WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3d high frequency

  1. High Resolution Krylov Space 3-D Wavenumber-Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    wavenumber-frequency distri- bution of signal modes. That is, PPER (k, f, t) = eH(k) R̂[f, t] e(k). (3) Different from eq.(2), here R̂[f, t] is a time... PPER (k, f, t) frequency f w av en um be r k Capon wavenumber frequency analysis 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 30

  2. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  3. Highly Omnidirectional and Frequency Controllable Carbon/Polyaniline-based 2D and 3D Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Keun-Young; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, James S.; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-09-01

    Highly omnidirectional and frequency controllable carbon/polyaniline (C/PANI)-based, two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) monopole antennas were fabricated using screen-printing and a one-step, dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy, respectively. Solvated C/PANI was synthesized by low-temperature interfacial polymerization, during which strong π-π interactions between graphene and the quinoid rings of PANI resulted in an expanded PANI conformation with enhanced crystallinity and improved mechanical and electrical properties. Compared to antennas composed of pristine carbon or PANI-based 2D monopole structures, 2D monopole antennas composed of this enhanced hybrid material were highly efficient and amenable to high-frequency, omnidirectional electromagnetic waves. The mean frequency of C/PANI fiber-based 3D monopole antennas could be controlled by simply cutting and stretching the antenna. These antennas attained high peak gain (3.60 dBi), high directivity (3.91 dBi) and radiation efficiency (92.12%) relative to 2D monopole antenna. These improvements were attributed the high packing density and aspect ratios of C/PANI fibers and the removal of the flexible substrate. This approach offers a valuable and promising tool for producing highly omnidirectional and frequency-controllable, carbon-based monopole antennas for use in wireless networking communications on industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands.

  4. 3D, LTCC-type, high-frequency magnetic sensors for the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, Duccio, E-mail: duccio.testa@epfl.ch [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Corne, Adrien; Farine, Gaël; Jacq, Caroline; Maeder, Thomas [Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Toussaint, Matthieu [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    High-frequency, 3D magnetic sensors have been designed and manufactured in-house for installation on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). To optimize the in-vessel volume occupation, the sensors are based on combining the Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) and the classical thick-film technologies. The target requirements for the three measurement axes are an effective area NA{sub EFF} = 100 cm{sup 2} and end-to-end resonant frequency ω{sub 0}/2π = 1 MHz. For the as-built sensors, an effective area NA{sub EFF} ∼ 220 cm{sup 2}, self-inductance L{sub SELF} ∼ 8 μH and self-resonant frequency ω{sub 0}/2π ∼ 16 MHz are obtained for the primary δB{sub NOR} measurement, while NA{sub EFF} ∼ 265 cm{sup 2}, NA{sub EFF} ∼ 300 cm{sup 2}, L{sub SELF} ∼ 150 μH and ω{sub 0}/2π ∼ 5.5 MHz are obtained for the secondary δB{sub TOR} and δB{sub POL} measurements. When including the cabling up to the front-end electronics, ω{sub 0}/2π > 2 MHz is expected for all three measurement axes. To optimize the measurement performance of this new magnetic diagnostic system while limiting the number of elements for the first phase of installation on TCV, five 3D sensors will be installed along the toroidal direction, allowing detection of magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode numbers |n| > 30, thus significantly improving on the previous detection capabilities, which were Nyquist-limited to |n| = 8.

  5. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laureti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  6. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, S.; Hutchins, D. A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Leigh, S. J.; Ricci, M.

    2016-12-01

    An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  7. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  8. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  9. A high-frequency transimpedance amplifier for CMOS integrated 2D CMUT array towards 3D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Cheong, Jia Hao; Cha, Hyouk-Kyu; Yu, Hongbin; Je, Minkyu; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    One transimpedance amplifier based CMOS analog front-end (AFE) receiver is integrated with capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) towards high frequency 3D ultrasound imaging. Considering device specifications from CMUTs, the TIA is designed to amplify received signals from 17.5MHz to 52.5MHz with center frequency at 35MHz; and is fabricated in Global Foundry 0.18-µm 30-V high-voltage (HV) Bipolar/CMOS/DMOS (BCD) process. The measurement results show that the TIA with power-supply 6V can reach transimpedance gain of 61dBΩ and operating frequency from 17.5MHz to 100MHz. The measured input referred noise is 27.5pA/√Hz. Acoustic pulse-echo testing is conducted to demonstrate the receiving functionality of the designed 3D ultrasound imaging system.

  10. High-frequency 3D echodentographic imaging modality for early assessment of periodontal diseases: in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound in dentistry is still an open growing area of research. Currently, there is a lack of imaging modalities to accurately predict minute structures and defects in the jawbone. In particular, the inability of 2D radiographic images to detect bony periodontal defects resulted from infection of the periodontium. This study investigates the feasibility of high frequency ultrasound to reconstruct high resolution 3D surface images of human jawbone. Methods: A dentate and non-dentate mandibles were used in this study. The system employs high frequency single-element ultrasound focused transducers (15-30 MHz) for scanning. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high precision two-dimensional stage positioning system of +/-1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate and quantitative measurements of the mandible in vitro. Radio frequency (RF) signals are acquired laterally 44-45.5 μm apart for each frame. Different frames are reconstructed 500 μm apart for the 3D reconstruction. Signal processing algorithms are applied on the received ultrasound signals for filtering, focusing, and envelope detection before frame reconstruction. Furthermore, an edge detection technique is adopted to detect the bone surface in each frame. Finally, all edges are combined together in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. Major anatomical landmarks on the resultant images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles to show the efficacy of the system. Comparison were also made with conventional 2D radiographs to show the superiority of the ultrasound imaging system in diagnosing small defects in the lateral, axial and elevation planes of space. Results: The landmarks on all ultrasound images matched with those on the mandible, indicating the efficacy of the system in detecting small structures in human jaw bones. Comparison with conventional 2D radiographic images of the same mandible showed superiority of

  11. High-Resolution Detection of Five Frequencies in a Single 3D Spectrum: HNHCACO - a Bidirectional Coherence Transfer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Yuxi; Zeng Lei; Kurochkin, Alexander V.; Zuiderweg, Erik R.P. [University of Michigan, Biophysics Research Division (United States)

    1998-02-15

    A new triple-resonance pulse sequence, 3D HNHCACO, is introduced and discussed, which identifies sequential correlations of the backbone nuclei (H{alpha}(i-1), C{alpha}(i-1), C'(i-1), NH(i)) of doubly labeled proteins in H2O. The three-dimensional (3D) method utilizes a recording of 15N and 13C resonances in a single indirect time domain, the 13C' resonance in another indirect time domain, and detects both NH and H{alpha} protons. A bidirectional coherence transfer (NH(i) {r_reversible} N(i) {r_reversible} C'(i-1) {r_reversible} C{alpha}(i-1) {r_reversible} H{alpha}(i-1)) is effectuated, resulting in a single high-resolution 3D spectrum that contains the frequencies of all five backbone nuclei. The experiment was applied to the 12.3 kDa ribonuclease from Bacillus intermedius (Binase)

  12. Enabling high-precision 3D strong-field measurements - Ionization with low-frequency fields in the tunneling regime

    CERN Document Server

    Dura, J; Thai, A; Britz, A; Hemmer, M; Baudisch, M; Senftleben, A; Schröter, C D; Ullrich, J; Moshammer, R; Biegert, J

    2013-01-01

    Ionization of an atom or molecule presents surprising richness beyond our current understanding: strong-field ionization with low-frequency fields recently revealed unexpected kinetic energy structures (1, 2). A solid grasp on electron dynamics is however pre-requisite for attosecond-resolution recollision imaging (3), orbital tomography (4), for coherent sources of keV light (5), or to produce zeptosecond-duration x-rays (6). We present a methodology that enables scrutinizing strong-field dynamics at an unprecedented level. Our method provides high-precision measurements only 1 meV above the threshold despite 5 orders higher ponderomotive energies. Such feat was realized with a specifically developed ultrafast mid-IR light source in combination with a reaction microscope. We observe electron dynamics in the tunneling regime ({\\gamma} = 0.3) and show first 3D momentum distributions demonstrating surprising new observations of near-zero momentum electrons and low momentum structures, below the eV, despite quiv...

  13. Utilization of multiple frequencies in 3D nonlinear microwave imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple frequencies in a nonlinear microwave algorithm is considered. Using multiple frequencies allows for obtaining the improved resolution available at the higher frequencies while retaining the regularizing effects of the lower frequencies. However, a number of different challenges...... at lower frequencies are used as starting guesses for reconstructions at higher frequencies. The performance is illustrated using simulated 2-D data and data obtained with the 3-D DTU microwave imaging system....

  14. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  15. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...... shutter is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Camera delay is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. A 3-D image is constructed from a sequence of 50-100 2-D reflectivity images, where each frame integrates about 700 laser pulses on the CCD. In 50 Hz video mode...

  16. 3-D Printed High Power Microwave Magnetrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas; Greening, Geoffrey; Exelby, Steven; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad

    2015-11-01

    The size, weight, and power requirements of HPM systems are critical constraints on their viability, and can potentially be improved through the use of additive manufacturing techniques, which are rapidly increasing in capability and affordability. Recent experiments on the UM Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM), have explored the use of 3-D printed components in a HPM system. The system was driven by MELBA-C, a Marx-Abramyan system which delivers a -300 kV voltage pulse for 0.3-1.0 us, with a 0.15-0.3 T axial magnetic field applied by a pair of electromagnets. Anode blocks were printed from Water Shed XC 11122 photopolymer using a stereolithography process, and prepared with either a spray-coated or electroplated finish. Both manufacturing processes were compared against baseline data for a machined aluminum anode, noting any differences in power output, oscillation frequency, and mode stability. Evolution and durability of the 3-D printed structures were noted both visually and by tracking vacuum inventories via a residual gas analyzer. Research supported by AFOSR (grant #FA9550-15-1-0097) and AFRL.

  17. Theoretic 3-D study of the high-frequency magnetic moment dynamics in thin ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by considering eddy-current generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, K., E-mail: klaus.seemann@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Campus North), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leiste, H.; Krueger, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Campus North), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    In the present paper, theoretic investigations of polarisation vector precession trajectories represented by a macro spin in ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy were realised. For this purpose, the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert differential equation (LLG) in combination with the Maxwell equations were solved for three dimensions by considering a linear progression of the magnetisation or polarisation with an external field. The frequency and time dependent polarisation trajectories illustrate how a magnetic moment precesses if effective damping and eddy-currents impacts its motion. For computation, typical parameter values like the saturation polarisation J{sub s}={mu}{sub 0}{center_dot}M{sub s}=1.4 T and in-plane uniaxial anisotropy {mu}{sub 0}{center_dot}H{sub u}=4.5 mT were employed. The main focus of simulation was on the variation of the effective damping parameter {alpha}{sub eff} between 0.01 and 0.05 and ferromagnetic film thickness t{sub m} between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The frequency-dependent calculations were carried out between 50 MHz and 6 GHz. The time-dependent simulations were done for a duration between 5 and 30 ns. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Frequency- and time domain solution of the LLG and Maxwell differential equation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D magnetic moment or macro spin trajectories by eddy-current impact. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Progression of a magnetic excitation field in thin ferromagnetic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transient response evaluation of uniform magnetic moments excited by an r.f. field.

  18. High resolution 3-D wavelength diversity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N. H.

    1981-09-01

    A physical optics, vector formulation of microwave imaging of perfectly conducting objects by wavelength and polarization diversity is presented. The results provide the theoretical basis for optimal data acquisition and three-dimensional tomographic image retrieval procedures. These include: (a) the selection of highly thinned (sparse) receiving array arrangements capable of collecting large amounts of information about remote scattering objects in a cost effective manner and (b) techniques for 3-D tomographic image reconstruction and display in which polarization diversity data is fully accounted for. Data acquisition employing a highly attractive AMTDR (Amplitude Modulated Target Derived Reference) technique is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulation. Equipment configuration for the implementation of the AMTDR technique is also given together with a measurement configuration for the implementation of wavelength diversity imaging in a roof experiment aimed at imaging a passing aircraft. Extension of the theory presented to 3-D tomographic imaging of passive noise emitting objects by spectrally selective far field cross-correlation measurements is also given. Finally several refinements made in our anechoic-chamber measurement system are shown to yield drastic improvement in performance and retrieved image quality.

  19. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  20. 3D inkjet printed radio frequency inductors and capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2016-12-08

    Inkjet printing has emerged as an ideal method for the fabrication of low cost and efficient electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs at present utilize 2D inkjet printing of metallic inks on conventional substrates. In order to have fully printed RF components, the substrate must also be printed. 3D printing of polymers can be an ideal mechanism for printing substrates, however typically such materials cannot handle high sintering temperatures (>150 0C) required for nanoparticles based metallic inks. In this work, an all-inkjet printed process is demonstrated that utilizes 3D inkjet printing of a UV-cured dielectric material in combination with the printing of a particle free conductive silver organo-complex (SOC) ink for realization of inductors and capacitors. The processing temperature does not exceed 80 0C and still state of the art conductivity of 1×107 S/m is achieved. Both the conductive ink and dielectric have roughness values under 500 nm. The inductor and capacitor exhibit quality factors of 8 and 20 respectively in the high MHz and GHz regime.

  1. Calibration of a High Resolution Airborne 3-D SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Grinder-Pedersen, Jan; Madsen, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    (EMI). In order to achieve a high geodetic fidelity when using such systems operationally, calibration procedures must be applied. Inaccurate navigation data and system parameters as well as system imperfections must be accounted for. This paper presents theoretical models describing the impact of key......The potential of across-track interferometric (XTI) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for producing high resolution 3D imagery has been demonstrated by several airborne systems including EMISAR, the dual frequency, polarimetric, and interferometric SAR developed at the Dept. of Electromagnetic Systems...

  2. 3D Reconstruction of Chick Embryo Vascular Geometries Using Non-invasive High-Frequency Ultrasound for Computational Fluid Dynamics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Germaine Xin Yi; Jamil, Muhammad; Tee, Nicole Gui Zhen; Zhong, Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2015-11-01

    Recent animal studies have provided evidence that prenatal blood flow fluid mechanics may play a role in the pathogenesis of congenital cardiovascular malformations. To further these researches, it is important to have an imaging technique for small animal embryos with sufficient resolution to support computational fluid dynamics studies, and that is also non-invasive and non-destructive to allow for subject-specific, longitudinal studies. In the current study, we developed such a technique, based on ultrasound biomicroscopy scans on chick embryos. Our technique included a motion cancelation algorithm to negate embryonic body motion, a temporal averaging algorithm to differentiate blood spaces from tissue spaces, and 3D reconstruction of blood volumes in the embryo. The accuracy of the reconstructed models was validated with direct stereoscopic measurements. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed to model fluid flow in the generated construct of a Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 27 embryo. Simulation results showed that there were divergent streamlines and a low shear region at the carotid duct, which may be linked to the carotid duct's eventual regression and disappearance by HH stage 34. We show that our technique has sufficient resolution to produce accurate geometries for computational fluid dynamics simulations to quantify embryonic cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

  3. Theoretic 3-D study of the high-frequency magnetic moment dynamics in thin ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by considering eddy-current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper, theoretic investigations of polarisation vector precession trajectories represented by a macro spin in ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy were realised. For this purpose, the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert differential equation (LLG) in combination with the Maxwell equations were solved for three dimensions by considering a linear progression of the magnetisation or polarisation with an external field. The frequency and time dependent polarisation trajectories illustrate how a magnetic moment precesses if effective damping and eddy-currents impacts its motion. For computation, typical parameter values like the saturation polarisation Js=μ0·Ms=1.4 T and in-plane uniaxial anisotropy μ0·Hu=4.5 mT were employed. The main focus of simulation was on the variation of the effective damping parameter αeff between 0.01 and 0.05 and ferromagnetic film thickness tm between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The frequency-dependent calculations were carried out between 50 MHz and 6 GHz. The time-dependent simulations were done for a duration between 5 and 30 ns.

  4. Reconstruction of High Resolution 3D Objects from Incomplete Images and 3D Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To this day, digital object reconstruction is a quite complex area that requires many techniques and novel approaches, in which high-resolution 3D objects present one of the biggest challenges. There are mainly two different methods that can be used to reconstruct high resolution objects and images: passive methods and active methods. This methods depend on the type of information available as input for modeling 3D objects. The passive methods use information contained in the images and the active methods make use of controlled light sources, such as lasers. The reconstruction of 3D objects is quite complex and there is no unique solution- The use of specific methodologies for the reconstruction of certain objects it’s also very common, such as human faces, molecular structures, etc. This paper proposes a novel hybrid methodology, composed by 10 phases that combine active and passive methods, using images and a laser in order to supplement the missing information and obtain better results in the 3D object reconstruction. Finally, the proposed methodology proved its efficiency in two complex topological complex objects.

  5. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ∼74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ∼ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications.

  6. High performance 3D printed electronics using electroless plated copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jin Rong; Kim, Taeil; Park, Jae Sung; Wang, Jiacheng; Kim, Woo Soo

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents design and performance validation of 3D printed electronic components, 3D toroidal air-core inductors, fabricated by multi-material based Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology and electroless copper plating. Designs of toroidal inductor is investigated with different core shapes and winding numbers; circular and half-circular cores with 10 and 13 turns of windings. Electroless plated copper thin film ensures 3D printed toroidal plastic structures to possess inductive behaviors. The inductance is demonstrated reliably with an applied source frequency from 100 kHz to 2 MHz as designs vary. An RL circuit is utilized to test the fabricated inductors' phase-leading characteristics with corresponding phase angle changes.

  7. 3D mapping from high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, D.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sarakenos, A.; Paraschou, Ch.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years 3D information has become more easily available. Users' needs are constantly increasing, adapting to this reality and 3D maps are in more demand. 3D models of the terrain in CAD or other environments have already been common practice; however one is bound by the computer screen. This is why contemporary digital methods have been developed in order to produce portable and, hence, handier 3D maps of various forms. This paper deals with the implementation of the necessary procedures to produce holographic 3D maps and three dimensionally printed maps. The main objective is the production of three dimensional maps from high resolution aerial and/or satellite imagery with the use of holography and but also 3D printing methods. As study area the island of Antiparos was chosen, as there were readily available suitable data. These data were two stereo pairs of Geoeye-1 and a high resolution DTM of the island. Firstly the theoretical bases of holography and 3D printing are described, and the two methods are analyzed and there implementation is explained. In practice a x-axis parallax holographic map of the Antiparos Island is created and a full parallax (x-axis and y-axis) holographic map is created and printed, using the holographic method. Moreover a three dimensional printed map of the study area has been created using 3dp (3d printing) method. The results are evaluated for their usefulness and efficiency.

  8. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B; Golobic, Alexandra M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Worsley, Marcus A

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  9. A new method using orthogonal two-frequency grating in online 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuang; Cao, Yiping; Wu, Yingchun; Lu, Mingteng

    2016-09-01

    In online 3D measurement, a new method using orthogonal two-frequency grating based on Phase Measuring Profilometry(PMP) is proposed. The modulation of the entire measured object is used to match pixels and this proposed method successfully resolves the contradiction of the demand for different frequency fringes between the extraction of the modulation information and the phase unwrapping. The high-frequency fringe is used to catch the better modulation patterns for pixel matching, and the low-frequency fringe is used to calculate the phase distribution and avoid phase unwrapping error. In addition, to extract the better modulation patterns for pixel matching, the flat filtering window replaces the circular filtering window to avoid the spectrum aliasing phenomenon. The simulations and experiments show its feasibility.

  10. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    3-D blood flow quantification with high spatial and temporal resolution would strongly benefit clinical research on cardiovascular pathologies. Ultrasonic velocity techniques are known for their ability to measure blood flow with high precision at high spatial and temporal resolution. However......, current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI......) technique is extended to estimate the 3-D velocity components inside a volume at high temporal resolutions (

  11. Efficient 2D and 3D multiparameters frequency-domain full waveform inversion (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virieux, J.; Operto, S.; Ribodetti, A.; Ben Hadj Ali, H.; Brossier, R.; Etienne, V.; Gholami, Y.; Hu, G.; Jia, Y.; Pageot, D.; Prieux, V.

    2010-12-01

    With the tremendous increase of the computational power provided by large-scale distributed-memory platforms and the development of dense 3D multi-component wide-aperture/wide-azimuth surveys, full waveform inversion (FWI) introduced in geophysics by Albert Tarantola has become a re-emerging technique to build high-resolution velocity models of the subsurface. Because of the cost of the forward modeling and the high dimensionality of the model space, full waveform inversion is actually a local optimization problem, the aim of which is the minimization of the misfit between the recorded and modeled seismic wavefields. Among all possible minimization criteria, the L1 norm provides the most robust and easy-to-tune criterion. With such criterion, white noise in all seismograms with outliers does not prevent the convergence to the nearly same minimum as for noise-free data. The frequency formulation of the FWI allows coarse sampling of the frequencies data over few frequencies for the reconstruction of the medium when wide-aperture geometries are considered. A preconditioned quasi-Newton L-BFGS modified algorithm provides scaled gradients of the misfit function for each class of parameters. The gradient is computed by the adjoint-state method where the forward field is stored in the core memory of the computer while computing the backpropagation of residuals for cross-correlation at each point of the medium, thanks to the frequency-domain approach. We are using a sequential multiscale hierarchical inversion algorithm with two nested levels of data preconditioning with respect to frequency and first-arrival time. We are able to reconstruct both Vp and Vs velocity structures in various offshore and onshore environments various configurations of crustal investigation where both body waves (and surface) waves are progressively included in the inversion scheme. Solving the forward problem for 2D geometry could be efficiently performed in frequency by using a direct solver

  12. Modeling of multi-view 3D freehand radio frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T; Hansson, M; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays ultrasound (US) examinations are typically performed with conventional machines providing two dimensional imagery. However, there exist a multitude of applications where doctors could benefit from three dimensional ultrasound providing better judgment, due to the extended spatial view. 3D freehand US allows acquisition of images by means of a tracking device attached to the ultrasound transducer. Unfortunately, view dependency makes the 3D representation of ultrasound a non-trivial task. To address this we model speckle statistics, in envelope-detected radio frequency (RF) data, using a finite mixture model (FMM), assuming a parametric representation of data, in which the multiple views are treated as components of the FMM. The proposed model is show-cased with registration, using an ultrasound specific distribution based pseudo-distance, and reconstruction tasks, performed on the manifold of Gamma model parameters. Example field of application is neurology using transcranial US, as this domain requires high accuracy and data systematically features low SNR, making intensity based registration difficult. In particular, 3D US can be specifically used to improve differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to conventional approaches and is therefore of high relevance for future application.

  13. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  14. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  15. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-07

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day.

  16. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  17. A novel method for fabricating curved frequency selective surface via 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fengchao; Gao, Jinsong

    2014-12-01

    A novel method for fabricating curved frequency selective surfaces with undevelopable curved shape using 3D printing technology was proposed in this paper. First, FSS composed of Y slotted elements that adapt to 0° ~ 70 ° incidences was designed. Then, the 3D model of the curved FSS was created in a 3D modeling software. Next, the 3D model was digitalized into stl format file and then the stl file was inputted into a stereo lithography 3D printer. Next, the prototype of the curved FSS was fabricated by the 3D printer layer by layer. Finally, a 10 μm thick aluminum film was coated on the outer surface of the prototype of the curved FSS by a vacuum coater. The transmission performance of the metallised curved FSS was tested using free space method. It was shown that frequency selection characteristic of the metallised curved FSS reached the requirements of simulation design. The pass-band was in the Ku-band and the transmission rate on center frequency was 63% for nose cone incident direction. This method provides a new way to apply the FSS to arbitrary curved electromagnetic window.

  18. CVD Diamond Sink Application in High Power 3D MCMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kuo-jun; JIANG Chang-shun; LI Cheng-yue

    2005-01-01

    As electronic packages become more compact, run at faster speeds and dissipate more heat, package designers need more effective thermal management materials. CVD diamond, because of its high thermal conductivity, low dielectric loss and its great mechanical strength, is an excellent material for three dimensional (3D) multichip modules (MCMs) in the next generation compact high speed computers and high power microwave components. In this paper, we have synthesized a large area freestanding diamond films and substrates, and polished diamond substrates, which make MCMs diamond film sink becomes a reality.

  19. A dual-frequency fringe projection three-dimensional shape measurement system using a DLP 3D projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; Liu, Cong; He, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    A dual-frequency fringe projection system for three-dimensional (3D) surface shape measurement is proposed in this paper. The system includes two cameras, a DLP 3D projector, and a liquid crystal (LC) shutter glasses. The phase information related to the object height is obtained from the dual-frequency temporal method with 3-step phase-shifting algorithm. By using the DLP 3D projector and LC shutter glasses, 3-step phase-shifting high-frequency and low-frequency fringe patterns are captured only 3 times by the two cameras synchronously. The technique of image registration is applied to low-frequency fringe patterns to guarantee the accuracy of low-frequency phase for high-frequency phase unwrapping. Using the equi-phase coordinate method based on two reference planes, the phase-to-height conversion and non-sinusoidal errors reduction are carried out in one go without any extra operation or measurement time. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method effectively improves the measuring speed, and it is valid for measuring surface shapes with multi-steps or discontinuities.

  20. High-Q 3D coaxial resonators for cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taekwan; Owens, John C.; Naik, Ravi; Lachapelle, Aman; Ma, Ruichao; Simon, Jonathan; Schuster, David I.

    Three-dimensional microwave resonators provide an alternative approach to transmission-line resonators used in most current circuit QED experiments. Their large mode volume greatly reduces the surface dielectric losses that limits the coherence of superconducting circuits, and the well-isolated and controlled cavity modes further suppress coupling to the environment. In this work, we focus on unibody 3D coaxial cavities which are only evanescently coupled and free from losses due to metal-metal interfaces, allowing us to reach extremely high quality-factors. We achieve quality-factor of up to 170 million using 4N6 Aluminum at superconducting temperatures, corresponding to an energy ringdown time of ~4ms. We extend our methods to other materials including Niobium, NbTi, and copper coated with Tin-Lead solder. These cavities can be further explored to study their properties under magnetic field or upon coupling to superconducting Josephson junction qubits, e.g. 3D transmon qubits. Such 3D cavity QED system can be used for quantum information applications, or quantum simulation in coupled cavity arrays.

  1. High Speed 3D Tomography on CPU, GPU, and FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAC Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Back-projection (BP is a costly computational step in tomography image reconstruction such as positron emission tomography (PET. To reduce the computation time, this paper presents a pipelined, prefetch, and parallelized architecture for PET BP (3PA-PET. The key feature of this architecture is its original memory access strategy, masking the high latency of the external memory. Indeed, the pattern of the memory references to the data acquired hinders the processing unit. The memory access bottleneck is overcome by an efficient use of the intrinsic temporal and spatial locality of the BP algorithm. A loop reordering allows an efficient use of general purpose processor's caches, for software implementation, as well as the 3D predictive and adaptive cache (3D-AP cache, when considering hardware implementations. Parallel hardware pipelines are also efficient thanks to a hierarchical 3D-AP cache: each pipeline performs a memory reference in about one clock cycle to reach a computational throughput close to 100%. The 3PA-PET architecture is prototyped on a system on programmable chip (SoPC to validate the system and to measure its expected performances. Time performances are compared with a desktop PC, a workstation, and a graphic processor unit (GPU.

  2. High Speed 3D Tomography on CPU, GPU, and FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Houzet

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Back-projection (BP is a costly computational step in tomography image reconstruction such as positron emission tomography (PET. To reduce the computation time, this paper presents a pipelined, prefetch, and parallelized architecture for PET BP (3PA-PET. The key feature of this architecture is its original memory access strategy, masking the high latency of the external memory. Indeed, the pattern of the memory references to the data acquired hinders the processing unit. The memory access bottleneck is overcome by an efficient use of the intrinsic temporal and spatial locality of the BP algorithm. A loop reordering allows an efficient use of general purpose processor's caches, for software implementation, as well as the 3D predictive and adaptive cache (3D-AP cache, when considering hardware implementations. Parallel hardware pipelines are also efficient thanks to a hierarchical 3D-AP cache: each pipeline performs a memory reference in about one clock cycle to reach a computational throughput close to 100%. The 3PA-PET architecture is prototyped on a system on programmable chip (SoPC to validate the system and to measure its expected performances. Time performances are compared with a desktop PC, a workstation, and a graphic processor unit (GPU.

  3. High dynamic range real-time 3D shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chufan; Bell, Tyler; Zhang, Song

    2016-04-04

    This paper proposes a method that can measure high-contrast surfaces in real-time without changing camera exposures. We propose to use 180-degree phase-shifted (or inverted) fringe patterns to complement regular fringe patterns. If not all of the regular patterns are saturated, inverted fringe patterns are used in lieu of original saturated patterns for phase retrieval, and if all of the regular fringe patterns are saturated, both the original and inverted fringe patterns are all used for phase computation to reduce phase error. Experimental results demonstrate that three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement can be achieved in real time by adopting the proposed high dynamic range method.

  4. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques.

  5. High Current Density 2D/3D Esaki Tunnel Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lee, Choong Hee; Zhang, Yuewei; McCulloch, William D; Johnson, Jared M; Hwang, Jinwoo; Wu, Yiying; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    The integration of two-dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides with bulk semiconductors offer interesting opportunities for 2D/3D heterojunction-based novel device structures without any constraints of lattice matching. By exploiting the favorable band alignment at the GaN/MoS2 heterojunction, an Esaki interband tunnel diode is demonstrated by transferring large area, Nb-doped, p-type MoS2 onto heavily n-doped GaN. A peak current density of 446 A/cm2 with repeatable room temperature negative differential resistance, peak to valley current ratio of 1.2, and minimal hysteresis was measured in the MoS2/GaN non-epitaxial tunnel diode. A high current density of 1 kA/cm2 was measured in the Zener mode (reverse bias) at -1 V bias. The GaN/MoS2 tunnel junction was also modeled by treating MoS2 as a bulk semiconductor, and the electrostatics at the 2D/3D interface was found to be crucial in explaining the experimentally observed device characteristics.

