorithm, known as digital spotlighting, imposes a filtering scheme on the azimuth-compressed SAR data, and manipulates the resultant spectral data to achieve a higher PRF to suppress the Doppler aliasing. We also present the 3D version of the Fourier-based wavefront reconstruction, a computationally-efficient and approximation-free SAR imaging method, for image formation with the NIITEK 3D SAR database.

  2. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  3. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  4. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10→22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of ∼0.2 m (along the beam) and ∼1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km3-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  5. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebkal, K.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kebkal@evologics.de; Bannasch, R.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany); Panfilov, A.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Wischnewski, R. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15735 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-04-11

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10{yields}22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of {approx}0.2 m (along the beam) and {approx}1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km{sup 3}-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  6. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  7. Evaluation of a prototype 3D ultrasound system for multimodality imaging of cervical nodes for adaptive radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Danielle; Fava, Palma; Cury, Fabio; Vuong, Te; Falco, Tony; Verhaegen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Sonography has good topographic accuracy for superficial lymph node assessment in patients with head and neck cancers. It is therefore an ideal non-invasive tool for precise inter-fraction volumetric analysis of enlarged cervical nodes. In addition, when registered with computed tomography (CT) images, ultrasound information may improve target volume delineation and facilitate image-guided adaptive radiation therapy. A feasibility study was developed to evaluate the use of a prototype ultrasound system capable of three dimensional visualization and multi-modality image fusion for cervical node geometry. A ceiling-mounted optical tracking camera recorded the position and orientation of a transducer in order to synchronize the transducer's position with respect to the room's coordinate system. Tracking systems were installed in both the CT-simulator and radiation therapy treatment rooms. Serial images were collected at the time of treatment planning and at subsequent treatment fractions. Volume reconstruction was performed by generating surfaces around contours. The quality of the spatial reconstruction and semi-automatic segmentation was highly dependent on the system's ability to track the transducer throughout each scan procedure. The ultrasound information provided enhanced soft tissue contrast and facilitated node delineation. Manual segmentation was the preferred method to contour structures due to their sonographic topography.

  8. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D

  9. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  10. Development of a Hausdorff distance based 3D quantification technique to evaluate the CT imaging system impact on depiction of lesion morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a 3D quantification technique to assess the impact of imaging system on depiction of lesion morphology. Regional Hausdorff Distance (RHD) was computed from two 3D volumes: virtual mesh models of synthetic nodules or "virtual nodules" and CT images of physical nodules or "physical nodules". The method can be described in following steps. First, the synthetic nodule was inserted into anthropomorphic Kyoto thorax phantom and scanned in a Siemens scanner (Flash). Then, nodule was segmented from the image. Second, in order to match the orientation of the nodule, the digital models of the "virtual" and "physical" nodules were both geometrically translated to the origin. Then, the "physical" was gradually rotated at incremental 10 degrees. Third, the Hausdorff Distance was calculated from each pair of "virtual" and "physical" nodules. The minimum HD value represented the most matching pair. Finally, the 3D RHD map and the distribution of RHD were computed for the matched pair. The technique was scalarized using the FWHM of the RHD distribution. The analysis was conducted for various shapes (spherical, lobular, elliptical, and speculated) of nodules. The calculated FWHM values of RHD distribution for the 8-mm spherical, lobular, elliptical, and speculated "virtual" and "physical" nodules were 0.23, 0.42, 0.33, and 0.49, respectively.

  11. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs. PMID:23757592

  12. Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    2000-04-01

    A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

  13. Toroidal mode number estimation of the edge-localized modes using the KSTAR 3-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Lee, J. E.; Kim, M.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, W. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A new and more accurate technique is presented for determining the toroidal mode number n of edge-localized modes (ELMs) using two independent electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. The technique involves the measurement of the poloidal spacing between adjacent ELM filaments, and of the pitch angle α{sub *} of filaments at the plasma outboard midplane. Equilibrium reconstruction verifies that α{sub *} is nearly constant and thus well-defined at the midplane edge. Estimates of n obtained using two ECEI systems agree well with n measured by the conventional technique employing an array of Mirnov coils.

  14. A 3D image analysis tool for SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Maurer, Alan H.; Knight, Linda C.; Kantor, Steve; Fisher, Robert S.; Simonian, Hrair P.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed semi-automated and fully-automated tools for the analysis of 3D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The focus is on the efficient boundary delineation of complex 3D structures that enables accurate measurement of their structural and physiologic properties. We employ intensity based thresholding algorithms for interactive and semi-automated analysis. We also explore fuzzy-connectedness concepts for fully automating the segmentation process. We apply the proposed tools to SPECT image data capturing variation of gastric accommodation and emptying. These image analysis tools were developed within the framework of a noninvasive scintigraphic test to measure simultaneously both gastric emptying and gastric volume after ingestion of a solid or a liquid meal. The clinical focus of the particular analysis was to probe associations between gastric accommodation/emptying and functional dyspepsia. Employing the proposed tools, we outline effectively the complex three dimensional gastric boundaries shown in the 3D SPECT images. We also perform accurate volume calculations in order to quantitatively assess the gastric mass variation. This analysis was performed both with the semi-automated and fully-automated tools. The results were validated against manual segmentation performed by a human expert. We believe that the development of an automated segmentation tool for SPECT imaging of the gastric volume variability will allow for other new applications of SPECT imaging where there is a need to evaluate complex organ function or tumor masses.

  15. Utilization of multiple frequencies in 3D nonlinear microwave imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple frequencies in a nonlinear microwave algorithm is considered. Using multiple frequencies allows for obtaining the improved resolution available at the higher frequencies while retaining the regularizing effects of the lower frequencies. However, a number of different challenges...... at lower frequencies are used as starting guesses for reconstructions at higher frequencies. The performance is illustrated using simulated 2-D data and data obtained with the 3-D DTU microwave imaging system....

  16. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  17. Preliminary examples of 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev;

    2013-01-01

    ultrasound scanner SARUS on a flow rig system with steady flow. The vessel of the flow-rig is centered at a depth of 30 mm, and the flow has an expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic prole with a peak velocity of 1 m/s. Ten frames of 3D vector flow images are acquired in a cross-sectional plane orthogonal......This paper presents 3D vector flow images obtained using the 3D Transverse Oscillation (TO) method. The method employs a 2D transducer and estimates the three velocity components simultaneously, which is important for visualizing complex flow patterns. Data are acquired using the experimental...... to the velocity magnitude this yields standard deviations of (9.1, 6.4, 0.88) %, respectively. Volumetric flow rates were estimated for all ten frames yielding 57.92.0 mL/s in comparison with 56.2 mL/s measured by a commercial magnetic flow meter. One frame of the obtained 3D vector flow data is presented...

  18. Investigation of the feasability for 3D synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing real-time synthetic aperture 3D imaging on the experimental system developed at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging using a 2D transducer array. The target array is a fully populated 32 × 32 3 MHz array with a half wavelength pitch....... The elements of the array are grouped in blocks of 16 × 8, which can simultaneously be accessed by the 128 channels of the scanner. Using 8-to-1 high-voltage analog multiplexors, any group of 16 × 8 elements can be accessed. Simulations are done using Field II using parameters from a 32 x 32 elements...

  19. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.;

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...... interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract...

  20. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  1. Calibration of Images with 3D range scanner data

    OpenAIRE

    Adalid López, Víctor Javier

    2009-01-01

    Projecte fet en col.laboració amb EPFL 3D laser range scanners are used in extraction of the 3D data in a scene. Main application areas are architecture, archeology and city planning. Thought the raw scanner data has a gray scale values, the 3D data can be merged with colour camera image values to get textured 3D model of the scene. Also these devices are able to take a reliable copy in 3D form objects, with a high level of accuracy. Therefore, they scanned scenes can be use...

  2. De la manipulation des images 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Pinçon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Si les technologies 3D livrent un enregistrement précis et pertinent des graphismes pariétaux, elles offrent également des applications particulièrement intéressantes pour leur analyse. À travers des traitements sur nuage de points et des simulations, elles autorisent un large éventail de manipulations touchant autant à l’observation qu’à l’étude des œuvres pariétales. Elles permettent notamment une perception affinée de leur volumétrie, et deviennent des outils de comparaison de formes très utiles dans la reconstruction des chronologies pariétales et dans l’appréhension des analogies entre différents sites. Ces outils analytiques sont ici illustrés par les travaux originaux menés sur les sculptures pariétales des abris du Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne et de la Chaire-à-Calvin (Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente.If 3D technologies allow an accurate and relevant recording of rock art, they also offer several interesting applications for its analysis. Through spots clouds treatments and simulations, they permit a wide range of manipulations concerning figurations observation and study. Especially, they allow a fine perception of their volumetry. They become efficient tools for forms comparisons, very useful in the reconstruction of graphic ensemble chronologies and for inter-sites analogies. These analytical tools are illustrated by the original works done on the sculptures of Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne and Chaire-à-Calvin (Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente rock-shelters.

  3. Use of INSAT-3D sounder and imager radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation system and its implications in the analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira Rani, S.; Taylor, Ruth; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    INSAT-3D, the first Indian geostationary satellite with sounding capability, provides valuable information over India and the surrounding oceanic regions which are pivotal to Numerical Weather Prediction. In collaboration with UK Met Office, NCMRWF developed the assimilation capability of INSAT-3D Clear Sky Brightness Temperature (CSBT), both from the sounder and imager, in the 4D-Var assimilation system being used at NCMRWF. Out of the 18 sounder channels, radiances from 9 channels are selected for assimilation depending on relevance of the information in each channel. The first three high peaking channels, the CO2 absorption channels and the three water vapor channels (channel no. 10, 11, and 12) are assimilated both over land and Ocean, whereas the window channels (channel no. 6, 7, and 8) are assimilated only over the Ocean. Measured satellite radiances are compared with that from short range forecasts to monitor the data quality. This is based on the assumption that the observed satellite radiances are free from calibration errors and the short range forecast provided by NWP model is free from systematic errors. Innovations (Observation - Forecast) before and after the bias correction are indicative of how well the bias correction works. Since the biases vary with air-masses, time, scan angle and also due to instrument degradation, an accurate bias correction algorithm for the assimilation of INSAT-3D sounder radiance is important. This paper discusses the bias correction methods and other quality controls used for the selected INSAT-3D sounder channels and the impact of bias corrected radiance in the data assimilation system particularly over India and surrounding oceanic regions.

  4. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Asada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  5. Method for the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) in 3D x-ray imaging systems with focus on correction for finite extent of test objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Dirk; Wiegert, Jens; Bertram, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that rotational C-arm systems are capable of providing 3D tomographic X-ray images with much higher spatial resolution than conventional CT systems. Using flat X-ray detectors, the pixel size of the detector typically is in the range of the size of the test objects. Therefore, the finite extent of the "point" source cannot be neglected for the determination of the MTF. A practical algorithm has been developed that includes bias estimation and subtraction, averaging in the spatial domain, and correction for the frequency content of the imaged bead or wire. Using this algorithm, the wire and the bead method are analyzed for flat detector based 3D X-ray systems with the use of standard CT performance phantoms. Results on both experimental and simulated data are presented. It is found that the approximation of applying the analysis of the wire method to a bead measurement is justified within 3% accuracy up to the first zero of the MTF.

  6. Visualizing Vertebrate Embryos with Episcopic 3D Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Geyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of highly detailed, three-dimensional (3D computer models is essential in order to understand the evolution and development of vertebrate embryos, and the pathogenesis of hereditary diseases. A still-increasing number of methods allow for generating digital volume data sets as the basis of virtual 3D computer models. This work aims to provide a brief overview about modern volume data–generation techniques, focusing on episcopic 3D imaging methods. The technical principles, advantages, and problems of episcopic 3D imaging are described. The strengths and weaknesses in its ability to visualize embryo anatomy and labeled gene product patterns, specifically, are discussed.

  7. Construction and tests of demonstrator modules for a 3-D axial PET system for brain or small animal imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N; Pauss, P; Meddi, F; Beltrame, P; Kagan, H; Braem, A; Casella, C; Djambazov, G; Smith, S; Johnson, I; Lustermann, W; Weilhammer, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Dissertori, G; Renker, D; Schneider, T; Schinzel, D; Honscheid, K; De Leo, R; Bolle, E; Fanti, V; Rafecas, M; Cochran, E; Rudge, A; Stapnes, S; Huh, S; Seguinot, J; Solevi, P; Joram, C; Oliver, J F

    2011-01-01

    The design and construction of a PET camera module with high sensitivity, full 3-D spatial reconstruction and very good energy resolution is presented. The basic principle consists of an axial arrangement of long scintillation crystals around the Field Of View (FOV), providing a measurement of the transverse coordinates of the interacting 511 keV gamma ray. On top of each layer of crystals, an array of Wave-Length Shifter (WLS) strips, which collect the light leaving the crystals sideways, is positioned orthogonal to the crystal direction. The signals in the WLS strips allow a precise measurement of the z (axial) co-ordinate of the 511 keV gamma-ray gamma impact. The construction of two modules used for demonstration of the concept is described. First preliminary results on spatial and energy resolution from one full module will be shown. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Construction and tests of demonstrator modules for a 3-D axial PET system for brain or small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of a PET camera module with high sensitivity, full 3-D spatial reconstruction and very good energy resolution is presented. The basic principle consists of an axial arrangement of long scintillation crystals around the Field Of View (FOV), providing a measurement of the transverse coordinates of the interacting 511 keV gamma ray. On top of each layer of crystals, an array of Wave-Length Shifter (WLS) strips, which collect the light leaving the crystals sideways, is positioned orthogonal to the crystal direction. The signals in the WLS strips allow a precise measurement of the z (axial) co-ordinate of the 511 keV γ-ray gamma impact. The construction of two modules used for demonstration of the concept is described. First preliminary results on spatial and energy resolution from one full module will be shown.

  9. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Ferin, Guillaume; Dufait, Remi; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Explososcan is the 'gold standard' for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. In this paper, 3D synthetic aperture imaging is compared to Explososcan by simulation of 3D point spread functions. The simulations mimic a 32x32 element prototype transducer. The transducer mimicked is a dense matrix phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60 in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. ...

  10. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  11. The Anatomy of a Fumarole inferred from a 3-D High-Resolution Electrical Resistivity Image of Solfatara Hydrothermal System (Phlegrean Fields, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresse, M.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Chiodini, G.; Byrdina, S.; Lebourg, T.; Johnson, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Solfatara, the most active crater in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic complex, shows since ten years a remarkable renewal of activity characterized by an increase of CO2 total degassing from 1500 up to 3000 tons/day, associated with a large ground uplift (Chiodini et al., 2015). In order to precisely image the structure of the shallow hydrothermal system, we performed an extended electrical DC resistivity survey at Solfatara, with about 40 2-D profiles of length up to 1 km, as well as soil temperature and CO2 flux measurements over the area. We then realized a 3-D inversion from the ~40 000 resistivity data points, using E4D code (Johnson et al., 2010). At large scale, results clearly delineate two contrasted structures: - A very conductive body (resistivity < 5 Ohm.m) located beneath the Fangaia mud pools, and likely associated to a mineralized liquid rich plume. - An elongated more resistive body (20-30 Ohm.m) connected to the main fumarolic area and interpreted as the gas reservoir feeding the fumaroles. At smaller scale, our resistivity model originally highlights the 3-D anatomy of a fumarole and the interactions between condensate layers and gas chimneys. This high-resolution image of the shallow hydrothermal structure is a new step for the modeling of this system.

  12. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  13. Ice shelf melt rates and 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cameron Scott

    Ice shelves are sensitive indicators of climate change and play a critical role in the stability of ice sheets and oceanic currents. Basal melting of ice shelves plays an important role in both the mass balance of the ice sheet and the global climate system. Airborne- and satellite based remote sensing systems can perform thickness measurements of ice shelves. Time separated repeat flight tracks over ice shelves of interest generate data sets that can be used to derive basal melt rates using traditional glaciological techniques. Many previous melt rate studies have relied on surface elevation data gathered by airborne- and satellite based altimeters. These systems infer melt rates by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, an assumption that may not be accurate, especially near an ice shelf's grounding line. Moderate bandwidth, VHF, ice penetrating radar has been used to measure ice shelf profiles with relatively coarse resolution. This study presents the application of an ultra wide bandwidth (UWB), UHF, ice penetrating radar to obtain finer resolution data on the ice shelves. These data reveal significant details about the basal interface, including the locations and depth of bottom crevasses and deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium. While our single channel radar provides new insight into ice shelf structure, it only images a small swatch of the shelf, which is assumed to be an average of the total shelf behavior. This study takes an additional step by investigating the application of a 3D imaging technique to a data set collected using a ground based multi channel version of the UWB radar. The intent is to show that the UWB radar could be capable of providing a wider swath 3D image of an ice shelf. The 3D images can then be used to obtain a more complete estimate of the bottom melt rates of ice shelves.

  14. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    A common task for many deep space missions is autonomous generation of 3-D representations of planetary surfaces onboard unmanned spacecrafts. The basic problem for this class of missions is, that the closed loop time is far too long. The closed loop time is defined as the time from when a human...... of seconds to a few minutes, the closed loop time effectively precludes active human control.The only way to circumvent this problem is to build an artificial feature extractor operating autonomously onboard the spacecraft.Different artificial feature extractors are presented and their efficiency...... is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  15. CUBICORT: simulation of the visual cortical system for 3D image analysis, synthesis, and hypercompression for digital TV, HDTV, and multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Pascal; Guyot, F.; Marchal, Patrick; Burnod, Yves

    1994-05-01

    We describe simulation elements of a new kind of 3D vision simulator, for preprocessing objects and movement analysis in 3D, using the biological concept of the cortical column paradigm in the visual area. The target simulator is primarily dedicated to ultra high image compression for the telecommunication of digital TV images (MPEG4), HDTV, and 3D TV, but can also be used for automatic modeling, digitizing, robotics, and image synthesis. This simulator extracts 3D objects and movements by using the properties of hypercolumns within the visual cortex for spatio-temporal pyramidal filtering, learning, and performs inter and intra-cooperation between these simulated hypercolumns. The simulation process has four levels for analysis - synthesis: pixels, zones, objects and labels. Final synthesis (reconstruction) is processed by reverse filtering, using non-orthogonal basis filters. Substantial upgrades in terms of compression ratio have been estimated using this algorithm as a whole, or partially, with integrated VLSI.

  16. 3D-LSI technology for image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the development of three-dimensional large-scale integration (3D-LSI) technologies has accelerated and has advanced from the research level or the limited production level to the investigation level, which might lead to mass production. By separating 3D-LSI technology into elementary technologies such as (1) through silicon via (TSV) formation, (2) bump formation, (3) wafer thinning, (4) chip/wafer alignment, and (5) chip/wafer stacking and reconstructing the entire process and structure, many methods to realize 3D-LSI devices can be developed. However, by considering a specific application, the supply chain of base wafers, and the purpose of 3D integration, a few suitable combinations can be identified. In this paper, we focus on the application of 3D-LSI technologies to image sensors. We describe the process and structure of the chip size package (CSP), developed on the basis of current and advanced 3D-LSI technologies, to be used in CMOS image sensors. Using the current LSI technologies, CSPs for 1.3 M, 2 M, and 5 M pixel CMOS image sensors were successfully fabricated without any performance degradation. 3D-LSI devices can be potentially employed in high-performance focal-plane-array image sensors. We propose a high-speed image sensor with an optical fill factor of 100% to be developed using next-generation 3D-LSI technology and fabricated using micro(μ)-bumps and micro(μ)-TSVs.

  17. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibildox, Gerardo, E-mail: g.dibildox@erasmusmc.nl; Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van [Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul [Pie Medical Imaging, 6227 AJ Maastricht (Netherlands); Schultz, Carl [Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro [Quantitative Imaging Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands and Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  18. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hume, W.R. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Douglass, G.D. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  19. Reconstruction of High Resolution 3D Objects from Incomplete Images and 3D Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To this day, digital object reconstruction is a quite complex area that requires many techniques and novel approaches, in which high-resolution 3D objects present one of the biggest challenges. There are mainly two different methods that can be used to reconstruct high resolution objects and images: passive methods and active methods. This methods depend on the type of information available as input for modeling 3D objects. The passive methods use information contained in the images and the active methods make use of controlled light sources, such as lasers. The reconstruction of 3D objects is quite complex and there is no unique solution- The use of specific methodologies for the reconstruction of certain objects it’s also very common, such as human faces, molecular structures, etc. This paper proposes a novel hybrid methodology, composed by 10 phases that combine active and passive methods, using images and a laser in order to supplement the missing information and obtain better results in the 3D object reconstruction. Finally, the proposed methodology proved its efficiency in two complex topological complex objects.

  20. Increasing the effective aperture of a detector and enlarging the receiving field of view in a 3D imaging lidar system through hexagonal prism beam splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    The detector in a highly accurate and high-definition scanning 3D imaging lidar system requires high frequency bandwidth and sufficient photosensitive area. To solve the problem of small photosensitive area of an existing indium gallium arsenide detector with a certain frequency bandwidth, this study proposes a method for increasing the receiving field of view (FOV) and enlarging the effective photosensitive aperture of such detector through hexagonal prism beam splitting. The principle and construction of hexagonal prism beam splitting is also discussed in this research. Accordingly, a receiving optical system with two hexagonal prisms is provided and the splitting beam effect of the simulation experiment is analyzed. Using this novel method, the receiving optical system's FOV can be improved effectively up to ±5°, and the effective photosensitive aperture of the detector is increased from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. PMID:27410800

  1. A 3D Model Reconstruction Method Using Slice Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-an; KANG Bao-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at achieving the high accuracy 3D model from slice images, a new model reconstruction method using slice im-ages is proposed. Wanting to extract the outermost contours from slice images, the method of the improved GVF-Snake model with optimized force field and ray method is employed. And then, the 3D model is reconstructed by contour connection using the im-proved shortest diagonal method and judgment function of contour fracture. The results show that the accuracy of reconstruction 3D model is improved.

  2. 3D Shape Indexing and Retrieval Using Characteristics level images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghni Lakehal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved version of the descriptor that we proposed before. The descriptor is based on a set of binary images extracted from the 3D model called level images noted LI. The set LI is often bulky, why we introduced the X-means technique to reduce its size instead of K-means used in the old version. A 2D binary image descriptor was introduced to extract the vectors descriptors of the 3D model. For a comparative study of two versions of the descriptor, we used the National Taiwan University (NTU database of 3D object.

  3. Design of a single projector multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Multiview three-dimensional (3D) display is able to provide horizontal parallax to viewers with high-resolution and fullcolor images being presented to each view. Most multiview 3D display systems are designed and implemented using multiple projectors, each generating images for one view. Although this multi-projector design strategy is conceptually straightforward, implementation of such multi-projector design often leads to a very expensive system and complicated calibration procedures. Even for a multiview system with a moderate number of projectors (e.g., 32 or 64 projectors), the cost of a multi-projector 3D display system may become prohibitive due to the cost and complexity of integrating multiple projectors. In this article, we describe an optical design technique for a class of multiview 3D display systems that use only a single projector. In this single projector multiview (SPM) system design, multiple views for the 3D display are generated in a time-multiplex fashion by the single high speed projector with specially designed optical components, a scanning mirror, and a reflective mirror array. Images of all views are generated sequentially and projected via the specially design optical system from different viewing directions towards a 3D display screen. Therefore, the single projector is able to generate equivalent number of multiview images from multiple viewing directions, thus fulfilling the tasks of multiple projectors. An obvious advantage of the proposed SPM technique is the significant reduction of cost, size, and complexity, especially when the number of views is high. The SPM strategy also alleviates the time-consuming procedures for multi-projector calibration. The design method is flexible and scalable and can accommodate systems with different number of views.

  4. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation, and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  5. 3D IMAGING OF INDIVIDUAL PARTICLES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pirard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, impressive progress has been made in digital imaging and in particular in three dimensional visualisation and analysis of objects. This paper reviews the most recent literature on three dimensional imaging with a special attention to particulate systems analysis. After an introduction recalling some important concepts in spatial sampling and digital imaging, the paper reviews a series of techniques with a clear distinction between the surfometric and volumetric principles. The literature review is as broad as possible covering materials science as well as biology while keeping an eye on emerging technologies in optics and physics. The paper should be of interest to any scientist trying to picture particles in 3D with the best possible resolution for accurate size and shape estimation. Though techniques are adequate for nanoscopic and microscopic particles, no special size limit has been considered while compiling the review.

  6. Development of 3D microwave imaging reflectometry in LHD (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Hamada, Y; Kogi, Y; Mase, A; Tsuchiya, H; Tsuji-Iio, S; Yamaguchi, S

    2012-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microwave imaging reflectometry has been developed in the large helical device to visualize fluctuating reflection surface which is caused by the density fluctuations. The plasma is illuminated by the probe wave with four frequencies, which correspond to four radial positions. The imaging optics makes the image of cut-off surface onto the 2D (7 × 7 channels) horn antenna mixer arrays. Multi-channel receivers have been also developed using micro-strip-line technology to handle many channels at reasonable cost. This system is first applied to observe the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO), which is an MHD mode with many harmonics that appears in the edge plasma. A narrow structure along field lines is observed during EHO.

  7. Development of 3D microwave imaging reflectometry in LHD (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Hamada, Y; Kogi, Y; Mase, A; Tsuchiya, H; Tsuji-Iio, S; Yamaguchi, S

    2012-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microwave imaging reflectometry has been developed in the large helical device to visualize fluctuating reflection surface which is caused by the density fluctuations. The plasma is illuminated by the probe wave with four frequencies, which correspond to four radial positions. The imaging optics makes the image of cut-off surface onto the 2D (7 × 7 channels) horn antenna mixer arrays. Multi-channel receivers have been also developed using micro-strip-line technology to handle many channels at reasonable cost. This system is first applied to observe the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO), which is an MHD mode with many harmonics that appears in the edge plasma. A narrow structure along field lines is observed during EHO. PMID:23126965

  8. Data Processing for 3D Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingchuang; Xu, Wei; Eberlin, Livia S.; Wiseman, Justin M.; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, You; Huang, Zejian; Zhang, Yukui; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Data processing for three dimensional mass spectrometry (3D-MS) imaging was investigated, starting with a consideration of the challenges in its practical implementation using a series of sections of a tissue volume. The technical issues related to data reduction, 2D imaging data alignment, 3D visualization, and statistical data analysis were identified. Software solutions for these tasks were developed using functions in MATLAB. Peak detection and peak alignment were applied to reduce the data size, while retaining the mass accuracy. The main morphologic features of tissue sections were extracted using a classification method for data alignment. Data insertion was performed to construct a 3D data set with spectral information that can be used for generating 3D views and for data analysis. The imaging data previously obtained for a mouse brain using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging have been used to test and demonstrate the new methodology.