  6. AUTOMATED, HIGHLY ACCURATE VERIFICATION OF RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George L Mesina; David Aumiller; Francis Buschman

    2014-07-01

    Computer programs that analyze light water reactor safety solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics. In addition, these programs incorporate many other features and are quite large. RELAP5-3D[1] has over 300,000 lines of coding for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. Verification ensures that a program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications. Recently, there has been an increased importance on the development of automated verification processes that compare coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions[2]. For the first time, the ability exists to ensure that the data transfer operations associated with timestep advancement/repeating and writing/reading a solution to a file have no unintended consequences. To ensure that the code performs as intended over its extensive list of applications, an automated and highly accurate verification method has been modified and applied to RELAP5-3D. Furthermore, mathematical analysis of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons is provided.

  7. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  8. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  9. High aspect ratio 3D nanopatterning using Proton Beam Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a new direct write lithography using MeV protons, and is unique because of its ability to fabricate 3D structures of high aspect ratio structures directly in resist material like PMMA, SU-8 and HSQ. The introduction by CIBA, Singapore of a dedicated PBW facility, capable of writing at the micro- and nano- scale has facilitated high aspect ratio nanostructuring. PBW has demontrated high aspect ratio walls in HSQ down to the 20nm level. In recent experiments details down to sub 20 nm have been achieved in PMMA. Monte-Carlo calculations have shown that structuring down to the nanometer level is feasible. All this is possible because of the virtual absence of proximity effects (unwanted resist exposure by stray secondary electrons). The design and performance of this unique nanoprobe facility will be discussed. Two potential fields of application (eg nanofluidics and nanowire integration) of PBW will be discussed. Currently nanofluidics devices have typically only one critical dimension below 100 nm. Here we will introduce PBW as a powerful technique to fabricate molds for replication of PDMS nanofluidic circuits down to the sub 100 nm level in two dimensions. Initial chips with dimension down to 150 nm have successfully been used to study DNA folding in quasi-1d nanochannels in tandem with fluorescence imaging. Since the size of these PDMS nanochannels is not limited by the PDMS or PBW further miniaturization down to the sub 100 nm level is a realistic goal and initial results will be discussed. Nanowires are a potential building block for nano-electronic devices, and one critical problem is the integration of nanowires to form contacts. Porous alumina templates and high energy ion-tracks have been used for the production of nanowire templates in a random orientation. Since PBW is the only true 3D direct write nanolithographic technique it can be used to fabricate nanowire templates in a controlled manner.

  10. Highly functional tunnelling devices integrated in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Lind, Erik; Lindström, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    We present a new technology for integrating tunnelling devices in three dimensions. These devices are fabricated by the combination of the growth of semiconductor heterostructures with the controlled introduction of metallic elements into an epitaxial layer by an overgrowth technique. First, we use...... circuit in order to optimize the performance of the device. In addition to the tunnelling structure below the grating, these transistors may be integrated in 3D by the introduction of another tunnelling structure directly over the metal grating. In the integrated device structure, the gate acts...... to adjust the peak voltage of certain peaks in a controlled fashion, which creates a highly functional tunnelling device. These results show the need for a strong interaction between the development of circuit models and processing technology to develop new nano-electronic devices and circuits. Copyright...

  11. Quasi-Wollaston-Prism for Terahertz Frequencies Fabricated by 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a quasi-Wollaston prism for terahertz frequencies based on form birefringence. The prism uses the birefringence induced in a sub-wavelength layered plastic-air structure that produces refraction in different directions for different polarizations. The component was simulated using the finite-difference-time-domain method, fabricated by 3D printing and subsequently tested by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy showing a polarization separation around of 23° for frequencies below 400 GHz, exhibiting cross polarization power extinction ratios better than 1.6 × 10-3 at 200 GHz.

  12. Dominance of orientation over frequency in the perception of 3-D slant and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Danny M; Shin, Ji; Li, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In images of textured three-dimensional surfaces, pattern changes can be characterized as changes in orientation and spatial frequency, features for which neurons in primary visual cortex are classically selective. Previously, we have demonstrated that correct 3-D shape perception is contingent on the visibility of orientation flows that run parallel to the surface curvature. We sought to determine the relative contributions of orientation modulations (OMs) and frequency modulations (FMs) for the detection of slant and shape from 3-D surfaces. Results show that 1) when OM and FM indicate inconsistent degrees of surface slant or curvature, observer responses were consistent with the slant or curvature specified by OM even if the FM indicated a slant or curvature in the opposite direction to the same degree. 2) For slanted surfaces, OM information dictates slant perception at both shallow and steep slants while FM information is effective only for steep slants. Together these results point to a dominant role of OM information in the perception of 3-D slant and shape.

  13. High pressure behavior of 3d transition metal carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, G. A.; Wang, S.; Boulard, E.; Mao, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the behavior of carbon-rich phases in Earth's lower mantle is critical for modeling the global carbon cycle since the lower mantle may be the major repository for carbon in our planet. We were interested in the behavior of carbonates containing 3d transition metals, which can exhibit unusual properties at extreme conditions. Thus, we studied siderite (FeCO3) and rhodochrosite (MnCO3) at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell coupled with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray emission spectroscopy. In siderite we observed a high to low spin transition and associated volume collapse at approximately 46 GPa which is consistent with previous reports. Our Raman data show that the C-O bonds soften when the Fe2+ volume collapses (Farfan et al, 2012). In contrast, our XES results indicate that the Mn2+ in rhodochrosite does not undergo a spin transition like siderite up to 50 GPa. We observed a new Raman peak emerging above 48 GPa, which is a similar pressure at which a new structure was found in a previous XRD study.

  14. High quality 3D shapes by silicon anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Alexey; Kovacs, Andras; Mescheder, Ulrich [Institute for Applied Research and Faculty of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Hochschule Furtwangen University, Robert-Gerwig-Platz 1, 78120 Furtwangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    In this paper some process considerations and optimizations of anodization for three-dimensional (3D)-structuring of silicon are discussed. For the shape controlling of etched form different approaches, such as frontside masking design, local backside doping and surface pre-structuring are presented. Influences of the opening size and etch depth on the shape of the etching form are investigated. The surface quality of the resulting 3D structures is critically dependent on the specific process parameters and process flow. Best surface quality was obtained for electropolishing in 7 wt.% hydrofluoric acid (HF) at applied current densities of 100-300 mA/cm{sup 2}. Application of 3D silicon forms for injection moulding is demonstrated and further implementations of the process for optical and fluidic devices are discussed. 3D silicon shapes fabricated using anodization process with local backside doping design. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Study on 3D finite element simulation of high frequency welded pipe welding residual stress%高频直缝焊管焊接残余应力的三维有限元模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恩林; 韩毅; 谷绪地; 张洪亮

    2012-01-01

    基于高频直缝焊管焊接热源的计算结果,综合考虑材料的物理属性随温度的高度非线性变化,以及高频加热的焊缝热影响区特有的温度分布规律,利用ANSYS有限元软件建立了高频直缝焊管焊接残余应力的三维有限元模型.获得了高频焊管温度场和残余应力场的分布规律,并对结果进行了分析.通过后处理模块,给出了焊缝部位残余应力的分布趋势,并分析了高频感应焊接残余应力的主要形成原因.发现焊缝附近的轴向残余应力较大,其中有些数值接近材料的屈服强度,而周向残余应力仅为材料屈服应力的1/3左右,径向残余应力数值较小,工程上可以忽略.%Based on the high-frequency longitudinal welding heat calculations, ANSYS finite element software is used to establish the three-dimensional finite element model of welding residual stress. Physical properties of materials with highly non-linear changes in temperature and high-frequency heating of the weld heat affected zone-specific temperature distribution are considered. High-frequency welded pipe temperature field and residual stress field distribution are obtained, and the results are analyzed. Trends of the main causes of the high frequency induction welding residual stress are analyzed through the post-processing module. The axial residual stress of near the weld seam are larger, and some of the values are close to the material yield strength. Residual stress in the circumferential direction is one-third of the material yield stress, and radial residual stress value is smaller that in projects can be ignored.

  16. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  17. Stretchable array of metal nanodisks on a 3D sinusoidal wavy elastomeric substrate for frequency tunable plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Siyi; Tian, Limei; Song, Ningfang

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanostructures integrated with soft, elastomeric substrates provide an unusual platform with capabilities in plasmonic frequency tuning of mechanical strain. In this paper, we have prepared a tunable optical device, dense arrays of plasmonic nanodisks on a low-modulus, and high-elongation elastomeric substrate with a three-dimensional (3D) sinusoidal wavy, and their optical characteristics have been measured and analyzed in detail. Since surface plasmon is located and propagates along metal surfaces with sub-wavelength structures, and those dispersive properties are determined by the coupling strength between the individual structures, in this study, a 3D sinusoidal curve elastomeric substrate is used to mechanically control the inter-nanodisk spacing by applying straining and creating a frequency tunable plasmonic device. Here we study the optical resonance peak shifting generated by stretching this type of flexible device, and the role that 3D sinusoidal curve surface configuration plays in determining the tunable properties. Since only the hybrid dipolar mode has been observed in experiments, the coupled dipole approximation (CDA) method is employed to simulate the optical response of these devices, and the experimental and simulation results show that these devices have high tunability to shift optical resonance peaks at near-infrared wavelengths, which will provide strong potential for new soft optical sensors and wearable plasmonic sensors.

  18. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  19. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Bezada, Max; Thybo, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity...... between the Archean and modified regions such as the Bushveld complex, and the mobile belts surrounding the cratons. The high velocity (+1.0%) cratonic roots extend to 220-250 km depth beneath the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. Lower P-velocities are found under the Bushveld complex and the mobile belts...

  20. Compute extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure by 3-D impendance method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A 3-D impedance method has been introduced to compute the electric currents induced in a human body exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field.The 3-D impedance method has been deduced from Maxwell equations and is put into the computation and simulation effectively to the visible human body model, which has 196×114×626 cells and more than 40 types of tissues.As the result, two representative cases are investigated.One is exposure of the human body to 100 μT (1 000 mG), the limit recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for the public and the other one is the exposure of human body to 0.4 μT (4 mG), the level at which a statistical link appears with a doubled risk of development of childhood leukaemia.The distribution of induced current density can be obtained and the maximum of induced current are found to be 16 mA/m2 and 0.07 mA/m2.

  1. 3D Shape Modeling Using High Level Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana

    The goal of this Ph.D. project is to investigate and improve the methods for describing the surface of 3D objects, with focus on modeling geometric texture on surfaces. Surface modeling being a large field of research, the work done during this project concentrated around a few smaller areas corr...... of my work involved developing feature-aware resizing of models with complex surfaces consisting of underlying shape and a distinctive texture detail. The aim was to deform an object while preserving the shape and size of the features....

  2. Cerro Negro field, Venezuela: geological images from a high resolution 3-D survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woller, Kevin L. [Mobil Technology Co. (WEC)

    1999-07-01

    Following a pilot 3-D survey, Petrolera Cerro Negro acquired and processed a 3-D dynamite survey over the Cerro Negro Field in Venezuela. We designed the survey to achieve high frequency imaging at the relatively shallow (< 1000 m) objectives in the Morichal formation. The data exhibits usable frequencies in the 10-120 Hz range after migration. The results of the survey have satisfied the original objective of imaging the faults and basement structure in the field. Use of continuity measurements on the data has resulted in a photographic quality image of the faults at the basement level. The pattern of the faults indicates an unexpected degree of complexity, indicating a richer structural history than originally thought. The continuity data also shows depositional details in the Morichal, which in accordance with geological history of the area. The operatorship is currently in the process of drilling many horizontal development wells. The patterns of the wells bores and variations in the rock types present a challenge to the usage of the 3-D seismic. The operatorship is working to raise the understanding and utility of the seismic data to another plateau. (author)

  3. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Implementation of low communication frequency 3D FFT algorithm for ultra-large-scale micromagnetics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Hiroshi; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Ono, Kanta

    2016-10-01

    We implement low communication frequency three-dimensional fast Fourier transform algorithms on micromagnetics simulator for calculations of a magnetostatic field which occupies a significant portion of large-scale micromagnetics simulation. This fast Fourier transform algorithm reduces the frequency of all-to-all communications from six to two times. Simulation times with our simulator show high scalability in parallelization, even if we perform the micromagnetics simulation using 32 768 physical computing cores. This low communication frequency fast Fourier transform algorithm enables world largest class micromagnetics simulations to be carried out with over one billion calculation cells.

  5. Inclusion of high resolution MODIS maps on a 3D tropospheric water vapor GPS tomography model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Nico, Giovanni; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Observing the water vapor distribution on the troposphere remains a challenge for the weather forecast. Radiosondes provide precise water vapor profiles of the troposphere, but lack geographical and temporal coverage, while satellite meteorological maps have good spatial resolution but even poorer temporal resolution. GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapor in all weather conditions with high temporal sampling frequency. However these measurements lack a vertical water vapor discretization. Reconstruction of the slant path GPS observation to the satellite allows oblique water vapor measurements. Implementation of a 3D grid of voxels along the troposphere over an area where GPS stations are available enables the observation ray tracing. A relation between the water vapor density and the distanced traveled inside the voxels is established, defining GPS tomography. An inverse problem formulation is needed to obtain a water vapor solution. The combination of precipitable water vapor (PWV) maps obtained from MODIS satellite data with the GPS tomography is performed in this work. The MODIS PWV maps can have 1 or 5 km pixel resolution, being obtained 2 times per day in the same location at most. The inclusion of MODIS PWV maps provides an enhanced horizontal resolution for the tomographic solution and benefits the stability of the inversion problem. A 3D tomographic grid was adjusted over a regional area covering Lisbon, Portugal, where a GNSS network of 9 receivers is available. Radiosonde measurements in the area are used to evaluate the 3D water vapor tomography maps.

  6. Hot punching of high-aspect-ratio 3D polymeric microstructures for drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Hot punching: a highly versatile method of fabricating high-aspect-ratio 3D microstructures for drug delivery with good replication fidelity and yield.......Hot punching: a highly versatile method of fabricating high-aspect-ratio 3D microstructures for drug delivery with good replication fidelity and yield....

  7. 3D linear inversion of magnetic susceptibility data acquired by frequency domain EMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, J.; Tabbagh, A.; Simon, F.-X.; Dabas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low induction number EMI instruments are able to simultaneously measure a soil's apparent magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity. This family of dual measurement instruments is highly useful for the analysis of soils and archeological sites. However, the electromagnetic properties of soils are found to vary over considerably different ranges: whereas their electrical conductivity varies from ≤ 0.1 to ≥ 100 mS/m, their relative magnetic permeability remains within a very small range, between 1.0001 and 1.01 SI. Consequently, although apparent conductivity measurements need to be inverted using non-linear processes, the variations of the apparent magnetic susceptibility can be approximated through the use of linear processes, as in the case of the magnetic prospection technique. Our proposed 3D inversion algorithm starts from apparent susceptibility data sets, acquired using different instruments over a given area. A reference vertical profile is defined by considering the mode of the vertical distributions of both the electrical resistivity and of the magnetic susceptibility. At each point of the mapped area, the reference vertical profile response is subtracted to obtain the apparent susceptibility variation dataset. A 2D horizontal Fourier transform is applied to these variation datasets and to the dipole (impulse) response of each instrument, a (vertical) 1D inversion is performed at each point in the spectral domain, and finally the resulting dataset is inverse transformed to restore the apparent 3D susceptibility variations. It has been shown that when applied to synthetic results, this method is able to correct the apparent deformations of a buried object resulting from the geometry of the instrument, and to restore reliable quantitative susceptibility contrasts. It also allows the thin layer solution, similar to that used in magnetic prospection, to be implemented. When applied to field data it initially delivers a level of contrast

  8. High definition 3D imaging lidar system using CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong

    2016-10-01

    In this study we propose and demonstrate a novel technique for measuring distance with high definition three-dimensional imaging. To meet the stringent requirements of various missions, spatial resolution and range precision are important properties for flash LIDAR systems. The proposed LIDAR system employs a polarization modulator and a CCD. When a laser pulse is emitted from the laser, it triggers the polarization modulator. The laser pulse is scattered by the target and is reflected back to the LIDAR system while the polarization modulator is rotating. Its polarization state is a function of time. The laser-return pulse passes through the polarization modulator in a certain polarization state, and the polarization state is calculated using the intensities of the laser pulses measured by the CCD. Because the function of the time and the polarization state is already known, the polarization state can be converted to time-of-flight. By adopting a polarization modulator and a CCD and only measuring the energy of a laser pulse to obtain range, a high resolution three-dimensional image can be acquired by the proposed three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system. Since this system only measures the energy of the laser pulse, a high bandwidth detector and a high resolution TDC are not required for high range precision. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for many three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system applications that require high resolution.

  9. Measuring the 3D shape of high temperature objects using blue sinusoidal structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianling; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Yingchun

    2015-12-01

    The visible light radiated by some high temperature objects (less than 1200 °C) almost lies in the red and infrared waves. It will interfere with structured light projected on a forging surface if phase measurement profilometry (PMP) is used to measure the shapes of objects. In order to obtain a clear deformed pattern image, a 3D measurement method based on blue sinusoidal structured light is proposed in this present work. Moreover, a method for filtering deformed pattern images is presented for correction of the unwrapping phase. Blue sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe pattern images are projected on the surface by a digital light processing (DLP) projector, and then the deformed patterns are captured by a 3-CCD camera. The deformed pattern images are separated into R, G and B color components by the software. The B color images filtered by a low-pass filter are used to calculate the fringe order. Consequently, the 3D shape of a high temperature object is obtained by the unwrapping phase and the calibration parameter matrixes of the DLP projector and 3-CCD camera. The experimental results show that the unwrapping phase is completely corrected with the filtering method by removing the high frequency noise from the first harmonic of the B color images. The measurement system can complete the measurement in a few seconds with a relative error of less than 1 : 1000.

  10. High resolution 3D gas-jet characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Björn; Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte C; Spielmann, Christian

    2011-08-01

    We present a tomographic characterization of gas jets employed for high-intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments where the shape can be non-symmetrically. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measured the phase shift for different directions through the neutral density distribution of the gas jet. From the recorded interferograms it is possible to retrieve 3-dimensional neutral density distributions by tomographic reconstruction based on the filtered back projections. We report on criteria for the smallest number of recorded interferograms as well as a comparison with the widely used phase retrieval based on an Abel inversion. As an example for the performance of our approach, we present the characterization of nozzles with rectangular openings or gas jets with shock waves. With our setup we obtained a spatial resolution of less than 60 μm for an Argon density as low as 2 × 10(17) cm(-3).

  11. The SALSA Project - High-End Aerial 3d Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther-Kindel, W.; Brauchle, J.

    2013-08-01

    The ATISS measurement drone, developed at the University of Applied Sciences Wildau, is an electrical powered motor glider with a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg including a payload capacity of 10 kg. Two 2.5 kW engines enable ultra short take-off procedures and the motor glider design results in a 1 h endurance. The concept of ATISS is based on the idea to strictly separate between aircraft and payload functions, which makes ATISS a very flexible research platform for miscellaneous payloads. ATISS is equipped with an autopilot for autonomous flight patterns but under permanent pilot control from the ground. On the basis of ATISS the project SALSA was undertaken. The aim was to integrate a system for digital terrain modelling. Instead of a laser scanner a new design concept was chosen based on two synchronized high resolution digital cameras, one in a fixed nadir orientation and the other in a oblique orientation. Thus from every object on the ground images from different view angles are taken. This new measurement camera system MACS-TumbleCam was developed at the German Aerospace Center DLR Berlin-Adlershof especially for the ATISS payload concept. Special advantage in comparison to laser scanning is the fact, that instead of a cloud of points a surface including texture is generated and a high-end inertial orientation system can be omitted. The first test flights show a ground resolution of 2 cm and height resolution of 3 cm, which underline the extraordinary capabilities of ATISS and the MACS measurement camera system.

  12. Serum induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed by high speed atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Chuanxu;

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential to encapsulate and selectively release therapeutic drugs. Observations of real-time performance of 3D DNA origami structures in physiological environment will contribute much to its further applications. Here, we investigate the degradation kinetics of 3D...... DNA box origami in serum using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allows characterizing the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA box origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the whole digest process...... is a combination of a rapid collapse phase and a slow degradation phase. The damages of box origami mainly happen in the collapse phase. Thus, the structure stability of 3D DNA box origami should be further improved, especially in the collapse phase, before clinical applications...

  13. High-throughput imaging: Focusing in on drug discovery in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfeng; Zhou, Qiong; Voss, Ty C; Quick, Kevin L; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2016-03-01

    3D organotypic culture models such as organoids and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are becoming more widely used for drug discovery and toxicology screening. As a result, 3D culture technologies adapted for high-throughput screening formats are prevalent. While a multitude of assays have been reported and validated for high-throughput imaging (HTI) and high-content screening (HCS) for novel drug discovery and toxicology, limited HTI/HCS with large compound libraries have been reported. Nonetheless, 3D HTI instrumentation technology is advancing and this technology is now on the verge of allowing for 3D HCS of thousands of samples. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art high-throughput imaging systems, including hardware and software, and recent literature examples of 3D organotypic culture models employing this technology for drug discovery and toxicology screening.

  14. Creating Realistic 3D Graphics with Excel at High School--Vector Algebra in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experiment in which Excel applications that depict rotatable and sizable orthographic projection of simple 3D figures with face overlapping were developed with thirty gymnasium (high school) students of age 17-19 as an introduction to 3D computer graphics. A questionnaire survey was conducted to find out…

  15. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-09-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time-frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  16. One-shot 3d surface reconstruction from instantaneous frequencies: solutions to ambiguity problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Nijmeijer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Phase-measuring profilometry is a well known technique for 3D surface reconstruction based on a sinusoidal pattern that is projected on a scene. If the surface is partly occluded by, for instance, other objects, then the depth shows abrupt transitions at the edges of these occlusions. This causes am

  17. Methodology of High Accuracy and Resolution 3D Geological Model Generation and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴键; 曹代勇; 邓爱居; 李东津; 蒋涛; 翟光华

    2004-01-01

    By generating a high accuracy and high resolution geological model in Liuchu oil field, the technique of geological modeling is expanded and involved in primary geological study, making the sand bodies and reservoir be easily described in detail. The 3D visualization and 3D interactive editing of geological structure model are the key for modeling procedure. And a high accuracy and resolution geological model has been well applied in optimizing the production scheme.

  18. Ultra-compact, High Resolution, LADAR system for 3D Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop an innovative, ultra-compact, high resolution, long range LADAR system to produce a 3D map of the exterior of any object in space such as...

  19. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR 3D MODELLING OF HIGH-ALPINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Legat

    2016-03-01

    Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  20. 2-D-3-D frequency registration using a low-dose radiographic system for knee motion estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerbi, Taha; Burdin, Valerie; Leboucher, Julien; Stindel, Eric; Roux, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented to study the feasibility of the pose and the position estimation of bone structures using a low-dose radiographic system, the entrepreneurial operating system (designed by EOS-Imaging Company). This method is based on a 2-D-3-D registration of EOS bi-planar X-ray images with an EOS 3-D reconstruction. This technique is relevant to such an application thanks to the EOS ability to simultaneously make acquisitions of frontal and sagittal radiographs, and also to produce a 3-D surface reconstruction with its attached software. In this paper, the pose and position of a bone in radiographs is estimated through the link between 3-D and 2-D data. This relationship is established in the frequency domain using the Fourier central slice theorem. To estimate the pose and position of the bone, we define a distance between the 3-D data and the radiographs, and use an iterative optimization approach to converge toward the best estimation. In this paper, we give the mathematical details of the method. We also show the experimental protocol and the results, which validate our approach.

  1. High-resolution laser radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloging, reproduction, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Roberto; Fantoni, Roberta; Ferri de Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Poggi, Claudio

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution Amplitude Modulated Laser Radar (AM-LR) sensor has recently been developed, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The sensor sounding beam can be swept linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotating platform, enabling to obtain respectively linear and cylindrical range maps. Both amplitude and phase shift of the modulating wave of back-scattered light are collected and processed, providing respectively a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range image. The resolution of range measurements depends mainly on the laser modulation frequency, provided that the power of the backscattered light reaching the detector is at least a few nW (current best performances are ~100 μm). The complete object surface can be reconstructed from the sampled points by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloys, bones), with relevant applications in different fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics, to vision in hostile environments. Examples of artwork reconstructed models (pottery, marble statues) are presented and the relevance of this technology for reverse engineering applied to cultural heritage conservation and restoration are discussed. Final 3D models can be passed to numeric control machines for rapid-prototyping, exported in standard formats for CAD/CAM purposes and made available on the Internet by adopting a virtual museum paradigm, thus possibly enabling specialists to perform remote inspections on high resolution digital reproductions of hardly accessible masterpieces.

  2. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  3. 3D nanochannel electroporation for high-throughput cell transfection with high uniformity and dosage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Bertani, Paul; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Chen, Feng; Chiang, Chiling; Malkoc, Veysi; Kuang, Tairong; Gao, Keliang; Lee, L. James; Lu, Wu

    2015-12-01

    Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a ``3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip'' on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40 000 cells per cm2 on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk electroporation (BEP), the NEP chip shows a 20 fold improvement in dosage control and uniformity, while still maintaining high cell viability (>90%) even in cells such as cardiac cells which are characteristically difficult to transfect. This high-throughput 3D NEP system provides an innovative and medically valuable platform with uniform and reliable cellular transfection, allowing for a steady supply of healthy, engineered cells.Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a ``3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip'' on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40 000 cells per cm2 on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk

  4. Label free cell tracking in 3D tissue engineering constructs with high resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. A.; Lam, K.-P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Mazzocchi-Jones, D.; Richardson, J. B.; Yang, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering there is an emphasis on studying 3-D live tissue structures. Consequently, to investigate and identify cellular activities and phenotypes in a 3-D environment for all in vitro experiments, including shape, migration/proliferation and axon projection, it is necessary to adopt an optical imaging system that enables monitoring 3-D cellular activities and morphology through the thickness of the construct for an extended culture period without cell labeling. This paper describes a new 3-D tracking algorithm developed for Cell-IQ®, an automated cell imaging platform, which has been equipped with an environmental chamber optimized to enable capturing time-lapse sequences of live cell images over a long-term period without cell labeling. As an integral part of the algorithm, a novel auto-focusing procedure was developed for phase contrast microscopy equipped with 20x and 40x objectives, to provide a more accurate estimation of cell growth/trajectories by allowing 3-D voxels to be computed at high spatiotemporal resolution and cell density. A pilot study was carried out in a phantom system consisting of horizontally aligned nanofiber layers (with precise spacing between them), to mimic features well exemplified in cellular activities of neuronal growth in a 3-D environment. This was followed by detailed investigations concerning axonal projections and dendritic circuitry formation in a 3-D tissue engineering construct. Preliminary work on primary animal neuronal cells in response to chemoattractant and topographic cue within the scaffolds has produced encouraging results.

  5. A study for high accuracy real-time 3D ultrasonic location system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Ha, Zhang; Zhou, Kangyuan

    2006-12-22

    We discussed a high accuracy real-time 3D ultrasonic location system in this article. The signal received was sampled after it passed the TGC and the logarithmic amplifier. Inside the DSP, we used the dynamic threshold tracing technique to improve the accuracy. The result was processed with Weighted Arithmetic Average. By testing the 40 kHz 3D location system, we have arrived at the accuracy of 1 cm.

  6. An acoustic vector based approach to locate low frequency noise sources in 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.-E. de; Ostendorf, C.; Basten, T.

    2009-01-01

    Although low frequency noise is an issue of huge societal importance, traditional acoustic testing methods have limitations in finding the low frequency source. It is hard to determine the direction of the noise using traditional microphones. Three dimensional sound probes capturing the particle vel

  7. 3D nanochannel electroporation for high-throughput cell transfection with high uniformity and dosage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Bertani, Paul; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Yang, Zhaogang; Chen, Feng; Chiang, Chiling; Malkoc, Veysi; Kuang, Tairong; Gao, Keliang; Lee, L James; Lu, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Of great interest to modern medicine and biomedical research is the ability to inject individual target cells with the desired genes or drug molecules. Some advances in cell electroporation allow for high throughput, high cell viability, or excellent dosage control, yet no platform is available for the combination of all three. In an effort to solve this problem, here we show a "3D nano-channel electroporation (NEP) chip" on a silicon platform designed to meet these three criteria. This NEP chip can simultaneously deliver the desired molecules into 40,000 cells per cm(2) on the top surface of the device. Each 650 nm pore aligns to a cell and can be used to deliver extremely small biological elements to very large plasmids (>10 kbp). When compared to conventional bulk electroporation (BEP), the NEP chip shows a 20 fold improvement in dosage control and uniformity, while still maintaining high cell viability (>90%) even in cells such as cardiac cells which are characteristically difficult to transfect. This high-throughput 3D NEP system provides an innovative and medically valuable platform with uniform and reliable cellular transfection, allowing for a steady supply of healthy, engineered cells.