  9. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  10. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  11. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Digital Imaging System to Derive a 3D Point Cloud for Landslide Scarp Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Al-Rawabdeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides often cause economic losses, property damage, and loss of lives. Monitoring landslides using high spatial and temporal resolution imagery and the ability to quickly identify landslide regions are the basis for emergency disaster management. This study presents a comprehensive system that uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and Semi-Global dense Matching (SGM techniques to identify and extract landslide scarp data. The selected study area is located along a major highway in a mountainous region in Jordan, and contains creeping landslides induced by heavy rainfall. Field observations across the slope body and a deformation analysis along the highway and existing gabions indicate that the slope is active and that scarp features across the slope will continue to open and develop new tension crack features, leading to the downward movement of rocks. The identification of landslide scarps in this study was performed via a dense 3D point cloud of topographic information generated from high-resolution images captured using a low-cost UAV and a target-based camera calibration procedure for a low-cost large-field-of-view camera. An automated approach was used to accurately detect and extract the landslide head scarps based on geomorphological factors: the ratio of normalized Eigenvalues (i.e., λ1/λ2 ≥ λ3 derived using principal component analysis, topographic surface roughness index values, and local-neighborhood slope measurements from the 3D image-based point cloud. Validation of the results was performed using root mean square error analysis and a confusion (error matrix between manually digitized landslide scarps and the automated approaches. The experimental results using the fully automated 3D point-based analysis algorithms show that these approaches can effectively distinguish landslide scarps. The proposed algorithms can accurately identify and extract landslide scarps with centimeter-scale accuracy. In addition, the combination

  12. Computational ghost imaging versus imaging laser radar for 3D imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Nicholas D

    2012-01-01

    Ghost imaging has been receiving increasing interest for possible use as a remote-sensing system. There has been little comparison, however, between ghost imaging and the imaging laser radars with which it would be competing. Toward that end, this paper presents a performance comparison between a pulsed, computational ghost imager and a pulsed, floodlight-illumination imaging laser radar. Both are considered for range-resolving (3D) imaging of a collection of rough-surfaced objects at standoff ranges in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. Their spatial resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios are evaluated as functions of the system parameters, and these results are used to assess each system's performance trade-offs. Scenarios in which a reflective ghost-imaging system has advantages over a laser radar are identified.

  13. Stereoscopic contents authoring system for 3D DMB data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, BongHo; Yun, Kugjin; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong; Lee, SooIn

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a stereoscopic contents authoring system that covers the creation and editing of stereoscopic multimedia contents for the 3D DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) data services. The main concept of 3D DMB data service is that, instead of full 3D video, partial stereoscopic objects (stereoscopic JPEG, PNG and MNG) are stereoscopically displayed on the 2D background video plane. In order to provide stereoscopic objects, we design and implement a 3D DMB content authoring system which provides the convenient and straightforward contents creation and editing functionalities. For the creation of stereoscopic contents, we mainly focused on two methods: CG (Computer Graphics) based creation and real image based creation. In the CG based creation scenario where the generated CG data from the conventional MAYA or 3DS MAX tool is rendered to generate the stereoscopic images by applying the suitable disparity and camera parameters, we use X-file for the direct conversion to stereoscopic objects, so called 3D DMB objects. In the case of real image based creation, the chroma-key method is applied to real video sequences to acquire the alpha-mapped images which are in turn directly converted to stereoscopic objects. The stereoscopic content editing module includes the timeline editor for both the stereoscopic video and stereoscopic objects. For the verification of created stereoscopic contents, we implemented the content verification module to verify and modify the contents by adjusting the disparity. The proposed system will leverage the power of stereoscopic contents creation for mobile 3D data service especially targeted for T-DMB with the capabilities of CG and real image based contents creation, timeline editing and content verification.

  14. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system--a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge

  15. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  16. Fully Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Histological Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Ulas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computational framework for 3D volume reconstruction from 2D histological slices using registration algorithms in feature space. To improve the quality of reconstructed 3D volume, first, intensity variations in images are corrected by an intensity standardization process which maps image intensity scale to a standard scale where similar intensities correspond to similar tissues. Second, a subvolume approach is proposed for 3D reconstruction by dividing standardized slices into groups. Third, in order to improve the quality of the reconstruction process, an automatic best reference slice selection algorithm is developed based on an iterative assessment of image entropy and mean square error of the registration process. Finally, we demonstrate that the choice of the reference slice has a significant impact on registration quality and subsequent 3D reconstruction.

  17. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  18. Research of Fast 3D Imaging Based on Multiple Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shibing; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has received increasingly extensive attention and has been widely used currently. Lots of efforts have been put on three-dimensional imaging method and system study, in order to meet fast and high accurate requirement. In this article, we realize a fast and high quality stereo matching algorithm on field programmable gate array (FPGA) using the combination of time-of-flight (TOF) camera and binocular camera. Images captured from the two cameras own a same spatial resolution, letting us use the depth maps taken by the TOF camera to figure initial disparity. Under the constraint of the depth map as the stereo pairs when comes to stereo matching, expected disparity of each pixel is limited within a narrow search range. In the meanwhile, using field programmable gate array (FPGA, altera cyclone IV series) concurrent computing we can configure multi core image matching system, thus doing stereo matching on embedded system. The simulation results demonstrate that it can speed up the process of stereo matching and increase matching reliability and stability, realize embedded calculation, expand application range.

  19. Preparing diagnostic 3D images for image registration with planning CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Pre-radiotherapy (pre-RT) tomographic images acquired for diagnostic purposes often contain important tumor and/or normal tissue information which is poorly defined or absent in planning CT images. Our two years of clinical experience has shown that computer-assisted 3D registration of pre-RT images with planning CT images often plays an indispensable role in accurate treatment volume definition. Often the only available format of the diagnostic images is film from which the original 3D digital data must be reconstructed. In addition, any digital data, whether reconstructed or not, must be put into a form suitable for incorporation into the treatment planning system. The purpose of this investigation was to identify all problems that must be overcome before this data is suitable for clinical use. Materials and Methods: In the past two years we have 3D-reconstructed 300 diagnostic images from film and digital sources. As a problem was discovered we built a software tool to correct it. In time we collected a large set of such tools and found that they must be applied in a specific order to achieve the correct reconstruction. Finally, a toolkit (ediScan) was built that made all these tools available in the proper manner via a pleasant yet efficient mouse-based user interface. Results: Problems we discovered included different magnifications, shifted display centers, non-parallel image planes, image planes not perpendicular to the long axis of the table-top (shearing), irregularly spaced scans, non contiguous scan volumes, multiple slices per film, different orientations for slice axes (e.g. left-right reversal), slices printed at window settings corresponding to tissues of interest for diagnostic purposes, and printing artifacts. We have learned that the specific steps to correct these problems, in order of application, are: Also, we found that fast feedback and large image capacity (at least 2000 x 2000 12-bit pixels) are essential for practical application

  20. Affordable immersive projection system for 3d interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar Gran, Carlos Antonio; Fairén González, Marta; Brunet Crosa, Pere

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an affordable Virtual Reality system designed and developed by a group of researchers at the Polytechnic University of Catalunya (UPC). The system allows direct selection and manipulation of virtual 3D objects. The interaction is based on stereoscopic images projected over the user’s working space and on devices tracking the user’s natural movements. The system includes a screen being adjustable both in orientation and height, sensors tracking the head and hand movemen...

  1. Fast 3D T1-weighted brain imaging at 3 Tesla with modified 3D FLASH sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of white and gray matter become close at high magnetic field. Therefore, classical T1 sensitive methods, like spoiled FLASH fail to give a sufficient contrast in human brain imaging at 3 Tesla. An excellent T1 contrast can be achieved at high field by gradient echo imaging with a preparatory inversion pulse. The inversion recovery (IR) preparation can be combined with a fast 2D gradient echo scans. In this paper we present an application of this technique to rapid 3-dimensional imaging. New technique called 3D SIR FLASH was implemented on Burker MSLX system equipped with a 3T, 90 cm horizontal bore magnet working in Centre Hospitalier in Rouffach, France. The new technique was used for comparison of MRI images of healthy volunteers obtained with a traditional 3D imaging. White and gray matter are clearly distinguishable when 3D SIR FLASH is used. The total acquisition time for 128x128x128 image was 5 minutes. Three dimensional visualization with facet representation of surfaces and oblique sections was done off-line on the INDIGO Extreme workstation. New technique is widely used in FORENAP, Centre Hospitalier in Reuffach, Alsace. (author)

  2. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-09-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  3. A Texture Analysis of 3D Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Yarovoy, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a texture feature coding method to be applied to high-resolution 3D radar images in order to improve target detection is developed. An automatic method for image segmentation based on texture features is proposed. The method has been able to automatically detect weak targets which fail

  4. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  5. Analysis and dynamic 3D visualization of cerebral blood flow combining 3D and 4D MR image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Möller, Dietmar; Handels, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a method for the dynamic visualization of cerebral blood flow. Spatio-temporal 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image datasets and 3D MRA datasets with high spatial resolution were acquired for the analysis of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). One of the main tasks is the combination of the information of the 3D and 4D MRA image sequences. Initially, in the 3D MRA dataset the vessel system is segmented and a 3D surface model is generated. Then, temporal intensity curves are analyzed voxelwise in the 4D MRA image sequences. A curve fitting of the temporal intensity curves to a patient individual reference curve is used to extract the bolus arrival times in the 4D MRA sequences. After non-linear registration of both MRA datasets the extracted hemodynamic information is transferred to the surface model where the time points of inflow can be visualized color coded dynamically over time. The dynamic visualizations computed using the curve fitting method for the estimation of the bolus arrival times were rated superior compared to those computed using conventional approaches for bolus arrival time estimation. In summary the procedure suggested allows a dynamic visualization of the individual hemodynamic situation and better understanding during the visual evaluation of cerebral vascular diseases.

  6. 3D multi-spectrum sensor system with face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  7. 3D Multi-Spectrum Sensor System with Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongrock Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF, is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained.

  8. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  9. 3D Surface Imaging of the Human Female Torso in Upright to Supine Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Reece, Gregory P.; Merchant, Fatima; Andon, Johnny; Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K.; Weston, June; Fingeret, Michelle C.; Lane, Chris; Duncan, Kelly; Markey, Mia K.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of breasts is usually done with the patient in an upright position, which does not permit comparison of changes in breast morphology with changes in position of the torso. In theory, these limitations may be eliminated if the 3D camera system could remain fixed relative to the woman’s torso as she is tilted from 0 to 90 degrees. We mounted a 3dMDtorso imaging system onto a bariatric tilt table to image breasts at different tilt angles. The images were va...

  10. Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Meaney, Paul M; Kaufman, Peter A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring. PMID:22562726

  11. Performance evaluation of CCD- and mobile-phone-based near-infrared fluorescence imaging systems with molded and 3D-printed phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bohan; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Wang, Quanzeng; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Increasing numbers of devices are emerging which involve biophotonic imaging on a mobile platform. Therefore, effective test methods are needed to ensure that these devices provide a high level of image quality. We have developed novel phantoms for performance assessment of near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging devices. Resin molding and 3D printing techniques were applied for phantom fabrication. Comparisons between two imaging approaches - a CCD-based scientific camera and an NIR-enabled mobile phone - were made based on evaluation of the contrast transfer function and penetration depth. Optical properties of the phantoms were evaluated, including absorption and scattering spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The potential viability of contrastenhanced biological NIRF imaging with a mobile phone is demonstrated, and color-channel-specific variations in image quality are documented. Our results provide evidence of the utility of novel phantom-based test methods for quantifying image quality in emerging NIRF devices.

  12. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Based 3D Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LongWave Photonics proposes a terahertz quantum-cascade laser based swept-source optical coherence tomography (THz SS-OCT) system for single-sided, 3D,...

  13. AUTOMATIC 3D MAPPING USING MULTIPLE UNCALIBRATED CLOSE RANGE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic three-dimensions modeling of the real world is an important research topic in the geomatics and computer vision fields for many years. By development of commercial digital cameras and modern image processing techniques, close range photogrammetry is vastly utilized in many fields such as structure measurements, topographic surveying, architectural and archeological surveying, etc. A non-contact photogrammetry provides methods to determine 3D locations of objects from two-dimensional (2D images. Problem of estimating the locations of 3D points from multiple images, often involves simultaneously estimating both 3D geometry (structure and camera pose (motion, it is commonly known as structure from motion (SfM. In this research a step by step approach to generate the 3D point cloud of a scene is considered. After taking images with a camera, we should detect corresponding points in each two views. Here an efficient SIFT method is used for image matching for large baselines. After that, we must retrieve the camera motion and 3D position of the matched feature points up to a projective transformation (projective reconstruction. Lacking additional information on the camera or the scene makes the parallel lines to be unparalleled. The results of SfM computation are much more useful if a metric reconstruction is obtained. Therefor multiple views Euclidean reconstruction applied and discussed. To refine and achieve the precise 3D points we use more general and useful approach, namely bundle adjustment. At the end two real cases have been considered to reconstruct (an excavation and a tower.

  14. 3D- VISUALIZATION BY RAYTRACING IMAGE SYNTHESIS ON GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Oraiqat Anas M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a realization of the approach to spatial 3D stereo of visualization of 3D images with use parallel Graphics processing unit (GPU. The experiments of realization of synthesis of images of a 3D stage by a method of trace of beams on GPU with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA have shown that 60 % of the time is spent for the decision of a computing problem approximately, the major part of time (40 % is spent for transfer of data between the central processing unit and GPU for calculations and the organization process of visualization. The study of the influence of increase in the size of the GPU network at the speed of calculations showed importance of the correct task of structure of formation of the parallel computer network and general mechanism of parallelization.

  15. Design of 3D integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and sys

  16. The Design and Implementation of 3D Medical Image Reconstruction System Based on VTK and ITK%基于VTK和ITK的3D医学图像重建系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹰; 韩利凯

    2011-01-01

    三维图像重构是当前数字图像处理领域的一个热点,特别是其在医学图像处理中的应用.VascuView3D是一个基于VTK和ITK的3D医学图像重建系统,该系统实现了体绘制(VR)、表面绘制(SR)和多平面绘制(MPR)等3D视图,以及基于CLUT的三维灰度图像着色.%3D image reconstruction is an attractive Held generally in digital image processing techniques, especially in medical imaging. The design and implementation of a 3D medical image reconstruction system VascuView, which can be used to build 3D images from 2D image slice files produced by CT and MRI devices, is introduced. The volume rendering, surface rendering and Multi -Planar rendering are implemented and lots of the 3D operations such as coloring of 3D image based on CLUT can be performed with this software.

  17. GammaModeler 3-D gamma-ray imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system was used to survey a portion of the facility and provide 3-D visual and radiation representation of contaminated equipment located within the facility. The 3-D GammaModelertrademark system software was used to deconvolve extended sources into a series of point sources, locate the positions of these sources in space and calculate the 30 cm. dose rates for each of these sources. Localization of the sources in three dimensions provides information on source locations interior to the visual objects and provides a better estimate of the source intensities. The three dimensional representation of the objects can be made transparent in order to visualize sources located within the objects. Positional knowledge of all the sources can be used to calculate a map of the radiation in the canyon. The use of 3-D visual and gamma ray information supports improved planning decision-making, and aids in communications with regulators and stakeholders

  18. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  19. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  20. Reducing the influence of direct reflection on return signal detection in a 3D imaging lidar system by rotating the polarizing beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhui; Lee, Xiaobao; Cui, Tianxiang; Qu, Yang; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    The direction rule of the laser beam traveling through a deflected polarizing beam splitter (PBS) cube is derived. It reveals that, due to the influence of end-face reflection of the PBS at the detector side, the emergent beam coming from the incident beam parallels the direction of the original case without rotation, with only a very small translation interval between them. The formula of the translation interval is also given. Meanwhile, the emergent beam from the return signal at the detector side deflects at an angle twice that of the PBS rotation angle. The correctness has been verified by an experiment. The intensity transmittance of the emergent beam when propagating in the PBS is changes very little if the rotation angle is less than 35 deg. In a 3D imaging lidar system, by rotating the PBS cube by an angle, the direction of the return signal optical axis is separated from that of the origin, which can decrease or eliminate the influence of direct reflection caused by the prism end face on target return signal detection. This has been checked by experiment. PMID:26974613

  1. Efficient reconfigurable architectures for 3D medical image compression

    OpenAIRE

    Afandi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Recently, the more widespread use of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasound (US) have generated a massive amount of volumetric data. These have provided an impetus to the development of other applications, in particular telemedicine and teleradiology. In thes...

  2. Extracting 3D Layout From a Single Image Using Global Image Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Lou; T. Gevers; N. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very b

  3. Projective 3D-reconstruction of Uncalibrated Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Faltin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common medical diagnostic method for urinary bladder cancer is cystoscopy. This inspection of the bladder is performed by a rigid endoscope, which is usually guided close to the bladder wall. This causes a very limited field of view; difficulty of navigation is aggravated by the usage of angled endoscopes. These factors cause difficulties in orientation and visual control. To overcome this problem, the paper presents a method for extracting 3D information from uncalibrated endoscopic image sequences and for reconstructing the scene content. The method uses the SURF-algorithm to extract features from the images and relates the images by advanced matching. To stabilize the matching, the epipolar geometry is extracted for each image pair using a modified RANSAC-algorithm. Afterwards these matched point pairs are used to generate point triplets over three images and to describe the trifocal geometry. The 3D scene points are determined by applying triangulation to the matched image points. Thus, these points are used to generate a projective 3D reconstruction of the scene, and provide the first step for further metric reconstructions.

  4. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Férin, Guillaume; Dufait, Rémi; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    Explososcan is the 'gold standard' for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. In this paper, 3D synthetic aperture imaging is compared to Explososcan by simulation of 3D point spread functions. The simulations mimic a 32×32 element prototype transducer. The transducer mimicked is a dense matrix phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60° in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. This results for both techniques in a frame rate of 18 Hz. The implemented synthetic aperture technique reduces the number of transmit channels from 1024 to 256, compared to Explososcan. In terms of FWHM performance, was Explososcan and synthetic aperture found to perform similar. At 90mm depth is Explososcan's FWHM performance 7% better than that of synthetic aperture. Synthetic aperture improved the cystic resolution, which expresses the ability to detect anechoic cysts in a uniform scattering media, at all depths except at Explososcan's focus point. Synthetic aperture reduced the cyst radius, R20dB, at 90mm depth by 48%. Synthetic aperture imaging was shown to reduce the number of transmit channels by four and still, generally, improve the imaging quality.

  5. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  6. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N; Velasco Forte, M; Tandon, A; Valverde, I

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports). The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015). The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods. PMID:27170842

  7. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Byrne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports. The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015. The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods.

  8. 3D Medical Image Interpolation Based on Parametric Cubic Convolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the process of display, manipulation and analysis of biomedical image data, they usually need to be converted to data of isotropic discretization through the process of interpolation, while the cubic convolution interpolation is widely used due to its good tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present a whole concept for the 3D medical image interpolation based on cubic convolution, and the six methods, with the different sharp control parameter, which are formulated in details. Furthermore, we also give an objective comparison for these methods using data sets with the different slice spacing. Each slice in these data sets is estimated by each interpolation method and compared with the original slice using three measures: mean-squared difference, number of sites of disagreement, and largest difference. According to the experimental results, we present a recommendation for 3D medical images under the different situations in the end.

  9. Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.

  10. Subjective evaluation of a 3D videoconferencing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizek, Hadi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Johanson, Mathias

    2014-03-01

    A shortcoming of traditional videoconferencing systems is that they present the user with a flat, two-dimensional image of the remote participants. Recent advances in autostereoscopic display technology now make it possible to develop video conferencing systems supporting true binocular depth perception. In this paper, we present a subjective evaluation of a prototype multiview autostereoscopic video conferencing system and suggest a number of possible improvements based on the results. Whereas methods for subjective evaluation of traditional 2D videoconferencing systems are well established, the introduction of 3D requires an extension of the test procedures to assess the quality of depth perception. For this purpose, two depth-based test tasks have been designed and experiments have been conducted with test subjects comparing the 3D system to a conventional 2D video conferencing system. The outcome of the experiments show that the perception of depth is significantly improved in the 3D system, but the overall quality of experience is higher in the 2D system.

  11. 3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement.

  12. 3D Reconstruction of Human Motion from Monocular Image Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, Bastian; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This article tackles the problem of estimating non-rigid human 3D shape and motion from image sequences taken by uncalibrated cameras. Similar to other state-of-the-art solutions we factorize 2D observations in camera parameters, base poses and mixing coefficients. Existing methods require sufficient camera motion during the sequence to achieve a correct 3D reconstruction. To obtain convincing 3D reconstructions from arbitrary camera motion, our method is based on a-priorly trained base poses. We show that strong periodic assumptions on the coefficients can be used to define an efficient and accurate algorithm for estimating periodic motion such as walking patterns. For the extension to non-periodic motion we propose a novel regularization term based on temporal bone length constancy. In contrast to other works, the proposed method does not use a predefined skeleton or anthropometric constraints and can handle arbitrary camera motion. We achieve convincing 3D reconstructions, even under the influence of noise and occlusions. Multiple experiments based on a 3D error metric demonstrate the stability of the proposed method. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods our algorithm shows a significant improvement. PMID:27093439

  13. Geodetic imaging of potential seismogenic asperities on the Xianshuihe-Anninghe-Zemuhe fault system, southwest China, with a new 3-D viscoelastic interseismic coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoyan; Xu, Xiwei; Chen, Guihua; Liu, Yajing; Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Wang, Hua; Yu, Guihua; Tan, Xibin; Xu, Caijun

    2015-03-01

    We use GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements to image the spatial variation of interseismic coupling on the Xianshuihe-Anninghe-Zemuhe (XAZ) fault system. A new 3-D viscoelastic interseismic deformation model is developed to infer the rotation and strain rates of blocks, postseismic viscoelastic relaxation, and interseismic slip deficit on the fault surface discretized with triangular dislocation patches. The inversions of synthetic data show that the optimal weight ratio and smoothing factor are both 1. The successive joint inversions of geodetic data with different viscosities reveal six potential fully coupled asperities on the XAZ fault system. Among them, the potential asperity between Shimian and Mianning, which does not exist in the case of 1019 Pa s, is confirmed by the published microearthquake depth profile. Besides, there is another potential partially coupled asperity between Daofu and Kangding with a length scale up to 140 km. All these asperity sizes are larger than the minimum resolvable wavelength. The minimum and maximum slip deficit rates near the Moxi town are 7.0 and 12.7 mm/yr, respectively. Different viscosities have little influence on the roughness of the slip deficit rate distribution and the fitting residuals, which probably suggests that our observations cannot provide a good constraint on the viscosity of the middle lower crust. The calculation of seismic moment accumulation on each segment indicates that the Songlinkou-Selaha (S4), Shimian-Mianning (S7), and Mianning-Xichang (S8) segments are very close to the rupture of characteristic earthquakes. However, the confidence level is confined by sparse near-fault observations.

  14. High Speed Laser 3D Measurement System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yuan-he; FAN Chang-zhou; GUO Ying; LI Hong-wei; ZHAO Hong

    2003-01-01

    Using the method of line structure light produced by a laser diode,three dimensional profile measurement is deeply researched.A hardware circuit developed is used to get the center position of light section for the improvement of the measurement speed.A double CCD compensation technology is used to improve the measurement precision. An easy and effective calibration method of the least squares to fit the parameter of system structure is used to get the relative coordinate relationship of objects and images of light section in the directions of height and axis. Sensor scanning segment by segment and layer by layer makes the measurement range expand greatly.

  15. Comparison of 3D Synthetic Aperture Imaging and Explososcan using Phantom Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Férin, Guillaume; Dufait, Rémi;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, initial 3D ultrasound measurements from a 1024 channel system are presented. Measurements of 3D Synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) and Explososcan are presented and compared. Explososcan is the ’gold standard’ for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. SAI is compared to Explososcan...... by using tissue and wire phantom measurements. The measurements are carried out using a 1024 element 2D transducer and the 1024 channel experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS. To make a fair comparison, the two imaging techniques use the same number of active channels, the same number of emissions per frame...

  16. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yüksek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  17. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  18. A real-time noise filtering strategy for photon counting 3D imaging lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

    2013-04-22

    For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day. PMID:23609635

  19. 3D Image Reconstruction from Compton camera data

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchment, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address analytically and numerically the inversion of the integral transform (\\emph{cone} or \\emph{Compton} transform) that maps a function on $\\mathbb{R}^3$ to its integrals over conical surfaces. It arises in a variety of imaging techniques, e.g. in astronomy, optical imaging, and homeland security imaging, especially when the so called Compton cameras are involved. Several inversion formulas are developed and implemented numerically in $3D$ (the much simpler $2D$ case was considered in a previous publication).

  20. 3D lidar imaging for detecting and understanding plant responses and canopy structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasa, Kenji; Hosoi, Fumiki; Konishi, Atsumi

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and diagnosing plant responses to stress will benefit greatly from three-dimensional (3D) measurement and analysis of plant properties because plant responses are strongly related to their 3D structures. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct 3D measurement of plant structure. Here the use of 3D lidar imaging to estimate plant properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, carbon stock, and species is demonstrated, and plant growth and shape responses are assessed by reviewing the development of lidar systems and their applications from the leaf level to canopy remote sensing. In addition, the recent creation of accurate 3D lidar images combined with natural colour, chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, and leaf temperature images is demonstrated, thereby providing information on responses of pigments, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal opening, and shape to environmental stresses; these data can be integrated with 3D images of the plants using computer graphics techniques. Future lidar applications that provide more accurate dynamic estimation of various plant properties should improve our understanding of plant responses to stress and of interactions between plants and their environment. Moreover, combining 3D lidar with other passive and active imaging techniques will potentially improve the accuracy of airborne and satellite remote sensing, and make it possible to analyse 3D information on ecophysiological responses and levels of various substances in agricultural and ecological applications and in observations of the global biosphere. PMID:17030540

  1. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  2. Omnidirectional vision systems calibration, feature extraction and 3D information

    CERN Document Server

    Puig, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on central catadioptric systems, from the early step of calibration to high-level tasks such as 3D information retrieval. The book opens with a thorough introduction to the sphere camera model, along with an analysis of the relation between this model and actual central catadioptric systems. Then, a new approach to calibrate any single-viewpoint catadioptric camera is described.  This is followed by an analysis of existing methods for calibrating central omnivision systems, and a detailed examination of hybrid two-view relations that combine images acquired with uncalibrated

  3. Combining Different Modalities for 3D Imaging of Biological Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, E; Kulkarni, P; Mason, R; Parkey, R; Seliuonine, S; Shay, J; Soesbe, T; Zhezher, V; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a $^{57}$Co source and $^{98m}$Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown in this paper, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. ...

  4. Combining different modalities for 3D imaging of biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a 57Co source and 98mTc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. This structural information can provide even more detail if the x-ray tomography is used as presented in the paper

  5. Diffractive centrosymmetric 3D-transmission phase gratings positioned at the image plane of optical systems transform lightlike 4D-WORLD as tunable resonators into spectral metrics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1999-08-01

    Diffractive 3D phase gratings of spherical scatterers dense in hexagonal packing geometry represent adaptively tunable 4D-spatiotemporal filters with trichromatic resonance in visible spectrum. They are described in the (lambda) - chromatic and the reciprocal (nu) -aspects by reciprocal geometric translations of the lightlike Pythagoras theorem, and by the direction cosine for double cones. The most elementary resonance condition in the lightlike Pythagoras theorem is given by the transformation of the grating constants gx, gy, gz of the hexagonal 3D grating to (lambda) h1h2h3 equals (lambda) 111 with cos (alpha) equals 0.5. Through normalization of the chromaticity in the von Laue-interferences to (lambda) 111, the (nu) (lambda) equals (lambda) h1h2h3/(lambda) 111-factor of phase velocity becomes the crucial resonance factor, the 'regulating device' of the spatiotemporal interaction between 3D grating and light, space and time. In the reciprocal space equal/unequal weights and times in spectral metrics result at positions of interference maxima defined by hyperbolas and circles. A database becomes built up by optical interference for trichromatic image preprocessing, motion detection in vector space, multiple range data analysis, patchwide multiple correlations in the spatial frequency spectrum, etc.

  6. 3D reconstruction of concave surfaces using polarisation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, A.; Farooq, A. R.; Ahmed, J.; Smith, L. N.; Smith, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for improved shape recovery using polarisation-based photometric stereo. The majority of previous research using photometric stereo involves 3D reconstruction using both the diffuse and specular components of light; however, this paper suggests the use of the specular component only as it is the only form of light that comes directly off the surface without subsurface scattering or interreflections. Experiments were carried out on both real and synthetic surfaces. Real images were obtained using a polarisation-based photometric stereo device while synthetic images were generated using PovRay® software. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can extract three-dimensional (3D) surface information effectively even for concave surfaces with complex texture and surface reflectance.

  7. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  8. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  9. Automated Recognition of 3D Features in GPIR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Stough, Timothy; Fijany, Amir

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated recognition of three-dimensional (3D) features in images generated by ground-penetrating imaging radar (GPIR) is undergoing development. GPIR 3D images can be analyzed to detect and identify such subsurface features as pipes and other utility conduits. Until now, much of the analysis of GPIR images has been performed manually by expert operators who must visually identify and track each feature. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for more efficient and accurate analysis by means of algorithms that can automatically identify and track subsurface features, with minimal supervision by human operators. In this method, data from multiple sources (for example, data on different features extracted by different algorithms) are fused together for identifying subsurface objects. The algorithms of this method can be classified in several different ways. In one classification, the algorithms fall into three classes: (1) image-processing algorithms, (2) feature- extraction algorithms, and (3) a multiaxis data-fusion/pattern-recognition algorithm that includes a combination of machine-learning, pattern-recognition, and object-linking algorithms. The image-processing class includes preprocessing algorithms for reducing noise and enhancing target features for pattern recognition. The feature-extraction algorithms operate on preprocessed data to extract such specific features in images as two-dimensional (2D) slices of a pipe. Then the multiaxis data-fusion/ pattern-recognition algorithm identifies, classifies, and reconstructs 3D objects from the extracted features. In this process, multiple 2D features extracted by use of different algorithms and representing views along different directions are used to identify and reconstruct 3D objects. In object linking, which is an essential part of this process, features identified in successive 2D slices and located within a threshold radius of identical features in adjacent slices are linked in a

  10. 3D VSP imaging in the Deepwater GOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, B. E.

    2005-05-01

    Seismic imaging challenges in the Deepwater GOM include surface and sediment related multiples and issues arising from complicated salt bodies. Frequently, wells encounter geologic complexity not resolved on conventional surface seismic section. To help address these challenges BP has been acquiring 3D VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) surveys in the Deepwater GOM. The procedure involves placing an array of seismic sensors in the borehole and acquiring a 3D seismic dataset with a surface seismic gunboat that fires airguns in a spiral pattern around the wellbore. Placing the seismic geophones in the borehole provides a higher resolution and more accurate image near the borehole, as well as other advantages relating to the unique position of the sensors relative to complex structures. Technical objectives are to complement surface seismic with improved resolution (~2X seismic), better high dip structure definition (e.g. salt flanks) and to fill in "imaging holes" in complex sub-salt plays where surface seismic is blind. Business drivers for this effort are to reduce risk in well placement, improved reserve calculation and understanding compartmentalization and stratigraphic variation. To date, BP has acquired 3D VSP surveys in ten wells in the DW GOM. The initial results are encouraging and show both improved resolution and structural images in complex sub-salt plays where the surface seismic is blind. In conjunction with this effort BP has influenced both contractor borehole seismic tool design and developed methods to enable the 3D VSP surveys to be conducted offline thereby avoiding the high daily rig costs associated with a Deepwater drilling rig.

  11. Improvements in quality and quantification of 3D PET images

    OpenAIRE

    Rapisarda,

    2012-01-01

    The spatial resolution of Positron Emission Tomography is conditioned by several physical factors, which can be taken into account by using a global Point Spread Function (PSF). In this thesis a spatially variant (radially asymmetric) PSF implementation in the image space of a 3D Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithm is proposed. Two different scanners were considered, without and with Time Of Flight (TOF) capability. The PSF was derived by fitting some experimental...

  12. Estudos de Reaeração com Velocimetria por Imagens de Partículas - Sistema S-PIV-3D Rearation Studies with Particle Image Velocimetry - S-PIV-3D System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério Szeliga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV é uma técnica recente de medição não-intrusiva de campos de velocidades em escoamentos. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um equipamento de medição com características similares aos convencionais, porém com algumas características exclusivas, como o método óptico de aquisição de imagens e a calibração de coordenadas, que resultaram na utilização de uma única câmera convencional para obtenção de imagens e dados tridimensionais em escoamentos de baixa turbulência, proporcionando significativa economia na implantação. Foi desenvolvido um software específico e os resultados consistem em campos de velocidades tridimensionais. A aplicação destinou-se à medição de velocidades na superfície do escoamento em um tanque de grades oscilantes de forma a correlacionar a turbulência superficial com a capacidade de reaeração dos corpos da água.Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV is a recent technique of flow measurement labeled as a non-intrusive methodology. The system developed in this paper used principles similar to conventional systems including some exclusive characteristics as the optical method of image acquisition and the calibration process of the coordinate system. The measurement system, resulted from these characteristics, uses a single conventional digital video camera to obtain three-dimensional data in low turbulence flow, which provided significant economy in the system implantation. A specific software was developed and the results consist of fields of three-dimensional velocities obtained from the digital video file. The application was destined to the measurement of velocities on the flow surface in a tank of oscillating grids in order to correlate the surface turbulence with the rearation capacity of the bodies of water.

  13. Embryonic staging using a 3D virtual reality system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that Carnegie Stages could be assigned to embryos visualized with a 3D virtual reality system. METHODS: We analysed 48 3D ultrasound scans of 19 IVF/ICSI pregnancies at 7-10 weeks' gestation. These datasets were visualized as 3D 'holog

  14. 3D reconstruction of multiple stained histology images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Three dimensional (3D tissue reconstructions from the histology images with different stains allows the spatial alignment of structural and functional elements highlighted by different stains for quantitative study of many physiological and pathological phenomena. This has significant potential to improve the understanding of the growth patterns and the spatial arrangement of diseased cells, and enhance the study of biomechanical behavior of the tissue structures towards better treatments (e.g. tissue-engineering applications. Methods: This paper evaluates three strategies for 3D reconstruction from sets of two dimensional (2D histological sections with different stains, by combining methods of 2D multi-stain registration and 3D volumetric reconstruction from same stain sections. Setting and Design: The different strategies have been evaluated on two liver specimens (80 sections in total stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E, Sirius Red, and Cytokeratin (CK 7. Results and Conclusion: A strategy of using multi-stain registration to align images of a second stain to a volume reconstructed by same-stain registration results in the lowest overall error, although an interlaced image registration approach may be more robust to poor section quality.

  15. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  16. Pragmatic fully 3D image reconstruction for the MiCES mouse imaging PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a pragmatic approach to image reconstruction for data from the micro crystal elements system (MiCES) fully 3D mouse imaging positron emission tomography (PET) scanner under construction at the University of Washington. Our approach is modelled on fully 3D image reconstruction used in clinical PET scanners, which is based on Fourier rebinning (FORE) followed by 2D iterative image reconstruction using ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM). The use of iterative methods allows modelling of physical effects (e.g., statistical noise, detector blurring, attenuation, etc), while FORE accelerates the reconstruction process by reducing the fully 3D data to a stacked set of independent 2D sinograms. Previous investigations have indicated that non-stationary detector point-spread response effects, which are typically ignored for clinical imaging, significantly impact image quality for the MiCES scanner geometry. To model the effect of non-stationary detector blurring (DB) in the FORE+OSEM(DB) algorithm, we have added a factorized system matrix to the ASPIRE reconstruction library. Initial results indicate that the proposed approach produces an improvement in resolution without an undue increase in noise and without a significant increase in the computational burden. The impact on task performance, however, remains to be evaluated

  17. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  18. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  19. Expert System for 3D Collar Intelligent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GENG Zhao-feng

    2004-01-01

    A method to set up 3D collar prototype is developed in this paper by using the technique of cubic spline and bicubic surface patch. Then the relationship between the parameters of 3D collar prototype and different collar styles are studied. Based on the relationship, we can develop some algorithms of transferring style requirements to the parameters value of the collar prototype, and obtain some generation rules for the design of 3D collar style. As such, the knowledge base can be constructed, and the intelligent design system of 3D collar style is built. Using the system, various 3D collar styles can be designed automatically to satisfy various style requirements.

  20. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongrock Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  1. Automatic structural matching of 3D image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Svjatoslav; Lutsiv, Vadim; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A new image matching technique is described. It is implemented as an object-independent hierarchical structural juxtaposition algorithm based on an alphabet of simple object-independent contour structural elements. The structural matching applied implements an optimized method of walking through a truncated tree of all possible juxtapositions of two sets of structural elements. The algorithm was initially developed for dealing with 2D images such as the aerospace photographs, and it turned out to be sufficiently robust and reliable for matching successfully the pictures of natural landscapes taken in differing seasons from differing aspect angles by differing sensors (the visible optical, IR, and SAR pictures, as well as the depth maps and geographical vector-type maps). At present (in the reported version), the algorithm is enhanced based on additional use of information on third spatial coordinates of observed points of object surfaces. Thus, it is now capable of matching the images of 3D scenes in the tasks of automatic navigation of extremely low flying unmanned vehicles or autonomous terrestrial robots. The basic principles of 3D structural description and matching of images are described, and the examples of image matching are presented.

  2. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  3. Towards magnetic 3D x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Streubel, R.; Im, M.-Y.; Parkinson, D.; Hong, J.-I.; Schmidt, O. G.; Makarov, D.

    2014-03-01

    Mesoscale phenomena in magnetism will add essential parameters to improve speed, size and energy efficiency of spin driven devices. Multidimensional visualization techniques will be crucial to achieve mesoscience goals. Magnetic tomography is of large interest to understand e.g. interfaces in magnetic multilayers, the inner structure of magnetic nanocrystals, nanowires or the functionality of artificial 3D magnetic nanostructures. We have developed tomographic capabilities with magnetic full-field soft X-ray microscopy combining X-MCD as element specific magnetic contrast mechanism, high spatial and temporal resolution due to the Fresnel zone plate optics. At beamline 6.1.2 at the ALS (Berkeley CA) a new rotation stage allows recording an angular series (up to 360 deg) of high precision 2D projection images. Applying state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms it is possible to retrieve the full 3D structure. We will present results on prototypic rolled-up Ni and Co/Pt tubes and glass capillaries coated with magnetic films and compare to other 3D imaging approaches e.g. in electron microscopy. Supported by BES MSD DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231 and ERC under the EU FP7 program (grant agreement No. 306277).

  4. Animal testing using 3D microwave tomography system for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Moon; Son, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyuk Je; Kim, Bo Ra; Choi, Heyng Do; Jeon, Soon Ik

    2014-01-01

    The three dimensional microwave tomography (3D MT) system of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) comprises an antenna array, transmitting receiving module, switch matrix module and a signal processing component. This system also includes a patient interface bed as well as a 3D reconstruction algorithm. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of image reconstruction results using the assembled system and MRI results, which is used to image the breasts of dogs. Microwave imaging reconstruction results (at 1,500 MHz) obtained using the ETRI 3D MT system are presented. The system provides computationally reliable diagnosis results from the reconstructed MT Image. PMID:25160233

  5. Large Scale 3D Image Reconstruction in Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schutz, Antony; Mary, David; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Ferréol

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical optical interferometers (OI) sample the Fourier transform of the intensity distribution of a source at the observation wavelength. Because of rapid atmospheric perturbations, the phases of the complex Fourier samples (visibilities) cannot be directly exploited , and instead linear relationships between the phases are used (phase closures and differential phases). Consequently, specific image reconstruction methods have been devised in the last few decades. Modern polychromatic OI instruments are now paving the way to multiwavelength imaging. This paper presents the derivation of a spatio-spectral ("3D") image reconstruction algorithm called PAINTER (Polychromatic opticAl INTErferometric Reconstruction software). The algorithm is able to solve large scale problems. It relies on an iterative process, which alternates estimation of polychromatic images and of complex visibilities. The complex visibilities are not only estimated from squared moduli and closure phases, but also from differential phase...

  6. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  7. Multiple 2D video/3D medical image registration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Matthew J.; Rueckert, Daniel; Hill, Derek L.; Hawkes, David J.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method to register at least two vide images to a 3D surface model. The potential applications of such a registration method could be in image guided surgery, high precision radiotherapy, robotics or computer vision. Registration is performed by optimizing a similarity measure with respect to the pose parameters. The similarity measure is based on 'photo-consistency' and computes for each surface point, how consistent the corresponding video image information in each view is with a lighting model. We took four video views of a volunteer's face, and used an independent method to reconstruct a surface that was intrinsically registered to the four views. In addition, we extracted a skin surface from the volunteer's MR scan. The surfaces were misregistered from a gold standard pose and our algorithm was used to register both types of surfaces to the video images. For the reconstructed surface, the mean 3D error was 1.53 mm. For the MR surface, the standard deviation of the pose parameters after registration ranged from 0.12 to 0.70 mm and degrees. The performance of the algorithm is accurate, precise and robust.

  8. UNDERWATER 3D MODELING: IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND POINT CLOUD FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sarakinou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images’ radiometry (captured at shallow depths and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software. Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively. Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  9. Comparison of S3D Display Technology on Image Quality and Viewing Experiences: Active-Shutter 3d TV vs. Passive-Polarized 3DTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Tai, PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stereoscopic 3D TV systems convey depth perception to the viewer by delivering to each eye separately filtered images that represent two slightly different perspectives. Currently two primary technologies are used in S3D televisions: Active shutter systems, which use alternate frame sequencing to deliver a full-frame image to one eye at a time at a fast refresh rate, and Passive polarized systems, which superimpose the two half-frame left-eye and right-eye images at the same time through different polarizing filters. Methods: We compare visual performance in discerning details and perceiving depth, as well as the comfort and perceived display quality in viewing an S3D movie. Results: Our results show that, in presenting details of small targets and in showing low-contrast stimuli, the Active system was significantly better than the Passive in 2D mode, but there was no significant difference between them in 3D mode. Subjects performed better on Passive than Active in 3D mode on a task requiring small vergence changes and quick re-acquisition of stereopsis – a skill related to vergence efficiency while viewing S3D displays. When viewing movies in 3D mode, there was no difference in symptoms of discomfort between Active and Passive systems. When the two systems were put side by side with selected 3D-movie scenes, all of the subjective measures of perceived display quality in 3D mode favored the Passive system, and 10 of 14 comparisons were statistically significant. The Passive system was rated significantly better for sense of immersion, motion smoothness, clarity, color, and 5 categories related to the glasses. Conclusion: Overall, participants felt that it was easier to look at the Passive system for a longer period than the Active system, and the Passive display was selected as the preferred display by 75% (p = 0.0000211 of the subjects.

  10. Confocal Image 3D Surface Measurement with Optical Fiber Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao; ZHU Sheng-cheng; LI Bing; TAN Yu-shan

    2004-01-01

    A whole-field 3D surface measurement system for semiconductor wafer inspection is described.The system consists of an optical fiber plate,which can split the light beam into N2 subbeams to realize the whole-field inspection.A special prism is used to separate the illumination light and signal light.This setup is characterized by high precision,high speed and simple structure.

  11. Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron; Xie, Hua; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2009-01-01

    Two methods of increasing the effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images have been developed. (As used here, images signifies both images and digital data representing images.) The methods are oriented toward reducing or eliminating detrimental effects of a phenomenon, referred to as spectral ringing, that is described below. In 3D wavelet-based compression, an image is represented by a multiresolution wavelet decomposition consisting of several subbands obtained by applying wavelet transforms in the two spatial dimensions corresponding to the two spatial coordinate axes of the image plane, and by applying wavelet transforms in the spectral dimension. Spectral ringing is named after the more familiar spatial ringing (spurious spatial oscillations) that can be seen parallel to and near edges in ordinary images reconstructed from compressed data. These ringing phenomena are attributable to effects of quantization. In hyperspectral data, the individual spectral bands play the role of edges, causing spurious oscillations to occur in the spectral dimension. In the absence of such corrective measures as the present two methods, spectral ringing can manifest itself as systematic biases in some reconstructed spectral bands and can reduce the effectiveness of compression of spatially-low-pass subbands. One of the two methods is denoted mean subtraction. The basic idea of this method is to subtract mean values from spatial planes of spatially low-pass subbands prior to encoding, because (a) such spatial planes often have mean values that are far from zero and (b) zero-mean data are better suited for compression by methods that are effective for subbands of two-dimensional (2D) images. In this method, after the 3D wavelet decomposition is performed, mean values are computed for and subtracted from each spatial plane of each spatially-low-pass subband. The resulting data are converted to sign-magnitude form and compressed in a

  12. Augmented reality navigation with automatic marker-free image registration using 3-D image overlay for dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2014-04-01

    Computer-assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) has been rapidly evolving since the last decade. State-of-the-art surgical navigation in OMS still suffers from bulky tracking sensors, troublesome image registration procedures, patient movement, loss of depth perception in visual guidance, and low navigation accuracy. We present an augmented reality navigation system with automatic marker-free image registration using 3-D image overlay and stereo tracking for dental surgery. A customized stereo camera is designed to track both the patient and instrument. Image registration is performed by patient tracking and real-time 3-D contour matching, without requiring any fiducial and reference markers. Real-time autostereoscopic 3-D imaging is implemented with the help of a consumer-level graphics processing unit. The resulting 3-D image of the patient's anatomy is overlaid on the surgical site by a half-silvered mirror using image registration and IP-camera registration to guide the surgeon by exposing hidden critical structures. The 3-D image of the surgical instrument is also overlaid over the real one for an augmented display. The 3-D images present both stereo and motion parallax from which depth perception can be obtained. Experiments were performed to evaluate various aspects of the system; the overall image overlay error of the proposed system was 0.71 mm.

  13. Statistical skull models from 3D X-ray images

    CERN Document Server

    Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 statistical models of the skull and mandible built upon an elastic registration method of 3D meshes. The aim of this work is to relate degrees of freedom of skull anatomy, as static relations are of main interest for anthropology and legal medicine. Statistical models can effectively provide reconstructions together with statistical precision. In our applications, patient-specific meshes of the skull and the mandible are high-density meshes, extracted from 3D CT scans. All our patient-specific meshes are registrated in a subject-shared reference system using our 3D-to-3D elastic matching algorithm. Registration is based upon the minimization of a distance between the high density mesh and a shared low density mesh, defined on the vertexes, in a multi resolution approach. A Principal Component analysis is performed on the normalised registrated data to build a statistical linear model of the skull and mandible shape variation. The accuracy of the reconstruction is under the millimetre in the shape...

  14. Fast Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) with 3D Short-Axis Propeller (SAP)-EPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Moseley, Michael E.; Skare, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) in neuroimaging can be challenging due to long scan times of 3D Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE), while faster techniques such as 3D interleaved EPI (iEPI) are prone to motion artifacts. Here we outline and implement a 3D Short-Axis Propeller Echo-Planar Imaging (SAP-EPI) trajectory as a faster, motion-correctable approach for SWI. Methods Experiments were conducted on a 3T MRI system. 3D SAP-EPI, 3D iEPI, and 3D GRE SWI scans were acquired on two volunteers. Controlled motion experiments were conducted to test the motion-correction capability of 3D SAP-EPI. 3D SAP-EPI SWI data were acquired on two pediatric patients as a potential alternative to 2D GRE used clinically. Results 3D GRE images had a better target resolution (0.47 × 0.94 × 2mm, scan time = 5min), iEPI and SAP-EPI images (resolution = 0.94 × 0.94 × 2mm) were acquired in a faster scan time (1:52min) with twice the brain coverage. SAP-EPI showed motion-correction capability and some immunity to undersampling from rejected data. Conclusion While 3D SAP-EPI suffers from some geometric distortion, its short scan time and motion-correction capability suggest that SAP-EPI may be a useful alternative to GRE and iEPI for use in SWI, particularly in uncooperative patients. PMID:24956237

  15. Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on colour holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, H. I.

    2013-02-01

    A review of recent progress in colour holography is provided with new applications. Colour holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk colour holograms, and digitally-printed colour holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in colour holography by holographers and companies in different countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect colour rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.

  16. 3D imaging of neutron tracks using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Flowers, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Neutron detection and neutron flux assessment are important aspects in monitoring nuclear energy production. Neutron flux measurements can also provide information on potential biological damage from exposure. In addition to the applications for neutron measurement in nuclear energy, neutron detection has been proposed as a method of enhancing neutrino detectors and cosmic ray flux has also been assessed using ground-level neutron detectors. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (or SSNTDs) have been used extensively to examine cosmic rays, long-lived radioactive elements, radon concentrations in buildings and the age of geological samples. Passive SSNTDs consisting of a CR-39 plastic are commonly used to measure radon because they respond to incident charged particles such as alpha particles from radon gas in air. They have a large dynamic range and a linear flux response. We have previously applied confocal microscopy to obtain 3D images of alpha particle tracks in SSNTDs from radon track monitoring (1). As a charged particle traverses through the polymer it creates an ionisation trail along its path. The trail or track is normally enhanced by chemical etching to better expose radiation damage, as the damaged area is more sensitive to the etchant than the bulk material. Particle tracks in CR-39 are usually assessed using 2D optical microscopy. In this study 6 detectors were examined using an Olympus OLS4100 LEXT 3D laser scanning confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan). The detectors had been etched for 2 hours 50 minutes at 85 °C in 6.25M NaOH. Post etch the plastics had been treated with a 10 minute immersion in a 2% acetic acid stop bath, followed by rinsing in deionised water. The detectors examined had been irradiated with a 2mSv neutron dose from an Am(Be) neutron source (producing roughly 20 tracks per mm2). We were able to successfully acquire 3D images of neutron tracks in the detectors studied. The range of track diameter observed was between 4

  17. Extracting 3D layout from a single image using global image structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhongyu; Gevers, Theo; Hu, Ninghang

    2015-10-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very beneficial for extracting pixel-level 3D layout since it implies the way how pixels in the image are organized. In this paper, we propose an approach that first predicts the global image structure, and then we use the global structure for fine-grained pixel-level 3D layout extraction. In particular, image features are extracted based on multiple layout templates. We then learn a discriminative model for classifying the global layout at the image-level. Using latent variables, we implicitly model the sublevel semantics of the image, which enrich the expressiveness of our model. After the image-level structure is obtained, it is used as the prior knowledge to infer pixel-wise 3D layout. Experiments show that the results of our model outperform the state-of-the-art methods by 11.7% for 3D structure classification. Moreover, we show that employing the 3D structure prior information yields accurate 3D scene layout segmentation.

  18. Concept of Indoor 3D-Route UAV Scheduling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosiawan, Yohanes; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Do, Ngoc Ang Dung;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the proposed concept is to develop a methodology to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operation with a path planning and scheduling system in 3D environments. The proposed 3D path-planning and scheduling allows the system to schedule UAVs routing to perform tasks in 3D indoor...... environment. On top of that, the multi-source productive best-first-search concept also supports efficient real-time scheduling in response to uncertain events. Without human intervention, the proposed work provides an automatic scheduling system for UAV routing problem in 3D indoor environment....

  19. 3D - Acquisition systems - test in Chooz B nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF needs 3D-acquisition systems to get the precise geometry of critical nuclear spaces in order to prepare computer simulations of operations in these areas. The simulations must lead to an increase of the efficiency of the operation. The acquisition of the 3-D geometry can be done using 3D-acquisition systems. To answer the needs of the Construction Division, four different systems are compared by the Research Division in Chooz B nuclear plant in order to determine the right solution for each 3D-acquisition problem

  20. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  1. 基于S3C6410的3D图像构建系统研究%Research on 3D Image Constructing System Based on S3C6410

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪

    2016-01-01

    本文提出了一种基于单摄像头的3D图像构建系统的解决方案。系统硬件以ARM11处理器S3C6410为数据处理核心,并配备CMOS图像采集单元和红外传感单元;以嵌入式Linux操作系统作为系统软/硬件管理调度和协调控制中心,并采用ARM11处理器自带的3D硬件加速器和OpenGL ES软件图形开发库相结合的方式实现3D加速,构建了3D快速建模系统。%In this paper, we propose a solution of 3D image constructing system based on single camera. We use ARM11 proces-sor S3C6410 as the core of data processing which equipped with CMOS image capture unit and infrared sensor unit. In addition, we use Linux operation system as the core of management and coordination control platform for this system. By a combination of using 3D hardware accelerator in ARM11 processor and the graphics development library of OpenGL ES software it realizes 3D acceleration and constructs a rapid 3D modeling system.