  8. High-resolution 3D T2-weighted fast spin echo: new applications in the orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399 (United States); McCaffery, Sharon; O' Brien, Joan M. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rowley, Howard A. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Fischbein, Nancy J. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shimikawa, Ann [General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments have made available for ophthalmologic MR imaging a very high-resolution 3D fast spin echo T2 (3D FSE T2) sequence, which runs in a standard head coil. A modification of this technique, 3D FSEz T2, uses a zero-filled slice interpolation method during post-processing to further improve spatial resolution. We describe the technique and share our early clinical observations in patients with ocular masses. Briefly, the additional information from the 3D FSEz T2 resulted in a change in diagnosis from the conventional imaging series in 11 of (41%) 27 studies, usually through the identification of previously treated retinoblastoma lesions. The new sequence significantly increased diagnostic confidence in six (38%) of the remaining 16 cases, usually through better anatomical detail and lesion conspicuity, and did not change interpretation in 10 cases. Such an approach improves diagnostic confidence and may eliminate the need for a dedicated surface coil examination. (orig.)

  9. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  10. Correlation based 3-D segmentation of the left ventricle in pediatric echocardiographic images using radio-frequency data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, Maartje M; Lopata, Richard G P; Huisman, H J; Thijssen, Johan M; Kapusta, Livia; de Korte, Chris L

    2011-09-01

    Clinical diagnosis of heart disease might be substantially supported by automated segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3-D) echographic images. Because of the poor echogenicity contrast between blood and myocardial tissue in some regions and the inherent speckle noise, automated analysis of these images is challenging. A priori knowledge on the shape of the heart cannot always be relied on, e.g., in children with congenital heart disease, segmentation should be based on the echo features solely. The objective of this study was to investigate the merit of using temporal cross-correlation of radio-frequency (RF) data for automated segmentation of 3-D echocardiographic images. Maximum temporal cross-correlation (MCC) values were determined locally from the RF-data using an iterative 3-D technique. MCC values as well as a combination of MCC values and adaptive filtered, demodulated RF-data were used as an additional, external force in a deformable model approach to segment the endocardial surface and were tested against manually segmented surfaces. Results on 3-D full volume images (Philips, iE33) of 10 healthy children demonstrate that MCC values derived from the RF signal yield a useful parameter to distinguish between blood and myocardium in regions with low echogenicity contrast and incorporation of MCC improves the segmentation results significantly. Further investigation of the MCC over the whole cardiac cycle is required to exploit the full benefit of it for automated segmentation.

  11. A 3D tunable and multi-frequency graphene plasmonic cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of cloaking three-dimensional objects at multi-frequencies in the far-infrared part of the spectrum. The proposed cloaking mechanism exploits graphene layers wrapped around the object to be concealed. Graphene layers are doped via a variable external voltage difference permitting continuous tuning of the cloaking frequencies. Particularly, two configurations are investigated: (i) Only one graphene layer is used to suppress the scattering from a dielectric sphere. (ii) Several of these layers biased at different gate voltages are used to achieve a multi-frequency cloak. These frequencies can be set independently. The proposed cloak\\'s functionality is verified by near- and far-field computations. By considering geometry and material parameters that are realizable by practical experiments, we contribute to the development of graphene based plasmonic applications that may find use in disruptive photonic technologies. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  12. Frequency-Stable Offset-Locked Lasers for ASCENDS and 3D Winds Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the potential to develop significant improvements to size, weight, and prime power requirements of front-end cw lasers and associated frequency...

  13. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ˜50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  14. Design for High Performance, Low Power, and Reliable 3D Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of through-silicon-via (TSV) based three-dimensional integrated circuits.  It includes details of numerous “manufacturing-ready” GDSII-level layouts of TSV-based 3D ICs, developed with tools covered in the book. Readers will benefit from the sign-off level analysis of timing, power, signal integrity, and thermo-mechanical reliability for 3D IC designs.  Coverage also includes various design-for-manufacturability (DFM), design-for-reliability (DFR), and design-for-testability (DFT) techniques that are considered critical to the 3D IC design process. Describes design issues and solutions for high performance and low power 3D ICs, such as the pros/cons of regular and irregular placement of TSVs, Steiner routing, buffer insertion, low power 3D clock routing, power delivery network design and clock design for pre-bond testability. Discusses topics in design-for-electrical-reliability for 3D ICs, such as TSV-to-TSV coupling, current crowding at the wire-to-TSV junction and the e...

  15. A Microfabricated 96-Well 3D Assay Enabling High-Throughput Quantification of Cellular Invasion Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Rui; Wei, Yuanchen; Li, Chaobo; Chen, Feng; Chen, Deyong; Zhao, Xiaoting; Luan, Shaoliang; Fan, Beiyuan; Guo, Wei; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a 96-well microfabricated assay to study three-dimensional (3D) invasion of tumor cells. A 3D cluster of tumor cells was first generated within each well by seeding cells onto a micro-patterned surface consisting of a central fibronectin-coated area that promotes cellular attachment, surrounded by a poly ethylene glycol (PEG) coated area that is resistant to cellular attachment. Following the formation of the 3D cell clusters, a 3D collagen extracellular matrix was formed in each well by thermal-triggered gelation. Invasion of the tumor cells into the extracellular matrix was subsequently initiated and monitored. Two modes of cellular infiltration were observed: A549 cells invaded into the extracellular matrix following the surfaces previously coated with PEG molecules in a pseudo-2D manner, while H1299 cells invaded into the extracellular matrix in a truly 3D manner including multiple directions. Based on the processing of 2D microscopic images, a key parameter, namely, equivalent invasion distance (the area of invaded cells divided by the circumference of the initial cell cluster) was obtained to quantify migration capabilities of these two cell types. These results validate the feasibility of the proposed platform, which may function as a high-throughput 3D cellular invasion assay. PMID:28240272

  16. Scalable, High-performance 3D Imaging Software Platform: System Architecture and Application to Virtual Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingl...

  17. Composite 3D-printed metastructures for low-frequency and broadband vibration absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Bauhofer, Anton; Krödel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Architected materials that control elastic wave propagation are essential in vibration mitigation and sound attenuation. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials use band-gap engineering to forbid certain frequencies from propagating through a material. However, existing solutions are limited in the low-frequency regimes and in their bandwidth of operation because they require impractical sizes and masses. Here, we present a class of materials (labeled elastic metastructures) that supports the formation of wide and low-frequency band gaps, while simultaneously reducing their global mass. To achieve these properties, the metastructures combine local resonances with structural modes of a periodic architected lattice. Whereas the band gaps in these metastructures are induced by Bragg scattering mechanisms, their key feature is that the band-gap size and frequency range can be controlled and broadened through local resonances, which are linked to changes in the lattice geometry. We demonstrate these principles experimentally, using advanced additive manufacturing methods, and inform our designs using finite-element simulations. This design strategy has a broad range of applications, including control of structural vibrations, noise, and shock mitigation.

  18. [High-precision 3D morphology measurement by digital gatling method based on structured light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yin; Tang, Yu-Guo; Qiao, Pei-Yu; Wang, Bi-Dou; Jia, Zan-Dong; Xu, Zhong

    2012-09-01

    In order to measure the microscopic 3D morphology of the objects with high-precision, a 3D texture measurement system of digital gatling based on structured light was designed, which can calculate the 3D height information with the analytic phase method. First, the authors collected sixteen equal step phase images by the four-step equal step method, and calculated their main value by dividing them into four groups. Then, the authors found the average as the final phase main value. The pretreatment on the fringe was done by the adaptive Wiener filter and wavelet multi-threshold method to eliminate the various effects of noise, projector distortion and CCD camera distortion. Besides, gradient-oriented phase unwrapping algorithm based on multifrequency was introduced to avoid phase discontinuity point in the course phase unwrapping, and it was proven to be effective and stable. Experiments showed that the system's 3D resolution was 2.75 microm, and the high degree accuracy was better than 0.5 microm, when the system was running with the fringe parameter p0 = 22.7 mm(-1). In addition, the system has many advantages such as fast measuring, simple operation and non-contact, which can meet the need of the high precision measurement requirements for the microscopic 3D morphology.

  19. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  20. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol A.; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A.; Tabaei, Seyed R.; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)–visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode–based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents. PMID:27051877

  1. Color-managed 3D printing with highly translucent printing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Can Ates; Brunton, Alan; Tanksale, Tejas Madan; Urban, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Many 3D printing applications require the reproduction of an object's color in addition to its shape. One 3D printing technology, called multi-jetting (or poly-jetting), allows full color 3D reproductions by arranging multiple colored materials (UV curing photo-polymers) on a droplet level in a single object. One property of such printing materials is their high translucency posing new challenges for characterizing such 3D printers to create ICC profiles. In this paper, we will first describe the whole color-managed 3D printing workflow and will then focus on measuring the colors of highly translucent printing materials. We will show that measurements made by spectrophotometers used in the graphic arts industry are systematically biased towards lower reflection. We will then propose a trichromatic camera-based approach for measuring such colors. Error rates obtained in comparison with spectroradiometric measurements for the same viewing conditions are within the interinstrument-variability of hand-held spectrophotometers used in graphic arts.

  2. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents.

  3. High-resolution 3D ultrasound jawbone surface imaging for diagnosis of periodontal bony defects: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2010-11-01

    Although medical specialties have recognized the importance of using ultrasonic imaging, dentistry is only beginning to discover its benefit. This has particularly been important in the field of periodontics which studies infections in the gum and bone tissues that surround the teeth. This study investigates the feasibility of using a custom-designed high-frequency ultrasound imaging system to reconstruct high-resolution (3D) surface images of periodontal defects in human jawbone. The system employs single-element focused ultrasound transducers with center frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 MHz. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high-precision two-dimensional (2D) positioning system of ±1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate measurements of the mandible, in vitro. Signal and image processing algorithms are applied to reconstruct high-resolution ultrasound images and extract the jawbone surface in each frame. Then, all edges are combined and smoothed in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. In vitro experiments were performed to assess the system performance using mandibles with teeth (dentate) or without (nondentate). The system was able to reconstruct 3D images for the mandible's outer surface with superior spatial resolution down to 24 μm, and to perform the whole scanning in images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles. All the anatomical landmarks were detected and fully described as 3D images using this novel ultrasound imaging technique, whereas the 2D X-ray radiographic images suffered from poor contrast. These results indicate the great potential of utilizing high-resolution ultrasound as a noninvasive, nonionizing imaging technique for the early diagnosis of the more severe form of periodontal disease.

  4. A high-level 3D visualization API for Java and ImageJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longair Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging methods such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Confocal microscopy, Electron Microscopy (EM or Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM yield three-dimensional (3D data sets in need of appropriate computational methods for their analysis. The reconstruction, segmentation and registration are best approached from the 3D representation of the data set. Results Here we present a platform-independent framework based on Java and Java 3D for accelerated rendering of biological images. Our framework is seamlessly integrated into ImageJ, a free image processing package with a vast collection of community-developed biological image analysis tools. Our framework enriches the ImageJ software libraries with methods that greatly reduce the complexity of developing image analysis tools in an interactive 3D visualization environment. In particular, we provide high-level access to volume rendering, volume editing, surface extraction, and image annotation. The ability to rely on a library that removes the low-level details enables concentrating software development efforts on the algorithm implementation parts. Conclusions Our framework enables biomedical image software development to be built with 3D visualization capabilities with very little effort. We offer the source code and convenient binary packages along with extensive documentation at http://3dviewer.neurofly.de.

  5. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  6. 3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Hui; Kelmann, Peter; Inati, Souheil;

    Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron...... framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved...

  7. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme...... OceanWave3D presented in [1, 2]. A nonlinear decomposition of the solution into incident and scattered fields is used to increase the efficiency of the wave-structure interaction problem resolution. Application of the method to the diffraction of nonlinear waves around a fixed, bottom mounted circular...

  8. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Using a 3D High-Definition Endoscopic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttkay, Tamas; Götte, Julia; Walle, Ulrike; Doll, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a minimally invasive heart surgery application of the EinsteinVision 2.0 3D high-definition endoscopic system (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) in an 81-year-old man with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. Fourteen years ago, he underwent a Ross procedure followed by a DDD pacemaker implantation 4 years later for tachy-brady-syndrome. His biventricular function was normal. We recommended minimally invasive tricuspid valve repair. The application of the aformentioned endoscopic system was simple, and the impressive 3D depth view offered an easy and precise manipulation through a minimal thoracotomy incision, avoiding the need for a rib spreading retractor.

  9. The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)

  10. High-Throughput Fabrication of Nanocomplexes Using 3D-Printed Micromixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Boetker, Johan; Wang, Yingya

    2016-01-01

    3D printing allows a rapid and inexpensive manufacturing of custom made and prototype devices. Micromixers are used for rapid and controlled production of nanoparticles intended for therapeutic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of micromixers using computational design and 3D...... via bulk mixing. Moreover, each micromixer could process more than 2 liters per hour with unaffected performance and the setup could easily be scaled-up by aligning several micromixers in parallel. This demonstrates that 3D printing can be used to prepare disposable high-throughput micromixers...... printing, which enable a continuous and industrial scale production of nanocomplexes formed by electrostatic complexation, using the polymers poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Several parameters including polymer concentration, flow rate, and flow ratio were...

  11. 2D and 3D CMOS MAPS with high performance pixel-level signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.traversi@unibg.i [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Ratti, Lodovico [University of Pavia and INFN Pavia (Italy); Re, Valerio [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Deep N-well (DNW) MAPS have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. These devices have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130 nm CMOS technology. The triple-well structure available in such an ultra-deep submicron technology is exploited by using the deep N-well as the charge-collecting electrode. This paper intends to discuss the design features and measurement results of the last prototype (Apsel5T chip) recently fabricated in a 2D 130 nm CMOS technology. Recent advances in microelectronics industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for High Energy Physics experiments. A 3D version of the Apsel5T chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS, two-layer, vertically integrated technology. The main features of this new 3D monolithic detector are presented in this paper.

  12. Introducing a Public Stereoscopic 3D High Dynamic Range (SHDR) Video Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Amin

    2017-03-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) displays and cameras are paving their ways through the consumer market at a rapid growth rate. Thanks to TV and camera manufacturers, HDR systems are now becoming available commercially to end users. This is taking place only a few years after the blooming of 3D video technologies. MPEG/ITU are also actively working towards the standardization of these technologies. However, preliminary research efforts in these video technologies are hammered by the lack of sufficient experimental data. In this paper, we introduce a Stereoscopic 3D HDR database of videos that is made publicly available to the research community. We explain the procedure taken to capture, calibrate, and post-process the videos. In addition, we provide insights on potential use-cases, challenges, and research opportunities, implied by the combination of higher dynamic range of the HDR aspect, and depth impression of the 3D aspect.

  13. Local motion-compensated method for high-quality 3D coronary artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Bai, Xiangzhi; Zhou, Fugen

    2016-12-01

    The 3D reconstruction of coronary artery from X-ray angiograms rotationally acquired on C-arm has great clinical value. While cardiac-gated reconstruction has shown promising results, it suffers from the problem of residual motion. This work proposed a new local motion-compensated reconstruction method to handle this issue. An initial image was firstly reconstructed using a regularized iterative reconstruction method. Then a 3D/2D registration method was proposed to estimate the residual vessel motion. Finally, the residual motion was compensated in the final reconstruction using the extended iterative reconstruction method. Through quantitative evaluation, it was found that high-quality 3D reconstruction could be obtained and the result was comparable to state-of-the-art method.

  14. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxley, Sean, E-mail: sean.foxley@ndcn.ox.ac.uk; Karczmar, Gregory S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Domowicz, Miriam [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schwartz, Nancy [Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  15. Dense high-aspect ratio 3D carbon pillars on interdigitated microelectrode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Heiskanen, Arto; Hansen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present high-aspect ratio carbon pillars (1.4 μm in diameter and ∼11 μm in height) on top of interdigitated electrode arrays to be used for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, different types of 2D and 3D pyrolysed carbon structures were fabricated and characterised...

  16. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, E. J.; Espinoza, S.; Heilig, M.; Kolew, A.; Schneider, M.; Van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Truckenmüller, R. K.; Rivron, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow

  17. The AX-PET project Demonstration of a high resolution axial 3D PET

    CERN Document Server

    Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N; Cochran, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, G; Fanti, V; Honscheid, K; Huh, S; Johnson, I; Joram, C; Kagan, H; Lustermann, W; Meddi, F; Nappi, E; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Oliver, J F; Pauss, P; Rafecas, M; Renker, D; Rudge, A; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Seguinot, J; Smith, S; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Weilhammer, P

    2010-01-01

    The AX-PET is a new geometrical concept for a high resolution 3D PET scanner, based on matrices of axially oriented LYSO crystals interleaved by stacks of WLS, both individually read out by G-APDs. A PET demonstrator, based on two detector modules used in coincidence, is currently under construction.

  18. Unidirectional high fiber content composites: Automatic 3D FE model generation and damage simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    A new method and a software code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical FE models of unidirectional long-fiber-reinforced composite (LFRC) with high fiber volume fraction with random fiber arrangement are presented. The fiber arrangement in the cross-section is generated through random...

  19. 3D seismology Ruehlermoor: Highly dissolved seismology under difficult conditions; 3D Seismik Ruehlermoor: Hochaufloesende Seismik unter schwierigen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerbe, M.; Bartz, V. [Gaz de France Produktion Exploration Deutschland GmbH, Lingen (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    The previous structural plan of the petroleum deposit Ruehlermoor in Emsland (Federal Republic of Germany) only was based on the results of a multiplicity of drillings. In order to optimize the production and the EOR measures (EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery), a highly soluble three-dimensional seismological measurement is accomplished. The goal of this measurement is the dissolution of disturbance displacements in an order of magnitude of five meters. The substantial problem is the fact that the oil field completely lies under a moorland which is dismounted industrially. The three-dimensional seismological measurements only can be accomplished in the winter months with mobile Sonic drilling equipment.

  20. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  1. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  2. 3D MODELLING OF PROPHYLACTIC FOOTWEAR FOR A HIGH ARCHED FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTEA Mariana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the methodology of designing customized footwear for high arched foot. The authors propose to reconsider the classical structure of footwear bottom components for people with high arched foot and recommend incorporating custom components, with the role of compensation or adjustment. This study continues the authors’ research, starting from a foot’s 3D shape obtained by 3D scanning, the anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters, shoe lasts’ 3D modelling and continuing with 3D footwear design. Including customized orthosis can help to stop the evolution of abnormalities, diminishes sensations of pain during walking and improves performance in various physical activities carried out during the day, walking, running, and standing. The prophylactic footwear has to meet four main requirements: to protect the foot and ankle during walking and static; to ensure the normal resistance systems (bones, muscle and joint of the foot; to prevent the installation of irreversible structural changes by reducing stress on the foot; to contribute to increased performance in conducting regular physical activity. It is presented the steps of modelling an orthosis, a virtual simulation of its cutting process, followed by the integration and development of the insole, filling and sole for a customized shoe. Delcam Crispin CAD system and its applications for orthopaedics are used to design the bottom components of prophylactic footwear for a high arched foot.

  3. High sensitivity plasmonic biosensor based on nanoimprinted quasi 3D nanosquares for cell detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Li, Hualin; Yang, Mengsu; Pang, Stella W.

    2016-07-01

    Quasi three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures consisting of Au nanosquares on top of SU-8 nanopillars and Au nanoholes on the bottom were developed and fabricated using nanoimprint lithography with simultaneous thermal and UV exposure. These 3D plasmonic nanostructures were used to detect cell concentration of lung cancer A549 cells, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Nanoimprint technology has the advantage of producing high uniformity plasmonic nanostructures for such biosensors. Multiple resonance modes were observed in these quasi 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The hybrid coupling of localized surface plasmon resonances and Fabry-Perot cavity modes in the quasi 3D nanostructures resulted in high sensitivity of 496 nm/refractive index unit. The plasmonic resonance peak wavelength and sensitivity could be tuned by varying the Au thickness. Resonance peak shifts for different cells at the same concentration were distinct due to their different cell area and confluency. The cell concentration detection limit covered a large range of 5 × 102 to 1 × 107 cells ml-1 with these new plasmonic nanostructures. They also provide a large resonance peak shift of 51 nm for as little as 0.08 cells mm-2 of RPE cells for high sensitivity cell detection.

  4. Dubai 3d Textuerd Mesh Using High Quality Resolution Vertical/oblique Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb Madani, Adib; Ziad Ahmad, Abdullateef; Christoph, Lueken; Hammadi, Zamzam; Manal Abdullah Sabeal, Manal Abdullah x.

    2016-06-01

    Providing high quality 3D data with reasonable quality and cost were always essential, affording the core data and foundation for developing an information-based decision-making tool of urban environments with the capability of providing decision makers, stakeholders, professionals, and public users with 3D views and 3D analysis tools of spatial information that enables real-world views. Helps and assist in improving users' orientation and also increase their efficiency in performing their tasks related to city planning, Inspection, infrastructures, roads, and cadastre management. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Vexcel UltraCam Osprey camera images is examined to provide a 3D model of building façades using an efficient image-based modeling workflow adopted by commercial software's. The main steps of this work include: Specification, point cloud generation, and 3D modeling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM) is applied on the images to generate point cloud. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using and refined to obtain an accurate model of buildings. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough LoD2 details of the building based on visual assessment. The objective of this paper is neither comparing nor promoting a specific technique over the other and does not mean to promote a sensor-based system over another systems or mechanism presented in existing or previous paper. The idea is to share experience.

  5. DUBAI 3D TEXTUERD MESH USING HIGH QUALITY RESOLUTION VERTICAL/OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Madani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing high quality 3D data with reasonable quality and cost were always essential, affording the core data and foundation for developing an information-based decision-making tool of urban environments with the capability of providing decision makers, stakeholders, professionals, and public users with 3D views and 3D analysis tools of spatial information that enables real-world views. Helps and assist in improving users’ orientation and also increase their efficiency in performing their tasks related to city planning, Inspection, infrastructures, roads, and cadastre management. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Vexcel UltraCam Osprey camera images is examined to provide a 3D model of building façades using an efficient image-based modeling workflow adopted by commercial software’s. The main steps of this work include: Specification, point cloud generation, and 3D modeling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on the images to generate point cloud. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using and refined to obtain an accurate model of buildings. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough LoD2 details of the building based on visual assessment. The objective of this paper is neither comparing nor promoting a specific technique over the other and does not mean to promote a sensor-based system over another systems or mechanism presented in existing or previous paper. The idea is to share experience.

  6. Insights on the Subduction Process from High-Resolution 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, Margarete

    2015-04-01

    This is an exciting time in geodynamics as the use of unprecedented high-resolution 3D modeling allows us to ask new questions that were previously unattainable. It is now relatively straightforward to run 3D numerical simulations, with local mesh refinement to ~1 km, input data mapped onto over 100 million finite element nodes, and using tens of thousands of compute hours per model, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2012]. With the additional computational resources, comes a new approach to modeling the tectonic problem. For example, mapping tectonic plates onto a high-resolution 3D geodynamic model grid forces the modeler to ask questions much as a field geologist would ask when constructing a geologic map. In this process of moving from textbook models of subduction to using models based on observation, the modeler is forced to explain the more complicated geometries and features in the Earth, allowing for the new computational approaches to be powerful tools for scientific discovery. Subduction modeling of this kind has expanded the classical view of two-dimensional corner flow, e.g. McKenzie [1969], to a slab driven flow that can be quite complex with predictions for upper mantle flow rates that can be over ten times surface plate motions, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2010] and others. In this talk, I will investigate the role of the third-dimension and non-linearity in plate boundary deformation. I will present high-resolution 3D numerical models that examine the effect of observationally based slab geometry, multiple subducting plates, non-linear rheology, and variations in overriding plate thickness on the subduction related deformation of plate margins. Specific examples include the Alaska and Central America subduction systems. In addition, I will highlight future directions in subduction modeling, and how these can be advanced by the increased incorporation of observational data, high-performance computing, focused numerical algorithms, and 3D interactive data visualization.

  7. 3D Nanochannel Array Platform for High-throughput Cell Manipulation and Nano-electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian

    Electroporation is one of the most common non-viral methods for gene delivery. Recent progress in gene therapy has offered special opportunities to electroporation for in vitro and in vivo applications. However, conventional bulk electroporation (BEP) inevitably causes serious cell damage and stochastic transfection between cells. Microfluidic electroporation (MEP) has been claimed to provide benign single cell transfection for the last decade. Nevertheless, the intracellular transport in both MEP and BEP systems is highly diffusion-dominant, which prevents precise dose control and high uniformity. In this Ph.D. research, we developed a 3D nanochannel-electroporation (3D NEP) platform for mass cell transfection. A silicon-based nanochannel array (3D NEP) chip was designed and fabricated for cell manipulation and electroporation. The chip, designed as Z-directional microchannel - nanochannel array, was fabricated by clean room techniques including projection photolithography and deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE). The fabricated 3D NEP chip is capable of handling 40,000 cells per 1 cm2, up to 1 million per wafer (100 mm diameter). High-throughput cell manipulation technologies were investigated for precise alignment of individual cells to the nanochannel array, a key step for NEP to achieve dose control. We developed three techniques for cell trapping in this work. (1) Magnetic tweezers (MTs) were integrated on the chip to remotely control cells under a programmed magnetic field. (2) A positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) power system was built as an alternative to trap cells onto the nanochannel array using DEP force. (3) A novel yet simple 'dipping-trap' method was used to rapidly trap cells onto a nanochannel array, aligned by a micro-cap array pattern on the 3D NEP chip, which eventually offered 70 - 90 % trapping efficiency and 90 % specificity. 3D NEP platforms were assembled for cell transfection based on the Si-based nanochannel array chip and cell manipulation

  8. The asteroseismic surface effect from a grid of 3D convection simulations - I. Frequency shifts from convective expansion of stellar atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trampedach, Regner; Aarslev, Magnus J.; Houdek, Günter

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect on adiabatic stellar oscillation frequencies of replacing the near-surface layers in 1D stellar structure models with averaged 3D stellar surface convection simulations. The main difference is an expansion of the atmosphere by 3D convection, expected to explain a major part...... of the asteroseismic surface effect; a systematic overestimation of p-mode frequencies due to inadequate surface physics. We employ pairs of 1D stellar envelope models and 3D simulations from a previous calibration of the mixing-length parameter, alpha. That calibration constitutes the hitherto most consistent...... matching of 1D models to 3D simulations, ensuring that their differences are not spurious, but entirely due to the 3D nature of convection. The resulting frequency shift is identified as the structural part of the surface effect. The important, typically non-adiabatic, modal components of the surface...

  9. Development of a version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D applicable for High Temperature Reactors; Entwicklung einer Version des Reaktordynamikcodes DYN3D fuer Hochtemperaturreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Apanasevich, Pavel; Baier, Silvio; Duerigen, Susan; Fridman, Emil; Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Soeren; Merk, Bruno

    2012-07-15

    Based on the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for the simulation of transient processes in Light Water Reactors, a code version DYN3D-HTR for application to graphitemoderated, gas-cooled block-type high temperature reactors has been developed. This development comprises: - the methodical improvement of the 3D steady-state neutron flux calculation for the hexagonal geometry of the HTR fuel element blocks - the development of methods for the generation of homogenised cross section data taking into account the double heterogeneity of the fuel element block structure - the implementation of a 3D model for heat conduction and heat transport in the graphite matrix. The nodal method for neutron flux calculation based on SP3 transport approximation was extended to hexagonal fuel element geometry, where the hexagons are subdivided into triangles, thus the method had finally to be derived for triangular geometry. In triangular geometry, a subsequent subdivision of the hexagonal elements can be considered, and therefore, the effect of systematic mesh refinement can be studied. The algorithm was verified by comparison with Monte Carlo reference solutions, on the node-wise level, as well as also on the pin-wise level. New procedures were developed for the homogenization of the double-heterogeneous fuel element structures. One the one hand, the so-called Reactivity equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT), the two-step homogenization method based on 2D deterministic lattice calculations, was extended to cells with different temperatures of the materials. On the other hand, the progress in development of Monte Carlo methods for spectral calculations, in particular the development of the code SERPENT, opened a new, fully consistent 3D approach, where all details of the structures on fuel particle, fuel compact and fuel block level can be taken into account within one step. Moreover, a 3D heat conduction and heat transport model was integrated into DYN3D to be able to simulate radial

  10. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS–SPM instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Fleming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the recently developed SIMS–SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios. In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet.

  11. Scalable, high-performance 3D imaging software platform: system architecture and application to virtual colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems: multi-core, clusters, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable, high-performance computing, our platform (1) employs size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D image processing algorithms; (2) supports task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing; and (3) consists of a layered parallel software libraries that allow a wide range of medical applications to share the same functionalities. We evaluated the performance of our platform by applying it to an electronic cleansing system in virtual colonoscopy, with initial experimental results showing a 10 times performance improvement on an 8-core workstation over the original sequential implementation of the system.

  12. Microwave Radiometer - high frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two...

  13. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Zappettini, A.

    2014-01-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using...... a novel interpolating technique based on the drift strip signals. The position determination in the detector depth direction, is made using the DOI technique based the detector cathode and anode signals. The position determination along the anode strips is made with the help of 10 cathode strips...... layer between the drift strip electrodes and CZT detector material. This method was applied to all the proto type detectors and was a very effective method to reduce the surface leakage current between the strips. The proto type detector was recently investigated at the European Synchrotron Radiation...

  14. Identifying High Potential Well Targets with 3D Seismic and Mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Seismic reflection the primary tool used in petroleum exploration and production, but use in geothermal exploration is less standard, in part due to cost but also due to the challenges in identifying the highly-permeable zones essential for economic hydrothermal systems [e.g. Louie et al., 2011; Majer, 2003]. Newer technology, such as wireless sensors and low-cost high performance computing, has helped reduce the cost and effort needed to conduct 3D surveys. The second difficulty, identifying permeable zones, has been less tractable so far. Here we report on the use of seismic attributes from a 3D seismic survey to identify and map permeable zones in a hydrothermal area.

  15. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G.; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R.