  2. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Theobald; Schön, Tobias; Dittmann, Jonas; Sukowski, Frank; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-01

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today's 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  3. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Theobald, E-mail: theobold.fuchs@iis.fraunhofer.de; Schön, Tobias, E-mail: theobold.fuchs@iis.fraunhofer.de; Sukowski, Frank [Fraunhofer Development Center X-ray Technology EZRT, Flugplatzstr. 75, 90768 Fürth (Germany); Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf [Chair of X-ray Microscopy, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Julius-Maximilian-University Würzburg, Josef-Martin-Weg 63, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  4. 3D Reconstruction of virtual colon structures from colonoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, DongHo; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; Oh, JungHwan; de Groen, Piet C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first fully automated reconstruction technique of 3D virtual colon segments from individual colonoscopy images. It is the basis of new software applications that may offer great benefits for improving quality of care for colonoscopy patients. For example, a 3D map of the areas inspected and uninspected during colonoscopy can be shown on request of the endoscopist during the procedure. The endoscopist may revisit the suggested uninspected areas to reduce the chance of missing polyps that reside in these areas. The percentage of the colon surface seen by the endoscopist can be used as a coarse objective indicator of the quality of the procedure. The derived virtual colon models can be stored for post-procedure training of new endoscopists to teach navigation techniques that result in a higher level of procedure quality. Our technique does not require a prior CT scan of the colon or any global positioning device. Our experiments on endoscopy images of an Olympus synthetic colon model reveal encouraging results with small average reconstruction errors (4.1 mm for the fold depths and 12.1 mm for the fold circumferences). PMID:24225230

  5. Probabilistic models and numerical calculation of system matrix and sensitivity in list-mode MLEM 3D reconstruction of Compton camera images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Voichita; Lojacono, Xavier; Hilaire, Estelle; Krimmer, Jochen; Testa, Etienne; Dauvergne, Denis; Magnin, Isabelle; Prost, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the system matrix and the sensitivity for iterative reconstruction in Compton camera imaging. Proposed models and numerical calculation strategies are compared through the influence they have on the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The study attempts to address four questions. First, it proposes an analytic model for the system matrix. Second, it suggests a method for its numerical validation with Monte Carlo simulated data. Third, it compares analytical models of the sensitivity factors with Monte Carlo simulated values. Finally, it shows how the system matrix and the sensitivity calculation strategies influence the quality of the reconstructed images.

  6. 3D electrical tomographic imaging using vertical arrays of electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. C.; Stanley, S. J.; Rhodes, D.; York, T. A.

    2006-11-01

    Linear arrays of electrodes in conjunction with electrical impedance tomography have been used to spatially interrogate industrial processes that have only limited access for sensor placement. This paper explores the compromises that are to be expected when using a small number of vertically positioned linear arrays to facilitate 3D imaging using electrical tomography. A configuration with three arrays is found to give reasonable results when compared with a 'conventional' arrangement of circumferential electrodes. A single array yields highly localized sensitivity that struggles to image the whole space. Strategies have been tested on a small-scale version of a sludge settling application that is of relevance to the industrial sponsor. A new electrode excitation strategy, referred to here as 'planar cross drive', is found to give superior results to an extended version of the adjacent electrodes technique due to the improved uniformity of the sensitivity across the domain. Recommendations are suggested for parameters to inform the scale-up to industrial vessels.

  7. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  8. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  9. Fully 3D PET image reconstruction with a 4D sinogram blurring kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohme, Michel S.; Qi, Jinyi [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Zhou, Jian

    2011-07-01

    Accurately modeling PET system response is essential for high-resolution image reconstruction. Traditionally, sinogram blurring effects are modeled as a 2D blur in each sinogram plane. Such 2D blurring kernel is insufficient for fully 3D PET data, which has four dimensions. In this paper, we implement a fully 3D PET image reconstruction using a 4D sinogram blurring kernel estimated from point source scans and perform phantom experiments to evaluate the improvements in image quality over methods with existing 2D blurring kernels. The results show that the proposed reconstruction method can achieve better spatial resolution and contrast recovery than existing methods. (orig.)

  10. 3D stacked chips from emerging processes to heterogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size.  The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.   •Provides single-source reference to the latest research in 3D optoelectronic integration: process, devices, and systems; •Explains the use of wireless 3D integration to improve 3D IC reliability and yield; •Describes techniques for monitoring and mitigating thermal behavior in 3D I...

  11. 2D-3D image registration in diagnostic and interventional X-Ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, I.M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Clinical procedures that are conventionally guided by 2D x-ray imaging, may benefit from the additional spatial information provided by 3D image data. For instance, guidance of minimally invasive procedures with CT or MRI data provides 3D spatial information and visualization of structures that are

  12. Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X. W.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. J.; Kim, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...

  13. 3D Imaging for hand gesture recognition: Exploring the software-hardware interaction of current technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.

    2012-09-01

    Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Estudos de Reaeração com Velocimetria por Imagens de Partículas - Sistema S-PIV-3D Rearation Studies with Particle Image Velocimetry - S-PIV-3D System

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rogério Szeliga; Woodrow Nelson Lopes Roma

    2009-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) é uma técnica recente de medição não-intrusiva de campos de velocidades em escoamentos. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um equipamento de medição com características similares aos convencionais, porém com algumas características exclusivas, como o método óptico de aquisição de imagens e a calibração de coordenadas, que resultaram na utilização de uma única câmera convencional para obtenção de imagens e dados tridimensionais em escoamentos de baixa turbulência...

  15. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  16. Fast 3D subsurface imaging with stepped-frequency GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Sutter, Lena

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates an algorithm for forming 3D images of the subsurface using stepped-frequency GPR data. The algorithm is specifically designed for a handheld GPR and therefore accounts for the irregular sampling pattern in the data and the spatially-variant air-ground interface by estimating an effective "ground-plane" and then registering the data to the plane. The algorithm efficiently solves the 4th-order polynomial for the Snell reflection points using a fully vectorized iterative scheme. The forward operator is implemented efficiently using an accelerated nonuniform FFT (Greengard and Lee, 2004); the adjoint operator is implemented efficiently using an interpolation step coupled with an upsampled FFT. The imaging is done as a linearized version of the full inverse problem, which is regularized using a sparsity constraint to reduce sidelobes and therefore improve image localization. Applying an appropriate sparsity constraint, the algorithm is able to eliminate most the surrounding clutter and sidelobes, while still rendering valuable image properties such as shape and size. The algorithm is applied to simulated data, controlled experimental data (made available by Dr. Waymond Scott, Georgia Institute of Technology), and government-provided data with irregular sampling and air-ground interface.

  17. 3D image copyright protection based on cellular automata transform and direct smart pixel mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) watermarking system with the direct smart pixel mapping algorithm to improve the resolution of the reconstructed 3D watermark plane images. The depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained through the computational pixel mapping method. In the watermark embedding process, the depth-converted EIA is first scrambled by using the Arnold transform, which is then embedded in the middle frequency of the cellular automata (CA) transform. Compared with conventional computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) methods, this proposed scheme gives us a higher resolution of the reconstructed 3D plane images by using the quality-enhanced depth-converted EIA. The proposed method, which can obtain many transform planes for embedding watermark data, uses CA transforms with various gateway values. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we present the results of our preliminary experiments.

  18. Single-pixel 3D imaging with time-based depth resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Gibson, Graham M; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Lamb, Robert; Padgett, Miles J

    2016-01-01

    Time-of-flight three dimensional imaging is an important tool for many applications, such as object recognition and remote sensing. Unlike conventional imaging approach using pixelated detector array, single-pixel imaging based on projected patterns, such as Hadamard patterns, utilises an alternative strategy to acquire information with sampling basis. Here we show a modified single-pixel camera using a pulsed illumination source and a high-speed photodiode, capable of reconstructing 128x128 pixel resolution 3D scenes to an accuracy of ~3 mm at a range of ~5 m. Furthermore, we demonstrate continuous real-time 3D video with a frame-rate up to 12 Hz. The simplicity of the system hardware could enable low-cost 3D imaging devices for precision ranging at wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum.

  19. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindberg Katarina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. Methods We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. Results The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Conclusions Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts.

  20. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenburg, K. J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands and iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  1. 3-D MR imaging of ectopia vasa deferentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar; Parihar, Mohan; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Bhatnagar, Veereshwar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Paediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India)

    2009-11-15

    Ectopia vasa deferentia is a complex anomaly characterized by abnormal termination of the urethral end of the vas deferens into the urinary tract due to an incompletely understood developmental error of the distal Wolffian duct. Associated anomalies of the lower gastrointestinal tract and upper urinary tract are also commonly present due to closely related embryological development. Although around 32 cases have been reported in the literature, the MR appearance of this condition has not been previously described. We report a child with high anorectal malformation who was found to have ectopia vasa deferentia, crossed fused renal ectopia and type II caudal regression syndrome on MR examination. In addition to the salient features of this entity on reconstructed MR images, the important role of 3-D MRI in establishing an unequivocal diagnosis and its potential in facilitating individually tailored management is also highlighted. (orig.)

  2. Education System Using Interactive 3D Computer Graphics (3D-CG) Animation and Scenario Language for Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…

  3. 3D surface scan of biological samples with a Push-broom Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-08-01

    The food industry is always on the lookout for sensing technologies for rapid and nondestructive inspection of food products. Hyperspectral imaging technology integrates both imaging and spectroscopy into unique imaging sensors. Its application for food safety and quality inspection has made significant progress in recent years. Specifically, hyperspectral imaging has shown its potential for surface contamination detection in many food related applications. Most existing hyperspectral imaging systems use pushbroom scanning which is generally used for flat surface inspection. In some applications it is desirable to be able to acquire hyperspectral images on circular objects such as corn ears, apples, and cucumbers. Past research describes inspection systems that examine all surfaces of individual objects. Most of these systems did not employ hyperspectral imaging. These systems typically utilized a roller to rotate an object, such as an apple. During apple rotation, the camera took multiple images in order to cover the complete surface of the apple. The acquired image data lacked the spectral component present in a hyperspectral image. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for a 3-D surface scan of biological samples. The new instrument is based on a pushbroom hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the sample. The system is suitable for whole surface hyperspectral imaging of circular objects. In addition to its value to the food industry, the system could be useful for other applications involving 3-D surface inspection.

  4. Spectral ladar: towards active 3D multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael A.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present our Spectral LADAR concept, an augmented implementation of traditional LADAR. This sensor uses a polychromatic source to obtain range-resolved 3D spectral images which are used to identify objects based on combined spatial and spectral features, resolving positions in three dimensions and up to hundreds of meters in distance. We report on a proof-of-concept Spectral LADAR demonstrator that generates spectral point clouds from static scenes. The demonstrator transmits nanosecond supercontinuum pulses generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Currently we use a rapidly tuned receiver with a high-speed InGaAs APD for 25 spectral bands with the future expectation of implementing a linear APD array spectrograph. Each spectral band is independently range resolved with multiple return pulse recognition. This is a critical feature, enabling simultaneous spectral and spatial unmixing of partially obscured objects when not achievable using image fusion of monochromatic LADAR and passive spectral imagers. This enables higher identification confidence in highly cluttered environments such as forested or urban areas (e.g. vehicles behind camouflage or foliage). These environments present challenges for situational awareness and robotic perception which can benefit from the unique attributes of Spectral LADAR. Results from this demonstrator unit are presented for scenes typical of military operations and characterize the operation of the device. The results are discussed here in the context of autonomous vehicle navigation and target recognition.

  5. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  6. Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

  7. 3D FACE RECOGNITION FROM RANGE IMAGES BASED ON CURVATURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranjan Ganguly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for three-dimensional face recognition by extracting the curvature maps from range images. There are four types of curvature maps: Gaussian, Mean, Maximum and Minimum curvature maps. These curvature maps are used as a feature for 3D face recognition purpose. The dimension of these feature vectors is reduced using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD technique. Now from calculated three components of SVD, the non-negative values of ‘S’ part of SVD is ranked and used as feature vector. In this proposed method, two pair-wise curvature computations are done. One is Mean, and Maximum curvature pair and another is Gaussian and Mean curvature pair. These are used to compare the result for better recognition rate. This automated 3D face recognition system is focused in different directions like, frontal pose with expression and illumination variation, frontal face along with registered face, only registered face and registered face from different pose orientation across X, Y and Z axes. 3D face images used for this research work are taken from FRAV3D database. The pose variation of 3D facial image is being registered to frontal pose by applying one to all registration technique then curvature mapping is applied on registered face images along with remaining frontal face images. For the classification and recognition purpose five layer feed-forward back propagation neural network classifiers is used, and the corresponding result is discussed in section 4.

  8. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  9. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  10. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©.

  11. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©. PMID:26921815

  12. 3D imaging with an isocentric mobile C-arm. Comparison of image quality with spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsianos, Dorothea; Wirth, Stefan; Fischer, Tanja; Euler, Ekkehard; Rock, Clemens; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian [Departments of Radiology and Surgery, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Innenstadt, Nussbaumstrasse 20, 80336, Munchen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality of the new 3D imaging system (ISO-C-3D) for osteosyntheses of tibial condylar fractures in comparison with spiral CT (CT). Sixteen human cadaveric knees were examined with a C-arm 3D imaging system and spiral computed tomography. Various screws and plates of steel and titanium were used for osteosynthesis in these specimens. Image quality and clinical value of multiplanar (MP) reformatting of both methods were analyzed. In addition, five patients with tibial condylar fractures were examined for diagnosis and intra-operative control. The image quality of the C-arm 3D imaging system in the cadaveric study was rated as significantly worse than that of spiral CT with and without prostheses. After implantation of prostheses an increased incidence of artifacts was observed, but the diagnostic accuracy was not affected. Titanium implants caused the smallest number of artifacts. The image quality of ISO-C is inferior to CT, and metal artifacts were more prominent, but the clinical value was equal. ISO-C-3D can be useful in planning operative reconstructions and can verify the reconstruction of articular surfaces and the position of implants with diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  13. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  14. A real-time ultrasonic field mapping system using a Fabry Pérot single pixel camera for 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nam; Zhang, Edward; Betcke, Marta; Arridge, Simon R.; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2015-03-01

    A system for dynamic mapping of broadband ultrasound fields has been designed, with high frame rate photoacoustic imaging in mind. A Fabry-Pérot interferometric ultrasound sensor was interrogated using a coherent light single-pixel camera. Scrambled Hadamard measurement patterns were used to sample the acoustic field at the sensor, and either a fast Hadamard transform or a compressed sensing reconstruction algorithm were used to recover the acoustic pressure data. Frame rates of 80 Hz were achieved for 32x32 images even though no specialist hardware was used for the on-the-fly reconstructions. The ability of the system to obtain photocacoustic images with data compressions as low as 10% was also demonstrated.

  15. Surface modelling in 3D city information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Petz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems deal with terrain, cartographical and urban information; these systems allow gathering, maintaining and presentation of the included data. The approach of combininggeographical information systems with visualization methods of virtual reality is presented in this article. Virtual 3D City Information System is a project which purpose is to model parts of the city to 3D graphics using polygonal modelling for modelling objects by representing their surfaces using polygons. Realappearance is provided by using textures. Usually 3D exterior contains large data set of polygons. Presented system contains three parts: editor (modelling part, database and visualisation part. Thesystem is controlled by script (Python language using too. In conclusion are described some results of visualization of 3D scene that is represented as Košice city part.

  16. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pan, X [University Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Stayman, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Samei, E [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within the reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical

  17. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  18. 3D Imaging of individual particles : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pirard, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, impressive progress has been made in digital imaging and in particular in three dimensional visualisation and analysis of objects. This paper reviews the most recent literature on three dimensional imaging with a special attention to particulate systems analysis. After an introduction recalling some important concepts in spatial sampling and digital imaging, the paper reviews a series of techniques with a clear disti...

  19. 3D IMAGING OF INDIVIDUAL PARTICLES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Pirard

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, impressive progress has been made in digital imaging and in particular in three dimensional visualisation and analysis of objects. This paper reviews the most recent literature on three dimensional imaging with a special attention to particulate systems analysis. After an introduction recalling some important concepts in spatial sampling and digital imaging, the paper reviews a series of techniques with a clear distinction between the surfometric and volumetric principles. Th...

  20. 3D imaging of individual particles: a review:

    OpenAIRE

    Pirard, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, impressive progress has been made in digital imaging and in particular in three dimensional visualisation and analysis of objects. This paper reviews the most recent literature on three dimensional imaging with a special attention to particulate systems analysis. After an introduction recalling some important concepts in spatial sampling and digital imaging, the paper reviews a series of techniques with a clear distinction between the surfometric and volumetric principles. Th...

  1. 3D Imaging in Heavy-Ion Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, David A.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Heffner, Mike; Soltz, Ron

    2004-01-01

    We report an extension of the source imaging method for imaging full three-dimensional sources from three-dimensional like-pair correlations. Our technique consists of expanding the correlation data and the underlying source function in spherical harmonics and inverting the resulting system of one-dimensional integral equations. With this method of attack, we can image the source function quickly, even with the extremely large data sets common in three-dimensional analyses. We apply our metho...

  2. Preliminary clinical application of contrast-enhanced MR angiography using 3D time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics(3D-TRICKS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-shan; LIU Shi-yuan; XIAO Xiang-sheng; FENG Yun; LI Hui-min; XIAO Shan; GONG Wan-qing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a new better contrast-enhanced MR angiographic method, named 3D time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (3D-TRICKS). Methods: TRICKS is a high temporal resolution (2-6 s) MR angiographic technique using a short TR(4 ms) and TE(1.5 ms), partial echo sampling, in which central part of k-space is updated more frequently than the peripheral part. TRICKS pre-contrast mask 3D images are firstly scanned, and then the bolus injecting of Gd-DTPA, 15-20 sequential 3D images are acquired. The reconstructed 3D images, subtraction of contrast 3D images with mask images, are conceptually similar to a catheter-based intra-arterial digital subtraction angiographic series(DSA). Thirty patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography using 3D-TRICKS. Results: Totally 12 vertebral arteries were well displayed on TRICKS, in which 7 were normal, 1 demonstrated bilateral vertebral artery stenosis, 4 had unilateral vertebral artery stenosis and 1 was accompanied with the same lateral carotid artery bifurcation stenosis. Four cases of bilateral renal arteries were normal, 1 transplanted kidney artery showed as normal and 1 transplanted kidney artery showed stenosis. 2 cerebral arteries were normal, 1 had sagittal sinus thrombosis and 1 displayed intracranial arteriovenous malformation. 3 pulmonary arteries were normal, 1 showed pulmonary artery thrombosis and 1 revealed pulmonary sequestration's abnormal feeding artery and draining vein. One left lower limb fibrolipoma showed feeding artery. One displayed radial-ulnar artery artificial fistula stenosis. One revealed left antebrachium hemangioma. Conclusion: TRICKS can clearly delineate most body vascular system and reveal most vascular abnormality. It possesses convenience and high successful rate, which make it the first choice of displaying most vascular abnormality.

  3. Adaptive optofluidic lens(es) for switchable 2D and 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanyang; Wei, Kang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The stereoscopic image is often captured using dual cameras arranged side-by-side and optical path switching systems such as two separate solid lenses or biprism/mirrors. The miniaturization of the overall size of current stereoscopic devices down to several millimeters is at a sacrifice of further device size shrinkage. The limited light entry worsens the final image resolution and brightness. It is known that optofluidics offer good re-configurability for imaging systems. Leveraging this technique, we report a reconfigurable optofluidic system whose optical layout can be swapped between a singlet lens with 10 mm in diameter and a pair of binocular lenses with each lens of 3 mm in diameter for switchable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging. The singlet and the binoculars share the same optical path and the same imaging sensor. The singlet acquires a 3D image with better resolution and brightness, while the binoculars capture stereoscopic image pairs for 3D vision and depth perception. The focusing power tuning capability of the singlet and the binoculars enable image acquisition at varied object planes by adjusting the hydrostatic pressure across the lens membrane. The vari-focal singlet and binoculars thus work interchangeably and complementarily. The device is thus expected to have applications in robotic vision, stereoscopy, laparoendoscopy and miniaturized zoom lens system.

  4. ROIC for gated 3D imaging LADAR receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2013-09-01

    Time of flight laser range finding, deep space communications and scanning video imaging are three applications requiring very low noise optical receivers to achieve detection of fast and weak optical signal. HgCdTe electrons initiated avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) in linear multiplication mode is the detector of choice thanks to its high quantum efficiency, high gain at low bias, high bandwidth and low noise factor. In this project, a readout integrated circuit of hybrid e-APD focal plane array (FPA) with 100um pitch for 3D-LADAR was designed for gated optical receiver. The ROIC works at 77K, including unit cell circuit, column-level circuit, timing control, bias circuit and output driver. The unit cell circuit is a key component, which consists of preamplifier, correlated double Sampling (CDS), bias circuit and timing control module. Specially, the preamplifier used the capacitor feedback transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) structure which has two capacitors to offer switchable capacitance for passive/active dual mode imaging. The main circuit of column-level circuit is a precision Multiply-by-Two circuit which is implemented by switched-capacitor circuit. Switched-capacitor circuit is quite suitable for the signal processing of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) due to the working characteristics. The output driver uses a simply unity-gain buffer. Because the signal is amplified in column-level circuit, the amplifier in unity-gain buffer uses a rail-rail amplifier. In active imaging mode, the integration time is 80ns. Integrating current from 200nA to 4uA, this circuit shows the nonlinearity is less than 1%. In passive imaging mode, the integration time is 150ns. Integrating current from 1nA to 20nA shows the nonlinearity less than 1%.

  5. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Arm, J.; Keall, P.; Kim, T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  6. 3D Seismic Imaging over a Potential Collapse Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, Roland; O'Connell, Daniel; Elobaid Elnaiem, Ali; Mohamed, Fathelrahman; Sadooni, Fadhil

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-East has seen a recent boom in construction including the planning and development of complete new sub-sections of metropolitan areas. Before planning and construction can commence, however, the development areas need to be investigated to determine their suitability for the planned project. Subsurface parameters such as the type of material (soil/rock), thickness of top soil or rock layers, depth and elastic parameters of basement, for example, comprise important information needed before a decision concerning the suitability of the site for construction can be made. A similar problem arises in environmental impact studies, when subsurface parameters are needed to assess the geological heterogeneity of the subsurface. Environmental impact studies are typically required for each construction project, particularly for the scale of the aforementioned building boom in the Middle East. The current study was conducted in Qatar at the location of a future highway interchange to evaluate a suite of 3D seismic techniques in their effectiveness to interrogate the subsurface for the presence of karst-like collapse structures. The survey comprised an area of approximately 10,000 m2 and consisted of 550 source- and 192 receiver locations. The seismic source was an accelerated weight drop while the geophones consisted of 3-component 10 Hz velocity sensors. At present, we analyzed over 100,000 P-wave phase arrivals and performed high-resolution 3-D tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. Furthermore, dispersion analysis of recorded surface waves will be performed to obtain S-wave velocity profiles of the subsurface. Both results, in conjunction with density estimates, will be utilized to determine the elastic moduli of the subsurface rock layers.

  7. 3D Visualization System for Tracking and Identification of Objects Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photon-X has developed a proprietary EO spatial phase technology that can passively collect 3-D images in real-time using a single camera-based system. This...

  8. A Novel Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet most existing display systems with flat screens can handle only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that...

  9. Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM): 3D MAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D MAT Project seeks to design and develop a game changing Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) technology tailored to meet the needs of the Orion...

  10. 3D imaging of enzymes working in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamme, F; Bourquin, D; Tawil, G; Viksø-Nielsen, A; Buléon, A; Réfrégiers, M

    2014-06-01

    Today, development of slowly digestible food with positive health impact and production of biofuels is a matter of intense research. The latter is achieved via enzymatic hydrolysis of starch or biomass such as lignocellulose. Free label imaging, using UV autofluorescence, provides a great tool to follow one single enzyme when acting on a non-UV-fluorescent substrate. In this article, we report synchrotron DUV fluorescence in 3-dimensional imaging to visualize in situ the diffusion of enzymes on solid substrate. The degradation pathway of single starch granules by two amylases optimized for biofuel production and industrial starch hydrolysis was followed by tryptophan autofluorescence (excitation at 280 nm, emission filter at 350 nm). The new setup has been specially designed and developed for a 3D representation of the enzyme-substrate interaction during hydrolysis. Thus, this tool is particularly effective for improving knowledge and understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of solid substrates such as starch and lignocellulosic biomass. It could open up the way to new routes in the field of green chemistry and sustainable development, that is, in biotechnology, biorefining, or biofuels. PMID:24796213

  11. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.

  12. 3D change detection at street level using mobile laser scanning point clouds and terrestrial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rongjun; Gruen, Armin

    2014-04-01

    Automatic change detection and geo-database updating in the urban environment are difficult tasks. There has been much research on detecting changes with satellite and aerial images, but studies have rarely been performed at the street level, which is complex in its 3D geometry. Contemporary geo-databases include 3D street-level objects, which demand frequent data updating. Terrestrial images provides rich texture information for change detection, but the change detection with terrestrial images from different epochs sometimes faces problems with illumination changes, perspective distortions and unreliable 3D geometry caused by the lack of performance of automatic image matchers, while mobile laser scanning (MLS) data acquired from different epochs provides accurate 3D geometry for change detection, but is very expensive for periodical acquisition. This paper proposes a new method for change detection at street level by using combination of MLS point clouds and terrestrial images: the accurate but expensive MLS data acquired from an early epoch serves as the reference, and terrestrial images or photogrammetric images captured from an image-based mobile mapping system (MMS) at a later epoch are used to detect the geometrical changes between different epochs. The method will automatically mark the possible changes in each view, which provides a cost-efficient method for frequent data updating. The methodology is divided into several steps. In the first step, the point clouds are recorded by the MLS system and processed, with data cleaned and classified by semi-automatic means. In the second step, terrestrial images or mobile mapping images at a later epoch are taken and registered to the point cloud, and then point clouds are projected on each image by a weighted window based z-buffering method for view dependent 2D triangulation. In the next step, stereo pairs of the terrestrial images are rectified and re-projected between each other to check the geometrical

  13. 3D-image-guided high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy for salvage treatment of locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yu-Feng; Cao, Xin-Ping; Xu, Jia; Ye, Wei-Jun; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Teh, Bin S.; Wen, Bi-Xiu

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the therapeutic benefit of 3D-image-guided high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (3D-image-guided HDR-BT) used as a salvage treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods Thirty-two patients with locally persistent NPC after full dose of IMRT were evaluated retrospectively. 3D-image-guided HDR-BT treatment plan was performed on a 3D treatment planning system (PLATO BPS 14.2). The...

  14. The Mathematical Foundations of 3D Compton Scatter Emission Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Truong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical principles of tomographic imaging using detected (unscattered X- or gamma-rays are based on the two-dimensional Radon transform and many of its variants. In this paper, we show that two new generalizations, called conical Radon transforms, are related to three-dimensional imaging processes based on detected Compton scattered radiation. The first class of conical Radon transform has been introduced recently to support imaging principles of collimated detector systems. The second class is new and is closely related to the Compton camera imaging principles and invertible under special conditions. As they are poised to play a major role in future designs of biomedical imaging systems, we present an account of their most important properties which may be relevant for active researchers in the field.