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  16. Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buongiorno Nardelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive equation model, with particular attention to the accuracy of the vertical velocity field as estimated through the Q vector formulation of the omega equation. The project focused on a test case, covering the region where the Gulf Stream separates from the US East Coast. This work demonstrated that innovative methods for the high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations can be used to build the next generations of operational observation-based products.

  17. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...... significantly. The results were similar to motion correction using an integrated commercial marker-based system. Furthermore, phantom studies were performed supporting the system’s abilities for PET motion correction....

  18. High resolution 3-D temperature and salinity fields derived from in situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guinehut

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an observation-based approach that efficiently combines the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 yr are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature observations to provide global 3-D temperature and salinity fields at high temporal and spatial resolution. The first step of the method consists in deriving synthetic temperature fields from altimeter and sea surface temperature observations, and salinity fields from altimeter observations, through multiple/simple linear regression methods. The second step of the method consists in combining the synthetic fields with in situ temperature and salinity profiles using an optimal interpolation method. Results show the revolutionary nature of the Argo observing system. Argo observations now allow a global description of the statistical relationships that exist between surface and subsurface fields needed for step 1 of the method, and can constrain the large-scale temperature and mainly salinity fields during step 2 of the method. Compared to the use of climatological estimates, results indicate that up to 50% of the variance of the temperature fields can be reconstructed from altimeter and sea surface temperature observations and a statistical method. For salinity, only about 20 to 30% of the signal can be reconstructed from altimeter observations, making the in situ observing system essential for salinity estimates. The in situ observations (step 2 of the method further reduce the differences between the gridded products and the observations by up to 20% for the temperature field in the mixed layer, and the main contribution is for salinity and the near surface layer with an improvement up to 30%. Compared to estimates derived using in situ observations only, the

  19. High Resolution 3-D temperature and salinity fields derived from in situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guinehut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an observation-based approach that combines efficiently the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 years are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from altimeter and sea surface temperature satellite observations to provide global 3-D temperature and salinity fields at high temporal and spatial resolution. The first step of the method consists in deriving synthetic temperature fields from altimeter and sea surface temperature observations and salinity fields from altimeter observations through multiple/simple linear regression methods. The second step of the method consists in combining the synthetic fields with in situ temperature and salinity profiles using an optimal interpolation method. Results show the revolution of the Argo observing system. Argo observations now allow a global description of the statistical relationships that exist between surface and subsurface fields needed for step 1 of the method and can constrain the large-scale temperature and mainly salinity fields during step 2 of the method. Compared to the use of climatological estimates, results indicate that up to 50 % of the variance of the temperature fields can be reconstructed from altimeter and sea surface temperature observations and a statistical method. For salinity, only about 20 to 30 % of the signal can be reconstructed from altimeter observations, making the in situ observing system mandatory for salinity estimates. The in situ observations (step 2 of the method reduce additionally the error by up to 20 % for the temperature field in the mixed layer and the main contribution is for salinity and the near surface layer with an improvement up to 30 %. Compared to estimates derived using in situ observations only, the merged fields provide a better reconstruction of the high

  20. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    Solutions of several space and geophysical tasks require creating high sensitive precise accelerometers with sensitivity in order of 10 -13 g. These several tasks are following: inertial navigation of the Earth and Space; gravimetry nearby the Earth and into Space; geology; geophysics; seismology etc. Accelerometers (gravimeters and gradientmeters) with required sensitivity are not available now. The best accelerometers in the world have sensitivity worth on 4-5 orders. It has been developed a new class of fiber-optical sensors (FOS) with light pulse modulation. These sensors have super high threshold sensitivity and wide (up to 10 orders) dynamic range, and can be used as a base for creating of measurement units of physical values as 3D superhigh sensitive precise accelerometers of linear accelerations that is suitable for highest requirements. The principle of operation of the FOS is organically combined with a digital signal processing. It allows decreasing hardware of the accelerometer due to using a usual air-borne or space-borne computer; correcting the influence of natural, design, technological drawbacks of FOS on measured results; neutralising the influence of extraordinary situations available during using of FOS; decreasing the influence of internal and external destabilising factors (as for FOS), such as oscillation of environment temperature, instability of pendulum cycle frequency of sensitive element of the accelerometer etc. We were conducted a quantitative estimation of precise opportunities of analogue FOS in structure of fiber optical measuring devices (FOMD) for elementary FOMD with analogue FOS built on modern element basis of fiber optics (FO), at following assumptions: absolute parameter stability of devices of FOS measuring path; single transmission band of registration path; maximum possible inserted in optical fiber (OF) a radiated power. Even at such idealized assumptions, a calculated value in limit reached minimum inaccuracy of

  1. 3D CFD Simulation of Horizontal Spin Casting of High Speed Steel Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkin, Konstantin; Balakin, Boris; Hrizo, Christopher; Vipperman, Jeffrey; Garcia, Isaac; University Of Pittsburgh Team; Whemco Collaboration; University Of Bergen Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    The present paper reports some preliminary results on the multiphase modeling of the melt behavior in the horizontal spinning chamber. Three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the high speed steel (HSS) melt was developed in a novel way on the base of volume-of-fluid technique. Preliminary 3D CFD of the horizontal centrifugal casting process showed that local turbulences can take place depending on the geometrical features of the ``feeding'' arm (inlet), its position relative to the chamber, pouring rates and temperatures. The distribution of the melt inside the mold is directly related to the melt properties (viscosity and diffusivity), which depend on the temperature and alloy composition. The predicted liquid properties, used in the modeling, are based on actual chemical composition analysis performed on different heats. Acknowledgement of WHEMCO and United Rolls Inc. for supporting the program. Special appreciation for Kevin Marsden.

  2. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  3. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  4. Topochemical 3D polymerization of C60 under high pressure at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Kini, Nagesh S; Kubo, Akira; Jida, Saeko; Kuramoto, Hideaki

    2008-04-02

    Fullerene C60 monomer crystals were compressed to a face-centered cubic (fcc) phase with a lattice parameter of a = 11.93(5) A and a micro-Vickers hardness of 4500 kg/mm2 using high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of 15 GPa at 500-600 degrees C. The hardness is compatible with that of cubic boron nitride (c-BN), suggesting the formation of a 3D C60 polymer. The single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that each C60 molecule in the polymer was linked to the 12 nearest neighbors by [2+2] cycloaddition between the common pentagon-hexagon (56) edges. However, ab initio geometry optimization and molecular dynamics calculations suggested that the 3D polymer should have a rhombohedral structure with the space group of R containing [3+3] cycloaddition between the pentagons of C60 molecules within the plane perpendicular to the 3-fold axis. The higher apparent symmetry of fcc was observed as an averaged structure of different orientations of the rhombohedral structure. The R structure can be derived by only a slight rotation of each C60 unit in the (111) plane of the fcc structure. The band-structure calculation suggested that the 3D polymer (R) was a semiconductor; the activation energy for the electrical conductivity was experimentally determined to be 0.25 eV at 550 K.

  5. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  6. Quantization of generic chaotic 3D billiard with smooth boundary; 2, structure of high-lying eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T

    1996-01-01

    This is the first survey of highly excited eigenstates of a chaotic 3D billiard. We introduce a strongly chaotic 3D billiard with a smooth boundary and we manage to calculate accurate eigenstates with sequential number (of a 48-fold desymmetrized billiard) about 45,000. Besides the brute-force calculation of 3D wavefunctions we propose and illustrate another two representations of eigenstates of quantum 3D billiards: (i) normal derivative of a wavefunction over the boundary surface, and (ii) ray - angular momentum representation. The majority of eigenstates is found to be more or less uniformly extended over the entire energy surface, as expected, but there is also a fraction of strongly localized - scarred eigenstates which are localized either (i) on to classical periodic orbits or (ii) on to planes which carry (2+2)-dim classically invariant manifolds, although the classical dynamics is strongly chaotic and non-diffusive.

  7. 3D printing of hydrogels in a temperature controlled environment with high spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is great hope in 3D printing techniques to create patient specific scaffolds for therapeutic applications. The majority of these approaches rely on materials that both give support to cells and effectively mimic a tissue specific microenvironment. Hydrogels provide an exceptional support for cells but their physicochemical properties are not suited for conventional additive layer manufacturing. Their low viscosity and resulting fluidic nature inhibit voluminous 3D deposition and lead to crude printing accuracy. To enhance mechanical features, hydrogels are often chemically modified and/or mixed with additives; however it is not clear whether these changes induce effects on cellular behavior or if in vivo applications are at risk. Certainly it increases the complexity of scaffold systems. To circumvent these obstacles, we aimed for a 3D printing technique which is capable of creating scaffolds out of unmodified, pure hydrogels. Here we present a new method to produce alginate scaffolds in a viscosity- independent manner with high spatial resolution. This is achieved by printing in a sub-zero environment which leads to fast freezing of the hydrogels, thus preserving the printed shape and circumventing any viscosity dependent flows. This enables the user to create scaffolds which are able to reflect soft or stiff cell niches.

  8. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

    2014-05-01

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  9. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  10. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D. [University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Acciavatti, F. [Universita' Politecnica Delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2014-05-27

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics.

  11. High-resolution 3D X-ray imaging of intracranial nitinol stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeren, Rudolph M.; With, Peter H.N. de [Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Faculty Electrical Engineering, Signal Processing Systems group (SPS), Eindhoven (Netherlands); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Kroon, Johannes N.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Babic, Drazenko [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To assess an optimized 3D imaging protocol for intracranial nitinol stents in 3D C-arm flat detector imaging. For this purpose, an image quality simulation and an in vitro study was carried out. Nitinol stents of various brands were placed inside an anthropomorphic head phantom, using iodine contrast. Experiments with objects were preceded by image quality and dose simulations. We varied X-ray imaging parameters in a commercially interventional X-ray system to set 3D image quality in the contrast-noise-sharpness space. Beam quality was varied to evaluate contrast of the stents while keeping absorbed dose below recommended values. Two detector formats were used, paired with an appropriate pixel size and X-ray focus size. Zoomed reconstructions were carried out and snapshot images acquired. High contrast spatial resolution was assessed with a CT phantom. We found an optimal protocol for imaging intracranial nitinol stents. Contrast resolution was optimized for nickel-titanium-containing stents. A high spatial resolution larger than 2.1 lp/mm allows struts to be visualized. We obtained images of stents of various brands and a representative set of images is shown. Independent of the make, struts can be imaged with virtually continuous strokes. Measured absorbed doses are shown to be lower than 50 mGy Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). By balancing the modulation transfer of the imaging components and tuning the high-contrast imaging capabilities, we have shown that thin nitinol stent wires can be reconstructed with high contrast-to-noise ratio and good detail, while keeping radiation doses within recommended values. Experimental results compare well with imaging simulations. (orig.)

  12. Nanostructuring of hierarchical 3D cystine flowers for high-performance electrochemical immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Sumana, Gajjala; Tiwari, Ida

    2014-11-15

    Here, we report a simple and reproducible method for large scale fabrication of novel flower and palm-leaf like 3D cystine microstructures (CMs) with high uniformity having a size of 50 µm and 10 µm respectively, through a facile aqueous solution route as a function of pH and concentration. In a proof-of-concept study, the 3D CMs have been further explored to fabricate a label-free high-performance electrochemical immunosensor by immobilizing monoclonal antibodies. Electrochemical methods were employed to study the stepwise modification of the system and the electronic transduction for the detection. The fabricated immunosensor design demonstrates high performance with enhanced sensitivity (4.70 cfu ml(-1)) and linear sensing range from 10 to 3 x 10(9) cfu ml(-1) a long shelf-life (35 days) and high selectivity over other bacterial pathogens. The enhanced performance originates from a novel nanostructuring in which the CMs provide higher surface coverage for the immobilization of antibodies providing excellent electronic/ionic conductivity which result in the enhanced sensitivity.

  13. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-16

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa(-1)) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.

  14. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  15. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitati...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  16. High Resolution 3D Earth Observation Data Analysis for Safeguards Activities

    OpenAIRE

    d'Angelo, Pablo; Rossi, Cristian; Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael; Flory, Michael; Niemeyer, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the investigations performed at DLR with respect to the application of high resolution SAR and optical data for 3D analysis in the context of Safeguards. The Research Center Jülich and the adjacent open cut mines were used as main test sites, and a comprehensive stack of ascending and descending TerraSAR data was acquired over two years. TerraSAR data acquisition was performed, and various ways to visualize and analyze stacks of radar images w...

  17. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Y.; Matteson, J. L.; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV thr...

  18. Asymptotic solution for high vorticity regions in incompressible 3D Euler equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agafontsev, D S; Mailybaev, A A

    2016-01-01

    Incompressible 3D Euler equations develop high vorticity in very thin pancake-like regions from generic large-scale initial conditions. In this work we propose an exact solution of the Euler equations for the asymptotic pancake evolution. This solution combines a shear flow aligned with an asymmetric straining flow, and is characterized by a single asymmetry parameter and an arbitrary transversal vorticity profile. The analysis is based on detailed comparison with numerical simulations performed using a pseudo-spectral method in anisotropic grids of up to 972 x 2048 x 4096.

  19. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  20. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g‑1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g‑1 to 40 A g‑1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g‑1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  1. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  2. The Subspace Voyager: Exploring High-Dimensional Data along a Continuum of Salient 3D Subspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Mueller, Klaus

    2017-02-23

    Analyzing high-dimensional data and finding hidden patterns is a difficult problem and has attracted numerous research efforts. Automated methods can be useful to some extent but bringing the data analyst into the loop via interactive visual tools can help the discovery process tremendously. An inherent problem in this effort is that humans lack the mental capacity to truly understand spaces exceeding three spatial dimensions. To keep within this limitation, we describe a framework that decomposes a high-dimensional data space into a continuum of generalized 3D subspaces. Analysts can then explore these 3D subspaces individually via the familiar trackball interface while using additional facilities to smoothly transition to adjacent subspaces for expanded space comprehension. Since the number of such subspaces suffers from combinatorial explosion, we provide a set of data-driven subspace selection and navigation tools which can guide users to interesting subspaces and views. A subspace trail map allows users to manage the explored subspaces, keep their bearings, and return to interesting subspaces and views. Both trackball and trail map are each embedded into a word cloud of attribute labels which aid in navigation. We demonstrate our system via several use cases in a diverse set of application areas - cluster analysis and refinement, information discovery, and supervised training of classifiers. We also report on a user study that evaluates the usability of the various interactions our system provides.

  3. Neoclassical Tearing Mode Locking Avoidance by 3D Fields and Recovery of High Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, M.; Budny, B.; Brennan, D.; Ferraro, N.; Grierson, B.; Jardin, S.; Logan, N.; Nazikian, R.; Tobias, B.; Wang, Z.; Strait, E.; de Grassie, J.; La Haye, R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Taylor, Z.; Shiraki, D.; Hanson, J.; Holcomb, C.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A slowly rotating n=1 helical magnetic field has been applied for Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) locking avoidance in the DIII-D tokamak. This 3D field applied through feedback recovered a high performance configuration by rebuilding a H-mode edge and high ion temperature internal transport barrier in the plasma core, although, at present, the βn was reduced by 30%. The m/n=2/1 component of 3D field served to avoid NTM locking, while the m/n=1 and the m/n=(4-5)/1 components recover core confinement and H-mode edge. Preliminary analysis shows a quasi-steady helical plasma flow was built up around the core, mostly parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. The optimization of m-components with n=1 is a promising approach for integrating optimizations of MHD stability from core to edge. Supported in part by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-99ER54531, DE-SC0003913 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. 3D Reconstruction of the Vortex in a Human Right Ventricle Model using High Speed PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradvar, Arash; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    This work aims to characterize the formation process and translation of the vortex, which forms along with the trans-tricuspid jet in a realistic model of a human right ventricle (RV). A clear model of the RV made of silicone rubber was carefully casted in real size from echocardiographic data of an adult human heart. The RV model was used in our heart pulsed-flow simulator at KLAB at UCI to perform experiments. Bioprosthetic heart valves in appropriate sizes were used at tricuspid and pulmonary positions. Multi-planar high-speed PIV was performed to capture and reconstruct the 3D flow field with a 1-millisecond time gap between each two velocity frames. λ2 iso-surfaces were used to illustrate the evolution of vortex cores. The highly asymmetric shape of the RV chamber results in a complex 3D trans-tricuspid vortex that forms and translates toward right ventricular outflow tract, and finally departs RV from pulmonary valve. Through this study, -for the first time- the formation, evolution and pathway of the RV vortex have been characterized in vitro.

  5. 3D-printed surface mould applicator for high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Mark; Lasso, Andras; Cumming, Ian; Rankin, Adam; Falkson, Conrad B.; Schreiner, L. John; Joshi, Chandra; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    In contemporary high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of superficial tumors, catheters are placed in a wax mould. The creation of current wax models is a difficult and time consuming proces.The irradiation plan can only be computed post-construction and requires a second CT scan. In case no satisfactory dose plan can be created, the mould is discarded and the process is repeated. The objective of this work was to develop an automated method to replace suboptimal wax moulding. We developed a method to design and manufacture moulds that guarantee to yield satisfactory dosimetry. A 3D-printed mould with channels for the catheters designed from the patient's CT and mounted on a patient-specific thermoplastic mesh mask. The mould planner was implemented as an open-source module in the 3D Slicer platform. Series of test moulds were created to accommodate standard brachytherapy catheters of 1.70mm diameter. A calibration object was used to conclude that tunnels with a diameter of 2.25mm, minimum 12mm radius of curvature, and 1.0mm open channel gave the best fit for this printer/catheter combination. Moulds were created from the CT scan of thermoplastic mesh masks of actual patients. The patient-specific moulds have been visually verified to fit on the thermoplastic meshes. The masks were visually shown to fit onto the thermoplastic meshes, next the resulting dosimetry will have to be compared with treatment plans and dosimetry achieved with conventional wax moulds in order to validate our 3D printed moulds.

  6. From Tls to Hbim. High Quality Semantically-Aware 3d Modeling of Complex Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, R.; Malinverni, E. S.; Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Orlietti, E.

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the framework for 3D modeling, a great challenge is to obtain the suitability of Building Information Model (BIM) platform for historical architecture. A specific challenge in HBIM is to guarantee appropriateness of geometrical accuracy. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a whole HBIM approach for complex architectural shapes, starting from TLS point clouds. A novelty of our method is to work in a 3D environment throughout the process and to develop semantics during the construction phase. This last feature of HBIM was analyzed in the present work verifying the studied ontologies, enabling the data enrichment of the model with non-geometrical information, such as historical notes, decay or deformation evidence, decorative elements etc. The case study is the Church of Santa Maria at Portonovo, an abbey from the Romanesque period. Irregular or complex historical architecture, such as Romanesque, needs the construction of shared libraries starting from the survey of its already existing elements. This is another key aspect in delivering Building Information Modeling standards. In particular, we focus on the quality assessment of the obtained model, using an open-source sw and the point cloud as reference. The proposed work shows how it is possible to develop a high quality 3D model semantic-aware, capable of connecting geometrical-historical survey with descriptive thematic databases. In this way, a centralized HBIM will serve as comprehensive dataset of information about all disciplines, particularly for restoration and conservation. Moreover, the geometric accuracy will ensure also reliable visualization outputs.

  7. 3D-information fusion from very high resolution satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, T.; d'Angelo, P.; Kuschk, G.; Tian, J.; Partovi, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl'eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground objects are derived. Combining these elevation based data with a spectral classification allows detection and extraction of objects from the satellite scenes. Beside the object extraction also the DSM and DTM can directly be used for simulation and monitoring of environmental issues. Examples are the simulation of floodings, building-volume and people estimation, simulation of noise from roads, wave-propagation for cellphones, wind and light for estimating renewable energy sources, 3D change detection, earthquake preparedness and crisis relief, urban development and sprawl of informal settlements and much more. Also outside of urban areas volume information brings literally a new dimension to earth oberservation tasks like the volume estimations of forests and illegal logging, volume of (illegal) open pit mining activities, estimation of flooding or tsunami risks, dike planning, etc. In this paper we present the preprocessing from the original level-1 satellite data to digital surface models (DSMs), corresponding VHR ortho images and derived digital terrain models (DTMs). From these components we present how a monitoring and decision fusion based 3D change detection can be realized by using different acquisitions. The results are analyzed and assessed to derive quality parameters for the presented method. Finally the usability of 3D information fusion from VHR satellite imagery is discussed and evaluated.

  8. Procyon: Constraining Its Temperature Structure with High-Precision Interferometry and 3-D Model Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenberg, J. P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Kervella, P.

    2004-12-01

    We have fit synthetic visibilities from 3-D (CO5BOLD + PHOENIX) and 1-D (PHOENIX, ATLAS12) model stellar atmospheres for Procyon (F5 IV) to high-precision interferometric data from the VINCI instrument at the VLT Interferometer (K-band) and from the Mark III interferometer (500 nm, 800 nm). These data provide a test of theoretical wavelength-dependent limb-darkening predictions, and therefore Procyon's atmospheric temperature structure. Earlier work (Allende Prieto et al. 2002 ApJ 567, 544) has shown that the temperature structure from a spatially and temporally averaged 3-D hydrodynamical model produces significantly less limb darkening at 500 nm relative to the temperature structure from a 1-D MARCS model atmosphere which uses a mixing-length approximation for convective flux transport. Our direct fits to the interferometric data confirm this prediction, however we find that not all 1-D models fail to reproduce the observations. The key to matching the interferometric data is a shallower temperature gradient than provided by the standard 1-D mixing-length approximation. We find that in addition to our best fitting 3-D hydrodynamical model, a 1-D ATLAS12 model, with an additional free parameter for ``approximate overshooting'', provides the required temperature gradient. We estimate that an interferometric precision better than 0.1% will be required to distinguish between the 3-D model and the ATLAS12 model. This overshooting approximation has been shown to match Solar limb-darkening observations reasonably well (Castelli et al 1997 A&A 324, 432), however published work since using Strömgren photometry of solar-type stars has cast doubt on the importance of overshooting. We have also compared synthetic spectral energy distributions for Procyon to ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared spectrophotometry and find differences from comparisons to Strömgren photometry alone. This work was performed in part contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by

  9. High-resolution 3D seismic model of the crustal and uppermost mantle structure in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin; Ostaficzuk, Stanisław R.

    2016-01-01

    In the area of Poland a contact between the Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe and the Carpathians has a complicated structure and a complex P-wave velocity of the sedimentary cover, crystalline crust, Moho depth and the uppermost mantle. The geometry of the uppermost several kilometers of sediments is relatively well recognized from over 100,000 boreholes. The vertical seismic profiling (VSP) from 1188 boreholes provided detailed velocity data for regional tectonic units and for stratigraphic successions from Permian to the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits. These data, however, do not provide information about the velocity and basement depth in the central part of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and in the Carpathians. So, the data set is supplemented by 2D velocity models from 32 deep seismic sounding refraction profiles which also provide information about the crust and uppermost mantle. Together with the results of other methods: vertical seismic profiling, magnetotelluric, allow for the creation of a detailed, high-resolution 3D model for the entire Earth's crust and the uppermost mantle down to a depth of 60 km. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclise is only 0.3 to 1 km thick, which increases to 7 to 8 km along the East European Craton (EEC) margin, and 9 to 12 km in the TESZ. The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1-4 km thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sedimentary layers, up to about 20 km. The crystalline crust is differentiated and has a layered structure. The crust beneath the West European Platform (WEP; Variscan domain) is characterized by P-wave velocities of 5.8-6.6 km/s. The upper and middle crusts beneath the EEC are characterized by velocities of 6.1-6.6 km/s, and are underlain by a high velocity lower crust with a velocity of about 7 km/s. A general decrease in velocity is observed from the older to the younger tectonic domains. The TESZ is associated with a steep dip

  10. 3D cut-cell modelling for high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, H; Nikiforakis, N

    2015-01-01

    With the recent, rapid development of computer technology, the resolution of atmospheric numerical models has increased substantially. As a result, steep gradients in mountainous terrain are now being resolved in high-resolution models. This results in large truncation errors in those models using terrain-following coordinates. In this study, a new 3D Cartesian coordinate non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed. A cut-cell representation of topography based on finite-volume discretization is combined with a cell-merging approach, in which small cut-cells are merged with neighboring cells either vertically or horizontally. In addition, a block-structured mesh-refinement technique achieves a variable resolution on the model grid with the finest resolution occurring close to the terrain surface. The model successfully reproduces a flow over a 3D bell-shaped hill that shows a good agreement with the flow predicted by the linear theory. The ability of the model to simulate flows over steep terrain is demons...

  11. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2016-10-01

    Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.

  12. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated the...... the cooling system and power losses are modeled in the 3D thermal model, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. The accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by experimental results.......Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated...

  14. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  15. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  16. PolyHIPE Derived Freestanding 3D Carbon Foam for Cobalt Hydroxide Nanorods Based High Performance Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Umakant M.; Ghorpade, Ravindra V.; Nam, Min Sik; Nalawade, Archana C.; Lee, Sangrae; Han, Haksoo; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes enhanced electrochemical capacitive performance of chemically grown Cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) nanorods (NRs) decorated porous three dimensional graphitic carbon foam (Co(OH)2/3D GCF) as a supercapacitor electrode. Freestanding 3D porous GCF is prepared by carbonizing, high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerized styrene and divinylbenzene. The PolyHIPE was sulfonated and carbonized at temperature up to 850 °C to obtain graphitic 3D carbon foam with high surface area (389 m2 g−1) having open voids (14 μm) interconnected by windows (4 μm) in monolithic form. Moreover, entangled Co(OH)2 NRs are anchored on 3D GCF electrodes by using a facile chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The wide porous structure with high specific surface area (520 m2 g−1) access offered by the interconnected 3D GCF along with Co(OH)2 NRs morphology, displays ultrahigh specific capacitance, specific energy and power. The Co(OH)2/3D GCF electrode exhibits maximum specific capacitance about ~1235 F g−1 at ~1 A g−1 charge-discharge current density, in 1 M aqueous KOH solution. These results endorse potential applicability of Co(OH)2/3D GCF electrode in supercapacitors and signifies that, the porous GCF is a proficient 3D freestanding framework for loading pseudocapacitive nanostructured materials. PMID:27762284

  17. PolyHIPE Derived Freestanding 3D Carbon Foam for Cobalt Hydroxide Nanorods Based High Performance Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Umakant M.; Ghorpade, Ravindra V.; Nam, Min Sik; Nalawade, Archana C.; Lee, Sangrae; Han, Haksoo; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-10-01

    The current paper describes enhanced electrochemical capacitive performance of chemically grown Cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) nanorods (NRs) decorated porous three dimensional graphitic carbon foam (Co(OH)2/3D GCF) as a supercapacitor electrode. Freestanding 3D porous GCF is prepared by carbonizing, high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerized styrene and divinylbenzene. The PolyHIPE was sulfonated and carbonized at temperature up to 850 °C to obtain graphitic 3D carbon foam with high surface area (389 m2 g-1) having open voids (14 μm) interconnected by windows (4 μm) in monolithic form. Moreover, entangled Co(OH)2 NRs are anchored on 3D GCF electrodes by using a facile chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The wide porous structure with high specific surface area (520 m2 g-1) access offered by the interconnected 3D GCF along with Co(OH)2 NRs morphology, displays ultrahigh specific capacitance, specific energy and power. The Co(OH)2/3D GCF electrode exhibits maximum specific capacitance about ~1235 F g-1 at ~1 A g-1 charge-discharge current density, in 1 M aqueous KOH solution. These results endorse potential applicability of Co(OH)2/3D GCF electrode in supercapacitors and signifies that, the porous GCF is a proficient 3D freestanding framework for loading pseudocapacitive nanostructured materials.

  18. 3D joystick for robotic arm control by individuals with high level spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Pendergast, Martin; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An innovative 3D joystick was developed to enable quadriplegics due to spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to more independently and efficiently operate a robotic arm as an assistive device. The 3D joystick was compared to two different manual input modalities, a keyboard control and a traditional joystick, in performing experimental robotic arm tasks by both subjects without disabilities and those with upper extremity mobility impairments. Fitts's Law targeting and practical pouring tests were conducted to compare the performance and accuracy of the proposed 3D joystick. The Fitts's law measurements showed that the 3D joystick had the best index of performance (IP), though it required an equivalent number of operations and errors as the standard robotic arm joystick. The pouring task demonstrated that the 3D joystick took significantly less task completion time and was more accurate than keyboard control. The 3D joystick also showed a decreased learning curve to the other modalities.

  19. Numerical 3D analysis of cloud cavitation shedding frequency on a circular leading edge hydrofoil with a barotropic cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, M.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible density-based time-explicit low Mach number consistent viscous flow solver is utilised in combination with a barotropic cavitation model for the analysis of cloud cavitation on a circular leading edge (CLE) hydrofoil. For 5° angle of attack, cloud structure and shedding frequency for different cavitation numbers are compared to experimental data. A strong grid sensitivity is found in particular for high cavitation numbers. On a fine grid, a very good agreement with validation data is achieved even without explicit turbulence model. The neglect of viscous effects as well as a two-dimensional set-up lead to a less realistic prediction of cloud structures and frequencies. Comparative simulations with the Sauer-Schnerr cavitation model and modified pre-factors of the mass transfer terms underestimate the measured shedding frequency.

  20. 3D HIGH RESOLUTION SEISMIC PROSPECTING IN MINING AREAS; XIEQIAO COLLIERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiRuofei

    1996-01-01

    3D seismic prospecting in mining areas of Xieqiao Colliery is a successfulmodel for an advancement from the resource prospecting to mining prospecting stagein coal fields. Its results have proved that faults with a throw of 5-10 m can be detected in an area with good seismogeologic conditions by using 3D seismic technique.Detection of underground tunnels for the first time utilizing 3D seismic data indicates that subsided columns, gotten and mine goaf can be detected using 3D seismic technique, so it has a broad applied prospect.

  1. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  2. Structural optimization of 3D-printed synthetic spider webs for high strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao; Compton, Brett G.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-05-01

    Spiders spin intricate webs that serve as sophisticated prey-trapping architectures that simultaneously exhibit high strength, elasticity and graceful failure. To determine how web mechanics are controlled by their topological design and material distribution, here we create spider-web mimics composed of elastomeric filaments. Specifically, computational modelling and microscale 3D printing are combined to investigate the mechanical response of elastomeric webs under multiple loading conditions. We find the existence of an asymptotic prey size that leads to a saturated web strength. We identify pathways to design elastomeric material structures with maximum strength, low density and adaptability. We show that the loading type dictates the optimal material distribution, that is, a homogeneous distribution is better for localized loading, while stronger radial threads with weaker spiral threads is better for distributed loading. Our observations reveal that the material distribution within spider webs is dictated by the loading condition, shedding light on their observed architectural variations.

  3. Development and Evaluation of High-Performance Decorrelation Algorithms for the Nonalternating 3D Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles FJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and evaluate the implementations of three parallel video-sequences decorrelation algorithms. The proposed algorithms are based on the nonalternating classic three-dimensional wavelet transform (3D-WT. The parallel implementations of the algorithms are developed and tested on a shared memory system, an SGI origin 3800 supercomputer making use of a message-passing paradigm. We evaluate and analyze the performance of the implementations in terms of the response time and speed-up factor by varying the number of processors and various video coding parameters. The key points enabling the development of highly efficient implementations rely on the partitioning of the video sequences into groups of frames and a workload distribution strategy supplemented by the use of parallel I/O primitives, for better exploiting the inherent features of the application and computing platform. We also evaluate the effectiveness of our algorithms in terms of the first-order entropy.

  4. 3D imaging provides a high-resolution, volumetric approach for analyzing biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Policastro, Steven A; Strom, Matthew J; Riley, Scott C; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Drake, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    A volumetric approach for determining the fouling burden on surfaces is presented, consisting of a 3D camera imaging system with fine (5 μm) resolution. Panels immersed in an estuary on the southwest coast of Florida, USA were imaged and the data were used to quantify seasonal changes in the biofouling community. Test panels, which were submerged in seawater for up to one year, were analyzed before and after gentle scrubbing to quantify the biovolume of the total fouling community (ie soft and hard organisms) and the hard fouling community. Total biofouling ranged from 0.01 to 1.16 cm(3) cm(-2) throughout the immersion period; soft fouling constituted 22-87% of the total biovolume. In the future, this approach may be used to inform numerical models of fluid-surface interfaces and to evaluate, with high resolution, the morphology of fouling organisms in response to antifouling technologies.

  5. High-resolution 3D analysis of mouse small-intestinal stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Petrova, Tatiana V

    2016-09-01

    Here we detail a protocol for whole-mount immunostaining of mouse small-intestinal villi that can be used to generate high-resolution 3D images of all gut cell types, including blood and lymphatic vessel cells, neurons, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. The procedure describes perfusion, fixation, dissection, immunostaining, mounting, clearing, confocal imaging and quantification, using intestinal vasculature as an example. As intestinal epithelial cells prevent visualization with some antibodies, we also provide an optional protocol to remove these cells before fixation. In contrast to alternative current techniques, our protocol enables the entire villus to be visualized with increased spatial resolution of cell location, morphology and cell-cell interactions, thus allowing for easy quantification of phenotypes. The technique, which takes 7 d from mouse dissection to microscopic examination, will be useful for researchers who are interested in most aspects of intestinal biology, including mucosal immunology, infection, nutrition, cancer biology and intestinal microbiota.

  6. Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Pakizeh, T; Feuz, L; Dmitriev, A

    2013-01-01

    Controlling light at the nanoscale is of fundamental importance and is essential for applications ranging from optical sensing and metrology to information processing, communications, and quantum optics. Considerable efforts are currently directed towards optical nanoantennas that directionally convert light into strongly localized energy and vice versa. Here we present highly directional 3D nanoantenna operating with visible light. We demonstrate a simple bottom-up approach to produce macroscopic arrays of such nanoantennas and present a way to address their functionality via interaction with quantum dots (QDs), properly embedded in the structure of the nanoantenna. The ease and accessibility of this structurally robust optical antenna device prompts its use as an affordable test bed for concepts in nano-optics and nanophotonics applications.

  7. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  8. Enhanced high dynamic range 3D shape measurement based on generalized phase-shifting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minmin; Du, Guangliang; Zhou, Canlin; Zhang, Chaorui; Si, Shuchun; Li, Hui; Lei, Zhenkun; Li, YanJie

    2017-02-01

    Measuring objects with large reflectivity variations across their surface is one of the open challenges in phase measurement profilometry (PMP). Saturated or dark pixels in the deformed fringe patterns captured by the camera will lead to phase fluctuations and errors. Jiang et al. proposed a high dynamic range real-time three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement method (Jiang et al., 2016) [17] that does not require changing camera exposures. Three inverted phase-shifted fringe patterns are used to complement three regular phase-shifted fringe patterns for phase retrieval whenever any of the regular fringe patterns are saturated. Nonetheless, Jiang's method has some drawbacks: (1) the phases of saturated pixels are estimated by different formulas on a case by case basis; in other words, the method lacks a universal formula; (2) it cannot be extended to the four-step phase-shifting algorithm, because inverted fringe patterns are the repetition of regular fringe patterns; (3) for every pixel in the fringe patterns, only three unsaturated intensity values can be chosen for phase demodulation, leaving the other unsaturated ones idle. We propose a method to enhance high dynamic range 3D shape measurement based on a generalized phase-shifting algorithm, which combines the complementary techniques of inverted and regular fringe patterns with a generalized phase-shifting algorithm. Firstly, two sets of complementary phase-shifted fringe patterns, namely the regular and the inverted fringe patterns, are projected and collected. Then, all unsaturated intensity values at the same camera pixel from two sets of fringe patterns are selected and employed to retrieve the phase using a generalized phase-shifting algorithm. Finally, simulations and experiments are conducted to prove the validity of the proposed method. The results are analyzed and compared with those of Jiang's method, demonstrating that our method not only expands the scope of Jiang's method, but also improves

  9. Feasibility analysis of high resolution tissue image registration using 3-D synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachna Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registration of high-resolution tissue images is a critical step in the 3D analysis of protein expression. Because the distance between images (~4-5μm thickness of a tissue section is nearly the size of the objects of interest (~10-20μm cancer cell nucleus, a given object is often not present in both of two adjacent images. Without consistent correspondence of objects between images, registration becomes a difficult task. This work assesses the feasibility of current registration techniques for such images. Methods: We generated high resolution synthetic 3-D image data sets emulating the constraints in real data. We applied multiple registration methods to the synthetic image data sets and assessed the registration performance of three techniques (i.e., mutual information (MI, kernel density estimate (KDE method [1], and principal component analysis (PCA at various slice thicknesses (with increments of 1μm in order to quantify the limitations of each method. Results: Our analysis shows that PCA, when combined with the KDE method based on nuclei centers, aligns images corresponding to 5μm thick sections with acceptable accuracy. We also note that registration error increases rapidly with increasing distance between images, and that the choice of feature points which are conserved between slices improves performance. Conclusions: We used simulation to help select appropriate features and methods for image registration by estimating best-case-scenario errors for given data constraints in histological images. The results of this study suggest that much of the difficulty of stained tissue registration can be reduced to the problem of accurately identifying feature points, such as the center of nuclei.

  10. The asteroseismic surface effect from a grid of 3D convection simulations. I. Frequency shifts from convective expansion of stellar atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Trampedach, Regner; Houdek, Günter; Collet, Remo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Stein, Robert F; Asplund, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the effect on adiabatic stellar oscillation frequencies of replacing the near-surface layers in 1D stellar structure models with averaged 3D stellar surface convection simulations. The main difference is an expansion of the atmosphere by 3D convection, expected to explain a major part of the asteroseismic surface effect; a systematic overestimation of p-mode frequencies due to inadequate surface physics. We employ pairs of 1D stellar envelope models and 3D simulations from a previous calibration of the mixing-length parameter, alpha. That calibration constitutes the hitherto most consistent matching of 1D models to 3D simulations, ensuring that their differences are not spurious, but entirely due to the 3D nature of convection. The resulting frequency shift is identified as the structural part of the surface effect. The important, typically non-adiabatic, modal components of the surface effect are not included in the present analysis, but relegated to future papers. Evaluating the structural surfac...

  11. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  12. Serum-induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed with high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaixing Jiang[1,2,3; Shuai Zhang[2,3; Chuanxu Yang[2; Jorgen Kjems[2; Yudong Huang[1; Flemming Besenbacher[2; Mingdong Dong[2

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential for the encapsulation and selective release of therapeutic drugs. Observations of the real-time performance of these structures in physiological environments will contribute to the development of future applications. We investigated the degradation kinetics of 3D DNA box origami in serum by using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allowed to characterize the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA boxes origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the digestion process is a combination of rapid collapse and slow degradation phases. Damage to box origami occurs mainly in the collapse phase. Thus, the structural stability of 3D DNA box origami should be improved, especially in the collapse phase, before these structures are used in clinical applications.

  13. High-frequency ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  14. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu

    2017-02-15

    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Airborne LIDAR and high resolution satellite data for rapid 3D feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, S. D.; Panditrao, S. N.; Luis, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work uses the canopy height model (CHM) based workflow for individual tree crown delineation and 3D feature extraction approach (Overwatch Geospatial's proprietary algorithm) for building feature delineation from high-density light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data in an urban environment and evaluates its accuracy by using very high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) (spatial) and 8-band (multispectral) WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. LiDAR point cloud data over San Francisco, California, USA, recorded in June 2010, was used to detect tree and building features by classifying point elevation values. The workflow employed includes resampling of LiDAR point cloud to generate a raster surface or digital terrain model (DTM), generation of a hill-shade image and an intensity image, extraction of digital surface model, generation of bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) and extraction of tree and building features. First, the optical WV-2 data and the LiDAR intensity image were co-registered using ground control points (GCPs). The WV-2 rational polynomial coefficients model (RPC) was executed in ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) using supplementary *.RPB file. In the second stage, ortho-rectification was carried out using ERDAS LPS by incorporating well-distributed GCPs. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the WV-2 was estimated to be 0.25 m by using more than 10 well-distributed GCPs. In the second stage, we generated the bare earth DEM from LiDAR point cloud data. In most of the cases, bare earth DEM does not represent true ground elevation. Hence, the model was edited to get the most accurate DEM/ DTM possible and normalized the LiDAR point cloud data based on DTM in order to reduce the effect of undulating terrain. We normalized the vegetation point cloud values by subtracting the ground points (DEM) from the LiDAR point cloud. A normalized digital surface model (nDSM) or CHM was calculated from the LiDAR data by subtracting the DEM from the DSM

  16. High-Efficiency Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of the open source 3-D printer known as the RepRap (a self-Replicating Rapid prototyper resulted in the potential for distributed manufacturing of products for significantly lower costs than conventional manufacturing. This development, coupled with open source-appropriate technology (OSAT, has enabled the opportunity for 3-D printers to be used for sustainable development. In this context, OSAT provides the opportunity to modify and improve the physical designs of their printers and desired digitally-shared objects. However, these 3-D printers require electricity while more than a billion people still lack electricity. To enable the utilization of RepRaps in off-grid communities, solar photovoltaic (PV-powered mobile systems have been developed, but recent improvements in novel delta-style 3-D printer designs allows for reduced costs and improved performance. This study builds on these innovations to develop and experimentally validate a mobile solar-PV-powered delta 3-D printer system. It is designed to run the RepRap 3-D printer regardless of solar flux. The electrical system design is tested outdoors for operating conditions: (1 PV charging battery and running 3-D printer; (2 printing under low insolation; (3 battery powering the 3-D printer alone; (4 PV charging the battery only; and (5 battery fully charged with PV-powered 3-D printing. The results show the system performed as required under all conditions providing feasibility for adoption in off-grid rural communities. 3-D printers powered by affordable mobile PV solar systems have a great potential to reduce poverty through employment creation, as well as ensuring a constant supply of scarce products for isolated communities.

  17. Continuous frequency and phase spectrograms: a study of their 2D and 3D capabilities and application to musical signal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new lighting and enlargement on phase spectrogram (PS) and frequency spectrogram (FS) is presented in this paper.These representations result from the coupling of power spectrogram and short time Fourier transform (STFT). The main contribution is the construction of the 3D phase spectrogram (3DPS) and the 3D frequency spectrogram (3DFS). These new tools allow such specific test signals as small slope linear chirp, phase jump and small frequency jump to be analyzed. An application case of musical signal analysis is reported. The main objective is to detect small frequency and phase variations in order to characterize each type of sound attack without losing the amplitude information given by power spectrogram.

  18. High-speed low-power analog ASICs for a 3D neuroprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Tran, Mua D.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1995-03-01

    A particularly challenging neural network application requiring high-speed and intensive image processing capability is target acquisition and discrimination. It requires spatio-temporal recognition of point and resolved targets at high speeds. A reconfigurable neural architecture may discriminate targets from clutter or classify targets once resolved. By mating a 64 X 64 pixel array infrared (IR) image sensor to a 3-D stack (cube) of 64 neural-net ICs along respective edges, every pixel would directly input to a neural network, thereby processing the information with full parallelism. However, the `cube' has to operate at 90 degree(s)K with processing speed and approximately 2 watts of power dissipation. Analog circuitry, where the spatially parallel input to the neural networks is also analog, would make this possible. Digital neural processing would require analog-to-digital converters on each IC, impractical with the power constraint. A versatile reconfigurable circuit is presented that offers a variety of neural architectures: multilayer perceptron, cascade backpropagation, and template matching with winner-take-all (WTA) circuitry. Special designs of analog neuron and synapse implemented in VLSI are presented which bear out high speed response both at room and low temperatures with synapse-neuron signal propagation times of approximately 100 ns.

  19. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, E J; Espinoza, S; Heilig, M; Kolew, A; Schneider, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Truckenmüller, R K; Rivron, N C

    2016-02-21

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow high-throughput screens (HTS). Here, we introduce a microwell platform, integrated in standard culture plates, for functional HTS. Using micro-thermoforming, we form round-bottom microwell arrays from optically clear cyclic olefin polymer films, and assemble them with bottom-less 96-well plates. We show that embryonic stem cells aggregate faster and more reproducibly (centricity, circularity) as compared to a state-of-the-art microwell array. We then run a screen of a chemical library to direct differentiation into primitive endoderm (PrE) and, using on-chip high content imaging (HCI), we identify molecules, including regulators of the cAMP pathway, regulating tissue size, morphology and PrE gene activity. We propose that this platform will benefit to the systematic study of organogenesis in vitro.

  20. A Fast Full Tensor Gravity computation algorithm for High Resolution 3D Geologic Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, V.; Crain, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm to rapidly calculate the vertical gravity and full tensor gravity (FTG) values due to a 3-D geologic model. This algorithm can be implemented on single, multi-core CPU and graphical processing units (GPU) architectures. Our technique is based on the line element approximation with a constant density within each grid cell. This type of parameterization is well suited for high-resolution elevation datasets with grid size typically in the range of 1m to 30m. The large high-resolution data grids in our studies employ a pre-filtered mipmap pyramid type representation for the grid data known as the Geometry clipmap. The clipmap was first introduced by Microsoft Research in 2004 to do fly-through terrain visualization. This method caches nested rectangular extents of down-sampled data layers in the pyramid to create view-dependent calculation scheme. Together with the simple grid structure, this allows the gravity to be computed conveniently on-the-fly, or stored in a highly compressed format. Neither of these capabilities has previously been available. Our approach can perform rapid calculations on large topographies including crustal-scale models derived from complex geologic interpretations. For example, we used a 1KM Sphere model consisting of 105000 cells at 10m resolution with 100000 gravity stations. The line element approach took less than 90 seconds to compute the FTG and vertical gravity on an Intel Core i7 CPU at 3.07 GHz utilizing just its single core. Also, unlike traditional gravity computational algorithms, the line-element approach can calculate gravity effects at locations interior or exterior to the model. The only condition that must be met is the observation point cannot be located directly above the line element. Therefore, we perform a location test and then apply appropriate formulation to those data points. We will present and compare the computational performance of the traditional prism method versus the line element

  1. Characterization of neurovascular compression in facial neuralgia patients by 3D high-resolution MRI and image fusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen; Xiang-Jun Han; Zi-Yi Guo; Guang Yang; Xiong Wang; Qing-Yu Tang; Yue-Qiong Cheng; Yi Guo; Shui-Xi Fu; Cai-Xiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To describe the anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression (NVC) in patients suffering trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method and image fusion technique.Methods:The anatomic structure of trigeminal nerve, brain stem and blood vessel was observed in100 consecutiveTN patients by 3Dhigh resolutionMRI (3D SPGR, contrast-enhancedT1 3D MP-RAGE andT2/T1 3D FIESTA). The3D image sources were fused and visualized using3D DOCTOR software.Results:One or severalNVC sites, which usually appeared0-9.8 mm away from brain stem, were found on the symptomatic side in93% of theTN cases. Superior cerebellar artery was involved in76% (71/93) of these cases. The other vessels including antero-inferior cerebellar artery, vertebral artery, basilar artery and veins also contributed to the occurrence ofNVC. TheNVC sites were found to be located in the proximal segment in42%of these cases(39/93) and in the distal segment in45% (42/93). Nerve dislocation or distortion was observed in32% (30/93).Conclusions:Various3D high resolutionMRImethods combined with the image fusion technique could provide pathologic anatomic information for the diagnosis and treatment ofTN.

  2. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  3. High Torque Density Transverse Flux Machine without the Need to Use SMC Material for 3D Flux Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new transverse flux permanent magnet machine. In a normal transverse flux machine, complicated 3-D flux paths often exist. Such 3-D flux paths would require the use of soft magnetic composites material instead of laminations for construction of the machine stator. In the new...... machine topology proposed in this paper, by advantageously utilizing the magnetic flux path provided by an additional rotor, use of laminations that allow 2-D flux paths only will be sufficient to accomplish the required 3-D flux paths. The machine also has a high torque density and is therefore...

  4. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y; Levin, C S [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M, E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm x 40 mm x 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 {+-} 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 {+-} 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 {+-} 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  5. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Matteson, J. L.; Skelton, R. T.; Deal, A. C.; Stephan, E. A.; Duttweiler, F.; Gasaway, T. M.; Levin, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes—as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  6. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  7. 3D modeling of GJ1214b's atmosphere: formation of inhomogeneous high clouds and observational implications

    CERN Document Server

    Charnay, Benjamin; Misra, Amit; Leconte, Jérémy; Arney, Giada

    2015-01-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum which may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4-0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with HST observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 micron, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths > 3 microns. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit th...

  8. Acquisition of high-resolution 3D data and processing using Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Sheng, J.; Yang, W.; Pu, Y.

    1996-11-01

    Holographic PIV (HPIV) is a promising 3D velocity field measurement technique providing high spatial-temporal resolution needed for understanding complex and turbulent flows. An HPIV system, combining in-line recording and off-axis viewing (IROV) holography and Heuristic Morphology Particle Pairing (HMPP) method, is being developed in this work. Unlike 2D PIV, HPIV instantaneously records a volume of particle images through holographic imaging. Its data processing involves special difficulties such as speckle noise, sparse pairs and large data sets. The HMPP algorithm is an adaptive parallel processing scheme applying artificial intelligence searching theory. Based on similar morphology of a particle group at successive instants separated by a small interval, HMPP matches a group of particle images between double exposures and provides velocity vectors for individual particle pairs, providing much higher spatial resolution than conventional correlation algorithm and lower measurement error caused by large velocity gradients. Taking advantages of IROV and HMPP, the system being developed appears highly promising as a practical HPIV configuration.

  9. Development of high-frame-rate LED panel and its applications for stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Kajimoto, K.; Suyama, S.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report development of a high-frame-rate LED display. Full-color images are refreshed at 480 frames per second. In order to transmit such a high frame-rate signal via conventional 120-Hz DVI, we have introduced a spatiotemporal mapping of image signal. A processor of LED image signal and FPGAs in LED modules have been reprogrammed so that four adjacent pixels in the input image are converted into successive four fields. The pitch of LED panel is 20 mm. The developed 480-fps LED display is utilized for stereoscopic 3D display by use of parallax barrier. The horizontal resolution of a viewed image decreases to one-half by the parallax barrier. This degradation is critical for LED because the pitch of LED displays is as large as tens of times of other flat panel displays. We have conducted experiments to improve quality of the viewed image through the parallax barrier. The improvement is based on interpolation by afterimages. It is shown that the HFR LED provides detailed afterimages. Furthermore, the HFR LED has been utilized for unconscious imaging, which provide a sensation of discovery of conscious visual information from unconscious images.

  10. Robust automatic high resolution segmentation of SOFC anode porosity in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2008-01-01

    Routine use of 3D characterization of SOFCs by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning is generally restricted by the time consuming task of manually delineating structures within each image slice. We apply advanced image analysis algorithms to automatically segment the porosity phase of an SOFC...... anode in 3D. The technique is based on numerical approximations to partial differential equations to evolve a 3D surface to the desired phase boundary. Vector fields derived from the experimentally acquired data are used as the driving force. The automatic segmentation compared to manual delineation...... reveals and good correspondence and the two approaches are quantitatively compared. It is concluded that the. automatic approach is more robust, more reproduceable and orders of magnitude quicker than manual segmentation of SOFC anode porosity for subsequent quantitative 3D analysis. Lastly...

  11. High-Resolution Visual 3D Recontructions for Rapid Archaeological Characterization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The final output will be geotiffs and a custom 3D texture model format that allows for dynamic level-of-detail rendering. The work discussed in the proposal will...

  12. High-resolution, real-time simultaneous 3D surface geometry and temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yatong; Zhang, Song

    2016-06-27

    This paper presents a method to simultaneously measure three-dimensional (3D) surface geometry and temperature in real time. Specifically, we developed 1) a holistic approach to calibrate both a structured light system and a thermal camera under exactly the same world coordinate system even though these two sensors do not share the same wavelength; and 2) a computational framework to determine the sub-pixel corresponding temperature for each 3D point as well as discard those occluded points. Since the thermal 2D imaging and 3D visible imaging systems do not share the same spectrum of light, they can perform sensing simultaneously in real time: we developed a hardware system that can achieve real-time 3D geometry and temperature measurement at 26 Hz with 768 × 960 points per frame.

  13. Detection of 3D tree root systems using high resolution ground penetration radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altdorff, D.; Honds, M.; Botschek, J.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of root systems and its distribution are important for biomass estimation as well as for the prevention of subsurface distribution network damages. Ground penetration radar (GPR) is a promising technique that enables a non-invasive imaging of tree roots. Due to the polarisation-dependent reflection coefficients and complicated three-dimensional root structure, accurate measurements with perpendicularly polarized antennas are needed. In this study, we show GPR data from two planes and one chestnut at two locations with different soil conditions. Perpendicular 10 x 10 cm grid measurements were made with a shielded 250 MHz antenna in combination with a high precision self-tracking laser theodolite that provides geo-referenced traces with a spatial resolution of ~ 2 cm. After selecting potential root hyperbolas within the perpendicular GPR profiles, the corresponding three-dimensional coordinates were extracted and visualized in planar view to reveal any linear structure that indicates a possible tree root. The coordinates of the selected linear structures were projected back to the surface by means of the laser-theodolite to indicate the locations for groundtruthing. Additionally, we interpolated the measured data into a 3D cube where time slices confirmed the locations of linear reflection events. We validated the indicated predictions by excavation of the soil with a suction dredge. Subsequent georeferencing of the true root distribution and comparison with the selected linear events showed that the approach was able to identify the precise position of roots with a diameter between 3 and 10 cm and a depth of up to 70 cm. However, not all linear events were roots; also mouse channels were found in these depths, since they also generate GPR hyperbolas aligned in linear structures. Roots at a second location at depths of 1 to 1.20 m did not generate identifiable hyperboles, which was probably due to an increased electrical conductivity below 86 cm depth. The

  14. Precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures using highly conductive carbon nanotube-thiol-acrylate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Zhou, Y. S.; Lu, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is of increasing interest due to its unique combination of truly three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and ultrahigh spatial resolution of ~40 nm. However, the stringent requirements of non-linear resins seriously limit the material functionality of 3D printing via TPP. Precise fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures with multi-functionalities such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength is still a long-standing challenge. In this work, TPP fabrication of arbitrary 3D micro/nanostructures using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-thiolacrylate (MTA) composite resins has been developed. Up to 0.2 wt% MWNTs have been incorporated into thiol-acrylate resins to form highly stable and uniform composite photoresists without obvious degradation for one week at room temperature. Various functional 3D micro/nanostructures including woodpiles, micro-coils, spiral-like photonic crystals, suspended micro-bridges, micro-gears and complex micro-cars have been successfully fabricated. The MTA composite resin offers significant enhancements in electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, and on the same time, preserving high optical transmittance and flexibility. Tightly controlled alignment of MWNTs and the strong anisotropy effect were confirmed. Microelectronic devices including capacitors and resistors made of the MTA composite polymer were demonstrated. The 3D micro/nanofabrication using the MTA composite resins enables the precise 3D printing of micro/nanostructures of high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, which is expected to lead a wide range of device applications, including micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), integrated photonics and 3D electronics.

  15. Efficient Simplification Methods for Generating High Quality LODs of 3D Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Two simplification algorithms are proposed for automatic decimation of polygonal models, and for generating their LODs. Each algorithm orders vertices according to their priority values and then removes them iteratively. For setting the priority value of each vertex, exploiting normal field of its one-ring neighborhood, we introduce a new measure of geometric fidelity that reflects well the local geometric features of the vertex. After a vertex is selected, using other measures of geometric distortion that are based on normal field deviation and distance measure, it is decided which of the edges incident on the vertex is to be collapsed for removing it. The collapsed edge is substituted with a new vertex whose position is found by minimizing the local quadric error measure. A comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms reveals that the proposed algorithms are simple to implement, are computationally more efficient, generate LODs with better quality, and preserve salient features even after drastic simplification. The methods are useful for applications such as 3D computer games, virtual reality, where focus is on fast running time, reduced memory overhead, and high quality LODs.

  16. Nonlinear 3-D simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy in the kidney

    CERN Document Server

    Suomi, Visa; Treeby, Bradley; Cleveland, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Kidney cancer is a severe disease which can be treated non-invasively using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. However, tissue in front of the transducer and the deep location of kidney can cause significant losses to the efficiency of the treatment. The effect of attenuation, refraction and reflection due to different tissue types on HIFU therapy of the kidney was studied using a nonlinear ultrasound simulation model. The geometry of the tissue was derived from a computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient which had been segmented for water, bone, soft tissue, fat and kidney. The combined effect of inhomogeneous attenuation and sound-speed was found to result in an 11.0 dB drop in spatial peak-temporal average (SPTA) intensity in the kidney compared to pure water. The simulation without refraction effects showed a 6.3 dB decrease indicating that both attenuation and refraction contribute to the loss in focal intensity. The losses due to reflections at soft tissue interfaces were less than 0....

  17. Single cell visualization of transcription kinetics variance of highly mobile identical genes using 3D nanoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibale, Paolo; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-03-19

    Multi-cell biochemical assays and single cell fluorescence measurements revealed that the elongation rate of Polymerase II (PolII) in eukaryotes varies largely across different cell types and genes. However, there is not yet a consensus whether intrinsic factors such as the position, local mobility or the engagement by an active molecular mechanism of a genetic locus could be the determinants of the observed heterogeneity. Here by employing high-speed 3D fluorescence nanoimaging techniques we resolve and track at the single cell level multiple, distinct regions of mRNA synthesis within the model system of a large transgene array. We demonstrate that these regions are active transcription sites that release mRNA molecules in the nucleoplasm. Using fluctuation spectroscopy and the phasor analysis approach we were able to extract the local PolII elongation rate at each site as a function of time. We measured a four-fold variation in the average elongation between identical copies of the same gene measured simultaneously within the same cell, demonstrating a correlation between local transcription kinetics and the movement of the transcription site. Together these observations demonstrate that local factors, such as chromatin local mobility and the microenvironment of the transcription site, are an important source of transcription kinetics variability.

  18. Enhanced high dynamic range 3D shape measurement based on generalized phase-shifting algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Minmin; Zhou, Canlin; Zhang, Chaorui; Si, Shuchun; Li, Hui; Lei, Zhenkun; Li, YanJie

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge for Phase Measurement Profilometry (PMP) to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Saturated or dark pixels in the deformed fringe patterns captured by the camera will lead to phase fluctuations and errors. Jiang et al. proposed a high dynamic range real-time 3D shape measurement method without changing camera exposures. Three inverted phase-shifted fringe patterns are used to complement three regular phase-shifted fringe patterns for phase retrieval when any of the regular fringe patterns are saturated. But Jiang's method still has some drawbacks: (1) The phases in saturated pixels are respectively estimated by different formulas for different cases. It is shortage of an universal formula; (2) it cannot be extended to four-step phase-shifting algorithm because inverted fringe patterns are the repetition of regular fringe patterns; (3) only three unsaturated intensity values at every pixel of fringe patterns are chosen for phase demodulation, lying i...

  19. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jacobo@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vicente, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Herranz, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Dpto. de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  20. High-resolution 3D dust radiative transfer in galaxies with DART-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Giovanni; Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard. J.; Debattista, Victor P.; Grootes, Meiert W.