  15. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  16. Web tools for large-scale 3D biological images and atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husz Zsolt L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale volumetric biomedical image data of three or more dimensions are a significant challenge for distributed browsing and visualisation. Many images now exceed 10GB which for most users is too large to handle in terms of computer RAM and network bandwidth. This is aggravated when users need to access tens or hundreds of such images from an archive. Here we solve the problem for 2D section views through archive data delivering compressed tiled images enabling users to browse through very-large volume data in the context of a standard web-browser. The system provides an interactive visualisation for grey-level and colour 3D images including multiple image layers and spatial-data overlay. Results The standard Internet Imaging Protocol (IIP has been extended to enable arbitrary 2D sectioning of 3D data as well a multi-layered images and indexed overlays. The extended protocol is termed IIP3D and we have implemented a matching server to deliver the protocol and a series of Ajax/Javascript client codes that will run in an Internet browser. We have tested the server software on a low-cost linux-based server for image volumes up to 135GB and 64 simultaneous users. The section views are delivered with response times independent of scale and orientation. The exemplar client provided multi-layer image views with user-controlled colour-filtering and overlays. Conclusions Interactive browsing of arbitrary sections through large biomedical-image volumes is made possible by use of an extended internet protocol and efficient server-based image tiling. The tools open the possibility of enabling fast access to large image archives without the requirement of whole image download and client computers with very large memory configurations. The system was demonstrated using a range of medical and biomedical image data extending up to 135GB for a single image volume.

  17. Multi-detector CT and 3D imaging in a multi-vendor PACS environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Witkamp, R; Oudkerk, M; Lemke, HU; Inamura, K; Doi, K; Vannier, MW; Farman, AG; Reiber, JHC

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of new hard- and software techniques like Multi-Dectector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and 3D imaging has put new demands on the Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) environment within the radiology department. The daily use of these new techniques requires a good integratio

  18. 3D Image Sensor based on Parallax Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Reskó

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For humans and visual animals vision it is the primary and the most sophisticatedperceptual modality to get information about the surrounding world. Depth perception is apart of vision allowing to accurately determine the distance to an object which makes it animportant visual task. Humans have two eyes with overlapping visual fields that enablestereo vision and thus space perception. Some birds however do not have overlappingvisual fields, and compensate this lask by moving their heads, which in turn makes spaceperception possible using the motion parallax as a visual cue. This paper presents asolution using an opto-mechanical filter that was inspired by the way birds observe theirenvironment. The filtering is done using two different approaches:using motion blur duringmotion parallax, and using the optical flow algorithm. The two methods have differentadvantages and drawbacks, which will be discussed in the paper. The proposed system canbe used in robotics for 3D space perception.

  19. 基于Kalman滤波的组合导航方法在三维激光成像系统中的应用%Application of Integrated Navigation Based on Kalman Filter in 3D Laser Imaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生炳; 车鹏宇; 魏宗康; 赵龙; 陈东生

    2014-01-01

    三维激光成像系统是一种包含激光扫描仪、惯性导航系统(SINS)、全球定位系统(GPS)等多种先进技术的复杂系统。三维激光成像系统工作时需要持续地对成像平台进行高精度的定位、定姿,单一SINS和GPS均无法满足三维激光成像系统的高精度定位、定姿要求。通过建立惯性导航系统的误差模型,以GPS系统提供的高精度速度和位置信息为外测,运用Kalman滤波理论设计了SINS/GPS组合导航系统,实现对惯性导航系统的导航误差的修正。通过试验验证表明,基于Kalman滤波的SINS/GPS组合导航系统可以提高三维激光成像系统构像点定位精度,为建立被扫描物的精确三维模型奠定基础。%The 3D laser imaging system is a complicated system which contains a variety of advanced technology, including laser scanner, SINS and GPS. It is important to ensure the attitude and location of the platform of 3D laser imaging system. Single SINS or GPS can not meet the requirement of the 3D laser imaging system. In the paper, through setting up the error model of the SINS, using velocity and location supplied by GPS, the author designed SINS/GPS integrated navigation based on Kalman filter to correct the error of the SINS. The test results demonstrate that the orientation precision of 3D laser imaging system can be improved by SINS/GPS integrated navigation based on Kalman filter. It paves the way for setting up precise 3D model of scanned object.

  20. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct. PMID:25569978

  1. Contactless operating table control based on 3D image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Stephan; Loftfield, Nina; Langmann, Benjamin; Frank, Klaus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Interaction with mobile consumer devices leads to a higher acceptance and affinity of persons to natural user interfaces and perceptional interaction possibilities. New interaction modalities become accessible and are capable to improve human machine interaction even in complex and high risk environments, like the operation room. Here, manifold medical disciplines cause a great variety of procedures and thus staff and equipment. One universal challenge is to meet the sterility requirements, for which common contact-afflicted remote interfaces always pose a potential risk causing a hazard for the process. The proposed operating table control system overcomes this process risk and thus improves the system usability significantly. The 3D sensor system, the Microsoft Kinect, captures the motion of the user, allowing a touchless manipulation of an operating table. Three gestures enable the user to select, activate and manipulate all segments of the motorised system in a safe and intuitive way. The gesture dynamics are synchronised with the table movement. In a usability study, 15 participants evaluated the system with a system usability score by Broke of 79. This states a high potential for implementation and acceptance in interventional environments. In the near future, even processes with higher risks could be controlled with the proposed interface, while interfaces become safer and more direct.

  2. 3D image analysis of a volcanic deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Y.; Vlassenbroeck, J.; Vandeputte, K.; Dewanckele, J.; Cnudde, V.; van Hoorebeke, L.; Ernst, G.; Jacobs, P.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decades, X-ray micro CT has become a well established technique for non-destructive testing in a wide variety of research fields. Using a series of X-ray transmission images of the sample at different projection angles, a stack of 2D cross-sections is reconstructed, resulting in a 3D volume representing the X-ray attenuation coefficients of the sample. Since the attenuation coefficient of a material depends on its density and atomic number, this volume provides valuable information about the internal structure and composition of the sample. Although much qualitative information can be derived directly from this 3D volume, researchers usually require more quantitative results to be able to provide a full characterization of the sample under investigation. This type of information needs to be retrieved using specialized image processing software. For most samples, it is imperative that this processing is performed on the 3D volume as a whole, since a sequence of 2D cross sections usually forms an inadequate approximation of the actual structure. The complete processing of a volume consists of three sequential steps. First, the volume is segmented into a set of objects. What these objects represent depends on what property of the sample needs to be analysed. The objects can be for instance concavities, dense inclusions or the matrix of the sample. When dealing with noisy data, it might be necessary to filter the data before applying the segmentation. The second step is the separation of connected objects into a set of smaller objects. This is necessary when objects appear to be connected because of the limited resolution and contrast of the scan. Separation can also be useful when the sample contains a network structure and one wants to study the individual cells of the network. The third and last step consists of the actual analysis of the various objects to derive the different parameters of interest. While some parameters require extensive

  3. Reliable planning and monitoring tools by dismantling 3D photographic image of high resolution and document management systems. Application MEDS system; Planificacion fiable y seguimiento del desmantelamiento mediante herramientas 3D, imagen fotografica de alta resolucion y sistemas de gestion documental. Aplicacion del sistema MEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela Morales, F.

    2010-07-01

    MEDS system (Metric Environment Documentation System) is a method developed by CT3 based engineering documentation generation metric of a physical environment using measurement tools latest technology and high precision, such as the Laser Scanner. With this equipment it is possible to obtain three-dimensional information of a physical environment through the 3D coordinates of millions of points. This information is processed by software that is very useful tool for modeling operations and 3D simulations.

  4. Orthodontic treatment plan changed by 3D images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical application of CBCT is most often enforced in dental phenomenon of impacted teeth, hyperodontia, transposition, ankyloses or root resorption and other pathologies in the maxillofacial area. The goal, we put ourselves, is to show how the information from 3D images changes the protocol of the orthodontic treatment. The material, we presented six our clinical cases and the change in the plan of the treatment, which has used after analyzing the information carried on the three planes of CBCT. These cases are casuistic in the orthodontic practice and require individual approach to each of them during their analysis and decision taken. The discussion made by us is in line with reveal of the impacted teeth, where we need to evaluate their vertical depth and mediodistal ratios with the bond structures. At patients with hyperodontia, the assessment is of outmost importance to decide which of the teeth to be extracted and which one to be arranged into the dental arch. The conclusion we make is that diagnostic information is essential for decisions about treatment plan. The exact graphs will lead to better treatment plan and more predictable results. (authors) Key words: CBCT. IMPACTED CANINES. HYPERODONTIA. TRANSPOSITION

  5. 3D Modelling of Biological Systems for Biomimetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujun Zhang; Kevin Hapeshi; Ashok K. Bhattacharya

    2004-01-01

    With the advanced development of computer-based enabling technologies, many engineering, medical, biology,chemistry, physics and food science etc have developed to the unprecedented levels, which lead to many research and development interests in various multi-discipline areas. Among them, biomimetics is one of the most promising and attractive branches of study. Biomimetics is a branch of study that uses biological systems as a model to develop synthetic systems.To learn from nature, one of the fundamental issues is to understand the natural systems such animals, insects, plants and human beings etc. The geometrical characterization and representation of natural systems is an important fundamental work for biomimetics research. 3D modeling plays a key role in the geometrical characterization and representation, especially in computer graphical visualization. This paper firstly presents the typical procedure of 3D modelling methods and then reviews the previous work of 3D geometrical modelling techniques and systems developed for industrial, medical and animation applications. Especially the paper discusses the problems associated with the existing techniques and systems when they are applied to 3D modelling of biological systems. Based upon the discussions, the paper proposes some areas of research interests in 3D modelling of biological systems and for Biomimetics.

  6. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  7. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    This thesis concerns application specific 3D head tracking. The purpose is to improve motion correction in position emission tomography (PET) brain imaging through development of markerless tracking. Currently, motion correction strategies are based on either the PET data itself or tracking devices...... images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...... of a few millimeters. Stateof- the-art hardware and software solutions are integrated into an operational device. This novel system is tested against a commercial tracking system popular in PET brain imaging. Testing and demonstrations are carried out in clinical settings. A compact markerless tracking...

  8. Review of 3D image data calibration for heterogeneity correction in proton therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Penfold, Scott N

    2016-06-01

    Correct modelling of the interaction parameters of patient tissues is of vital importance in proton therapy treatment planning because of the large dose gradients associated with the Bragg peak. Different 3D imaging techniques yield different information regarding these interaction parameters. Given the rapidly expanding interest in proton therapy, this review is written to make readers aware of the current challenges in accounting for tissue heterogeneities and the imaging systems that are proposed to tackle these challenges. A summary of the interaction parameters of interest in proton therapy and the current and developmental 3D imaging techniques used in proton therapy treatment planning is given. The different methods to translate the imaging data to the interaction parameters of interest are reviewed and a summary of the implementations in several commercial treatment planning systems is presented. PMID:27115163

  9. Automated 3D renal segmentation based on image partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Varduhi; Voiculescu, Irina D.

    2016-03-01

    Despite several decades of research into segmentation techniques, automated medical image segmentation is barely usable in a clinical context, and still at vast user time expense. This paper illustrates unsupervised organ segmentation through the use of a novel automated labelling approximation algorithm followed by a hypersurface front propagation method. The approximation stage relies on a pre-computed image partition forest obtained directly from CT scan data. We have implemented all procedures to operate directly on 3D volumes, rather than slice-by-slice, because our algorithms are dimensionality-independent. The results picture segmentations which identify kidneys, but can easily be extrapolated to other body parts. Quantitative analysis of our automated segmentation compared against hand-segmented gold standards indicates an average Dice similarity coefficient of 90%. Results were obtained over volumes of CT data with 9 kidneys, computing both volume-based similarity measures (such as the Dice and Jaccard coefficients, true positive volume fraction) and size-based measures (such as the relative volume difference). The analysis considered both healthy and diseased kidneys, although extreme pathological cases were excluded from the overall count. Such cases are difficult to segment both manually and automatically due to the large amplitude of Hounsfield unit distribution in the scan, and the wide spread of the tumorous tissue inside the abdomen. In the case of kidneys that have maintained their shape, the similarity range lies around the values obtained for inter-operator variability. Whilst the procedure is fully automated, our tools also provide a light level of manual editing.

  10. Joint Multichannel Motion Compensation Method for MIMO SAR 3D Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-min Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO synthetic aperture radar (SAR system with a linear antenna array can obtain 3D resolution. In practice, it suffers from both the translational motion errors and the rotational motion errors. Conventional single-channel motion compensation methods could be used to compensate the motion errors channel by channel. However, this method might not be accurate enough for all the channels. What is more, the single-channel compensation may break the coherence among channels, which would cause defocusing and false targets. In this paper, both the translational motion errors and the rotational motion errors are discussed, and a joint multichannel motion compensation method is proposed for MIMO SAR 3D imaging. It is demonstrated through simulations that the proposed method exceeds the conventional methods in accuracy. And the final MIMO SAR 3D imaging simulation confirms the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, W; Piras, D; Singh, M. K. A.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; Van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W Van; Manohar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging can visualize vascularization-driven optical absorption contrast with great potential for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. State-of-the-art photoacoustic breast imaging systems are promising but are limited either by only a 2D imaging capability or by an insufficient imaging field-of-view (FOV). We present a laboratory prototype system designed for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography, and comprehensively characterize it and evaluate its performance in imaging p...

  12. Automatic masking for robust 3D-2D image registration in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcha, M. D.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    During spinal neurosurgery, patient-specific information, planning, and annotation such as vertebral labels can be mapped from preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative 2D radiographs via image-based 3D-2D registration. Such registration has been shown to provide a potentially valuable means of decision support in target localization as well as quality assurance of the surgical product. However, robust registration can be challenged by mismatch in image content between the preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs, arising, for example, from anatomical deformation or the presence of surgical tools within the radiograph. In this work, we develop and evaluate methods for automatically mitigating the effect of content mismatch by leveraging the surgical planning data to assign greater weight to anatomical regions known to be reliable for registration and vital to the surgical task while removing problematic regions that are highly deformable or often occluded by surgical tools. We investigated two approaches to assigning variable weight (i.e., "masking") to image content and/or the similarity metric: (1) masking the preoperative 3D CT ("volumetric masking"); and (2) masking within the 2D similarity metric calculation ("projection masking"). The accuracy of registration was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in 61 cases selected from an IRB-approved clinical study. The best performing of the masking techniques was found to reduce the rate of gross failure (PDE > 20 mm) from 11.48% to 5.57% in this challenging retrospective data set. These approaches provided robustness to content mismatch and eliminated distinct failure modes of registration. Such improvement was gained without additional workflow and has motivated incorporation of the masking methods within a system under development for prospective clinical studies.

  13. AR based ornament design system for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Aoki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, 3D printers have become popular as a means of outputting geometries designed on CAD or 3D graphics systems. However, the complex user interfaces of standard 3D software can make it difficult for ordinary consumers to design their own objects. Furthermore, models designed on 3D graphics software often have geometrical problems that make them impossible to output on a 3D printer. We propose a novel AR (augmented reality 3D modeling system with an air-spray like interface. We also propose a new data structure (octet voxel for representing designed models in such a way that the model is guaranteed to be a complete solid. The target shape is based on a regular polyhedron, and the octet voxel representation is suitable for designing geometrical objects having the same symmetries as the base regular polyhedron. Finally, we conducted a user test and confirmed that users can intuitively design their own ornaments in a short time with a simple user interface.

  14. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  15. Three dimensional (3d) transverse oscillation vector velocity ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (300) includes a transducer array (302) with a two- dimensional array of transducer elements configured to transmit an ultrasound signal and receive echoes, transmit circuitry (304) configured to control the transducer array to transmit the ultrasound signal so...... and the same received set of two dimensional echoes form part of the imaging system...... as to traverse a field of view, and receive circuitry (306) configured to receive a two dimensional set of echoes produced in response to the ultrasound signal traversing structure in the field of view, wherein the structure includes flowing structures such as flowing blood cells, organ cells etc. A beamformer...

  16. Generic camera model and its calibration for computational integral imaging and 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiming; Li, Youfu

    2011-03-01

    Integral imaging (II) is an important 3D imaging technology. To reconstruct 3D information of the viewed objects, modeling and calibrating the optical pickup process of II are necessary. This work focuses on the modeling and calibration of an II system consisting of a lenslet array, an imaging lens, and a charge-coupled device camera. Most existing work on such systems assumes a pinhole array model (PAM). In this work, we explore a generic camera model that accommodates more generality. This model is an empirical model based on measurements, and we constructed a setup for its calibration. Experimental results show a significant difference between the generic camera model and the PAM. Images of planar patterns and 3D objects were computationally reconstructed with the generic camera model. Compared with the images reconstructed using the PAM, the images present higher fidelity and preserve more high spatial frequency components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in applying a generic camera model to an II system.

  17. A Method for Interactive 3D Reconstruction of Piecewise Planar Objects from Single Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Peter; Maybank, Steve

    1999-01-01

    International audience We present an approach for 3D reconstruction of objects from a single image. Obviously, constraints on the 3D structure are needed to perform this task. Our approach is based on user-provided coplanarity, perpendicularity and parallelism constraints. These are used to calibrate the image and perform 3D reconstruction. The method is described in detail and results are provided.

  18. Incremental Multi-view 3D Reconstruction Starting from Two Images Taken by a Stereo Pair of Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    El hazzat, Soulaiman; Saaidi, Abderrahim; Karam, Antoine; Satori, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for multi-view 3D reconstruction based on the use of a binocular stereo vision system constituted of two unattached cameras to initialize the reconstruction process. Afterwards , the second camera of stereo vision system (characterized by varying parameters) moves to capture more images at different times which are used to obtain an almost complete 3D reconstruction. The first two projection matrices are estimated by using a 3D pattern with known properties. After that, 3D scene points are recovered by triangulation of the matched interest points between these two images. The proposed approach is incremental. At each insertion of a new image, the camera projection matrix is estimated using the 3D information already calculated and new 3D points are recovered by triangulation from the result of the matching of interest points between the inserted image and the previous image. For the refinement of the new projection matrix and the new 3D points, a local bundle adjustment is performed. At first, all projection matrices are estimated, the matches between consecutive images are detected and Euclidean sparse 3D reconstruction is obtained. So, to increase the number of matches and have a more dense reconstruction, the Match propagation algorithm, more suitable for interesting movement of the camera, was applied on the pairs of consecutive images. The experimental results show the power and robustness of the proposed approach.

  19. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  20. Characterization of 3D printing output using an optical sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental design and initial testing of a system to characterize the progress and performance of a 3D printer. The system is based on five Raspberry Pi single-board computers. It collects images of the 3D printed object, which are compared to an ideal model. The system, while suitable for printers of all sizes, can potentially be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow its incorporation into consumer-grade printers. The efficacy and accuracy of this system is presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of being able to characterize 3D printer performance.

  1. High-resolution 3D X-ray imaging of intracranial nitinol stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeren, Rudolph M.; With, Peter H.N. de [Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Faculty Electrical Engineering, Signal Processing Systems group (SPS), Eindhoven (Netherlands); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Kroon, Johannes N.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Babic, Drazenko [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To assess an optimized 3D imaging protocol for intracranial nitinol stents in 3D C-arm flat detector imaging. For this purpose, an image quality simulation and an in vitro study was carried out. Nitinol stents of various brands were placed inside an anthropomorphic head phantom, using iodine contrast. Experiments with objects were preceded by image quality and dose simulations. We varied X-ray imaging parameters in a commercially interventional X-ray system to set 3D image quality in the contrast-noise-sharpness space. Beam quality was varied to evaluate contrast of the stents while keeping absorbed dose below recommended values. Two detector formats were used, paired with an appropriate pixel size and X-ray focus size. Zoomed reconstructions were carried out and snapshot images acquired. High contrast spatial resolution was assessed with a CT phantom. We found an optimal protocol for imaging intracranial nitinol stents. Contrast resolution was optimized for nickel-titanium-containing stents. A high spatial resolution larger than 2.1 lp/mm allows struts to be visualized. We obtained images of stents of various brands and a representative set of images is shown. Independent of the make, struts can be imaged with virtually continuous strokes. Measured absorbed doses are shown to be lower than 50 mGy Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). By balancing the modulation transfer of the imaging components and tuning the high-contrast imaging capabilities, we have shown that thin nitinol stent wires can be reconstructed with high contrast-to-noise ratio and good detail, while keeping radiation doses within recommended values. Experimental results compare well with imaging simulations. (orig.)

  2. Assessing 3D tunnel position in ACL reconstruction using a novel single image 3D-2D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, X.; Yau, W. P.; Otake, Y.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.; Taylor, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    The routinely used procedure for evaluating tunnel positions following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions based on standard X-ray images is known to pose difficulties in terms of obtaining accurate measures, especially in providing three-dimensional tunnel positions. This is largely due to the variability in individual knee joint pose relative to X-ray plates. Accurate results were reported using postoperative CT. However, its extensive usage in clinical routine is hampered by its major requirement of having CT scans of individual patients, which is not available for most ACL reconstructions. These difficulties are addressed through the proposed method, which aligns a knee model to X-ray images using our novel single-image 3D-2D registration method and then estimates the 3D tunnel position. In the proposed method, the alignment is achieved by using a novel contour-based 3D-2D registration method wherein image contours are treated as a set of oriented points. However, instead of using some form of orientation weighting function and multiplying it with a distance function, we formulate the 3D-2D registration as a probability density estimation using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher-Gaussian (vMFG) distributions and solve it through an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Compared with the ground-truth established from postoperative CT, our registration method in an experiment using a plastic phantom showed accurate results with errors of (-0.43°+/-1.19°, 0.45°+/-2.17°, 0.23°+/-1.05°) and (0.03+/-0.55, -0.03+/-0.54, -2.73+/-1.64) mm. As for the entry point of the ACL tunnel, one of the key measurements, it was obtained with high accuracy of 0.53+/-0.30 mm distance errors.

  3. Holographic Image Plane Projection Integral 3D Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for a 3D virtual reality environment providing scientific data visualization without special user devices, Physical Optics Corporation...

  4. A dual 3D DIC-system application for DSL strain and displacement measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raurova, I.; Berggreen, Christian; Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a dual 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system application for DLS strain and displacement measurements, where two 3D DIC-systems are used in parallel. The bonded specimens were tested to failure under monotonic loading in a uni-axial tensile testing machine at ambient...... describes guidelines for a mutual system setup, applied in an experimental study of steel/epoxy DLS joints under pure tension....

  5. 3D Visualization and Simulation of the Human Navigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelle, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how 3D visualizations and virtual reality can be used to make the human navigation system understandable for the general public. To do this, a 3D visualization of the human navigation systems components in the brain was created using Second Life. In addition, a simulation of how the cells in this system works was created with the same platform. These two types of visualization were used to see if they gave any learning outcome in relation to the ...

  6. 3-D Reconstruction of Medical Image Using Wavelet Transform and Snake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong Cheng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an important step in 3-D reconstruction, and 3-D reconstruction from medical images is an important application of computer graphics and biomedicine image processing. An improved image segmentation method which is suitable for 3-D reconstruction is presented in this paper. A 3-D reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the 3-D model from medical images. Rough edge is obtained by multi-scale wavelet transform at first. With the rough edge, improved gradient vector flow snake model is used and the object contour in the image is found. In the experiments, we reconstruct 3-D models of kidney, liver and brain putamen. The performances of the experiments indicate that the new algorithm can produce accurate 3-D reconstruction.

  7. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression With Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  8. Superimposing of virtual graphics and real image based on 3D CAD information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Proposes methods of transforming 3D CAD models into 2D graphics and recognizing 3D objects by features and superimposing VE built in computer onto real image taken by a CCD camera, and presents computer simulation results.

  9. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J., E-mail: I.G.J.Classen@differ.nl; Bogomolov, A. V. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Donné, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  10. Dense 3d Point Cloud Generation from Uav Images from Image Matching and Global Optimazation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    3D spatial information from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) images is usually provided in the form of 3D point clouds. For various UAV applications, it is important to generate dense 3D point clouds automatically from over the entire extent of UAV images. In this paper, we aim to apply image matching for generation of local point clouds over a pair or group of images and global optimization to combine local point clouds over the whole region of interest. We tried to apply two types of image matching, an object space-based matching technique and an image space-based matching technique, and to compare the performance of the two techniques. The object space-based matching used here sets a list of candidate height values for a fixed horizontal position in the object space. For each height, its corresponding image point is calculated and similarity is measured by grey-level correlation. The image space-based matching used here is a modified relaxation matching. We devised a global optimization scheme for finding optimal pairs (or groups) to apply image matching, defining local match region in image- or object- space, and merging local point clouds into a global one. For optimal pair selection, tiepoints among images were extracted and stereo coverage network was defined by forming a maximum spanning tree using the tiepoints. From experiments, we confirmed that through image matching and global optimization, 3D point clouds were generated successfully. However, results also revealed some limitations. In case of image-based matching results, we observed some blanks in 3D point clouds. In case of object space-based matching results, we observed more blunders than image-based matching ones and noisy local height variations. We suspect these might be due to inaccurate orientation parameters. The work in this paper is still ongoing. We will further test our approach with more precise orientation parameters.

  11. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems. PMID:26855205

  12. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems.

  13. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  14. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  15. Correction of a Depth-Dependent Lateral Distortion in 3D Super-Resolution Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Carlini

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D localization-based super-resolution microscopy (SR requires correction of aberrations to accurately represent 3D structure. Here we show how a depth-dependent lateral shift in the apparent position of a fluorescent point source, which we term `wobble`, results in warped 3D SR images and provide a software tool to correct this distortion. This system-specific, lateral shift is typically > 80 nm across an axial range of ~ 1 μm. A theoretical analysis based on phase retrieval data from our microscope suggests that the wobble is caused by non-rotationally symmetric phase and amplitude aberrations in the microscope's pupil function. We then apply our correction to the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ in live bacteria and demonstrate that the corrected data more accurately represent the true shape of this vertically-oriented ring-like structure. We also include this correction method in a registration procedure for dual-color, 3D SR data and show that it improves target registration error (TRE at the axial limits over an imaging depth of 1 μm, yielding TRE values of < 20 nm. This work highlights the importance of correcting aberrations in 3D SR to achieve high fidelity between the measurements and the sample.

  16. Ultra-wide-band 3D microwave imaging scanner for the detection of concealed weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Andrews, David A.; Bowring, Nicholas J.

    2015-10-01

    The threat of concealed weapons, explosives and contraband in footwear, bags and suitcases has led to the development of new devices, which can be deployed for security screening. To address known deficiencies of metal detectors and x-rays, an UWB 3D microwave imaging scanning apparatus using FMCW stepped frequency working in the K and Q bands and with a planar scanning geometry based on an x y stage, has been developed to screen suspicious luggage and footwear. To obtain microwave images of the concealed weapons, the targets are placed above the platform and the single transceiver horn antenna attached to the x y stage is moved mechanically to perform a raster scan to create a 2D synthetic aperture array. The S11 reflection signal of the transmitted sweep frequency from the target is acquired by a VNA in synchronism with each position step. To enhance and filter from clutter and noise the raw data and to obtain the 2D and 3D microwave images of the concealed weapons or explosives, data processing techniques are applied to the acquired signals. These techniques include background subtraction, Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT), thresholding, filtering by gating and windowing and deconvolving with the transfer function of the system using a reference target. To focus the 3D reconstructed microwave image of the target in range and across the x y aperture without using focusing elements, 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques are applied to the post-processed data. The K and Q bands, between 15 to 40 GHz, show good transmission through clothing and dielectric materials found in luggage and footwear. A description of the system, algorithms and some results with replica guns and a comparison of microwave images obtained by IFFT, 2D and 3D SAR techniques are presented.

  17. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  18. Controllability of the 3D compressible Euler system

    CERN Document Server

    Nersisyan, Hayk

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the controllability problem for 3D compressible Euler system. The control is a finite-dimensional external force acting only on the velocity equation. We show that the velocity and density of the fluid are simultaneously controllable. In particular, the system is approximately controllable and exactly controllable in projections

  19. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  20. Development of scanning laser sensor for underwater 3D imaging with the coaxial optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochimizu, Hideaki; Imaki, Masaharu; Kameyama, Shumpei; Saito, Takashi; Ishibashi, Shoujirou; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed the scanning laser sensor for underwater 3-D imaging which has the wide scanning angle of 120º (Horizontal) x 30º (Vertical) with the compact size of 25 cm diameter and 60 cm long. Our system has a dome lens and a coaxial optics to realize both the wide scanning angle and the compactness. The system also has the feature in the sensitivity time control (STC) circuit, in which the receiving gain is increased according to the time of flight. The STC circuit contributes to detect a small signal by suppressing the unwanted signals backscattered by marine snows. We demonstrated the system performance in the pool, and confirmed the 3-D imaging with the distance of 20 m. Furthermore, the system was mounted on the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and demonstrated the seafloor mapping at the depth of 100 m in the ocean.

  1. Object Recognition Using a 3D RFID System

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Se-gon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2009-01-01

    Up to now, object recognition in robotics has been typically done by vision, ultrasonic sensors, laser ranger finders etc. Recently, RFID has emerged as a promising technology that can strengthen object recognition. In this chapter, the 3D RFID system and the 3D tag were presented. The proposed RFID system can determine if an object as well as other tags exists, and also can estimate the orientation and position of the object. This feature considerably reduces the dependence of the robot on o...

  2. Evaluation of Methods for Coregistration and Fusion of Rpas-Based 3d Point Clouds and Thermal Infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegner, L.; Tuttas, S.; Xu, Y.; Eder, K.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the automatic coregistration and fusion of 3d point clouds generated from aerial image sequences and corresponding thermal infrared (TIR) images. Both RGB and TIR images have been taken from a RPAS platform with a predefined flight path where every RGB image has a corresponding TIR image taken from the same position and with the same orientation with respect to the accuracy of the RPAS system and the inertial measurement unit. To remove remaining differences in the exterior orientation, different strategies for coregistering RGB and TIR images are discussed: (i) coregistration based on 2D line segments for every single TIR image and the corresponding RGB image. This method implies a mainly planar scene to avoid mismatches; (ii) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images by coregistering 2D image projections of both point clouds; (iii) coregistration based on 2D line segments in every single TIR image and 3D line segments extracted from intersections of planes fitted in the segmented dense 3D point cloud; (iv) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images using both ICP and an adapted version based on corresponding segmented planes; (v) coregistration of both image sets based on point features. The quality is measured by comparing the differences of the back projection of homologous points in both corrected RGB and TIR images.

  3. 3D MODELLING FROM UN CALIBRATED IMAGES – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limi V L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D modeling is a demanding area of research. Creating a 3D world from sequence of images captured using different mobile cameras pose additional challenge in this field. We plan to explore this area of computer vision to model a 3D world of Indian heritage sites for virtual tourism. In this paper a comparative study of the existing methods used for 3D reconstruction of un-calibrated image sequences was done. The study shows different scenario of modeling 3D objects from un-calibrated images which include community photo collection, images taken from unknown camera, 3D modeling using two un-calibrated images, etc. Hence the different methods available were studied and an overall view of the techniques used in each step of 3D reconstruction was explored. The merits and demerits of each method were also compared.

  4. Multimodal Registration and Fusion for 3D Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. Akhloufi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D vision is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of research interest and has been widely studied. In recent years we witness an increasing interest from the industrial community. This interest is driven by the recent advances in 3D technologies, which enable high precision measurements at an affordable cost. With 3D vision techniques we can conduct advanced manufactured parts inspections and metrology analysis. However, we are not able to detect subsurface defects. This kind of detection is achieved by other techniques, like infrared thermography. In this work, we present a new registration framework for 3D and thermal infrared multimodal fusion. The resulting fused data can be used for advanced 3D inspection in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E applications. The fusion permits the simultaneous visible surface and subsurface inspections to be conducted in the same process. Experimental tests were conducted with different materials. The obtained results are promising and show how these new techniques can be used efficiently in a combined NDT&E-Metrology analysis of manufactured parts, in areas such as aerospace and automotive.

  5. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Arteries from Angiographic Images: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mahima Goyal; Jian Yang; Arun PrakashAgrawal

    2013-01-01

    X-Ray angiographyis considered to be the “golden standard” ofall times in the medical imaging field due to its wide range ofapplications. In this paper, a survey is performed on the basictechniques and the methodologies that have already beenproposed by various researchers in the field of 3D reconstructionof coronary arteries using one or more angiograms as inmonoplane or biplane angiographic systems or a volume of dataas in rotational angiographic systems. Also, the variousprocedures that ne...

  6. Imaging 3D strain field monitoring during hydraulic fracturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongzhang; Zaghloul, Mohamed A. S.; Yan, Aidong; Li, Shuo; Lu, Guanyi; Ames, Brandon C.; Zolfaghari, Navid; Bunger, Andrew P.; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed fiber optic sensing scheme to study 3D strain fields inside concrete cubes during hydraulic fracturing process. Optical fibers embedded in concrete were used to monitor 3D strain field build-up with external hydraulic pressures. High spatial resolution strain fields were interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering with 1-cm spatial resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry. The fiber optics sensor scheme presented in this paper provides scientists and engineers a unique laboratory tool to understand the hydraulic fracturing processes in various rock formations and its impacts to environments.

  7. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis for osteoporosis using chest 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, K.; Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised of about 13 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis diagnosis support system obtained high extraction rate of the thoracic vertebral in both normal and low doses.

  9. Image Reconstruction from 2D stack of MRI/CT to 3D using Shapelets

    OpenAIRE

    Arathi T; Latha Parameswaran

    2014-01-01

    Image reconstruction is an active research field, due to the increasing need for geometric 3D models in movie industry, games, virtual environments and in medical fields. 3D image reconstruction aims to arrive at the 3D model of an object, from its 2D images taken at different viewing angles. Medical images are multimodal, which includes MRI, CT scan image, PET and SPECT images. Of these, MRI and CT scan images of an organ when taken, is available as a stack of 2D images, taken at different a...

  10. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  11. COMBINATION OF VIRTUAL TOURS, 3D MODEL AND DIGITAL DATA IN A 3D ARCHAEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koehl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS. With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc., digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.. The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic

  12. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  13. ACCURACY OF A 3D VISION SYSTEM FOR INSPECTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates an experimental method to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) vision system for the inspection of complex geometry. The aim is to provide a procedure to evaluate task related measurement uncertainty for virtually any measurement task. The key element of...

  14. Monopulse radar 3-D imaging and application in terminal guidance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Qin, Guodong; Zhang, Lina

    2007-11-01

    Monopulse radar 3-D imaging integrates ISAR, monopulse angle measurement and 3-D imaging processing to obtain the 3-D image which can reflect the real size of a target, which means any two of the three measurement parameters, namely azimuth difference beam elevation difference beam and radial range, can be used to form 3-D image of 3-D object. The basic principles of Monopulse radar 3-D imaging are briefly introduced, the effect of target carriage changes(including yaw, pitch, roll and movement of target itself) on 3-D imaging and 3-D moving compensation based on the chirp rate μ and Doppler frequency f d are analyzed, and the application of monopulse radar 3-D imaging to terminal guidance radars is forecasted. The computer simulation results show that monopulse radar 3-D imaging has apparent advantages in distinguishing a target from overside interference and precise assault on vital part of a target, and has great importance in terminal guidance radars.

  15. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor. PMID:24534920

  16. Full Waveform Analysis for Long-Range 3D Imaging Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of 3D imaging systems based on laser radar (ladar offers significant advantages in defense and security applications. In particular, it is possible to retrieve 3D shape information directly from the scene and separate a target from background or foreground clutter by extracting a narrow depth range from the field of view by range gating, either in the sensor or by postprocessing. We discuss and demonstrate the applicability of full-waveform ladar to produce multilayer 3D imagery, in which each pixel produces a complex temporal response that describes the scene structure. Such complexity caused by multiple and distributed reflection arises in many relevant scenarios, for example in viewing partially occluded targets, through semitransparent materials (e.g., windows and through distributed reflective media such as foliage. We demonstrate our methodology on 3D image data acquired by a scanning time-of-flight system, developed in our own laboratories, which uses the time-correlated single-photon counting technique.

  17. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway.

  18. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmentation, brain and vessel extraction, 3D visualization and manual planning of stereoEEG (SEEG) implantations. With dissemination of the software this pipeline can be reproduced in other centres, allowing other groups to benefit from 3DMMI. We also describe the use of an automated, multi-trajectory planner to generate stereoEEG implantation plans. Preliminary studies suggest this is a rapid, safe and efficacious adjunct for planning SEEG implantations. Finally, a simple solution for the export of plans and models to commercial neuronavigation systems for implementation of plans in the operating theater is described. This software is a valuable tool that can support clinical decision making throughout the epilepsy surgery pathway. PMID:27286266

  19. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen;

    2010-01-01

    of practical relevance for radiation oncology. This report focuses primarily on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance (3DCT-IGRT) systems. It will provide an overview and current standing of 3DCT-IGRT systems addressing the rationale, objectives, principles, applications, and process pathways, both clinical...... and technical for treatment delivery and quality assurance. These are reviewed for four categories of solutions; kV CT and kV CBCT (cone-beam CT) as well as MV CT and MV CBCT. It will also provide a framework and checklist to consider the capability and functionality of these systems as well as the resources...... needed for implementation. Two different but typical clinical cases (tonsillar and prostate cancer) using 3DCT-IGRT are illustrated with workflow processes via feedback questionnaires from several large clinical centres currently utilizing these systems. The feedback from these clinical centres...

  20. Internet2-based 3D PET image reconstruction using a PC cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, D W; Rapela, J; Asma, E; Chatzioannou, A; Qi, J; Leahy, R M

    2002-08-01

    We describe an approach to fast iterative reconstruction from fully three-dimensional (3D) PET data using a network of PentiumIII PCs configured as a Beowulf cluster. To facilitate the use of this system, we have developed a browser-based interface using Java. The system compresses PET data on the user's machine, sends these data over a network, and instructs the PC cluster to reconstruct the image. The cluster implements a parallelized version of our preconditioned conjugate gradient method for fully 3D MAP image reconstruction. We report on the speed-up factors using the Beowulf approach and the impacts of communication latencies in the local cluster network and the network connection between the user's machine and our PC cluster.

  1. Image-Based Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Encoding for 3d Building Model Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show a clear superiority

  2. Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of the Interior of Primitive Solar System Bodies: Comets and Asteroids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To probe the interior of a comet, we are going to employ Radar Reflection Imager (RRI) Instrument on an orbiting platform. While orbiting around the comet at a safe...

  3. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  4. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  5. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  6. Correlative Nanoscale 3D Imaging of Structure and Composition in Extended Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Xu; Lukas Helfen; Heikki Suhonen; Dan Elgrabli; Sam Bayat; Péter Reischig; Tilo Baumbach; Peter Cloetens

    2012-01-01

    Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D) resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome...

  7. 3D ultrasound system to investigate intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; Mehta, R.; St. Lawrence, K.; Fenster, A.

    2013-11-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disorder among preterm neonates that is routinely diagnosed and monitored by 2D cranial ultrasound (US). The cerebral ventricles of patients with IVH often have a period of ventricular dilation (ventriculomegaly). This initial increase in ventricle size can either spontaneously resolve, which often shows clinically as a period of stabilization in ventricle size and eventual decline back towards a more normal size, or progressive ventricular dilation that does not stabilize and which may require interventional therapy to reduce symptoms relating to increased intracranial pressure. To improve the characterization of ventricle dilation, we developed a 3D US imaging system that can be used with a conventional clinical US scanner to image the ventricular system of preterm neonates at risk of ventriculomegaly. A motorized transducer housing was designed specifically for hand-held use inside an incubator using a transducer commonly used for cranial 2D US scans. This system was validated using geometric phantoms, US/MRI compatible ventricle volume phantoms, and patient images to determine 3D reconstruction accuracy and inter- and intra-observer volume estimation variability. 3D US geometric reconstruction was found to be accurate with an error of 0.05) for the measured ventricle volumes between observers. This 3D US system can reliably produce 3D US images of the neonatal ventricular system. There is the potential to use this system to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time in patients with IVH.

  8. Assessment of radial image distortion and spherical aberration on 3D synthetic aperture PIV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of the effects of radial image distortion and spherical aberration on reconstruction quality of synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV). A simulated SAPIV system is used to image a synthetic particle volume. An idealized pinhole camera model is used for image formation with distortion and spherical aberration being added on with a polynomial model and a Fourier waveform model, respectively. Images from a simulated 5 × 5 camera array are taken, distorted or aberrated, realigned and averaged to form synthetic aperture images at a set of depths within the seeded volume. These images are thresholded to recover three-dimensional (3D) particle locations and a reconstructed 3D intensity field is formed. This reconstructed field is then evaluated according to intensity data and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as standard and rank correlation metrics. Results show that even small amounts of image distortion and spherical aberration can lead to lower correlation values, degradation of the SNR and information loss. Use of rank correlation increases the ability to match elements between the synthetic and reconstructed volumes relative to standard correlation. (paper)

  9. 3D OBJECT COORDINATES EXTRACTION BY RADARGRAMMETRY AND MULTI STEP IMAGE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eftekhari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays by high resolution SAR imaging systems as Radarsat-2, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-skyMed, three-dimensional terrain data extraction using SAR images is growing. InSAR and Radargrammetry are two most common approaches for removing 3D object coordinate from SAR images. Research has shown that extraction of terrain elevation data using satellite repeat pass interferometry SAR technique due to atmospheric factors and the lack of coherence between the images in areas with dense vegetation cover is a problematic. So the use of Radargrammetry technique can be effective. Generally height derived method by Radargrammetry consists of two stages: Images matching and space intersection. In this paper we propose a multi-stage algorithm founded on the combination of feature based and area based image matching. Then the RPCs that calculate for each images use for extracting 3D coordinate in matched points. At the end, the coordinates calculating that compare with coordinates extracted from 1 meters DEM. The results show root mean square errors for 360 points are 3.09 meters. We use a pair of spotlight TerraSAR-X images from JAM (IRAN in this article.

  10. Development of an advanced 3D cone beam tomographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.; Grangeat, Pierre; Morisseau, P.

    Due to its high spatial resolution, the 3D X-ray cone-beam tomograph (CT) maximizes understanding of test object microstructure. In order for the present X-ray CT NDT system to control ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, its spatial resolution must exceed 50 microns. Attention is given to two experimental data reconstructions that have been conducted to illustrate system capabilities.

  11. A segmentation method for 3D visualization of neurons imaged with a confocal laser scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Barrett, Steven F.; Wilcox, Michael J.

    2005-04-01

    Our understanding of the world around us is based primarily on three-dimensional information because of the environment in which we live and interact. Medical or biological image information is often collected in the form of two-dimensional, serial section images. As such, it is difficult for the observer to mentally reconstruct the three dimensional features of each object. Although many image rendering software packages allow for 3D views of the serial sections, they lack the ability to segment, or isolate different objects in the data set. Segmentation is the key to creating 3D renderings of distinct objects from serial slice images, like separate pieces to a puzzle. This paper describes a segmentation method for objects recorded with serial section images. The user defines threshold levels and object labels on a single image of the data set that are subsequently used to automatically segment each object in the remaining images of the same data set, while maintaining boundaries between contacting objects. The performance of the algorithm is verified using mathematically defined shapes. It is then applied to the visual neurons of the housefly, Musca domestica. Knowledge of the fly"s visual system may lead to improved machine visions systems. This effort has provided the impetus to develop this segmentation algorithm. The described segmentation method can be applied to any high contrast serial slice data set that is well aligned and registered. The medical field alone has many applications for rapid generation of 3D segmented models from MRI and other medical imaging modalities.

  12. Real-Time 3d Reconstruction from Images Taken from AN Uav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingoni, A.; Diani, M.; Corsini, G.; Masini, A.

    2015-08-01

    We designed a method for creating 3D models of objects and areas from two aerial images acquired from an UAV. The models are generated automatically and in real-time, and consist in dense and true-colour reconstructions of the considered areas, which give the impression to the operator to be physically present within the scene. The proposed method only needs a cheap compact camera, mounted on a small UAV. No additional instrumentation is necessary, so that the costs are very limited. The method consists of two main parts: the design of the acquisition system and the 3D reconstruction algorithm. In the first part, the choices for the acquisition geometry and for the camera parameters are optimized, in order to yield the best performance. In the second part, a reconstruction algorithm extracts the 3D model from the two acquired images, maximizing the accuracy under the real-time constraint. A test was performed in monitoring a construction yard, obtaining very promising results. Highly realistic and easy-to-interpret 3D models of objects and areas of interest were produced in less than one second, with an accuracy of about 0.5m. For its characteristics, the designed method is suitable for video-surveillance, remote sensing and monitoring, especially in those applications that require intuitive and reliable information quickly, as disasters monitoring, search and rescue and area surveillance.

  13. Simulation Study of Real Time 3-D Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new beamforming method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging using a 2-D matrix transducer. To obtain images with sufficient resolution and contrast, several thousand elements are needed. The proposed method reduces the required channel count from the...... transducer to the main imaging system, by including electronics in the transducer handle. The reduction of element channel count is achieved using a sequential beamforming scheme. The beamforming scheme is a combination of a fixed focus beamformer in the transducer and a second dynamic focus beamformer in...... the main system. The real-time imaging capability is achieved using a synthetic aperture beamforming technique, utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual elements that in combination can generate an image. The two core capabilities in combination is named Synthetic Aperture Sequential...

  14. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  15. 3D simulation of CANDU reactor regulating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present paper shows the evaluation of the performance of the 3-D modal synthesis based reactor kinetic model in a closed-loop environment in a MATLAB/SIMULINK based Reactor Regulating System (RRS) simulation platform. A notable advantage of the 3-D model is the level of details that it can reveal as compared to the coupled point kinetic model. Using the developed RRS simulation platform, the reactor internal behaviours can be revealed during load-following tests. The test results are also benchmarked against measurements from an existing (CANDU) power plant. It can be concluded that the 3-D reactor model produces more realistic view of the core neutron flux distribution, which is closer to the real plant measurements than that from a coupled point kinetic model. It is also shown that, through a vectorization process, the computational load of the 3-D model is comparable with that of the 14-zone coupled point kinetic model. Furthermore, the developed Graphical User Interface (GUI) software package for RRS implementation represents a user friendly and independent application environment for education training and industrial utilizations. (authors)

  16. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk;

    2014-01-01

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification...... of the narrow FOV camera. We substantiate these two observations by qualitative results on face reconstruction and quantitative results on face recognition. As a consequence, such a set-up allows to achieve better and much more flexible system for 3D face reconstruction e.g. for recognition or emotion....... We argue for two advantages of such a system: First, an extended work range, and second, the possibility to place the narrow FOV camera in a way such that a much better reconstruction quality can be achieved compared to a static camera even if the face had been fully visible in the periphery...

  17. Comparison of 3D TOF-MRA and 3D CE-MRA at 3 T for imaging of intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, Mario, E-mail: mario.cirillo@unina2.it [Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Aging Sciences – 2nd University of Naples (Italy); Scomazzoni, Francesco [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Cirillo, Luigi [IRCCS – Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Cadioli, Marcello; Simionato, Franco; Iadanza, Antonella [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Kirchin, Miles [Worldwide Medical and Regulatory Affairs, Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan (Italy); Righi, Claudio; Anzalone, Nicoletta [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare 3 T elliptical-centric CE MRA with 3 T TOF MRA for the detection and characterization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs), by using digital subtracted angiography (DSA) as reference. Materials and methods: Twenty-nine patients (12 male, 17 female; mean age: 62 years) with 41 aneurysms (34 saccular, 7 fusiform; mean diameter: 8.85 mm [range 2.0–26.4 mm]) were evaluated with MRA at 3 T each underwent 3D TOF-MRA examination without contrast and then a 3D contrast-enhanced (CE-MRA) examination with 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight gadobenate dimeglumine and k-space elliptic mapping (Contrast ENhanced Timing Robust Angiography [CENTRA]). Both TOF and CE-MRA images were used to evaluate morphologic features that impact the risk of rupture and the selection of a treatment. Almost half (20/41) of UIAs were located in the internal carotid artery, 7 in the anterior communicating artery, 9 in the middle cerebral artery and 4 in the vertebro-basilar arterial system. All patients also underwent DSA before or after the MR examination. Results: The CE-MRA results were in all cases consistent with the DSA dataset. No differences were noted between 3D TOF-MRA and CE-MRA concerning the detection and location of the 41 aneurysms or visualization of the parental artery. Differences were apparent concerning the visualization of morphologic features, especially for large aneurysms (>13 mm). An irregular sac shape was demonstrated for 21 aneurysms on CE-MRA but only 13/21 aneurysms on 3D TOF-MRA. Likewise, CE-MRA permitted visualization of an aneurismal neck and calculation of the sac/neck ratio for all 34 aneurysms with a neck demonstrated at DSA. Conversely, a neck was visible for only 24/34 aneurysms at 3D TOF-MRA. 3D CE-MRA detected 15 aneurysms with branches originating from the sac and/or neck, whereas branches were recognized in only 12/15 aneurysms at 3D TOF-MRA. Conclusion: For evaluation of intracranial aneurysms at 3 T, 3D CE-MRA is superior to 3D TOF

  18. 3D printed nervous system on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Lancaster, Karen Z; Hogue, Ian B; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-04-12

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology. PMID:26669842

  19. Parallel Imaging of 3D Surface Profile with Space-Division Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Seok; Cho, Soon-Woo; Kim, Gyeong Hun; Jeong, Myung Yung; Won, Young Jae; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system that performs parallel imaging of three-dimensional (3D) surface profiles by using the space division multiplexing (SDM) method with dual-area swept sourced beams. We have also demonstrated that 3D surface information for two different areas could be well obtained in a same time with only one camera by our method. In this study, double field of views (FOVs) of 11.16 mm × 5.92 mm were achieved within 0.5 s. Height range for each FOV was 460 µm and axial and transverse resolutions were 3.6 and 5.52 µm, respectively. PMID:26805840

  20. Parallel Imaging of 3D Surface Profile with Space-Division Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI system that performs parallel imaging of three-dimensional (3D surface profiles by using the space division multiplexing (SDM method with dual-area swept sourced beams. We have also demonstrated that 3D surface information for two different areas could be well obtained in a same time with only one camera by our method. In this study, double field of views (FOVs of 11.16 mm × 5.92 mm were achieved within 0.5 s. Height range for each FOV was 460 µm and axial and transverse resolutions were 3.6 and 5.52 µm, respectively.

  1. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmen...

  2. Performance Analysis of a Low-Cost Triangulation-Based 3d Camera: Microsoft Kinect System

    Science.gov (United States)

    . K. Chow, J. C.; Ang, K. D.; Lichti, D. D.; Teskey, W. F.

    2012-07-01

    Recent technological advancements have made active imaging sensors popular for 3D modelling and motion tracking. The 3D coordinates of signalised targets are traditionally estimated by matching conjugate points in overlapping images. Current 3D cameras can acquire point clouds at video frame rates from a single exposure station. In the area of 3D cameras, Microsoft and PrimeSense have collaborated and developed an active 3D camera based on the triangulation principle, known as the Kinect system. This off-the-shelf system costs less than 150 USD and has drawn a lot of attention from the robotics, computer vision, and photogrammetry disciplines. In this paper, the prospect of using the Kinect system for precise engineering applications was evaluated. The geometric quality of the Kinect system as a function of the scene (i.e. variation of depth, ambient light conditions, incidence angle, and object reflectivity) and the sensor (i.e. warm-up time and distance averaging) were analysed quantitatively. This system's potential in human body measurements was tested against a laser scanner and 3D range camera. A new calibration model for simultaneously determining the exterior orientation parameters, interior orientation parameters, boresight angles, leverarm, and object space features parameters was developed and the effectiveness of this calibration approach was explored.

  3. 3D imaging by fast deconvolution algorithm in short-range UWB radar for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelyev, T.; Yarovoy, A.

    2013-01-01

    A fast imaging algorithm for real-time use in short-range (ultra-wideband) radar with synthetic or real-array aperture is proposed. The reflected field is presented here as a convolution of the target reflectivity and point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system. To obtain a focused 3D image, t

  4. Flash trajectory imaging of target 3D motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Songtao; He, Jun; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-03-01

    We present a flash trajectory imaging technique which can directly obtain target trajectory and realize non-contact measurement of motion parameters by range-gated imaging and time delay integration. Range-gated imaging gives the range of targets and realizes silhouette detection which can directly extract targets from complex background and decrease the complexity of moving target image processing. Time delay integration increases information of one single frame of image so that one can directly gain the moving trajectory. In this paper, we have studied the algorithm about flash trajectory imaging and performed initial experiments which successfully obtained the trajectory of a falling badminton. Our research demonstrates that flash trajectory imaging is an effective approach to imaging target trajectory and can give motion parameters of moving targets.