    2015-02-01

    DART-Ray is a 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer (RT) code that can be used to derive stellar and dust emission maps of galaxy models and simulations with arbitrary geometries. In addition to the previously published RT algorithm, we have now included in DART-Ray the possibility of calculating the stocastically heated dust emission from each volume element within a galaxy. To show the capabilities of the code, we performed a high-resolution (26 pc) RT calculation for a galaxy N-body+SPH simulation. The simulated galaxy we considered is characterized by a nuclear disc and a flocculent spiral structure. We analysed the derived galaxy maps for the global and local effects of dust on the galaxy attenuation as well as the contribution of scattered radiation to the predicted observed emission. In addition, by performing an additional RT calculation including only the stellar volume emissivity due to young stellar populations (SPs), we derived the contribution to the total dust emission powered by young and old SPs. Full details of this work will be presented in a forthcoming publication.

  1. High-resolution modelling of 3D hydrodynamics in coastal archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettunen, Elina; Tuomi, Laura; Ropponen, Janne; Lignell, Risto

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of the coastal seas are affected by eutrophication, over-fishing, coastal construction and climate change. To enable the sustainable development of these areas, monitoring and modelling of the state of the sea are needed. The Archipelago Sea, located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea, is one of the most complex coastal areas with over 40 000 small islands and islets. It is also very vulnerable area already heavily stressed with eutrophication. Applicable modelling tools are needed to support the decision making and to provide sufficiently reliable information on the effects of the planned actions on the state of the coastal waters. We used 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS to model the Archipelago Sea area with high spatial resolution of 0.25 nmi. Boundary conditions for this limited area were provided from coarser resolution, 2 nmi, Baltic Sea grid. In order to evaluate the performance of the high-resolution coastal model implementation a comprehensive measurement dataset was gathered, including hydrographic data from three intensive monitoring stations and several more rarely visited monitoring or research stations. The hydrodynamic model was able to simulate the surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. The sharp depth gradients typical for this area provided some challenges to the modelling. There was some over mixing and related to too strong vertical currents in the steep slopes of the deeper fault lines. Also the water exchange between the more open sea and coastal areas through narrow channels between the islands is not sufficiently well reproduced with the current resolution, leading to too high bottom temperatures.

  2. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.

    2016-03-01

    cameras of Microsoft's UltraCam series and the in-house processing chain centred on the Dense-Image-Matching (DIM) software SURE by nFrames. This paper reports the work carried out at AVT for the surface- and terrain modelling of several high-alpine areas using DIM- and ALS-based approaches. A special focus is dedicated to the influence of terrain morphology, flight planning, GNSS/IMU measurements, and ground-control distribution in the georeferencing process on the data quality. Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  3. CellSegm - a MATLAB toolbox for high-throughput 3D cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodneland, Erlend; Kögel, Tanja; Frei, Dominik Michael; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Lundervold, Arvid

    2013-08-09

    : The application of fluorescence microscopy in cell biology often generates a huge amount of imaging data. Automated whole cell segmentation of such data enables the detection and analysis of individual cells, where a manual delineation is often time consuming, or practically not feasible. Furthermore, compared to manual analysis, automation normally has a higher degree of reproducibility. CellSegm, the software presented in this work, is a Matlab based command line software toolbox providing an automated whole cell segmentation of images showing surface stained cells, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. It has options for both fully automated and semi-automated cell segmentation. Major algorithmic steps are: (i) smoothing, (ii) Hessian-based ridge enhancement, (iii) marker-controlled watershed segmentation, and (iv) feature-based classfication of cell candidates. Using a wide selection of image recordings and code snippets, we demonstrate that CellSegm has the ability to detect various types of surface stained cells in 3D. After detection and outlining of individual cells, the cell candidates can be subject to software based analysis, specified and programmed by the end-user, or they can be analyzed by other software tools. A segmentation of tissue samples with appropriate characteristics is also shown to be resolvable in CellSegm. The command-line interface of CellSegm facilitates scripting of the separate tools, all implemented in Matlab, offering a high degree of flexibility and tailored workflows for the end-user. The modularity and scripting capabilities of CellSegm enable automated workflows and quantitative analysis of microscopic data, suited for high-throughput image based screening.

  4. 一种新的三维模型水印频域算法%A New Frequency Domain 3D Method for Watermarking in Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文广; 王耀民

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the robustness and efficiency, proposes a new frequency domain method for watermarking in 3D model. It defines a local geometric space using the topology of 3D model, and then, we extract a signal in spatial domain and transform it to a signal in frequency domain using discrete cosine transform(DCT). After that, a watermark is embedded by modifying the frequency coefficients. Finally, we transform the changed signal back to a digital signal in spatial domain, which determine the new position of the selected vertex within their related spaces. This method is simple to realize, and pretreatment is not needed during detection procedure. The experimental result shows that the algorithm guaranteed the high performance of the watermark robustness such as translation, rotation, scaling, vertex permutation, model cropping and model simplification etc. And the result also presents an evident superiority in non sentience of watermark, excellent efficiency and accuracy of detection.%从提高三维模型数字水印的鲁棒性和效率出发.提出一种新的频域水印算法。该算法利用网格拓扑结构.构建出目标顶点所处的局部几何空间.进而提取出适用于DCT变换的信息序列,修改频域系数嵌入水印:然后通过逆向DCT转回空域信号,修改目标顶点在局部几何空间中的位置得到含水印模型。算法实现简单.水印检测无需预处理.且能有效抵抗平移、旋转、缩放、剪切、网格简化等攻击。实验结果表明,该算法具有很好的鲁棒性、水印的不可感知性、水印检测高效准确的优势。

  5. A virtually imaged defocused array (VIDA) for high-speed 3D microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a method to capture a multifocus image stack based on recording multiple reflections generated by imaging through a custom etalon. The focus stack is collected in a single camera exposure and consequently the information needed for 3D reconstruction is recorded in the camera integration time, which is only 100 µs. We have used the VIDA microscope to temporally resolve the multi-lobed 3D morphology of neutrophil nuclei as they rotate and deform through a microfluidic constriction. In addition, we have constructed a 3D imaging flow cytometer and quantified the nuclear morphology of nearly a thousand white blood cells flowing at a velocity of 3 mm per second. The VIDA microscope is compact and simple to construct, intrinsically achromatic, and the field-of-view and stack number can be easily reconfigured without redesigning diffraction gratings and prisms.

  6. High-Performance 3D Image Processing Architectures for Image-Guided Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Circuits and Systems, vol. 1 (2), 2007, pp. 116-127. iv • O. Dandekar, C. Castro- Pareja , and R. Shekhar, “FPGA-based real-time 3D image...How low can we go?,” presented at IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2006, pp. 502-505. • C. R. Castro- Pareja , O. Dandekar, and R...Venugopal, C. R. Castro- Pareja , and O. Dandekar, “An FPGA-based 3D image processor with median and convolution filters for real-time applications,” in

  7. High-speed biometrics ultrasonic system for 3D fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman G.; Severin, Fedar

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new robust fingerprint identification technology based upon forming surface-subsurface (under skin) ultrasonic 3D images of the finger pads. The presented work aims to create specialized ultrasonic scanning methods for biometric purposes. Preliminary research has demonstrated the applicability of acoustic microscopy for fingerprint reading. The additional information from internal skin layers and dermis structures contained in the scan can essentially improve confidence in the identification. Advantages of this system include high resolution and quick scanning time. Operating in pulse-echo mode provides spatial resolution up to 0.05 mm. Technology advantages of the proposed technology are the following: • Full-range scanning of the fingerprint area "nail to nail" (2.5 x 2.5 cm) can be done in less than 5 sec with a resolution of up to 1000 dpi. • Collection of information about the in-depth structure of the fingerprint realized by the set of spherically focused 50 MHz acoustic lens provide the resolution ~ 0.05 mm or better • In addition to fingerprints, this technology can identify sweat porous at the surface and under the skin • No sensitivity to the contamination of the finger's surface • Detection of blood velocity using Doppler effect can be implemented to distinguish living specimens • Utilization as polygraph device • Simple connectivity to fingerprint databases obtained with other techniques • The digitally interpolated images can then be enhanced allowing for greater resolution • Method can be applied to fingernails and underlying tissues, providing more information • A laboratory prototype of the biometrics system based on these described principles was designed, built and tested. It is the first step toward a practical implementation of this technique.

  8. Intraoperative neuronavigation integrated high resolution 3D ultrasound for brainshift and tumor resection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The link between the neurosurgeon’s knowledge and the scientific improvements made a dramatic change in the field expressed both in impressive drop in the mortality and morbidity rates that were operated in the beginning of the XXth century and in operating with high rates of success cases that were considered inoperable in the past. Neuronavigation systems have been used for many years on surgical orientation purposes especially for small, deep seated lesions where the use of neuronavigation is correlated with smaller corticotomies and with the extended use of transulcal approaches. The major problem of neuronavigation, the brainshift once the dura is opened can be solved either by integrated ultrasound or intraoperative MRI which is out of reach for many neurosurgical departments. METHOD: The procedure of neuronavigation and ultrasonic localization of the tumor is described starting with positioning the patient in the visual field of the neuronavigation integrated 3D ultrasonography system to the control of tumor resection by repeating the ultrasonographic scan in the end of the procedure. DISCUSSION: As demonstrated by many clinical trials on gliomas, the more tumor removed, the better long term control of tumor regrowth and the longer survival with a good quality of life. Of course, no matter how aggressive the surgery, no new deficits are acceptable in the modern era neurosurgery. There are many adjuvant methods for the neurosurgeon to achieve this maximal and safe tumor removal, including the 3T MRI combined with tractography and functional MRI, the intraoperative neuronavigation and neurophysiologic monitoring in both anesthetized and awake patients. The ultrasonography integrated in neuronavigaton comes as a welcomed addition to this adjuvants to help the surgeon achieve the set purpose. CONCLUSION: With the use of this real time imaging device, the common problem of brainshift encountered with the neuronavigation systems

  9. Fabrication of 3D Printed Metal Structures by Use of High-Viscosity Cu Paste and a Screw Extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongik; Sanchez, Cesar; Du, Hanuel; Kim, Namsoo

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an important, rapidly growing industry. However, traditional 3D printing technology has problems with some materials. To solve the problem of the limited number of 3D-printable materials, high-viscosity materials and a new method for 3D printing were investigated. As an example of a high-viscosity material, Cu paste was synthesized and a screw extruder printer was developed to print the paste. As a fundamental part of the research, the viscosity of the Cu paste was measured for different Cu content. The viscosity of the paste increased with increasing Cu content. To print high-viscosity Cu paste, printing conditions were optimized. 3D structures were printed, by use of an extruder and high-viscosity metal paste with appropriate printing conditions, and then heat treated. After sintering, however, approximately 75% shrinkage of the final product was observed. To achieve less shrinkage, the packing factor of the Cu paste was increased by adding more Cu particles. The shrinkage factor decreased as the packing factor increased, and the size of final product was 77% of that expected.

  10. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  11. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date.

  12. Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun HS

    2011-10-01

    coated on MBG-PCL scaffolds after immersing in SBF containing dilute collagen-I solution only for 24 hours due to the high bone-forming bioactivity of MBG. Both cell affinity and osteoconductivity of MBG-PCL scaffolds were dramatically enhanced by this precoating process.Conclusion: The precoating process of ECM components on MBG-PCL scaffold using a high bioactivity of MBG was not only effective in enhancing the functionality of scaffolds but also effective in eliminating the unexpected side effect. The MBG-PCL scaffold-coated ECM components ideally satisfied the required conditions of scaffold in tissue engineering, including 3D well-interconnected pore structures with high porosity, good bioactivity, enhanced cell affinity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and sufficient mechanical properties, and promise excellent potential application in the field of biomaterials.Keywords: biomimic, mesoporous, ECM components, scaffold, bone regeneration

  13. MoS2 Nanosheets Supported on 3D Graphene Aerogel as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Hao; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Sun, Kening; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-11-01

    The development of efficient catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution is essential for energy conversion technologies. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) has emerged as a promising electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction, and its performance greatly depends on its exposed edge sites and conductivity. Layered MoS2 nanosheets supported on a 3D graphene aerogel network (GA-MoS2 ) exhibit significant catalytic activity in hydrogen evolution. The GA-MoS2 composite displays a unique 3D architecture with large active surface areas, leading to high catalytic performance with low overpotential, high current density, and good stability.

  14. Fully Automated One-Step Production of Functional 3D Tumor Spheroids for High-Content Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjaret, François; Fernandes, Mathieu; Duchemin-Pelletier, Eve; Argento, Amelie; Degot, Sébastien; Young, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of spheroids within high-content screening (HCS) has lagged behind high-throughput screening (HTS) due to issues with running complex assays on large three-dimensional (3D) structures.To enable multiplexed imaging and analysis of spheroids, different cancer cell lines were grown in 3D on micropatterned 96-well plates with automated production of nine uniform spheroids per well. Spheroids achieve diameters of up to 600 µm, and reproducibility was experimentally validated (interwell and interplate CV(diameter) integration of micropatterned spheroid models within fundamental research and drug discovery applications.

  15. Parameter analysis for a high-gain harmonic generation FEL using a recently developed 3D polychromatic code

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Yu, L H

    2000-01-01

    One possible design for a fourth-generation light source is the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL). Here, a coherent seed with a wavelength at a subharmonic of the desired output radiation interacts with the electron beam in an energy-modulating section. This energy modulation is then converted into spatial bunching while traversing a dispersive section (a three-dipole chicane). The final step is passage through an undulator tuned to the desired higher harmonic output wavelength. The coherent seed serves to suppress and can be at a much lower subharmonic of the output radiation. Recently, a 3D code that includes multiple frequencies, multiple undulators (both in quantity and/or type), quadrupole magnets, and dipole magnets was developed to easily simulate HGHG. Here, a brief review of the HGHG theory, the code development, the Accelerator Test Facility's (ATF) HGHG FEL experimental parameters, and the parameter analysis from simulations of this specific experiment will be discussed...

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of high-steep slope stability and optimal high-steep slope design by 3D physical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Mei-feng; Ren, Fen-hua; Tan, Wen-hui

    2015-01-01

    High-steep slope stability and its optimal excavation design in Shuichang open pit iron mine were analyzed based on a large 3D physical simulation technique. An optimal excavation scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle was successfully implemented at the northwest wall between Nos. 4 and 5 exploration lines of Shuichang Iron Mine, taking into account the 3D scale effect. The physico-mechanical properties of rock materials were obtained by laboratory tests conducted on sample cores from exploration drilling directly from the iron mine. A porous rock-like composite material was formed for the model, and the mechanical parameters of the material were assessed experimentally; specifically, the effect of water on the sample was quantitatively determined. We adopted an experimental setup using stiff modular applied static loading to carry out a visual excavation of the slope at a random depth. The setup was equipped with acoustic emission (AE) sensors, and the experiments were monitored by crack optical acquirement, ground penetrating radar, and close-field photogrammetry to investigate the mechanisms of rock-mass destabilization in the high-steep slope. For the complex study area, the model results indicated a clear correlation between the model's destabilization resulting from slope excavation and the collected monitoring information. During the model simulation, the overall angle of the slope increased by 1-6 degrees in different sections. Dramatically, the modeled excavation scheme saved over 80 million tons of rock from extraction, generating enormous economic and ecological benefits.

  17. Automated detection, 3D segmentation and analysis of high resolution spine MR images using statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, A.; Fripp, J.; Engstrom, C.; Schwarz, R.; Lauer, L.; Salvado, O.; Crozier, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine provide a basis for the automated assessment of intervertebral disc (IVD) and vertebral body (VB) anatomy. High resolution three-dimensional (3D) morphological information contained in these images may be useful for early detection and monitoring of common spine disorders, such as disc degeneration. This work proposes an automated approach to extract the 3D segmentations of lumbar and thoracic IVDs and VBs from MR images using statistical shape analysis and registration of grey level intensity profiles. The algorithm was validated on a dataset of volumetric scans of the thoracolumbar spine of asymptomatic volunteers obtained on a 3T scanner using the relatively new 3D T2-weighted SPACE pulse sequence. Manual segmentations and expert radiological findings of early signs of disc degeneration were used in the validation. There was good agreement between manual and automated segmentation of the IVD and VB volumes with the mean Dice scores of 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.91 ± 0.02 and mean absolute surface distances of 0.55 ± 0.18 mm and 0.67 ± 0.17 mm respectively. The method compares favourably to existing 3D MR segmentation techniques for VBs. This is the first time IVDs have been automatically segmented from 3D volumetric scans and shape parameters obtained were used in preliminary analyses to accurately classify (100% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) disc abnormalities associated with early degenerative changes.

  18. 2D and 3D milled surface roughness of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on surface roughness generated by high speed milling of high volume fraction (65% silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum matrix (SiCp/Al composites. Typical 2D (Ra and Rz and 3D (Sa and Sq surface roughness parameters were selected to evaluate the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality in comparison with aluminum alloy. The 3D topography of the milled surface was studied as well. The results indicate that 3D parameters (Sa and Sq are more capable to describe the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality, and among them Sq is preferable due to its good sensitivity. Sq decreases with milling speed and increases with feed rate. The influence of axial depth of cut (ADOC is negligible.

  19. Hybrid wide-field and scanning microscopy for high-speed 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yubo; Chen, Nanguang

    2015-11-15

    Wide-field optical microscopy is efficient and robust in biological imaging, but it lacks depth sectioning. In contrast, scanning microscopic techniques, such as confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, have been successfully used for three-dimensional (3D) imaging with optical sectioning capability. However, these microscopic techniques are not very suitable for dynamic real-time imaging because they usually take a long time for temporal and spatial scanning. Here, a hybrid imaging technique combining wide-field microscopy and scanning microscopy is proposed to accelerate the image acquisition process while maintaining the 3D optical sectioning capability. The performance was demonstrated by proof-of-concept imaging experiments with fluorescent beads and zebrafish liver.

  20. Parameter Estimation of Fossil Oysters from High Resolution 3D Point Cloud and Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, Ana; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Nothegger, Clemens; Mandic, Oleg; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    A unique fossil oyster reef was excavated at Stetten in Lower Austria, which is also the highlight of the geo-edutainment park 'Fossilienwelt Weinviertel'. It provides the rare opportunity to study the Early Miocene flora and fauna of the Central Paratethys Sea. The site presents the world's largest fossil oyster biostrome formed about 16.5 million years ago in a tropical estuary of the Korneuburg Basin. About 15,000 up to 80-cm-long shells of Crassostrea gryphoides cover a 400 m2 large area. Our project 'Smart-Geology for the World's largest fossil oyster reef' combines methods of photogrammetry, geology and paleontology to document, evaluate and quantify the shell bed. This interdisciplinary approach will be applied to test hypotheses on the genesis of the taphocenosis (e.g.: tsunami versus major storm) and to reconstruct pre- and post-event processes. Hence, we are focusing on using visualization technologies from photogrammetry in geology and paleontology in order to develop new methods for automatic and objective evaluation of 3D point clouds. These will be studied on the basis of a very dense surface reconstruction of the oyster reef. 'Smart Geology', as extension of the classic discipline, exploits massive data, automatic interpretation, and visualization. Photogrammetry provides the tools for surface acquisition and objective, automated interpretation. We also want to stress the economic aspect of using automatic shape detection in paleontology, which saves manpower and increases efficiency during the monitoring and evaluation process. Currently, there are many well known algorithms for 3D shape detection of certain objects. We are using dense 3D laser scanning data from an instrument utilizing the phase shift measuring principle, which provides accurate geometrical basis < 3 mm. However, the situation is difficult in this multiple object scenario where more than 15,000 complete or fragmentary parts of an object with random orientation are found. The goal

  1. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J.

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  2. High-accuracy 3-D modeling of cultural heritage: the digitizing of Donatello's "Maddalena".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Beraldin, J Angelo; Atzeni, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital modeling of Heritage works of art through optical scanners, has been demonstrated in recent years with results of exceptional interest. However, the routine application of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling to Heritage conservation still requires the systematic investigation of a number of technical problems. In this paper, the acquisition process of the 3-D digital model of the Maddalena by Donatello, a wooden statue representing one of the major masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance which was swept away by the Florence flood of 1966 and successively restored, is described. The paper reports all the steps of the acquisition procedure, from the project planning to the solution of the various problems due to range camera calibration and to material non optically cooperative. Since the scientific focus is centered on the 3-D model overall dimensional accuracy, a methodology for its quality control is described. Such control has demonstrated how, in some situations, the ICP-based alignment can lead to incorrect results. To circumvent this difficulty we propose an alignment technique based on the fusion of ICP with close-range digital photogrammetry and a non-invasive procedure in order to generate a final accurate model. In the end detailed results are presented, demonstrating the improvement of the final model, and how the proposed sensor fusion ensure a pre-specified level of accuracy.

  3. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; Carulla Areste, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Förster, F.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Terzo, S.; Vázquez Furelos, D.

    2016-11-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50 × 250 μm2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12-15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1016 neq/cm2, measured at -25°C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50 × 50 and 25 × 100 μm2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1-2 V before irradiation.

  4. High Precision 3D Facial Image Database%高精度三维人脸图像数据库

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许磊; 黎智辉; 王俊娟; 谢兰迟; 张宁; 王永强; 郭晶晶

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) facial database can be wildly used in computer vision, animated drawing designing, medicine and etc. In forensic science, facial image database is used to classify face features, calculate the distribution of face features, and train the model. These analyses are the base for face identification and recognition. 3D facial image database can provide more information than traditional 2D database. For example, the special structure and shape in 3D facial image include multi-view profile. The 3D facial image capturing methods include multi-view geometry information, structured light and 3D scanning. These methods have different capturing devices and environments. There are several typical 3D facial image databases such as the MPI from MPI lab and the BJUT-3D from BJUT, which have some disadvantages in resolution and precision. In this paper, we first reviewed MPI and BJUT-3D databases and their capturing environments. Then we established our high precision 3D facial image database of Chinese people. 1100 3D facial images had been captured, including their color texture and depth (geometry shape or point cloud) information with Artec Spider, a portable 3D scanner. The number of sampling points of the geometry shape was more than 20 million. The number of triangle surfaces of 3D image was more than 40 million. The results showed that the images in our database exhibited higher precision than those in BJUT-3D database when considering face shape, resolution and texture. Meanwhile, these images presented more details in mouth, nose, eyes etc. than the images in the other databases. The established database would support our further work in 3D facial identification and algorithm evaluation.%3D 人脸图像数据库广泛应用于计算机视觉、动画绘图设计、医学等很多领域。在法庭科学领域,采集三维人脸图像并建立数据库,可进行人像特征分类、统计人像特征的分布以及训练人像模型,这些分

  5. Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics of pipe flows measured with 3D-PTV at moderate and high Reynolds numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, J.L.G.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Kuerten, J.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) measurements have provided accurate Eulerian and Lagrangian high-order statistics of velocity and acceleration fluctuations and correlations at Reynolds number 10,300, based on the bulk velocity and the pipe diameter. Spatial resolution requir

  6. High accuracy tracking of 2D/3D curved line-structures by consecutive cross-section matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, H.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Curved 3D line-structures are found in domains such as angiography, cell biology and material science. This paper describes a new algorithm to track the line-structures with high subvoxel precision. Extra parameters determined for each cross-section are: local intensity, size, orientation and match

  7. High power density microbial fuel cell with flexible 3D graphene-nickel foam as anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Qian, Fang; Song, Yang; Lu, Xihong; Chen, Shaowei; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-10-01

    The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible surface area for microbial colonization and electron mediators, but also a uniform macro-porous scaffold for effective mass diffusion of the culture medium. Significantly, at a steady state of the power generation, the MFC device with flexible rGO-Ni electrodes produced an optimal volumetric power density of 661 W m-3 calculated based on the volume of anode material, or 27 W m-3 based on the volume of the anode chamber. These values are substantially higher than that of plain nickel foam, and other conventional carbon based electrodes (e.g., carbon cloth, carbon felt, and carbon paper) measured in the same conditions. To our knowledge, this is the highest volumetric power density reported for mL-scale MFC device with a pure strain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We also demonstrated that the MFC device can be operated effectively in a batch-mode at least for a week. These new 3D rGO-Ni electrodes show great promise for improving the power generation of MFC devices.The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible

  8. A 3D high-resolution gamma camera for radiopharmaceutical studies with small animals

    CERN Document Server

    Loudos, G K; Giokaris, N D; Styliaris, E; Archimandritis, S C; Varvarigou, A D; Papanicolas, C N; Majewski, S; Weisenberger, D; Pani, R; Scopinaro, F; Uzunoglu, N K; Maintas, D; Stefanis, K

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies conducted with a small field of view tomographic gamma camera based on a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube are reported. The system has been used for the evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in small animals. Phantom studies have shown a spatial resolution of 2 mm in planar and 2-3 mm in tomographic imaging. Imaging studies in mice have been carried out both in 2D and 3D. Conventional radiopharmaceuticals have been used and the results have been compared with images from a clinically used system.

  9. A High-Transmission, Multiple Antireflective Surface Inspired from Bilayer 3D Ultrafine Hierarchical Structures in Butterfly Wing Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Li, Bo; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-02-10

    A high-transmission, multiple antireflective surface inspired by bilayer 3D ultrafine hierarchical structures in butterfly wing scales is fabricated on a glass substrate using wet chemical biomimetic fabrication. Interestingly, the biomimetic antireflective surface exhibits excellent antireflective properties and high transmission, which provides better characteristics than the butterfly wings and can significantly reduce reflection without losing transparency. These findings offer a new path for generating nanostructured antireflectors with high transmission properties.

  10. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haibing; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  11. Designing a high accuracy 3D auto stereoscopic eye tracking display, using a common LCD monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Reza; Kia, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design and building of a low cost and practical stereoscopic display that does not need to wear special glasses, and uses eye tracking to give a large degree of freedom to viewer (or viewer's) movement while displaying the minimum amount of information. The parallax barrier technique is employed to turn a LCD into an auto-stereoscopic display. The stereo image pair is screened on the usual liquid crystal display simultaneously but in different columns of pixels. Controlling of the display in red-green-blue sub pixels increases the accuracy of light projecting direction to less than 2 degrees without losing too much LCD's resolution and an eye-tracking system determines the correct angle to project the images along the viewer's eye pupils and an image processing system puts the 3D images data in correct R-G-B sub pixels. 1.6 degree of light direction controlling achieved in practice. The 3D monitor is just made by applying some simple optical materials on a usual LCD display with normal resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Technology development of 3D detectors for high energy physics and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, G

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the fabrication, characterisation and simulation of 3D semiconductor detectors. Due to their geometry, these detectors have more efficient charge collection properties than current silicon and gallium arsenide planar detectors. The unit cell of these detectors is hexagonal with a central anode surrounded by six cathode contacts. This geometry gives a uniform electric field with the maximum drift and depletion distance set by electrode spacing, 85m in this project, rather than detector thickness, as in the case of planar detectors (typically 100-300m). This results in lower applied biases (35-40 V in the work of this project) compared to >200 V in typical planar detectors. The reduction in bias offers the possibility of improved detector operation in the presence of bulk radiation damage as lower voltage reduces leakage current which limits the signal to noise ratio and hence the overall detector efficiency. In this work, 3D detectors realised in Si, GaAs and SiC have ...

  13. High Throughput Studies of Cell Migration in 3D Microtissues Fabricated by a Droplet Microfluidic Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchen Che

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrayed three-dimensional (3D micro-sized tissues with encapsulated cells (microtissues have been fabricated by a droplet microfluidic chip. The extracellular matrix (ECM is a polymerized collagen network. One or multiple breast cancer cells were embedded within the microtissues, which were stored in arrayed microchambers on the same chip without ECM droplet shrinkage over 48 h. The migration trajectory of the cells was recorded by optical microscopy. The migration speed was calculated in the range of 3–6 µm/h. Interestingly, cells in devices filled with a continuous collagen network migrated faster than those where only droplets were arrayed in the chambers. This is likely due to differences in the length scales of the ECM network, as cells embedded in thin collagen slabs also migrate slower than those in thick collagen slabs. In addition to migration, this technical platform can be potentially used to study cancer cell-stromal cell interactions and ECM remodeling in 3D tumor-mimicking environments.

  14. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures.

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of high-steep slope stability and optimal high-steep slope design by 3D physical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-ping Lai; Peng-fei Shan; Mei-feng Cai; Fen-hua Ren; Wen-hui Tan

    2015-01-01

    High-steep slope stability and its optimal excavation design in Shuichang open pit iron mine were analyzed based on a large 3D physical simulation technique. An optimal excavation scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle was successfully implemented at the northwest wall between Nos. 4 and 5 exploration lines of Shuichang Iron Mine, taking into account the 3D scale effect. The phys-ico-mechanical properties of rock materials were obtained by laboratory tests conducted on sample cores from exploration drilling directly from the iron mine. A porous rock-like composite material was formed for the model, and the mechanical parameters of the material were assessed experimentally;specifically, the effect of water on the sample was quantitatively determined. We adopted an experimental setup using stiff modular applied static loading to carry out a visual excavation of the slope at a random depth. The setup was equipped with acous-tic emission (AE) sensors, and the experiments were monitored by crack optical acquirement, ground penetrating radar, and close-field pho-togrammetry to investigate the mechanisms of rock-mass destabilization in the high-steep slope. For the complex study area, the model re-sults indicated a clear correlation between the model’s destabilization resulting from slope excavation and the collected monitoring informa-tion. During the model simulation, the overall angle of the slope increased by 1–6 degrees in different sections. Dramatically, the modeled excavation scheme saved over 80 million tons of rock from extraction, generating enormous economic and ecological benefits.