  5. 3D medical image segmentation based on a continuous modelling of the volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several medical imaging/techniques, including Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provide 3D information of the human body by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. But a more sophisticated edge detection step has to be performed when the object under study is not well defined by its characteristic density or when an analytical knowledge of the surface of the object is useful for later processings. A new method for medical image segmentation has been developed: it uses the stability and differentiability properties of a continuous modelling of the 3D data. The idea is to build a system of Ordinary Differential Equations which the stable manifold is the surface of the object we are looking for. This technique has been applied to classical edge detection operators: threshold following, laplacian, gradient maximum in its direction. It can be used in 2D as well as in 3D and has been extended to seek particular points of the surface, such as local extrema. The major advantages of this method are as follows: the segmentation and boundary following steps are performed simultaneously, an analytical representation of the surface is obtained straightforwardly and complex objects in which branching problems may occur can be described automatically. Simulations on noisy synthetic images have induced a quantization step to test the sensitiveness to noise of our method with respect to each operator, and to study the influence of all the parameters. Last, this method has been applied to numerous real clinical exams: skull or femur images provided by CT, MR images of a cerebral tumor and of the ventricular system. These results show the reliability and the efficiency of this new method of segmentation

  6. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  7. NDE of spacecraft materials using 3D Compton backscatter x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E. R.; Grubsky, V.; Romanov, V.; Shoemaker, K.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of testing of the NDE performance of a Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) system for single-sided, penetrating 3D inspection. The system was recently developed by Physical Optics Corporation (POC) and delivered to NASA for testing and evaluation. The CIT technology is based on 3D structure mapping by collecting the information on density profiles in multiple object cross sections through hard x-ray Compton backscatter imaging. The individual cross sections are processed and fused together in software, generating a 3D map of the density profile of the object which can then be analyzed slice-by-slice in x, y, or z directions. The developed CIT scanner is based on a 200-kV x-ray source, flat-panel x-ray detector (FPD), and apodized x-ray imaging optics. The CIT technology is particularly well suited to the NDE of lightweight aerospace materials, such as the thermal protection system (TPS) ceramic and composite materials, micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding, spacecraft pressure walls, inflatable habitat structures, composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), and aluminum honeycomb materials. The current system provides 3D localization of defects and features with field of view 20x12x8 cm3 and spatial resolution ˜2 mm. In this paper, we review several aerospace NDE applications of the CIT technology, with particular emphasis on TPS. Based on the analysis of the testing results, we provide recommendations for continued development on TPS applications that can benefit the most from the unique capabilities of this new NDE technology.

  8. Weighted 3D GS Algorithm for Image-Qquality Improvement of Multi-Plane Holographic Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 毕勇; 王皓; 孙敏远; 孔新新

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically,three-dimensional (3D) GS algorithm can realize 3D displays; however,correlation of the output image is restricted because of the interaction among multiple planes,thus failing to meet the image-quality requirements in practical applications.We introduce the weight factors and propose the weighted 3D GS algorithm,which can realize selective control of the correlation of multi-plane display based on the traditional 3D GS algorithm.Improvement in image quality is accomplished by the selection of appropriate weight factors.

  9. 3D multicolor super-resolution imaging offers improved accuracy in neuron tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Lakadamyali

    Full Text Available The connectivity among neurons holds the key to understanding brain function. Mapping neural connectivity in brain circuits requires imaging techniques with high spatial resolution to facilitate neuron tracing and high molecular specificity to mark different cellular and molecular populations. Here, we tested a three-dimensional (3D, multicolor super-resolution imaging method, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM, for tracing neural connectivity using cultured hippocampal neurons obtained from wild-type neonatal rat embryos as a model system. Using a membrane specific labeling approach that improves labeling density compared to cytoplasmic labeling, we imaged neural processes at 44 nm 2D and 116 nm 3D resolution as determined by considering both the localization precision of the fluorescent probes and the Nyquist criterion based on label density. Comparison with confocal images showed that, with the currently achieved resolution, we could distinguish and trace substantially more neuronal processes in the super-resolution images. The accuracy of tracing was further improved by using multicolor super-resolution imaging. The resolution obtained here was largely limited by the label density and not by the localization precision of the fluorescent probes. Therefore, higher image resolution, and thus higher tracing accuracy, can in principle be achieved by further improving the label density.

  10. Optical design for uniform scanning in MEMS-based 3D imaging lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Chunhui

    2015-03-20

    This paper proposes a method for the optical system design of uniform scanning in a larger scan field of view (FOV) in 3D imaging lidar. The theoretical formulas are derived for the design scheme. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, a foldaway uniform scanning optical system based on MEMS has been designed, and the scanning uniformity and spot size of the system on the target plane, perpendicular to optical axis, are analyzed and discussed. Results show that the designed system can scan uniformly within the FOV of 40°×40° with small spot size for the target at distance of about 100 m. PMID:25968504

  11. Imaging of human differentiated 3D neural aggregates using light sheet fluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Gualda, Emilio J.; Simão, Daniel; Pinto, Catarina; Alves, Paula M.; Brito, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    The development of three dimensional (3D) cell cultures represents a big step for the better understanding of cell behavior and disease in a more natural like environment, providing not only single but multiple cell type interactions in a complex 3D matrix, highly resembling physiological conditions. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is becoming an excellent tool for fast imaging of such 3D biological structures. We demonstrate the potential of this technique for the imaging of human...

  12. Infrared imaging of the polymer 3D-printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lindal, John M.; Post, Brian; Smith, Rachel J.; Love, Lonnie; Duty, Chad E.

    2014-05-01

    Both mid-wave and long-wave IR cameras are used to measure various temperature profiles in thermoplastic parts as they are printed. Two significantly different 3D-printers are used in this study. The first is a small scale commercially available Solidoodle 3 printer, which prints parts with layer thicknesses on the order of 125μm. The second printer used is a "Big Area Additive Manufacturing" (BAAM) 3D-printer developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The BAAM prints parts with a layer thicknesses of 4.06 mm. Of particular interest is the temperature of the previously deposited layer as the new hot layer is about to be extruded onto it. The two layers are expected have a stronger bond if the temperature of the substrate layer is above the glass transition temperature. This paper describes the measurement technique and results for a study of temperature decay and substrate layer temperature for ABS thermoplastic with and without the addition of chopped carbon fibers.

  13. Quality Prediction of Asymmetrically Distorted Stereoscopic 3D Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiheng; Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Shiqi; Wang, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Objective quality assessment of distorted stereoscopic images is a challenging problem, especially when the distortions in the left and right views are asymmetric. Existing studies suggest that simply averaging the quality of the left and right views well predicts the quality of symmetrically distorted stereoscopic images, but generates substantial prediction bias when applied to asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images. In this paper, we first build a database that contains both single-view and symmetrically and asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images. We then carry out a subjective test, where we find that the quality prediction bias of the asymmetrically distorted images could lean toward opposite directions (overestimate or underestimate), depending on the distortion types and levels. Our subjective test also suggests that eye dominance effect does not have strong impact on the visual quality decisions of stereoscopic images. Furthermore, we develop an information content and divisive normalization-based pooling scheme that improves upon structural similarity in estimating the quality of single-view images. Finally, we propose a binocular rivalry-inspired multi-scale model to predict the quality of stereoscopic images from that of the single-view images. Our results show that the proposed model, without explicitly identifying image distortion types, successfully eliminates the prediction bias, leading to significantly improved quality prediction of the stereoscopic images. PMID:26087491

  14. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  15. Object data mining and analysis on 3D images of high precision industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some areas of interest on 3D images of the high precision industrial CT, such as defects caused during the production process. In order to take a close analysis of these areas, the image processing software Amira was used on the data of a particular work piece sample to do defects segmentation and display, defects measurement. evaluation and documentation. A data set obtained by scanning a vise sample using the lab CT system was analyzed and the results turn out to be fairly good. (authors)

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  17. Network level pavement evaluation with 1 mm 3D survey system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C.P. Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest iteration of PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1 mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all 3 directions at highway speed up to 60 mph. This paper introduces the PaveVision3D Ultra technology for rapid network level pavement survey on approximately 1280 center miles of Oklahoma interstate highways. With sophisticated automated distress analyzer (ADA software interface, the collected 1 mm 3D data provide Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT with comprehensive solutions for automated evaluation of pavement surface including longitudinal profile for roughness, transverse profile for rutting, predicted hydroplaning speed for safety analysis, and cracking and various surface defects for distresses. The pruned exact linear time (PELT method, an optimal partitioning algorithm, is implemented to identify change points and dynamically determine homogeneous segments so as to assist ODOT effectively using the available 1 mm 3D pavement surface condition data for decision-making. The application of 1 mm 3D laser imaging technology for network survey is unprecedented. This innovative technology allows highway agencies to access its options in using the 1 mm 3D system for its design and management purposes, particularly to meet the data needs for pavement management system (PMS, pavement ME design and highway performance monitoring system (HPMS.

  18. MR imaging in epilepsy with use of 3D MP-RAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patients were 40 males and 33 females; their ages ranged from 1 month to 39 years (mean: 15.7 years). The patients underwent MR imaging, including spin-echo T1-weighted, turbo spin-echo proton density/T2-weighted, and 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D MP-RAGE) images. These examinations disclosed 39 focal abnormalities. On visual evaluation, the boundary of abnormal gray matter in the neuronal migration disorder (NMD) cases was most clealy shown on 3D MP-RAGE images as compared to the other images. This is considered to be due to the higher spatial resolution and the better contrast of the 3D MP-RAGE images than those of the other techniques. The relative contrast difference between abnormal gray matter and the adjacent white matter was also assessed. The results revealed that the contrast differences on the 3D MP-RAGE images were larger than those on the other images; this was statistically significant. Although the sensitivity of 3D MP-RAGE for NMD was not specifically evaluated in this study, the possibility of this disorder, in cases suspected on other images, could be ruled out. Thus, it appears that the specificity with respect to NMD was at least increased with us of 3D MP-RAGE. 3D MP-RAGE also enabled us to build three-dimensional surface models that were helpful in understanding the three-dimensional anatomy. Furthermore. 3D MP-RAGE was considered to be the best technique for evaluating hippocampus atrophy in patients with MTS. On the other hand, the sensitivity in the signal change of the hippocampus was higher on T2-weighted images. In addition, demonstration of cortical tubers of tuberous sclerosis in neurocutaneous syndrome was superior on T2-weighted images than on 3D MP-RAGE images. (K.H.)

  19. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  20. Spectroscopy and 3D imaging of the Crab nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Cadez, A; Vidrih, S

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy of the Crab nebula along different slit directions reveals the 3 dimensional structure of the optical nebula. On the basis of the linear radial expansion result first discovered by Trimble (1968), we make a 3D model of the optical emission. Results from a limited number of slit directions suggest that optical lines originate from a complicated array of wisps that are located in a rather thin shell, pierced by a jet. The jet is certainly not prominent in optical emission lines, but the direction of the piercing is consistent with the direction of the X-ray and radio jet. The shell's effective radius is ~ 79 seconds of arc, its thickness about a third of the radius and it is moving out with an average velocity 1160 km/s.

  1. Efficient RPG detection in noisy 3D image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipitone, Frank

    2011-06-01

    We address the automatic detection of Ambush weapons such as rocket propelled grenades (RPGs) from range data which might be derived from multiple camera stereo with textured illumination or by other means. We describe our initial work in a new project involving the efficient acquisition of 3D scene data as well as discrete point invariant techniques to perform real time search for threats to a convoy. The shapes of the jump boundaries in the scene are exploited in this paper, rather than on-surface points, due to the large error typical of depth measurement at long range and the relatively high resolution obtainable in the transverse direction. We describe examples of the generation of a novel range-scaled chain code for detecting and matching jump boundaries.

  2. Analysis of information for cerebrovascular disorders obtained by 3D MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kohki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Medical Science; Yoshioka, Naoki; Watanabe, Fumio; Shiono, Takahiro; Sugishita, Morihiro; Umino, Kazunori

    1995-12-01

    Recently, it becomes easy to analyze information obtained by 3D MR imaging due to remarkable progress of fast MR imaging technique and analysis tool. Six patients suffered from aphasia (4 cerebral infarctions and 2 bleedings) were performed 3D MR imaging (3D FLASH-TR/TE/flip angle; 20-50 msec/6-10 msec/20-30 degrees) and their volume information were analyzed by multiple projection reconstruction (MPR), surface rendering 3D reconstruction, and volume rendering 3D reconstruction using Volume Design PRO (Medical Design Co., Ltd.). Four of them were diagnosed as Broca`s aphasia clinically and their lesions could be detected around the cortices of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Another 2 patients were diagnosed as Wernicke`s aphasia and the lesions could be detected around the cortices of the left supramarginal gyrus. This technique for 3D volume analyses would provide quite exact locational information about cerebral cortical lesions. (author).

  3. MULTI-SPECTRAL AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE FUSION USING 3-D WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yifan; He Mingyi

    2007-01-01

    Image fusion is performed between one band of multi-spectral image and two bands of hyperspectral image to produce fused image with the same spatial resolution as source multi-spectral image and the same spectral resolution as source hyperspectral image. According to the characteristics and 3-Dimensional (3-D) feature analysis of multi-spectral and hyperspectral image data volume, the new fusion approach using 3-D wavelet based method is proposed. This approach is composed of four major procedures: Spatial and spectral resampling, 3-D wavelet transform, wavelet coefficient integration and 3-D inverse wavelet transform. Especially, a novel method, Ratio Image Based Spectral Resampling (RIBSR) method, is proposed to accomplish data resampling in spectral domain by utilizing the property of ratio image. And a new fusion rule, Average and Substitution (A&S) rule, is employed as the fusion rule to accomplish wavelet coefficient integration. Experimental results illustrate that the fusion approach using 3-D wavelet transform can utilize both spatial and spectral characteristics of source images more adequately and produce fused image with higher quality and fewer artifacts than fusion approach using 2-D wavelet transform. It is also revealed that RIBSR method is capable of interpolating the missing data more effectively and correctly, and A&S rule can integrate coefficients of source images in 3-D wavelet domain to preserve both spatial and spectral features of source images more properly.

  4. Heterogeneous 3D integration of 17 μm pitch Si/SiGe quantum well bolometer arrays for infrared imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the realization of 17 μm × 17 μm pitch bolometer arrays for uncooled infrared imagers. Microbolometer arrays have been available in primarily defense applications since the mid-1980s and are typically based on deposited thin films on top of CMOS wafers that are surface-machined into sensor pixels. This paper instead focuses on the heterogeneous integration of monocrystalline Si/SiGe quantum-well-based thermistor material in a CMOS-compliant process using adhesive wafer bonding. The high-quality monocrystalline thermistor material opens up for potentially lower noise compared to commercially available uncooled microbolometer arrays together with a competitive temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Characterized bolometers had a TCR of −2.9% K−1 in vacuum, measured thermal conductances around 5 × 10−8 W K−1 and thermal time constants between 4.9 and 8.5 ms, depending on the design. Complications in the fabrication of stress-free bolometer legs and low-noise contacts are discussed and analyzed. (paper)

  5. Recent development of 3D imaging laser sensor in Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaki, M.; Kotake, N.; Tsuji, H.; Hirai, A.; Kameyama, S.

    2013-09-01

    We have been developing 3-D imaging laser sensors for several years, because they can acquire the additional information of the scene, i.e. the range data. It enhances the potential to detect unwanted people and objects, the sensors can be utilized for applications such as safety control and security surveillance, and so forth. In this paper, we focus on two types of our sensors, which are high-frame-rate type and compact-type. To realize the high-frame-rate type system, we have developed two key devices: the linear array receiver which has 256 single InAlAs-APD detectors and the read-out IC (ROIC) array which is fabricated in SiGe-BiCMOS process, and they are connected electrically to each other. Each ROIC measures not only the intensity, but also the distance to the scene by high-speed analog signal processing. In addition, by scanning the mirror mechanically in perpendicular direction to the linear image receiver, we have realized the high speed operation, in which the frame rate is over 30 Hz and the number of pixels is 256 x 256. In the compact-type 3-D imaging laser sensor development, we have succeeded in downsizing the transmitter by scanning only the laser beam with a two-dimensional MEMS scanner. To obtain wide fieldof- view image, as well as the angle of the MEMS scanner, the receiving optical system and the large area receiver are needed. We have developed the large detecting area receiver that consists of 32 rectangular detectors, where the output signals of each detector are summed up. In this phase, our original circuit evaluates each signal level, removes the low-level signals, and sums them, in order to improve the signalto- noise ratio. In the following paper, we describe the system configurations and the recent experimental results of the two types of our 3-D imaging laser sensors.

  6. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Ferin, Guillaume;

    2012-01-01

    phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60 in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. This results for both techniques in a frame rate of 18 Hz. The implemented synthetic aperture technique...

  7. 基于后端扫描的三维超声成像系统%A 3D-Ultrasound Imaging System Based on Back-end Scanning Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐建; 陈益民; 丁明跃; 尉迟明

    2012-01-01

    A new scanning mode is proposed that the front-end of the probe is fixed, while the back-end makes fan-shaped, scanning movement. The new scanning mode avoided ribs drawbacks successfully, based on the new scanning mode a 3D-Ultrasound Images System is accomplished to acquire 2D data of fetusfetus fetusfetus phantom and livers and kidneys, to demonstrates the effectiveness of the new scanning mode.%提出了一种将探头前端固定,后端以恒定速度进行扇形扫描的扫描方式,可有效避免肋骨的遮挡.基于此扫描模式,搭建了一套三维超声成像系统,采集了胎儿体模和人体肝肾脏二维数据,证明了该扫描模式的有效性.

  8. Quality assessment of stereoscopic 3D image compression by binocular integration behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Ja-Ling

    2014-04-01

    The objective approaches of 3D image quality assessment play a key role for the development of compression standards and various 3D multimedia applications. The quality assessment of 3D images faces more new challenges, such as asymmetric stereo compression, depth perception, and virtual view synthesis, than its 2D counterparts. In addition, the widely used 2D image quality metrics (e.g., PSNR and SSIM) cannot be directly applied to deal with these newly introduced challenges. This statement can be verified by the low correlation between the computed objective measures and the subjectively measured mean opinion scores (MOSs), when 3D images are the tested targets. In order to meet these newly introduced challenges, in this paper, besides traditional 2D image metrics, the binocular integration behaviors-the binocular combination and the binocular frequency integration, are utilized as the bases for measuring the quality of stereoscopic 3D images. The effectiveness of the proposed metrics is verified by conducting subjective evaluations on publicly available stereoscopic image databases. Experimental results show that significant consistency could be reached between the measured MOS and the proposed metrics, in which the correlation coefficient between them can go up to 0.88. Furthermore, we found that the proposed metrics can also address the quality assessment of the synthesized color-plus-depth 3D images well. Therefore, it is our belief that the binocular integration behaviors are important factors in the development of objective quality assessment for 3D images.

  9. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-07-30

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. Recently, the trend is to enhance system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the characterization of 3D channels. We present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles. Based on this model, we provide analytical expression for the cumulative density function (CDF) of the mutual information (MI) for systems with a single receive and finite number of transmit antennas in the general signalto- interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) regime. The result is extended to systems with finite receive antennas in the low SINR regime. A Gaussian approximation to the asymptotic behavior of MI distribution is derived for the large number of transmit antennas and paths regime. We corroborate our analysis with simulations that study the performance gains realizable through meticulous selection of the transmit antenna downtilt angles, confirming the potential of elevation beamforming to enhance system performance. The results are directly applicable to the analysis of 5G 3D-Massive MIMO-systems.

  10. Stokes imaging of AM Her systems using 3D inhomogeneous models - I. Description of the code and an application to V834 Cen

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, J E R

    2009-01-01

    Polars (or AM Her systems) are cataclysmic variables without a disc due to the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. Most of their emission comes from the region where the accretion column impacts the white dwarf and cools through cyclotron and bremsstrahlung processes. We present a new code, CYCLOPS, to model the optical emission from these systems including the four Stokes parameters. It considers a three-dimensional region with the electronic density and temperature varying following a \\textit{shock-like} profile and a dipolar magnetic field. The radiative transfer is solved in steps considering the solution with non-null input radiation. The footprint of the column in the white-dwarf surface is determined by the threading region in the equatorial plane, i.e., the region from where the flow follows the magnetic lines. The extinction caused by Thomson scattering above the emitting region is optionally included. The fittings of observational data are done using a hybrid approach: a genetic algorithm is u...

  11. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  12. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; Mayhew, Brett [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno; McNamara, David [Department of Geothermal Science, GNS Science, NZ

    2013-06-23

    Robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin, USA is a product of both anomalously high regional heat flow and active fault-controlled extension. Elevated permeability associated with some fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Constraining the local-scale 3D geometry of these structures and their roles as fluid flow conduits is crucial in order to mitigate both the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and to identify blind (no surface expression) geothermal resources. Ongoing studies have indicated that much of the robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin is associated with high density faulting at structurally complex fault intersection/interaction areas, such as accommodation/transfer zones between discrete fault systems, step-overs or relay ramps in fault systems, intersection zones between faults with different strikes or different senses of slip, and horse-tailing fault terminations. These conceptualized models are crucial for locating and characterizing geothermal systems in a regional context. At the local scale, however, pinpointing drilling targets and characterizing resource potential within known or probable geothermal areas requires precise 3D characterization of the system. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we have conducted detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems. Using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics Inc., Alameda, CA) we constructed 3D geologic models of both the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, NV. These 3D models allow spatial comparison of disparate data sets in 3D and are the basis for quantitative structural analyses that can aid geothermal resource assessment and be used to pinpoint discrete drilling targets. The relatively abundant data set at Brady’s, ~80 km NE of Reno, NV, includes 24 wells with lithologies interpreted from careful analysis of cuttings and core, a 1

  13. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  14. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  15. Online reconstruction of 3D magnetic particle imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging is a quantitative functional imaging technique that allows imaging of the spatial distribution of super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles at high temporal resolution. The raw data acquisition can be performed at frame rates of more than 40 volumes s‑1. However, to date image reconstruction is performed in an offline step and thus no direct feedback is available during the experiment. Considering potential interventional applications such direct feedback would be mandatory. In this work, an online reconstruction framework is implemented that allows direct visualization of the particle distribution on the screen of the acquisition computer with a latency of about 2 s. The reconstruction process is adaptive and performs block-averaging in order to optimize the signal quality for a given amount of reconstruction time.

  16. Building Extraction from DSM Acquired by Airborne 3D Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Hongjian; LI Shukai

    2003-01-01

    Segmentation and edge regulation are studied deeply to extract buildings from DSM data produced in this paper. Building segmentation is the first step to extract buildings, and a new segmentation method-adaptive iterative segmentation considering ratio mean square-is proposed to extract the contour of buildings effectively. A sub-image (such as 50× 50 pixels )of the image is processed in sequence,the average gray level and its ratio mean square are calculated first, then threshold of the sub-image is selected by using iterative threshold segmentation. The current pixel is segmented according to the threshold, the aver-age gray level and the ratio mean square of the sub-image. The edge points of the building are grouped according to the azimuth of neighbor points, and then the optimal azimuth of the points that belong to the same group can be calculated by using line interpolation.

  17. Critical Comparison of 3-d Imaging Approaches for NGST

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    Currently three imaging spectrometer architectures, tunable filter, dispersive, and Fourier transform, are viable for imaging the universe in three dimensions. There are domains of greatest utility for each of these architectures. The optimum choice among the various alternative architectures is dependent on the nature of the desired observations, the maturity of the relevant technology, and the character of the backgrounds. The domain appropriate for each of the alternatives is delineated; b...

  18. Correlative nanoscale 3D imaging of structure and composition in extended objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome these limitations, we present a non-destructive and multiple-contrast imaging technique, using principles of X-ray laminography, thus generalizing tomography towards laterally extended objects. We retain advantages that are usually restricted to 2D microscopic imaging, such as scanning of large areas and subsequent zooming-in towards a region of interest at the highest possible resolution. Our technique permits correlating the 3D structure and the elemental distribution yielding a high sensitivity to variations of the electron density via coherent imaging and to local trace element quantification through X-ray fluorescence. We demonstrate the method by imaging a lithographic nanostructure and an aluminum alloy. Analyzing a biological system, we visualize in lung tissue the subcellular response to toxic stress after exposure to nanotubes. We show that most of the nanotubes are trapped inside alveolar macrophages, while a small portion of the nanotubes has crossed the barrier to the cellular space of the alveolar wall. In general, our method is non-destructive and can be combined with different sample environmental or loading conditions. We therefore anticipate that correlative X-ray nano-laminography will enable a variety of in situ and in operando 3D studies.

  19. 3D pulmonary airway color image reconstruction via shape from shading and virtual bronchoscopy imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The dependence on macro-optical imaging of the human body in the assessment of possible disease is rapidly increasing concurrent with, and as a direct result of, advancements made in medical imaging technologies. Assessing the pulmonary airways through bronchoscopy is performed extensively in clinical practice however remains highly subjective due to limited visualization techniques and the lack of quantitative analyses. The representation of 3D structures in 2D visualization modes, although providing an insight to the structural content of the scene, may in fact skew the perception of the structural form. We have developed two methods for visualizing the optically derived airway mucosal features whilst preserving the structural scene integrity. Shape from shading (SFS) techniques can be used to extract 3D structural information from 2D optical images. The SFS technique presented addresses many limitations previously encountered in conventional techniques resulting in high-resolution 3D color images. The second method presented to combine both color and structural information relies on combined CT and bronchoscopy imaging modalities. External imaging techniques such as CT provide a means of determining the gross structural anatomy of the pulmonary airways, however lack the important optically derived mucosal color. Virtual bronchoscopy is used to provide a direct link between the CT derived structural anatomy and the macro-optically derived mucosal color. Through utilization of a virtual and true bronchoscopy matching technique we are able to directly extract combined structurally sound 3D color segments of the pulmonary airways. Various pulmonary airway diseases are assessed and the resulting combined color and texture results are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the presented techniques.

  20. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  1. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Channel Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-03-01

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel\\'s degrees of freedom in the elevation through the dynamic adaptation of the vertical antenna beam pattern. This necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels. Over the years, channel models have evolved to address the challenges of wireless communication technologies. In parallel to theoretical studies on channel modeling, many standardized channel models like COST-based models, 3GPP SCM, WINNER, ITU have emerged that act as references for industries and telecommunication companies to assess system-level and link-level performances of advanced signal processing techniques over real-like channels. Given the existing channels are only two dimensional (2D) in nature; a large effort in channel modeling is needed to study the impact of the channel component in the elevation direction. The first part of this work sheds light on the current 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling and beamforming, an aspect that to our knowledge has not been extensively covered by a research publication. The standardized MIMO channel model is presented, that incorporates both the propagation effects of the environment and the radio effects of the antennas. In order to facilitate future studies on the use of 3D beamforming, the main features of the proposed 3D channel model are discussed. A brief overview of the future 3GPP 3D channel model being outlined for the next generation of wireless networks is also provided. In the subsequent part of this work, we present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles of departure and

  2. First images and orientation of internal waves from a 3-D seismic oceanography data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Blacic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 3-D images of ocean finestructure from a unique industry-collected 3-D multichannel seismic dataset from the Gulf of Mexico that includes expendable bathythermograpgh casts for both swaths. 2-D processing reveals strong laterally continuous reflectors throughout the upper ~800 m as well as a few weaker but still distinct reflectors as deep as ~1100 m. Two bright reflections are traced across the 225-m-wide swath to produce reflector surface images that show the 3-D structure of internal waves. We show that the orientation of internal wave crests can be obtained by calculating the orientations of contours of reflector relief. Preliminary 3-D processing further illustrates the potential of 3-D seismic data in interpreting images of oceanic features such as internal wave strains. This work demonstrates the viability of imaging oceanic finestructure in 3-D and shows that, beyond simply providing a way to see what oceanic finestructure looks like, quantitative information such as the spatial orientation of features like internal waves and solitons can be obtained from 3-D seismic images. We expect complete, optimized 3-D processing to improve both the signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution of our images resulting in increased options for analysis and interpretation.

  3. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  4. Space Radar Image Isla Isabela in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional view of Isabela, one of the Galapagos Islands located off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image on a digital elevation map produced by TOPSAR, a prototype airborne interferometric radar which produces simultaneous image and elevation data. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles)west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii and reflect the volcanic processes that occur where the ocean floor is created. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been more than 60 recorded eruptions on these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. Vertical exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults, and fractures) and topography. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data

  5. Integrated Interventional Devices For Real Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lee, Warren; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Pua, Eric C.; Light, Edward D.

    2006-05-01

    Two recent advances have expanded the potential of medical ultrasound: the introduction of real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging with catheter, transesophageal and laparoscopic probes and the development of interventional ultrasound therapeutic systems for focused ultrasound surgery, ablation and ultrasound enhanced drug delivery. This work describes devices combining both technologies. A series of transducer probes have been designed, fabricated and tested including: 1) a 12 French side scanning catheter incorporating a 64 element matrix array for imaging at 5MHz and a piston ablation transducer operating at 10 MHz. 2) a 14 Fr forward-scanning catheter integrating a 112 element 2-D array for imaging at 5 MHz encircled by an ablation annulus operating at 10 MHz. Finite element modeling was then used to simulate catheter annular and linear phased array transducers for ablation. 3) Linear phased array transducers were built to confirm the finite element analysis at 4 and 8 MHz including a mechanically focused 86 element 9 MHz array which transmits an ISPTA of 29.3 W/cm2 and creates a lesion in 2 minutes. 4) 2-D arrays of 504 channels operating at 5 MHz have been developed for transesophageal and laparascopic 3D imaging as well as therapeutic heating. All the devices image the heart anatomy including atria, valves, septa and en face views of the pulmonary veins.

  6. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-01-21

    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  7. 3D Myocardial Contraction Imaging Based on Dynamic Grid Interpolation: Theory and Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shuhui; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Takizawa, Hotaka

    Accurate assessment of local myocardial contraction is important for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, because decreases of myocardial motion often appear in the early stages of the disease. Three-dimensional (3-D) assessment of the stiffness distribution is required for accurate diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Since myocardium motion occurs radially within the left ventricle wall and the ultrasound beam propagates axially, conventional approaches, such as tissue Doppler imaging and strain-rate imaging techniques, cannot provide us with enough quantitative information about local myocardial contraction. In order to resolve this problem, we propose a novel myocardial contraction imaging system which utilizes the weighted phase gradient method, the extended combined autocorrelation method, and the dynamic grid interpolation (DGI) method. From the simulation results, we conclude that the strain image's accuracy and contrast have been improved by the proposed method.

  8. Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Niclass, Cristiano; Rochas, Alexis; Besse, Pierre-André; Charbon, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    The design and characterization of an imaging system is presented for depth information capture of arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) objects. The core of the system is an array of 32 × 32 rangefinding pixels that independently measure the time-of-flight of a ray of light as it is reflected back from the objects in a scene. A single cone of pulsed laser light illuminates the scene, thus no complex mechanical scanning or expensive optical equipment are needed. Millimetric depth accuracies can b...

  9. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  10. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  11. Processing of MRI images weighted in TOF for blood vessels analysis: 3-D reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez D, J.; Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz A, I., E-mail: hernandezdj.gto@gmail.com [CONACYT, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, A. C., Jalisco s/n, Col. Valenciana, 36000 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a novel presents an approach based on differences of intensities for the identification of vascular structures in medical images from MRI studies of type time of flight method (TOF). The plating method hypothesis gave high intensities belonging to the vascular system image type TOF can be segmented by thresholding of the histogram. The enhanced vascular structures is performed using the filter Vesselness, upon completion of a decision based on fuzzy thresholding minimizes error in the selection of vascular structures. It will give a brief introduction to the vascular system problems and how the images have helped diagnosis, is summarized the physical history of the different imaging modalities and the evolution of digital images with computers. Segmentation and 3-D reconstruction became image type time of flight; these images are typically used in medical diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The proposed method has less error in segmentation and reconstruction of volumes related to the vascular system, clear images and less noise compared with edge detection methods. (Author)

  12. 3D-CT imaging processing for qualitative and quantitative analysis of maxillofacial cysts and tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate spiral-computed tomography (3D-CT) images of 20 patients presenting with cysts and tumors in the maxillofacial complex, in order to compare the surface and volume techniques of image rendering. The qualitative and quantitative appraisal indicated that the volume technique allowed a more precise and accurate observation than the surface method. On the average, the measurements obtained by means of the 3D volume-rendering technique were 6.28% higher than those obtained by means of the surface method. The sensitivity of the 3D surface technique was lower than that of the 3D volume technique for all conditions stipulated in the diagnosis and evaluation of lesions. We concluded that the 3D-CT volume rendering technique was more reproducible and sensitive than the 3D-CT surface method, in the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of maxillofacial lesions, especially those with intra-osseous involvement. (author)

  13. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  14. Large area 3-D optical coherence tomography imaging of lumpectomy specimens for radiation treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuihuan; Kim, Leonard; Barnard, Nicola; Khan, Atif; Pierce, Mark C.

    2016-02-01

    Our long term goal is to develop a high-resolution imaging method for comprehensive assessment of tissue removed during lumpectomy procedures. By identifying regions of high-grade disease within the excised specimen, we aim to develop patient-specific post-operative radiation treatment regimens. We have assembled a benchtop spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system with 1320 nm center wavelength. Automated beam scanning enables "sub-volumes" spanning 5 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm (500 A-lines x 500 B-scans x 2 mm in depth) to be collected in under 15 seconds. A motorized sample positioning stage enables multiple sub-volumes to be acquired across an entire tissue specimen. Sub-volumes are rendered from individual B-scans in 3D Slicer software and en face (XY) images are extracted at specific depths. These images are then tiled together using MosaicJ software to produce a large area en face view (up to 40 mm x 25 mm). After OCT imaging, specimens were sectioned and stained with HE, allowing comparison between OCT image features and disease markers on histopathology. This manuscript describes the technical aspects of image acquisition and reconstruction, and reports initial qualitative comparison between large area en face OCT images and HE stained tissue sections. Future goals include developing image reconstruction algorithms for mapping an entire sample, and registering OCT image volumes with clinical CT and MRI images for post-operative treatment planning.

  15. AN IMAGE-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION USING MULTI-VIEW UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the development of the urban areas, the automatic reconstruction of the buildings, as an important objects of the city complex structures, became a challenging topic in computer vision and photogrammetric researches. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs images is examined to provide a 3D model of complex building façades using an efficient image-based modelling workflow. The main steps of this work include: pose estimation, point cloud generation, and 3D modelling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on UAV images and a dense point cloud is generated. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using Delaunay 2.5D triangulation and refined to obtain an accurate model of building. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough details of building based on visual assessment.

  16. THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MULTI-IMAGE 3D RECONSTRUCTION SOFTWARE WITH DIFFERENT SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mousavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, multi-image 3D reconstruction is an active research field and generating three dimensional model of the objects is one the most discussed issues in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision that can be accomplished using range-based or image-based methods. Very accurate and dense point clouds generated by range-based methods such as structured light systems and laser scanners has introduced them as reliable tools in the industry. Image-based 3D digitization methodologies offer the option of reconstructing an object by a set of unordered images that depict it from different viewpoints. As their hardware requirements are narrowed down to a digital camera and a computer system, they compose an attractive 3D digitization approach, consequently, although range-based methods are generally very accurate, image-based methods are low-cost and can be easily used by non-professional users. One of the factors affecting the accuracy of the obtained model in image-based methods is the software and algorithm used to generate three dimensional model. These algorithms are provided in the form of commercial software, open source and web-based services. Another important factor in the accuracy of the obtained model is the type of sensor used. Due to availability of mobile sensors to the public, popularity of professional sensors and the advent of stereo sensors, a comparison of these three sensors plays an effective role in evaluating and finding the optimized method to generate three-dimensional models. Lots of research has been accomplished to identify a suitable software and algorithm to achieve an accurate and complete model, however little attention is paid to the type of sensors used and its effects on the quality of the final model. The purpose of this paper is deliberation and the introduction of an appropriate combination of a sensor and software to provide a complete model with the highest accuracy. To do this, different software, used in previous

  17. The Performance Evaluation of Multi-Image 3d Reconstruction Software with Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, V.; Khosravi, M.; Ahmadi, M.; Noori, N.; Naveh, A. Hosseini; Varshosaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, multi-image 3D reconstruction is an active research field and generating three dimensional model of the objects is one the most discussed issues in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision that can be accomplished using range-based or image-based methods. Very accurate and dense point clouds generated by range-based methods such as structured light systems and laser scanners has introduced them as reliable tools in the industry. Image-based 3D digitization methodologies offer the option of reconstructing an object by a set of unordered images that depict it from different viewpoints. As their hardware requirements are narrowed down to a digital camera and a computer system, they compose an attractive 3D digitization approach, consequently, although range-based methods are generally very accurate, image-based methods are low-cost and can be easily used by non-professional users. One of the factors affecting the accuracy of the obtained model in image-based methods is the software and algorithm used to generate three dimensional model. These algorithms are provided in the form of commercial software, open source and web-based services. Another important factor in the accuracy of the obtained model is the type of sensor used. Due to availability of mobile sensors to the public, popularity of professional sensors and the advent of stereo sensors, a comparison of these three sensors plays an effective role in evaluating and finding the optimized method to generate three-dimensional models. Lots of research has been accomplished to identify a suitable software and algorithm to achieve an accurate and complete model, however little attention is paid to the type of sensors used and its effects on the quality of the final model. The purpose of this paper is deliberation and the introduction of an appropriate combination of a sensor and software to provide a complete model with the highest accuracy. To do this, different software, used in previous studies, were compared and

  18. Hybrid Method for 3D Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiang; ZHANGDazhi; TIANJinwen; LIUJian

    2003-01-01

    Segmentation of some complex images, especially in magnetic resonance brain images, is often difficult to perform satisfactory results using only single approach of image segmentation. An approach towards the integration of several techniques seems to be the best solution. In this paper a new hybrid method for 3-dimension segmentation of the whole brain is introduced, based on fuzzy region growing, edge detection and mathematical morphology, The gray-level threshold, controlling the process of region growing, is determined by fuzzy technique. The image gradient feature is obtained by the 3-dimension sobel operator considering a 3×3×3 data block with the voxel to be evaluated at the center, while the gradient magnitude threshold is defined by the gradient magnitude histogram of brain magnetic resonance volume. By the combined methods of edge detection and region growing, the white matter volume of human brain is segmented perfectly. By the post-processing using mathematical morphological techniques, the whole brain region is obtained. In order to investigate the validity of the hybrid method, two comparative experiments, the region growing method using only gray-level feature and the thresholding method by combining gray-level and gradient features, are carried out. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method provides much better results than the traditional method using a single technique in the 3-dimension segmentation of human brain magnetic resonance data sets.

  19. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of a false-color image of the eastern part of the Big Island of Hawaii. It was produced using all three radar frequencies -- X-band, C-band and L-band -- from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the space shuttle Endeavour, overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Visible in the center of the image in blue are the summit crater (Kilauea Caldera) which contains the smaller Halemaumau Crater, and the line of collapse craters below them that form the Chain of Craters Road. The image was acquired on April 12, 1994 during orbit 52 of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 34 by 57 kilometers (21 by 35 miles) with the top of the image pointing toward northwest. The image is centered at about 155.25 degrees west longitude and 19.5 degrees north latitude. The false colors are created by displaying three radar channels of different frequency. Red areas correspond to high backscatter at L-HV polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at C-HV polarization. Finally, blue shows high return at X-VV polarization. Using this color scheme, the rain forest appears bright on the image, while the green areas correspond to lower vegetation. The lava flows have different colors depending on their types and are easily recognizable due to their shapes. The flows at the top of the image originated from the Mauna Loa volcano. Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quartermile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (650 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. Currently, most of the lava that is

  20. Task-specific evaluation of 3D image interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevera, George J.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Miki, Yukio

    1998-06-01

    Image interpolation is an important operation that is widely used in medical imaging, image processing, and computer graphics. A variety of interpolation methods are available in the literature. However, their systematic evaluation is lacking. At a previous meeting, we presented a framework for the task independent comparison of interpolation methods based on a variety of medical image data pertaining to different parts of the human body taken from different modalities. In this new work, we present an objective, task-specific framework for evaluating interpolation techniques. The task considered is how the interpolation methods influence the accuracy of quantification of the total volume of lesions in the brain of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Sixty lesion detection experiments coming from ten patient studies, two subsampling techniques and the original data, and 3 interpolation methods is presented along with a statistical analysis of the results. This work comprises a systematic framework for the task-specific comparison of interpolation methods. Specifically, the influence of three interpolation methods in MS lesion quantification is compared.

  1. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of a false-color image of the eastern part of the Big Island of Hawaii. It was produced using all three radar frequencies -- X-band, C-band and L-band -- from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the space shuttle Endeavour, overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. Visible in the center of the image in blue are the summit crater (Kilauea Caldera) which contains the smaller Halemaumau Crater, and the line of collapse craters below them that form the Chain of Craters Road. The image was acquired on April 12, 1994 during orbit 52 of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 34 by 57 kilometers (21 by 35 miles) with the top of the image pointing toward northwest. The image is centered at about 155.25 degrees west longitude and 19.5 degrees north latitude. The false colors are created by displaying three radar channels of different frequency. Red areas correspond to high backscatter at L-HV polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at C-HV polarization. Finally, blue shows high return at X-VV polarization. Using this color scheme, the rain forest appears bright on the image, while the green areas correspond to lower vegetation. The lava flows have different colors depending on their types and are easily recognizable due to their shapes. The flows at the top of the image originated from the Mauna Loa volcano. Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these radar observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quartermile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (650 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent images taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. Currently, most of the lava that is

  2. Detection of tibial condylar fractures using 3D imaging with a mobile image amplifier (Siemens ISO-C-3D): Comparison with plain films and spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze a prototype mobile C-arm 3D image amplifier in the detection and classification of experimental tibial condylar fractures with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR). Method: Human knee specimens (n=22) with tibial condylar fractures were examined with a prototype C-arm (ISO-C-3D, Siemens AG), plain films (CR) and spiral CT (CT). The motorized C-arm provides fluoroscopic images during a 190 orbital rotation computing a 119 mm data cube. From these 3D data sets MP reconstructions were obtained. All images were evaluated by four independent readers for the detection and assessment of fracture lines. All fractures were classified according to the Mueller AO classification. To confirm the results, the specimens were finally surgically dissected. Results: 97% of the tibial condylar fractures were easily seen and correctly classified according to the Mueller AO classification on MP reconstruction of the ISO-C-3D. There is no significant difference between ISO-C and CT in detection and correct classification of fractures, but ISO-CD-3D is significant by better than CR. (orig.)

  3. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Singh; K. Jain; V. R. Mandla

    2014-01-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it’s related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based m...

  4. Understanding Immersivity: Image Generation and Transformation Processes in 3D Immersive Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Dhond, Rupali P.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive (3DI) virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants’ performance on the Shepard and Metzler (1971) mental rotation (MR) task across the following three types of visual presentatio...

  5. Understanding immersivity: Image generation and transformation processes in 3D immersive environments

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eKozhevnikov; Dhond, Rupali P.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants’ performance on the Shepard & Metzler (1971) mental rotation task across the following three types of visual presentation enviro...

  6. The Asymptotic Limit for the 3D Boussinesq System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin-rui; WANG Ke; HONG Ming-li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show the asymptotic limit for the 3D Boussinesq system with zero viscosity limit or zero diffusivity limit. By the classical energy method, we prove that as viscosity(or diffusivity) coefficient goes to zero the solutions of the fully viscous equations converges to those of zero viscosity(or zero diffusivity) equations, which extend the previous results on the asymptotic limit under the conditions of the zero parameter(zero viscosityν=0 or zero diffusivityη=0) in 2D case separately.

  7. FGG-NUFFT-Based Method for Near-Field 3-D Imaging Using Millimeter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Kan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to deal with the concealed target detection problem, an accurate and efficient algorithm for near-field millimeter wave three-dimensional (3-D imaging is proposed that uses a two-dimensional (2-D plane antenna array. First, a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT is performed on the scattered data along the antenna array plane. Then, a phase shift is performed to compensate for the spherical wave effect. Finally, fast Gaussian gridding based nonuniform FFT (FGG-NUFFT combined with 2-D inverse FFT (IFFT is performed on the nonuniform 3-D spatial spectrum in the frequency wavenumber domain to achieve 3-D imaging. The conventional method for near-field 3-D imaging uses Stolt interpolation to obtain uniform spatial spectrum samples and performs 3-D IFFT to reconstruct a 3-D image. Compared with the conventional method, our FGG-NUFFT based method is comparable in both efficiency and accuracy in the full sampled case and can obtain more accurate images with less clutter and fewer noisy artifacts in the down-sampled case, which are good properties for practical applications. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FGG-NUFFT-based near-field 3-D imaging algorithm can have better imaging performance than the conventional method for down-sampled measurements.

  8. How accurate are the fusion of cone-beam CT and 3-D stereophotographic images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas S N Jayaratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and stereophotography are two of the latest imaging modalities available for three-dimensional (3-D visualization of craniofacial structures. However, CBCT provides only limited information on surface texture. This can be overcome by combining the bone images derived from CBCT with 3-D photographs. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the feasibility of integrating 3-D Photos and CBCT images 2 to assess degree of error that may occur during the above processes and 3 to identify facial regions that would be most appropriate for 3-D image registration. METHODOLOGY: CBCT scans and stereophotographic images from 29 patients were used for this study. Two 3-D images corresponding to the skin and bone were extracted from the CBCT data. The 3-D photo was superimposed on the CBCT skin image using relatively immobile areas of the face as a reference. 3-D colour maps were used to assess the accuracy of superimposition were distance differences between the CBCT and 3-D photo were recorded as the signed average and the Root Mean Square (RMS error. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The signed average and RMS of the distance differences between the registered surfaces were -0.018 (±0.129 mm and 0.739 (±0.239 mm respectively. The most errors were found in areas surrounding the lips and the eyes, while minimal errors were noted in the forehead, root of the nose and zygoma. CONCLUSIONS: CBCT and 3-D photographic data can be successfully fused with minimal errors. When compared to RMS, the signed average was found to under-represent the registration error. The virtual 3-D composite craniofacial models permit concurrent assessment of bone and soft tissues during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  9. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  10. Recovering 3D tumor locations from 2D bioluminescence images and registration with CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Menon, Lata G.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel and efficient algorithm for reconstructing the 3D locations of tumor sites from a set of 2D bioluminescence images which are taken by a same camera but after continually rotating the object by a small angle. Our approach requires a much simpler set up than those using multiple cameras, and the algorithmic steps in our framework are efficient and robust enough to facilitate its use in analyzing the repeated imaging of a same animal transplanted with gene marked cells. In order to visualize in 3D the structure of the tumor, we also co-register the BLI-reconstructed crude structure with detailed anatomical structure extracted from high-resolution microCT on a single platform. We present our method using both phantom studies and real studies on small animals.

  11. Development of an accurate 3D blood vessel searching system using NIR light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Katayama, Tsutao; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2010-02-01

    Health monitoring system (HMS) and drug delivery system (DDS) require accurate puncture by needle for automatic blood sampling. In this study, we develop a miniature and high accurate automatic 3D blood vessel searching system. The size of detecting system is 40x25x10 mm. Our searching system use Near-Infrared (NIR) LEDs, CMOS camera modules and image processing units. We employ the stereo method for searching system to determine 3D blood vessel location. Blood vessel visualization system adopts hemoglobin's absorption characterization of NIR light. NIR LED is set behind the finger and it irradiates Near Infrared light for the finger. CMOS camera modules are set in front of the finger and it captures clear blood vessel images. Two dimensional location of the blood vessel is detected by luminance distribution of the image and its depth is calculated by the stereo method. 3D blood vessel location is automatically detected by our image processing system. To examine the accuracy of our detecting system, we carried out experiments using finger phantoms with blood vessel diameters, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0mm, at the depths, 0.5 ~ 2.0 mm, under the artificial tissue surface. Experimental results of depth obtained by our detecting system showed good agreements with given depths, and the availability of this system is confirmed.

  12. Determining 3D flow fields via multi-camera light field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T; Belden, Jesse; Nielson, Joseph R; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L

    2013-03-06

    In the field of fluid mechanics, the resolution of computational schemes has outpaced experimental methods and widened the gap between predicted and observed phenomena in fluid flows. Thus, a need exists for an accessible method capable of resolving three-dimensional (3D) data sets for a range of problems. We present a novel technique for performing quantitative 3D imaging of many types of flow fields. The 3D technique enables investigation of complicated velocity fields and bubbly flows. Measurements of these types present a variety of challenges to the instrument. For instance, optically dense bubbly multiphase flows cannot be readily imaged by traditional, non-invasive flow measurement techniques due to the bubbles occluding optical access to the interior regions of the volume of interest. By using Light Field Imaging we are able to reparameterize images captured by an array of cameras to reconstruct a 3D volumetric map for every time instance, despite partial occlusions in the volume. The technique makes use of an algorithm known as synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing, whereby a 3D focal stack is generated by combining images from several cameras post-capture (1). Light Field Imaging allows for the capture of angular as well as spatial information about the light rays, and hence enables 3D scene reconstruction. Quantitative information can then be extracted from the 3D reconstructions using a variety of processing algorithms. In particular, we have developed measurement methods based on Light Field Imaging for performing 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV), extracting bubbles in a 3D field and tracking the boundary of a flickering flame. We present the fundamentals of the Light Field Imaging methodology in the context of our setup for performing 3DPIV of the airflow passing over a set of synthetic vocal folds, and show representative results from application of the technique to a bubble-entraining plunging jet.

  13. 3D segmentation of medical images using a fast multistage hybrid algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a fast multistage hybrid algorithm for 3D segmentation of medical images. We first employ a morphological recursive erosion operation to reduce the connectivity between the object to be segmented and its neighborhood; then the fast marching method is used to greatly accelerate the initial propagation of a surface front from the user defined seed structure to a surface close to the desired boundary; a morphological reconstruction method then operates on this surface to achieve an initial segmentation result; and finally morphological recursive dilation is employed to recover any structure lost in the first stage of the algorithm. This approach is tested on 60 CT or MRI images of the brain, heart and urinary system, to demonstrate the robustness of this technique across a variety of imaging modalities and organ systems. The algorithm is also validated against datasets for which ''truth'' is known. These measurements revealed that the algorithm achieved a mean ''similarity index'' of 0.966 across the three organ systems. The execution time for this algorithm, when run on a 550 MHz Dual PIII-based PC runningWindows NT, and extracting the cortex from brain MRIs, the cardiac surface from dynamic CT, and the kidneys from 3D CT, was 38, 46 and 23 s, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Fast 3-D Tomographic Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Meaney, Paul M.; Kaufman, Peter A.; DiFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to ...

  15. Study of bone implants based on 3D images

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, S; Ayala Vallespí, M. Dolors; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Miño, N.; Muñoz, F.; González, A

    2005-01-01

    New medical input technologies together with computer graphics modelling and visualization software have opened a new track for biomedical sciences: the so-called in-silice experimentation, in which analysis and measurements are done on computer graphics models constructed on the basis of medical images, complementing the traditional in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods. In this paper, we describe an in-silice experiment to evaluate bio-implants f...

  16. X-ray imaging and 3D reconstruction of in-flight exploding foil initiator flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, T. M.; Champley, K.; Hodgin, R.; Lauderbach, L.; Bagge-Hansen, M.; May, C.; Sanchez, N.; Jensen, B. J.; Iverson, A.; van Buuren, T.

    2016-06-01

    Exploding foil initiators (EFIs), also known as slapper initiators or detonators, offer clear safety and timing advantages over other means of initiating detonation in high explosives. This work outlines a new capability for imaging and reconstructing three-dimensional images of operating EFIs. Flyer size and intended velocity were chosen based on parameters of the imaging system. The EFI metal plasma and plastic flyer traveling at 2.5 km/s were imaged with short ˜80 ps pulses spaced 153.4 ns apart. A four-camera system acquired 4 images from successive x-ray pulses from each shot. The first frame was prior to bridge burst, the 2nd images the flyer about 0.16 mm above the surface but edges of the foil and/or flyer are still attached to the substrate. The 3rd frame captures the flyer in flight, while the 4th shows a completely detached flyer in a position that is typically beyond where slappers strike initiating explosives. Multiple acquisitions at different incident angles and advanced computed tomography reconstruction algorithms were used to produce a 3-dimensional image of the flyer at 0.16 and 0.53 mm above the surface. Both the x-ray images and the 3D reconstruction show a strong anisotropy in the shape of the flyer and underlying foil parallel vs. perpendicular to the initiating current and electrical contacts. These results provide detailed flyer morphology during the operation of the EFI.

  17. Quantification of the aortic arch morphology in 3D CTA images for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, S.; von Tengg-Kobligk, H.; Henninger, V.; Böckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Rohr, K.

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a new model-based approach for the segmentation and quantification of the aortic arch morphology in 3D CTA images for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). The approach is based on a 3D analytic intensity model for thick vessels, which is directly fitted to the image. Based on the fitting results we compute the (local) 3D vessel curvature and torsion as well as the relevant lengths not only along the 3D centerline but particularly along the inner and outer contour. These measurements are important for pre-operative planning in EVAR applications. We have successfully applied our approach using ten 3D CTA images and have compared the results with ground truth obtained by a radiologist. It turned out that our approach yields accurate estimation results. We have also performed a comparison with a commercial vascular analysis software.

  18. 3D-image-guided high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy for salvage treatment of locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the therapeutic benefit of 3D-image-guided high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (3D-image-guided HDR-BT) used as a salvage treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Thirty-two patients with locally persistent NPC after full dose of IMRT w