  16. 3D printing of high-resolution PLA-based structures by hybrid electrohydrodynamic and fused deposition modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Seong, Baekhoon; Nguyen, VuDat; Byun, Doyoung

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has received much attention for shape forming and manufacturing. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer is one of the various 3D printers available and has become widely used due to its simplicity, low-cost, and easy operation. However, the FDM technique has a limitation whereby its patterning resolution is too low at around 200 μm. In this paper, we first present a hybrid mechanism of electrohydrodynamic jet printing with the FDM technique, which we name E-FDM. We then develop a novel high-resolution 3D printer based on the E-FDM process. To determine the optimal condition for structuring, we also investigated the effect of several printing parameters, such as temperature, applied voltage, working height, printing speed, flow-rate, and acceleration on the patterning results. This method was capable of fabricating both high resolution 2D and 3D structures with the use of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has been used to fabricate scaffold structures for tissue engineering, which has different hierarchical structure sizes. The fabrication speed was up to 40 mm/s and the pattern resolution could be improved to 10 μm.

  17. Oxygen lines in solar granulation. I. Testing 3D models against new observations with high spatial and spectral resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Tiago M D; Asplund, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Aims: we seek to provide additional tests of the line formation of theoretical 3D solar photosphere models. In particular, we set out to test the spatially-resolved line formation at several viewing angles, from the solar disk-centre to the limb and focusing on atomic oxygen lines. The purpose of these tests is to provide additional information on whether the 3D model is suitable to derive the solar oxygen abundance. We also aim to empirically constrain the NLTE recipes for neutral hydrogen collisions, using the spatially-resolved observations of the OI 777 nm lines. Methods: using the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope we obtained high-spatial-resolution observations of five atomic oxygen lines (along with lines for other species) for five positions on the solar disk. These observations have a high spatial and spectral resolution, and a continuum intensity contrast up to 9% at 615 nm. The theoretical line profiles were computed using the 3D model, with a full 3D NLTE treatment for oxygen and LTE for the other lines...

  18. Extension of the reactor dynamics code MGT-3D for pebblebed and blocktype high-temperature-reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Dunfu

    2015-07-01

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is an improved, gas cooled nuclear reactor. It was chosen as one of the candidates of generation IV nuclear plants [1]. The reactor can be shut down automatically because of the negative reactivity feedback due to the temperature's increasing in designed accidents. It is graphite moderated and Helium cooled. The residual heat can be transferred out of the reactor core by inactive ways as conduction, convection, and thermal radiation during the accident. In such a way, a fuel temperature does not go beyond a limit at which major fission product release begins. In this thesis, the coupled neutronics and fluid mechanics code MGT-3D used for the steady state and time-dependent simulation of HTGRs, is enhanced and validated [2]. The fluid mechanics part is validated by SANA experiments in steady state cases as well as transient cases. The fuel temperature calculation is optimized by solving the heat conduction equation of the coated particles. It is applied in the steady state and transient simulation of PBMR, and the results are compared to the simulation with the old overheating model. New approaches to calculate the temperature profile of the fuel element of block-type HTGRs, and the calculation of the homogeneous conductivity of composite materials are introduced. With these new developments, MGT-3D is able to simulate block-type HTGRs as well. This extended MGT-3D is used to simulate a cuboid ceramic block heating experiment in the NACOK-II facility. The extended MGT-3D is also applied to LOFC and DLOFC simulation of GT-MHR. It is a fluid mechanics calculation with a given heat source. This calculation result of MGT-3D is verified with the calculation results of other codes. The design of the Japanese HTTR is introduced. The deterministic simulation of the LOFC experiment of HTTR is conducted with the Monte-Carlo code Serpent and MGT-3D, which is the LOFC Project organized by OECD/NEA [3]. With Serpent the burnup

  19. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Our method to present current state of a peat bog was focused on the possible use of a UAV-system and later Structure-from-motion algorithms as processing technique. The peat bog site is located on the Vinderel Plateau, Farcǎu Massif, Maramures Mountains (Romania). The peat bog (1530 m a.s.l., N47°54'11", E24°26'37") lies below Rugasu ridge (c. 1820 m a.s.l.) and the locality serves as a conservation area for fallen down coniferous trees. Peat deposits were formed in a landslide concavity on the western slope of Farcǎu Massif. Nowadays the site is surrounded by a completely deforested landscape, and Farcǎu Massif lies above the depressed treeline. The peat bog has an extraordinary geomorphological situation, because a gully reached the bog and drained the water. In the recent past sedimentological and dendrochronological researches have been initiated. However, an accurate 3D digital surface model also needed for a complex paleoenvironmental research. Last autumn the bog and its surroundings were finally surveyed by a multirotor UAV developed in-house based on an open-source flight management unit and its firmware. During this survey a lightweight action camera (mainly to decrease payload weight) was used to take aerial photographs. While our quadcopter is capable to fly automatically on a predefined flight route, several over- and sidelapping flight lines were generated prior to the actual survey on the ground using a control software running on a notebook. Despite those precautions, limited number of batteries and severe weather affected our final flights, resulting a reduced surveyed area around peat bog. Later, during the processing we looked for a reliable tool which powerful enough to process more than 500 photos taken during flights. After testing several software Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create 3D point cloud and mesh about bog and its environment. Due to large number of photographs PhotoScan had to be configured for network processing to get

  20. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  1. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  2. Biomimetic staggered composites with highly enhanced energy dissipation: Modeling, 3D printing, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Heyne, Mary A.; To, Albert C.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the damping enhancement in a class of biomimetic staggered composites via a combination of design, modeling, and experiment. In total, three kinds of staggered composites are designed by mimicking the structure of bone and nacre. These composite designs are realized by 3D printing a rigid plastic and a viscous elastomer simultaneously. Greatly-enhanced energy dissipation in the designed composites is observed from both the experimental results and theoretical prediction. The designed polymer composites have loss modulus up to ~500 MPa, higher than most of the existing polymers. In addition, their specific loss modulus (up to 0.43 km2/s2) is among the highest of damping materials. The damping enhancement is attributed to the large shear deformation of the viscous soft matrix and the large strengthening effect from the rigid inclusion phase.

  3. Chromospheric heating and structure as determined from high resolution 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Mats; Gudiksen, Boris V

    2010-01-01

    We have performed 3D radiation MHD simulations extending from the convection zone to the corona covering a box 16 Mm$^3$ at 32 km spatial resolution. The simulations show very fine structure in the chromosphere with acoustic shocks interacting with the magnetic field. Magnetic flux concentrations have a temperature lower than the surroundings in the photosphere but higher in the low chromosphere. The heating is there mostly through ohmic dissipation preferentially at the edges of the flux concentrations. The magnetic field is often wound up around the flux concentrations. When acoustic waves travel up along the field this topology leads to swirling motions seen in chromospheric diagnostic lines such as the calcium infrared triplet.

  4. Numerical Simulations of Flow in a 3-D Supersonic Intake at High Mach Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivakumar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the compressible, 3-D non reacting flow in the engine inlet sectionof a concept hypersonic air-breathing vehicle are presented. These simulations have been carriedout using FLUENT. For all the results reported, the mesh has been refined to achieve areaaveragedwall y+ about 105. Mass flow rate through the intake and stagnation pressure recoveryare used to compare the performance at various angles of attack. The calculations are able topredict the mode of air-intake operation (critical and subcritical for different angles of attack.Flow distortion at the intake for various angles of attack is also calculated and discussed. Thenumerical results are validated by simulating the flow through a 2-D mixed compression hypersonicintake model and comparing with the experimental data.

  5. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  6. Zooming in: high resolution 3D reconstruction of differently stained histological whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Johannes; Berger, Judith; Müller, Benedikt; Breuhahn, Kai; Grabe, Niels; Heldmann, Stefan; Homeyer, André; Lahrmann, Bernd; Laue, Hendrik; Olesch, Janine; Schwier, Michael; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Warth, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Much insight into metabolic interactions, tissue growth, and tissue organization can be gained by analyzing differently stained histological serial sections. One opportunity unavailable to classic histology is three-dimensional (3D) examination and computer aided analysis of tissue samples. In this case, registration is needed to reestablish spatial correspondence between adjacent slides that is lost during the sectioning process. Furthermore, the sectioning introduces various distortions like cuts, folding, tearing, and local deformations to the tissue, which need to be corrected in order to exploit the additional information arising from the analysis of neighboring slide images. In this paper we present a novel image registration based method for reconstructing a 3D tissue block implementing a zooming strategy around a user-defined point of interest. We efficiently align consecutive slides at increasingly fine resolution up to cell level. We use a two-step approach, where after a macroscopic, coarse alignment of the slides as preprocessing, a nonlinear, elastic registration is performed to correct local, non-uniform deformations. Being driven by the optimization of the normalized gradient field (NGF) distance measure, our method is suitable for differently stained and thus multi-modal slides. We applied our method to ultra thin serial sections (2 μm) of a human lung tumor. In total 170 slides, stained alternately with four different stains, have been registered. Thorough visual inspection of virtual cuts through the reconstructed block perpendicular to the cutting plane shows accurate alignment of vessels and other tissue structures. This observation is confirmed by a quantitative analysis. Using nonlinear image registration, our method is able to correct locally varying deformations in tissue structures and exceeds the limitations of globally linear transformations.

  7. High linearity SPAD and TDC array for TCSPC and 3D ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Lussana, Rudi; Bronzi, Danilo; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco

    2015-01-01

    An array of 32x32 Single-Photon Avalanche-Diodes (SPADs) and Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm automotive-certified CMOS technology. The overall dimension of the chip is 9x9 mm2. Each pixel is able to detect photons in the 300 nm - 900 nm wavelength range with a fill-factor of 3.14% and either to count them or to time stamp their arrival time. In photon-counting mode an in-pixel 6-bit counter provides photon-numberresolved intensity movies at 100 kfps, whereas in photon-timing mode the 10-bit in-pixel TDC provides time-resolved maps (Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting measurements) or 3D depth-resolved (through direct time-of-flight technique) images and movies, with 312 ps resolution. The photodetector is a 30 μm diameter SPAD with low Dark Count Rate (120 cps at room temperature, 3% hot-pixels) and 55% peak Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) at 450 nm. The TDC has a 6-bit counter and a 4-bit fine interpolator, based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) line, which makes the TDC insensitive to process, voltage, and temperature drifts. The implemented sliding-scale technique improves linearity, giving 2% LSB DNL and 10% LSB INL. The single-shot precision is 260 ps rms, comprising SPAD, TDC and driving board jitter. Both optical and electrical crosstalk among SPADs and TDCs are negligible. 2D fast movies and 3D reconstructions with centimeter resolution are reported.

  8. Coupling of highly explicit gas and aqueous chemistry mechanisms for use in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnebaugh, Diana L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study discusses the coupling of a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous-phase mechanism in an accurate chemical solver designed for use in 3-D models. The gas and aqueous mechanisms and the solver used are the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM 3.1), the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism (CAPRAM 3.0i), and the SMVGEAR II ordinary differential solver, respectively. The MCM has over 13,500 reactions and 4600 species, whereas CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). SMVGEAR II is a sparse-matrix Gear solver that reduces the computation time significantly while maintaining any specified accuracy. MCM has been used previously with SMVGEAR II in 3-D, and computer timings here indicate that coupling MCM with CAPRAM in SMVGEAR II is also practical. Gas- and aqueous-phase species are coupled through time-dependent dissolutional growth and dissociation equations. This method is validated with a smaller mechanism against results from a previous model intercomparison. When the smaller mechanism is compared with the full MCM-CAPRAM mechanism, some concentrations are still similar but others differ due to the greater detail in chemistry. We also expand the mechanism to include gas-aqueous transfer of two acids, glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid, and modify the glyoxal Henry's law constant from recent measurements. The average glyoxal partitioning in the cloud changed from 67% aqueous-phase to 87% aqueous-phase with the modifications. The addition of gas-aqueous transfer reactions increased the average gas-phase percentage of glycolic acid to 19% and of glyoxylic acid to 16%. This full gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry module is a potentially useful tool for studying air pollution in a cloud or a fog.

  9. 3D Graphene-Foam-Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Hybrid Nested Hierarchical Networks for High-Performance Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangjian; Xu, Chuan; Sun, Zhenhua; Wang, Shaogang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng; Ren, Wencai

    2016-02-24

    A 3D graphene-foam-reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid nested hierarchical network is synthesized to achieve high sulfur loading and content simultaneously, which solves the "double low" issues of Li-S batteries. The obtained Li-S cathodes show a high areal capacity two times larger than that of commercial lithium-ion batteries, and a good cycling performance comparable to those at low sulfur loading.

  10. MTF characterization in 2D and 3D for a high resolution, large field of view flat panel imager for cone beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jainil; Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.; Richmond, Michelle; Zentai, George

    2014-03-01

    The 2D and 3D modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a custom made, large 40x30cm2 area, 600- micron CsI-TFT based flat panel imager having 127-micron pixellation, along with the micro-fiber scintillator structure, were characterized in detail using various techniques. The larger area detector yields a reconstructed FOV of 25cm diameter with an 80cm SID in CT mode. The MTFs were determined with 1x1 (intrinsic) binning. The 2D MTFs were determined using a 50.8 micron tungsten wire and a solid lead edge, and the 3D MTF was measured using a custom made phantom consisting of three nearly orthogonal 50.8 micron tungsten wires suspended in an acrylic cubic frame. The 2D projection data was reconstructed using an iterative OSC algorithm using 16 subsets and 5 iterations. As additional verification of the resolution, along with scatter, the Catphan® phantom was also imaged and reconstructed with identical parameters. The measured 2D MTF was ~4% using the wire technique and ~1% using the edge technique at the 3.94 lp/mm Nyquist cut-off frequency. The average 3D MTF measured along the wires was ~8% at the Nyquist. At 50% MTF, the resolutions were 1.2 and 2.1 lp/mm in 2D and 3D, respectively. In the Catphan® phantom, the 1.7 lp/mm bars were easily observed. Lastly, the 3D MTF measured on the three wires has an observed 5.9% RMSD, indicating that the resolution of the imaging system is uniform and spatially independent. This high performance detector is integrated into a dedicated breast SPECT-CT imaging system.

  11. Mode transformation and frequency change with height in 3D numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, T; Collados, M

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetoacoustic wave propagation are performed in a sunspot atmosphere with a computational domain covering from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The wave source, with properties resembling the solar spectrum, is located at different distances from the axis of the sunspot for each simulation. These results are compared with the theory of mode transformation and also with observational features. Simulations show that the dominant oscillation frequency in the chromosphere decreases with the radial distance from the sunspot axis. The energy flux of the different wave modes involved, including de Alfv\\'en mode, is evaluated and discussed.

  12. A HIGHLY COLLIMATED WATER MASER BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE CEPHEUS A HW3d MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibueze, James O.; Imai, Hiroshi; Tafoya, Daniel; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Chong, Sze-Ning [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kameya, Osamu; Hirota, Tomoya [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Torrelles, Jose M., E-mail: james@milkyway.sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC)-UB/IEEC, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of multi-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) water (H{sub 2}O) maser observations carried out with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry toward the Cepheus A HW3d object. We measured for the first time relative proper motions of the H{sub 2}O maser features, whose spatio-kinematics traces a compact bipolar outflow. This outflow looks highly collimated and expanding through {approx}280 AU (400 mas) at a mean velocity of {approx}21 km s{sup -1} ({approx}6 mas yr{sup -1}) without taking into account the turbulent central maser cluster. The opening angle of the outflow is estimated to be {approx}30 Degree-Sign . The dynamical timescale of the outflow is estimated to be {approx}100 years. Our results provide strong support that HW3d harbors an internal massive young star, and the observed outflow could be tracing a very early phase of star formation. We also have analyzed Very Large Array archive data of 1.3 cm continuum emission obtained in 1995 and 2006 toward Cepheus A. The comparative result of the HW3d continuum emission suggests the possibility of the existence of distinct young stellar objects in HW3d and/or strong variability in one of their radio continuum emission components.

  13. High fidelity digital inline holographic PTV for 3D flow measurements: from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional PIV and PTV provides the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other commercialized 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (namely DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. Here we will report our latest work on improving DIH-PTV method through an integration of deconvolution algorithm, iterative removal method and GPU computation to overcome some of abovementioned limitations. We will also present the application of our DIH-PTV for measurements in the following sample cases: (i) flows in bio-filmed microchannel with 50-60 μm vector spacing within sampling volumes of 1 mm (streamwise) x 1 mm (wall-normal) x 1 mm (spanwise); (ii) turbulent flows over smooth and rough surfaces (1.1 mm vector spacing within 15 mm x 50 mm x 15 mm); (iii) 3D distribution and kinematics of inertial particles in turbulent air duct flow.

  14. High-frequency magnetic components

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2009-01-01

    If you are looking for a complete study of the fundamental concepts in magnetic theory, read this book. No other textbook covers magnetic components of inductors and transformers for high-frequency applications in detail. This unique text examines design techniques of the major types of inductors and transformers used for a wide variety of high-frequency applications including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant circuits. It describes skin effect and proximity effect in detail to provide you with a sound understanding of high-frequency phenomena. As well as this, you will disco

  15. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Representation in Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Maeva, E. Y.; Severin, F. M.

    Biometrics is an important field which studies different possible ways of personal identification. Among a number of existing biometric techniques fingerprint recognition stands alone - because very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are an important evidence that can be collected at a crime scene. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. Ultrasonic method of fingerprint imaging was originally introduced over a decade as the mapping of the reflection coefficient at the interface between the finger and a covering plate and has shown very good reliability and free from imperfections of previous two methods. This work introduces a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging, focusing on the imaging of the internal structures of fingerprints (including sweat pores) with raw acoustic resolution of about 500 dpi (0.05 mm) using a scanning acoustic microscope to obtain images and acoustic data in the form of 3D data array. C-scans from different depths inside the fingerprint area of fingers of several volunteers were obtained and showed good contrast of ridges-and-valleys patterns and practically exact correspondence to the standard ink-and-paper prints of the same areas. Important feature reveled on the acoustic images was the clear appearance of the sweat pores, which could provide additional means of identification.

  16. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  17. 3D hybrid-porous carbon derived from carbonization of metal organic frameworks for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhai; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chengyin; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-09-01

    We report a rational design and synthesis of 3D hybrid-porous carbon with a hierarchical pore architecture for high performance supercapacitors. It contains micropores (<2 nm diameter) and mesopores (2-4 nm), derived from carbonization of unique porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Owning to the synergistic effect of micropores and mesopores, the hybrid-porous carbon has exceptionally high ion-accessible surface area and low ion diffusion resistance, which is desired for supercapacitor applications. When applied as electrode materials in supercapacitors, 3D hybrid-porous carbon demonstrates a specific capacitance of 332 F g-1 at a constant charge/discharge current of 500 mA g-1. The supercapacitors can endure more than 10,000 cycles without degradation of capacitance.

  18. High frequency ultrasound imaging of a single-species biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Goertz, D. E.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; de Jong, N.; Wu, M. K.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the feasibility of a high frequency ultrasound scan to examine the 3D morphology of Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown in vitro. Methods: Six 2-day S. mutans biofilms and six 7-day biofilms were grown on tissue culture membranes and on bovine dentine discs. A sterile

  19. High-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm x-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansis, Eberhard; Carroll, John D.; Schaefer, Dirk; Doessel, Olaf; Grass, Michael [Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Roentgenstrasse 24-26, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Health Sciences Center, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado 80262 (United States); Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Roentgenstrasse 24-26, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Roentgenstrasse 24-26, 22335 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the coronary arteries during a cardiac catheter-based intervention can be performed from a C-arm based rotational x-ray angiography sequence. It can support the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, treatment planning, and intervention guidance. 3-D reconstruction also enables quantitative vessel analysis, including vessel dynamics from a time-series of reconstructions. Methods: The strong angular undersampling and motion effects present in gated cardiac reconstruction necessitate the development of special reconstruction methods. This contribution presents a fully automatic method for creating high-quality coronary artery reconstructions. It employs a sparseness-prior based iterative reconstruction technique in combination with projection-based motion compensation. Results: The method is tested on a dynamic software phantom, assessing reconstruction accuracy with respect to vessel radii and attenuation coefficients. Reconstructions from clinical cases are presented, displaying high contrast, sharpness, and level of detail. Conclusions: The presented method enables high-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm system.

  20. High-Throughput 3D Tumor Spheroid Screening Method for Cancer Drug Discovery Using Celigo Image Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Sarah; Cribbes, Scott; Déry, Olivier; Kuksin, Dmitry; Sincoff, Eric; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2016-06-01

    Oncologists have investigated the effect of protein or chemical-based compounds on cancer cells to identify potential drug candidates. Traditionally, the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of the drugs are first measured in 2D in vitro models, and then further tested in 3D xenograft in vivo models. Although the drug candidates can demonstrate promising inhibitory or cytotoxicity results in a 2D environment, similar effects may not be observed under a 3D environment. In this work, we developed an image-based high-throughput screening method for 3D tumor spheroids using the Celigo image cytometer. First, optimal seeding density for tumor spheroid formation was determined by investigating the cell seeding density of U87MG, a human glioblastoma cell line. Next, the dose-response effects of 17-AAG with respect to spheroid size and viability were measured to determine the IC50 value. Finally, the developed high-throughput method was used to measure the dose response of four drugs (17-AAG, paclitaxel, TMZ, and doxorubicin) with respect to the spheroid size and viability. Each experiment was performed simultaneously in the 2D model for comparison. This detection method allowed for a more efficient process to identify highly qualified drug candidates, which may reduce the overall time required to bring a drug to clinical trial.

  1. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  2. Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton Greenstone Belt is surrounded by multiple plutons.

  3. Benchmarking of 3D space charge codes using direct phase space measurements from photoemission high voltage DC gun

    CERN Document Server

    Bazarov, Ivan V; Gulliford, Colwyn; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Sinclair, Charles K; Soong, Ken; Hannon, Fay

    2008-01-01

    We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space for space charge dominated electron bunches after a high voltage photoemission DC gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit setup for a set of parameters such as charge per bunch and the solenoid current. The data is compared with detailed simulations using 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D with initial particle distributions created from the measured transverse and temporal laser profiles. Beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and accelerating field at the photocathode.

  4. Assembly of tin oxide/graphene nanosheets into 3D hierarchical frameworks for high-performance lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Wu, Dongqing; Han, Sheng; Li, Shuang; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2013-08-01

    3D hierarchical tin oxide/graphene frameworks (SnO2 /GFs) were built up by the in situ synthesis of 2D SnO2 /graphene nanosheets followed by hydrothermal assembly. These SnO2 /GFs exhibited a 3D hierarchical porous architecture with mesopores (≈3 nm), macropores (3-6 μm), and a large surface area (244 m(2) g(-1) ), which not only effectively prevented the agglomeration of SnO2 nanoparticles, but also facilitated fast ion and electron transport in 3D pathways. As a consequence, the SnO2 /GFs exhibited a high capacity of 830 mAh g(-1) for up to 70 charge-discharge cycles at 100 mA g(-1) . Even at a high current density of 500 mA g(-1) , a reversible capacity of 621 mAh g(-1) could be maintained for SnO2 /GFs with excellent cycling stability. Such performance is superior to that of previously reported SnO2 /graphene and other SnO2 /carbon composites with similar weight contents of SnO2 .

  5. 3D high resolution tracking of ice flow using mutli-temporal stereo satellite imagery, Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, S.; Lin, J.; Ayoub, F.; Herman, F.; Avouac, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the latest capabilities added to the Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software, which aim at analyzing time-series of stereoscopic imagery to document 3D variations of the ground surface. We review the processing chain and present the new and improved modules for satellite pushbroom imagery, in particular the N-image bundle block adjustment to jointly optimize the viewing geometry of multiple acquisitions, the improved multi-scale image matching based on Semi-Global Matching (SGM) to extract high resolution topography, and the triangulation of multi-temporal disparity maps to derive 3D ground motion. In particular, processes are optimized to run on a cluster computing environment. This new suite of algorithms is applied to the study of Worldview stereo imagery above the Franz Josef, Fox, and Tasman Glaciers, New Zealand, acquired on 01/30/2013, 02/09/2013, and 02/28/2013. We derive high resolution (1m post-spacing) maps of ice flow in three dimensions, where ice velocities of up to 4 m/day are recorded. Images were collected in early summer during a dry and sunny period, which followed two weeks of unsettled weather with several heavy rainfall events across the Southern Alps. The 3D tracking of ice flow highlights the surface response of the glaciers to changes in effective pressure at the ice-bedrock interface due to heavy rainfall, at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  6. Correlative 3D imaging: CLSM and FIB-SEM tomography using high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Miriam S; Guenthert, Maja; Gasser, Philippe; Lucas, Falk; Wepf, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy aims at combining data from different imaging modalities, ideally from the same area of the one sample, in order to achieve a more holistic view of the hierarchical structural organization of cells and tissues. Modern 3D imaging techniques opened up new possibilities to expand morphological studies into the third dimension at the nanometer scale. Here we present an approach to correlate 3D light microscopy data with volume data from focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. An adapted sample preparation method based on high-pressure freezing for structure preservation, followed by freeze-substitution for multimodal en bloc imaging, is described. It is based on including fluorescent labeling during freeze-substitution, which enables histological context description of the structure of interest by confocal laser scanning microscopy prior to high-resolution electron microscopy. This information can be employed to relocate the respective structure in the electron microscope. This approach is most suitable for targeted small 3D volume correlation and has the potential to extract statistically relevant data of structural details for systems biology.

  7. Reduced 30% scanning time 3D multiplexer integrated circuit applied to large array format 20KHZ frequency inkjet print heads

    CERN Document Server

    Liou, J -C

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of the number and array density of nozzles within an inkjet head chip is one of the keys to raise the printing speed and printing resolutions. However, traditional 2D architecture of driving circuits can not meet the requirement for high scanning speed and low data accessing points when nozzle numbers greater than 1000. This paper proposes a novel architecture of high-selection-speed three-dimensional data registration for inkjet applications. With the configuration of three-dimensional data registration, the number of data accessing points as well as the scanning lines can be greatly reduced for large array inkjet printheads with nozzles numbering more than 1000. This IC (Integrated Circuit) architecture involves three-dimensional multiplexing with the provision of a gating transistor for each ink firing resistor, where ink firing resistors are triggered only by the selection of their associated gating transistors. Three signals: selection (S), address (A), and power supply (P), are employed toge...

  8. Enhancement of REBUS-3/DIF3D for whole-core neutronic analysis of prismatic very high temperature reactor (VHTR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H.; Zhong, Z.; Taiwo, T.A.; Yang, W.S.; Khalil, H.S.; Smith, M.A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-13

    Enhancements have been made to the REBUS-3/DIF3D code suite to facilitate its use for the design and analysis of prismatic Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs). A new cross section structure, using table-lookup, has been incorporated to account for cross section changes with burnup and fuel and moderator temperatures. For representing these cross section dependencies, three new modules have been developed using FORTRAN 90/95 object-oriented data structures and implemented within the REBUS-3 code system. These modules provide a cross section storage procedure, construct microscopic cross section data for all isotopes, and contain a single block of banded scattering data for efficient data management. Fission products other than I, Xe, Pm, and Sm, can be merged into a single lumped fission product to save storage space, memory, and computing time without sacrificing the REBUS-3 solution accuracy. A simple thermal-hydraulic (thermal-fluid) feedback model has been developed for prismatic VHTR cores and implemented in REBUS-3 for temperature feedback calculations. Axial conduction was neglected in the formulation because of its small magnitude compared to radial (planar) conduction. With the simple model, the average fuel and graphite temperatures are accurately estimated compared to reference STAR-CD results. The feedback module is currently operational for the non-equilibrium fuel cycle analysis option of REBUS-3. Future work should include the extension of this capability to the equilibrium cycle option of the code and additional verification of the feedback module. For the simulation of control rods in VHTR cores, macroscopic cross section deviations (deltas) have been defined to account for the effect of control rod insertion. The REBUS-3 code has been modified to use the appropriately revised cross sections when control rods are inserted in a calculation node. In order to represent asymmetric core blocks (e.g., fuel blocks or reflector blocks containing

  9. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  10. High rate performance of virus enabled 3D n-type Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xilin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Guo Juchen [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Brown, Adam [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechology Research, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ghodssi, Reza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Culver, James N. [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechology Research, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wang Chunsheng, E-mail: cswang@umd.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-05-30

    Research highlights: > A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) assembled n-type silicon anode is reported for the first time. > The combination of the large surface area conferred by the virus-enabled 3D Ni/TMV1cys current collector with the high electric conductivity of n-type Si rods results in excellent cyclic stability and rate capability for the core-shell n-type Si/Ni/TMV1cys anodes. > Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the high electronic conductivity of n-type Si significantly reduces charge transfer resistance, thus even at high C-rates the capacity of the n-type Si is increased to almost 1000 mAh/g compared to undoped Si. - Abstract: A patterned 3D Si anode is fabricated by physical vapor deposition of n-type Si on a self-assembled TMV1cys-structured nickel current collector. The combination of the large surface area conferred by the virus-enabled 3D Ni/TMV1cys current collector with the high electric conductivity of n-type Si rods results in excellent cyclic stability and rate capability for the core-shell n-type Si/Ni/TMV1cys anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that the high electronic conductivity of n-type Si significantly reduces charge transfer resistance, thus even at high current densities the capacity of the n-type Si is increased to almost 630 mAh/g compared to undoped Si.

  11. FIB/SEM tomography with TEM-like resolution for 3D imaging of high-pressure frozen cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villinger, Clarissa; Gregorius, Heiko; Kranz, Christine; Höhn, Katharina; Münzberg, Christin; von Wichert, Götz; Mizaikoff, Boris; Wanner, Gerhard; Walther, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) tomography is a novel powerful approach for three-dimensional (3D) imaging of biological samples. Thereby, a sample is repeatedly milled with the focused ion beam (FIB) and each newly produced block face is imaged with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). This process can be repeated ad libitum in arbitrarily small increments allowing 3D analysis of relatively large volumes such as eukaryotic cells. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution, on the other hand, are the gold standards for electron microscopic preparation of whole cells. In this work, we combined these methods and substantially improved resolution by using the secondary electron signal for image formation. With this imaging mode, contrast is formed in a very small, well-defined area close to the newly produced surface. By using this approach, small features, so far only visible in transmission electron microscope (TEM) (e.g., the two leaflets of the membrane bi-layer, clathrin coats and cytoskeletal elements), can be resolved directly in the FIB/SEM in the 3D context of whole cells.

  12. Development of 3D ultrasound needle guidance for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynaecological cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J.; Tessier, D.; D'Souza, D.; Leung, E.; Hajdok, G.; Fenster, A.

    2016-04-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is often included in standard-of-care for gynaecological cancers. Needles are currently inserted through a perineal template without any standard real-time imaging modality to assist needle guidance, causing physicians to rely on pre-operative imaging, clinical examination, and experience. While two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) is sometimes used for real-time guidance, visualization of needle placement and depth is difficult and subject to variability and inaccuracy in 2D images. The close proximity to critical organs, in particular the rectum and bladder, can lead to serious complications. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal US system and are investigating its use for intra-operative visualization of needle positions used in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy. As a proof-of-concept, four patients were imaged with post-insertion 3D US and x-ray CT. Using software developed in our laboratory, manual rigid registration of the two modalities was performed based on the perineal template's vaginal cylinder. The needle tip and a second point along the needle path were identified for each needle visible in US. The difference between modalities in the needle trajectory and needle tip position was calculated for each identified needle. For the 60 needles placed, the mean trajectory difference was 3.23 +/- 1.65° across the 53 visible needle paths and the mean difference in needle tip position was 3.89 +/- 1.92 mm across the 48 visible needles tips. Based on the preliminary results, 3D transrectal US shows potential for the development of a 3D US-based needle guidance system for interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  13. High-quality 3D fingerprint acquisition using a novel sub-window-based structured light illumination approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalla, Veeraganesh; Daley, Ray; Boles, Colby; Hassebrook, Laurence; Fleming, Kyle; Troy, Mike

    2010-08-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most prolific and well-regarded modalities in the field of biometrics for its high recognition rates. Fingerprints remain consistent throughout a person's lifetime and are relatively simple and inexpensive to capture with techniques ranging from inked fingerprint cards to Livescan devices. In this paper, we present an algorithm and a working device that is capable of capturing high quality 3D fingerprints based on Structured Light Illumination using a novel approach called the sub-window technique. The various benefits of this unique approach and applications in fingerprint biometrics are presented.

  14. Digitized crime scene forensics: automated trace separation of toolmarks on high-resolution 2D/3D CLSM surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Eric; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    Locksmith forensics is an important and very challenging part of classic crime scene forensics. In prior work, we propose a partial transfer to the digital domain, to effectively support forensic experts and present approaches for a full process chain consisting of five steps: Trace positioning, 2D/3D acquisition with a confocal 3D laser scanning microscope, detection by segmentation, trace type determination, and determination of the opening method. In particular the step of trace segmentation on high-resolution 3D surfaces thereby turned out to be the part most difficult to implement. The reason for that is the highly structured and complex surfaces to be analyzed. These surfaces are cluttered with a high number of toolmarks, which overlap and distort each other. In Clausing et al., we present an improved approach for a reliable segmentation of relevant trace regions but without the possibility of separating single traces out of segmented trace regions. However, in our past research, especially features based on shape and dimension turned out to be highly relevant for a fully automated analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we consequently propose an approach for this separation. To achieve this goal, we use our segmentation approach and expand it with a combination of the watershed algorithm with a graph-based analysis. Found sub-regions are compared based on their surface character and are connected or divided depending on their similarity. We evaluate our approach with a test set of about 1,300 single traces on the exemplary locking cylinder component 'key pin' and thereby are able of showing the high suitability of our approach.

  15. An extremely simple method for fabricating 3D protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and high protein capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng; Ma, Yuhong; Zhao, Changwen; Chen, Ruichao; Zhu, Xing; Zhang, Lihua; Yan, Xu; Yang, Wantai

    2014-07-21

    Protein microarrays have become vital tools for various applications in biomedicine and bio-analysis during the past decade. The intense requirements for a lower detection limit and industrialization in this area have resulted in a persistent pursuit to fabricate protein microarrays with a low background and high signal intensity via simple methods. Here, we report on an extremely simple strategy to create three-dimensional (3D) protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and a high protein capacity by photo-induced surface sequential controlled/living graft polymerization developed in our lab. According to this strategy, "dormant" groups of isopropyl thioxanthone semipinacol (ITXSP) were first introduced to a polymeric substrate through ultraviolet (UV)-induced surface abstraction of hydrogen, followed by a coupling reaction. Under visible light irradiation, the ITXSP groups were photolyzed to initiate surface living graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate (PEGMMA), thus introducing PEG brushes to the substrate to generate a full anti-fouling background. Due to the living nature of this graft polymerization, there were still ITXSP groups on the chain ends of the PEG brushes. Therefore, by in situ secondary living graft cross-linking copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), we could finally plant height-controllable cylinder microarrays of a 3D PEG network containing reactive epoxy groups onto the PEG brushes. Through a commonly used reaction of amine and epoxy groups, the proteins could readily be covalently immobilized onto the microarrays. This delicate design aims to overcome two universal limitations in protein microarrays: a full anti-fouling background can effectively eliminate noise caused by non-specific absorption and a 3D reactive network provides a larger protein-loading capacity to improve signal intensity. The results of non-specific protein absorption tests

  16. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhalkar, H S; Oldham, M

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of approximately 5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 microm) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the "gold standard" technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few

  17. High-Frequency Rayleigh-Wave Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghai Xia; Richard D Millerg; Xu Yixian; Luo Yinhe; Chen Chao; Liu Jiangping; Julian Ivanov; Chong Zeng

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (≥2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannei recording sys-tem have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave tech-niques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a nou-iuvasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution.

  18. Fabrication of continuous flow microfluidics device with 3D electrode structures for high throughput DEP applications using mechanical machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit

    2015-07-01

    Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed.

  19. 3D shape measurement of objects with high dynamic range of surface reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-hua; Liu, Xian-Yong; Feng, Quan-Yuan

    2011-08-10

    This paper presents a method that allows a conventional dual-camera structured light system to directly acquire the three-dimensional shape of the whole surface of an object with high dynamic range of surface reflectivity. To reduce the degradation in area-based correlation caused by specular highlights and diffused darkness, we first disregard these highly specular and dark pixels. Then, to solve this problem and further obtain unmatched area data, this binocular vision system was also used as two camera-projector monocular systems operated from different viewing angles at the same time to fill in missing data of the binocular reconstruction. This method involves producing measurable images by integrating such techniques as multiple exposures and high dynamic range imaging to ensure the capture of high-quality phase of each point. An image-segmentation technique was also introduced to distinguish which monocular system is suitable to reconstruct a certain lost point accurately. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques extended the measurable areas on the high dynamic range of surface reflectivity such as specular objects or scenes with high contrast to the whole projector-illuminated field.

  20. High-density 3D graphene-based monolith and related materials, methods, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Kucheyev, Sergei; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Shin, Swanee; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-03-21

    A composition comprising at least one high-density graphene-based monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and having a density of at least 0.1 g/cm.sup.3. Also provided is a method comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising a suspension and at least one catalyst, said suspension selected from a graphene oxide (GO) suspension and a carbon nanotube suspension; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, said drying step is substantially free of supercritical drying and freeze drying; and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a high-density graphene-based monolith. Exceptional combinations of properties are achieved including high conductive and mechanical properties.

  1. 3D Design and Analysis of Crushing Roller of High-pressure Grinding Roller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Crushing roller is one of the main parts of High-p re ssure Grinding Roller, which is a kind of high efficient ore crushing equipment. A kind of assembled roller, which is more convenient to renovate worn surface b y simply replacing segmented surface of the roller, was developed. The structura l models of assembled roller's components were designed with SolidWorks softwar e based on feature modeling, these solid models of the roller were virtually ass embled. Through this work, not only was the assemble i...

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analyses for the High-Lift Common Research Model Using the USM3D and FUN3D Flow Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Melissa; Hunter, Craig; Vatsa, Veer

    2017-01-01

    Two Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the High-Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) in preparation for a wind tunnel test to be performed at the NASA Langley Research Center 14-by-22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel in fiscal year 2018. Both flight and wind tunnel conditions were simulated by the two codes at set Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers over a full angle-of-attack range for three configurations: cruise, landing and takeoff. Force curves, drag polars and surface pressure contour comparisons are shown for the two codes. The lift and drag curves compare well for the cruise configuration up to 10deg angle of attack but not as well for the other two configurations. The drag polars compare reasonably well for all three configurations. The surface pressure contours compare well for some of the conditions modeled but not as well for others.

  3. 3D organization of high-speed compressible jets by tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violato, D.; Ceglia, G.; Tuinstra, M.; Scarano, F.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the three dimensional organization of compressible jets at high-speed regime by tomographic particle image velocimetry (TOMO PIV). Experiments are conducted at Mach numbers 0.3, 0.9 and 1.1 (underexpanded regime) across the end of the potential core within a large cylindrica

  4. Fast, broadband, and high-dynamic range 3-D field strength probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are conventionally measured using diode detectors or thermocouple detectors. The diode is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is important when considering modern pulsed wireless systems with a high peak-average ratio or crest factor. The thermocouple is too slow to me

  5. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  6. High-frequency complex pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine...

  7. Wireless Power Transfer in 3D Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bhuvaneshvari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to develop a system of wireless power transfer in 3D space. This concept based on low frequency to high frequency conversion. High frequency power is transmit between air-core and inductor. This work presents an experiment for wireless energy transfer by using the Inductive resonant coupling (also known as resonant energy transfer phenomenon. The basic principles will be presented about this physical phenomenon, the experiment design, and the results obtained for the measurements performed on the system. The parameters measured were the efficiency of the power transfer, and the angle between emitter and receiver. We can achieve wireless power transfer up to 10watts in 3D space using high frequency through tuned circuit. The wireless power supply is motivated by simple and comfortable use of many small electric appliances with low power input.

  8. Denoising of high resolution small animal 3D PET data using the non-subsampled Haar wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Domínguez, Humberto de Jesús, E-mail: hochoa@uacj.mx [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y computación, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico); Máynez, Leticia O. [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y computación, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico); Vergara Villegas, Osslan O. [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico); Mederos, Boris; Mejía, José M.; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey G. [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y computación, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    PET allows functional imaging of the living tissue. However, one of the most serious technical problems affecting the reconstructed data is the noise, particularly in images of small animals. In this paper, a method for high-resolution small animal 3D PET data is proposed with the aim to reduce the noise and preserve details. The method is based on the estimation of the non-subsampled Haar wavelet coefficients by using a linear estimator. The procedure is applied to the volumetric images, reconstructed without correction factors (plane reconstruction). Results show that the method preserves the structures and drastically reduces the noise that contaminates the image.

  9. An overset mesh approach for 3D mixed element high-order discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Michael J.; Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    2016-10-01

    A parallel high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an overset mesh framework. The DG solver has many capabilities including: hp-adaption, curved cells, support for hybrid, mixed-element meshes, and moving meshes. Combining these capabilities with overset grids allows the DG solver to be used in problems with bodies in relative motion and in a near-body off-body solver strategy. The overset implementation is constructed to preserve the design accuracy of the baseline DG discretization. Multiple simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy and performance of the overset DG solver. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the high-order DG solver to handle complex geometry and large scale parallel simulations in an overset framework.

  10. Sub-nm 3D observation of human hair melanin by high-voltage STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takehito; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Nakano, Takashi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    The ultrastructure of melanin granules in human hair was studied using 1,000 kV high-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy to successfully reconstruct three-dimensional images of the whole melanin granule. It was revealed that the melanin granule was composed of a membrane-like outer structure that included many spherical vesicles, and an inner matrix containing a sheet-like structure in the elongated direction of the melanin granule and a sheet-like arrays structure in the cross direction. The outer structure of the melanin granule was maintained even after exposure to hair-bleaching agents to decompose the melanin granule, suggesting that the outer structure was a highly robust structure and composition compared with the inner matrix .

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF 3D EFFECTS WITH HIGH GAIN AND EFFICIENCY IN A UV FEL OSCILLATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; Keith Blackburn; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; Cody Dickover; David Douglas; Forrest Ellingsworth; Pavel Evtushenko; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; James Kortze; Robert Legg; Matthew Marchlik; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Anne Watson; Gwyn Williams; Frederick Wilson; Shukui Zhang

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of a high gain UV FEL oscillator operating on an energy recovery linac at Jefferson Lab. The high brightness of the electron beam leads to both gain and efficiency that cannot be reconciled with a one-dimensional model. Three-dimensional simulations do predict the performance with reasonable precision. Gain in excess of 100% per pass and an efficiency close to 1/2NW, where NW is the number of wiggler periods, is seen. The laser mirror tuning curves currently permit operation in the wavelength range of 438 to 362 nm. Another mirror set allows operation at longer wavelengths in the red with even higher gain and efficiency.

  12. High-Resolution 3D Bathymetric Mapping for Small Streams Using Low-Altitude Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.

  13. APEnet+: high bandwidth 3D torus direct network for petaflops scale commodity clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2011-12-01

    We describe herein the APElink+ board, a PCIe interconnect adapter featuring the latest advances in wire speed and interface technology plus hardware support for a RDMA programming model and experimental acceleration of GPU networking; this design allows us to build a low latency, high bandwidth PC cluster, the APEnet+ network, the new generation of our cost-effective, tens-of-thousands-scalable cluster network architecture. Some test results and characterization of data transmission of a complete testbench, based on a commercial development card mounting an Altera® FPGA, are provided.

  14. APEnet+: high bandwidth 3D torus direct network for petaflops scale commodity clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Frezza, Ottorino; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Rossetti, Davide; Salamon, Andrea; Salina, Gaetano; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We describe herein the APElink+ board, a PCIe interconnect adapter featuring the latest advances in wire speed and interface technology plus hardware support for a RDMA programming model and experimental acceleration of GPU networking; this design allows us to build a low latency, high bandwidth PC cluster, the APEnet+ network, the new generation of our cost-effective, tens-of-thousands-scalable cluster network architecture. Some test results and characterization of data transmission of a complete testbench, based on a commercial development card mounting an Altera FPGA, are provided.

  15. 3D-Information Fusion from Very High Resolution Satellite Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, T; P. d'Angelo; G. Kuschk; Tian, J.; T. Partovi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show the pre-processing and potential for environmental applications of very high resolution (VHR) satellite stereo imagery like these from WorldView-2 or Pl´eiades with ground sampling distances (GSD) of half a metre to a metre. To process such data first a dense digital surface model (DSM) has to be generated. Afterwards from this a digital terrain model (DTM) representing the ground and a so called normalized digital elevation model (nDEM) representing off-ground ...

  16. Development of a 3D Tissue Culture–Based High-Content Screening Platform That Uses Phenotypic Profiling to Discriminate Selective Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Booij, T.H.; Klop, M.J.; Yan, K.; Szántai-Kis, C.; Szokol, B.; L. Orfi; Water, de; Keri, G.; Price, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    3D tissue cultures provide a more physiologically relevant context for the screening of compounds, compared with 2D cell cultures. Cells cultured in 3D hydrogels also show complex phenotypes, increasing the scope for phenotypic profiling. Here we describe a high-content screening platform that uses invasive human prostate cancer cells cultured in 3D in standard 384-well assay plates to study the activity of potential therapeutic small molecules and antibody biologics. Image analysis tools wer...

  17. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions.

  18. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Busireddy, Kiran K.R.; Liu, Baodong; Burke, Lauren M.; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Dale, Brian M. [Siemens Medical Solutions, MR Research and Development, Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  19. A Study of Dip-Coatable, High-Capacitance Ion Gel Dielectrics for 3D EWOD Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Clement

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a dip-coatable, high-capacitance ion gel dielectric for scalable fabrication of three-dimensional (3D electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD devices such as an n × n liquid prism array. Due to the formation of a nanometer-thick electric double layer (EDL capacitor, an ion gel dielectric offers two to three orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm2 than that of conventional dielectrics such as SiO2. However, the previous spin-coating method used for gel layer deposition poses several issues for 3D EWOD device fabrication, particularly when assembling multiple modules. Not only does the spin-coating process require multiple repetitions per module, but the ion gel layer also comes in risks of damage or contamination due to handling errors caused during assembly. In addition, it was observed that the chemical formulation previously used for the spin-coating method causes the surface defects on the dip-coated gel layers and thus leads to poor EWOD performance. In this paper, we alternatively propose a dip-coating method with modified gel solutions to obtain defect-free, functional ion gel layers without the issues arising from the spin-coating method for 3D device fabrication. A dip-coating approach offers a single-step coating solution with the benefits of simplicity, scalability, and high throughput for deposition of high-capacitance gel layers on non-planar EWOD devices. An ion gel solution was prepared by combining the [EMIM][TFSI] ionic liquid and the [P(VDF-HFP] copolymer at various wt % ratios in acetone solvent. Experimental studies were conducted to fully understand the effects of chemical composition ratios in the gel solution and how varying thicknesses of ion gel and Teflon layers affects EWOD performance. The effectiveness and potentiality of dip-coatable gel layers for 3D EWOD devices have been demonstrated through fabricating 5 × 1 arrayed liquid prisms using a single-step dip-coating method. Each prism module has

  20. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-10-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  1. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  2. Highly ordered large-scale neuronal networks of individual cells - toward single cell to 3D nanowire intracellular interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiat, Moria; Elnathan, Roey; Pevzner, Alexander; Peretz, Asher; Barak, Boaz; Peretz, Hagit; Ducobni, Tamir; Stein, Daniel; Mittelman, Leonid; Ashery, Uri; Patolsky, Fernando

    2012-07-25

    The use of artificial, prepatterned neuronal networks in vitro is a promising approach for studying the development and dynamics of small neural systems in order to understand the basic functionality of neurons and later on of the brain. The present work presents a high fidelity and robust procedure for controlling neuronal growth on substrates such as silicon wafers and glass, enabling us to obtain mature and durable neural networks of individual cells at designed geometries. It offers several advantages compared to other related techniques that have been reported in recent years mainly because of its high yield and reproducibility. The procedure is based on surface chemistry that allows the formation of functional, tailormade neural architectures with a micrometer high-resolution partition, that has the ability to promote or repel cells attachment. The main achievements of this work are deemed to be the creation of a large scale neuronal network at low density down to individual cells, that develop intact typical neurites and synapses without any glia-supportive cells straight from the plating stage and with a relatively long term survival rate, up to 4 weeks. An important application of this method is its use on 3D nanopillars and 3D nanowire-device arrays, enabling not only the cell bodies, but also their neurites to be positioned directly on electrical devices and grow with registration to the recording elements underneath.

  3. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  4. Network Support for Social 3-D Immersive Tele-Presence with Highly Realistic Natural and Synthetic Avatar Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, R.N.; Frisiello, A.; Pasin, M; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The next generation in 3D tele-presence is based on modular systems that combine live captured object based 3D video and synthetically authored 3D graphics content. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a network solution for multi-party real-time communication of these ty

  5. A 3-D miniaturized high selectivity bandpass filter in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission zeros are used to improve the roll-off factors of filters but as a consequence, the out-of-band rejection decreases. In this work, an LTCC filter design is presented which employs a series inductor (implemented as a via hole) to improve the out-of-band rejection by introducing a third transmission zero. The filter, designed for GPS band (1.57 GHz), has one of the smallest reported foot prints ((0.063×0.048×0.005)λg) and demonstrates the highest roll off factor (16.7 dB/100 MHz) for this band. With only four LTCC layers, the design is cost effective and thus highly suitable for miniaturized, ultra-thin system-on-package applications. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  6. Compressive Sensing in High-resolution 3D SAR Tomography of Urban Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Ming-sheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern high resolution SAR data, due to the intrinsic side-looking geometry of SAR sensors, layover and foreshortening issues inevitably arise, especially in dense urban areas. SAR tomography provides a new way of overcoming these problems by exploiting the back-scattering property for each pixel. However, traditional non-parametric spectral estimators, e.g. Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD, are limited by their poor elevation resolution, which is not comparable to the azimuth and slant-range resolution. In this paper, the Compressive Sensing (CS approach using Basis Pursuit (BP and TWo-step Iterative Shrinkage/Thresholding (TWIST are introduced. Experimental studies with real spotlight-mode TerraSAR-X dataset are carried out using both BP and TWIST, to demonstrate the merits of compressive sensing approaches in terms of robustness, computational efficiency, and super-resolution capability.

  7. A Novel High-Order, Entropy Stable, 3D AMR MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code $\\texttt{FLASH}$ (http://flash.uchicago.edu). The accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a number of tests, including comparisons to available MHD implementations in $\\texttt{FLASH}$.

  8. THREE HIGH-ORDER SPLITTING SCHEMES FOR 3D TRANSPORT EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-dong; SHEN Yong-ming

    2005-01-01

    Two high-order splitting schemes based on the idea of the operators splitting method are given. The three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation was split into several one-dimensional equations that were solved by these two schemes, only three computational grid points were needed in each direction but the accuracy reaches the spatial fourth-order. The third scheme proposed is based on the classical ADI scheme and the accuracy of the advection term of it can reach the spatial fourth-order. Finally,two typical numerical experiments show that the solutions of these three schemes compare well with that given by the analytical solution when the Peclet number is not bigger than 5.

  9. High-Temperature Cutoff Approximation of the 3D Kinetic Ising Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU JianYang; YANG ZhanRu

    2001-01-01

    A single-spin transition critical dynamics is used to investigate the three-dimensional kinetic Ising model on an anisotropic cubic lattice. We first derive the fundamental dynamical equations, and then linearize them by a cutoff approximation. We obtain the approximate solutions of the local magnetization and equal-time pair correlation function in zero field. In which the axial-decoupling terms γ1γ2, γ2γ3 and γ1γ3 as higher infinitesimal quantity are ignored, where γa = tanh(2kα) = tanh(2Jα/kβT) (α = 1,2,3). We think that it is reasonable as the temperature of the system is very high. The result of what we obtain in this paper can go back to the one-dimensional Glauber's theory as long as k2 = k3= 0.

  10. High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Barnaby; Gross, Simon; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Stewart, Paul N; Charles, Ned; Lawrence, Jon S; Withford, Michael J; Tuthill, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The detection and characterisation of extra-solar planets is a major theme driving modern astronomy, with the vast majority of such measurements being achieved by Doppler radial-velocity and transit observations. Another technique -- direct imaging -- can access a parameter space that complements these methods, and paves the way for future technologies capable of detailed characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and surfaces. However achieving the required levels of performance with direct imaging, particularly from ground-based telescopes which must contend with the Earth's turbulent atmosphere, requires considerable sophistication in the instrument and detection strategy. Here we demonstrate a new generation of photonic pupil-remapping devices which build upon the interferometric framework developed for the {\\it Dragonfly} instrument: a high contrast waveguide-based device which recovers robust complex visibility observables. New generation Dragonfly devices overcome problems caused by interference from...

  11. A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)

  12. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2014-12-17

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds.

  13. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces.

  14. High-quality molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with 3D structure for electrochemical sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Aiping, E-mail: aipingyin1964@163.com [Department of chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou, Shanxi (China); Wei, Xuehong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Cao, Yexia; Li, Huiqing [Department of chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou, Shanxi (China)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets are successfully synthesized via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template. Possessing hierarchical porous structure and large pore volume as well as good conductivity, MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets demonstrates significantly improved electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets are achieved via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template. • The sacrificial template (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) plays a significant role in this synthetic process, which brings ultrathin structure and three-dimensional porous network for MoS{sub 2} materials. • The MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets sample displays significantly improved electrocatalytic performance toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA, manifesting enlarged peak separation and increased peak current. • Meantime, simultaneous determination of these biomolecules is achieved in a wide concentration rang with high sensitivity, selectivity, stability and good reproducibility on modified electrode of the MoS{sub 2} nanosheets. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor has been developed for simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) based on pure MoS{sub 2} nanosheets modified electrode. The MoS{sub 2} nanosheets are achieved via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template. Possessing hierarchical porous structure and large pore volume as well as good conductivity, MoS{sub 2} nanosheets demonstrates significantly improved electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA. In the coexisting system, the peak separation of AA–DA, DA–UA and AA–UA is 208.3 mV, 128.0 mV and 336.3 mV, respectively, which is much larger than for other MoS{sub 2}-based catalyst

  15. High-quality molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with 3D structure for electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aiping; Wei, Xuehong; Cao, Yexia; Li, Huiqing

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical sensor has been developed for simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) based on pure MoS2 nanosheets modified electrode. The MoS2 nanosheets are achieved via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C3N4 template. Possessing hierarchical porous structure and large pore volume as well as good conductivity, MoS2 nanosheets demonstrates significantly improved electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA. In the coexisting system, the peak separation of AA-DA, DA-UA and AA-UA is 208.3 mV, 128.0 mV and 336.3 mV, respectively, which is much larger than for other MoS2-based catalyst. On the basis of large potential separation and high current response, selective and sensitive simultaneous determination of AA, DA, and UA was successfully accomplished by DPV, displaying a linear response from 5 to 1200 μM, from 1 to 900 μM, and from 1 to 60 μM with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.82, 0.15, and 0.06 μM. This work highlights the importance of Mo-edge sites of MoS2 and hierarchical porous structure for efficient catalysis.

  16. High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Barnaby; Cvetojevic, Nick; Gross, Simon; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Stewart, Paul N; Charles, Ned; Lawrence, Jon S; Withford, Michael J; Tuthill, Peter

    2014-07-28

    The detection and characterization of extra-solar planets is a major theme driving modern astronomy. Direct imaging of exoplanets allows access to a parameter space complementary to other detection methods, and potentially the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and surfaces. However achieving the required levels of performance with direct imaging from ground-based telescopes (subject to Earth's turbulent atmosphere) has been extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate a new generation of photonic pupil-remapping devices which build upon the Dragonfly instrument, a high contrast waveguide-based interferometer. This new generation overcomes problems caused by interference from unguided light and low throughput. Closure phase measurement scatter of only ∼ 0.2° has been achieved, with waveguide throughputs of > 70%. This translates to a maximum contrast-ratio sensitivity between star and planet at 1λ/D (1σ detection) of 5.3 × 10(-4) (with a conventional adaptive-optics system) or 1.8 × 10(-4) (with 'extreme-AO'), improving even further when random error is minimized by averaging over multiple exposures. This is an order of magnitude beyond conventional pupil-segmenting interferometry techniques (such as aperture masking), allowing a previously inaccessible part of the star to planet contrast-separation parameter space to be explored.

  17. 3D High Resolution Mesh Deformation Based on Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Naziha; Elkefi, Akram; Bellil, Wajdi; Amar, Chokri Ben

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the features of a novel technique for large Laplacian boundary deformations using estimated rotations. The proposed method is based on a Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network structure founded on several mother wavelet families (MLWNN). The objective is to align features of mesh and minimize distortion with a fixed feature that minimizes the sum of the distances between all corresponding vertices. New mesh deformation method worked in the domain of Region of Interest (ROI). Our approach computes deformed ROI, updates and optimizes it to align features of mesh based on MLWNN and spherical parameterization configuration. This structure has the advantage of constructing the network by several mother wavelets to solve high dimensions problem using the best wavelet mother that models the signal better. The simulation test achieved the robustness and speed considerations when developing deformation methodologies. The Mean-Square Error and the ratio of deformation are low compared to other works from the state of the art. Our approach minimizes distortions with fixed features to have a well reconstructed object.

  18. Stress-Free Bonding Technology with Pyrex for Highly Integrated 3D Fluidic Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Thoma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel Pyrex reflow bonding technology is introduced which bonds two functional units made of silicon via a Pyrex reflow bonding process. The practical application demonstrated here is a precision dosing system that uses a mechanically actuated membrane micropump which includes passive membranes for fluid metering. To enable proper functioning after full integration, a technique for device assembly must be established which does not introduce additional stress into the system, but fulfills all other requirements, like pressure tolerance and chemical stability. This is achieved with a stress-free thermal bonding principle to bond Pyrex to silicon in a five-layer stack: after alignment, the silicon-Pyrex-silicon stack is heated to 730 °C. Above the glass transition temperature of 525 °C Pyrex exhibits viscoelastic behavior. This allows the glass layer to come into close mechanical contact with the upper and lower silicon layers. The high temperature and the close contact promotes the formation of a stable and reliable Si-O-Si bond, without introducing mechanical stress into the system, and without deformation upon cooling due to thermal mismatch.

  19. High performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Simon; Norris, Barnaby R.; Cvetojevic, Nick; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Arriola Martiarena, Alexander; Stewart, Paul N.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Withford, Michael J.; Tuthill, Peter G.

    2014-07-01

    Here we demonstrate a new generation of photonic pupil-remapping devices which build upon the interferometric framework developed for the Dragonfly instrument: a high contrast waveguide-based device which recovers robust complex visibility observables. New generation Dragonfly devices overcome problems caused by interference from unguided light and low throughput, promising unprecedented on-sky performance. Closure phase measurement scatter of only ~0.2° has been achieved, with waveguide throughputs of > 70%. This translates to a maximum contrast-ratio sensitivity (between the host star and its orbiting planet) at 1λ /D (1σ detection) of 5.3×10-4 (when a conventional adaptive-optics (AO) system is used) or 1.8×10-4 (for typical `extreme-AO' performance), improving even further when random error is minimised by averaging over multiple exposures. This is an order of magnitude beyond conventional pupil-segmenting interferometry techniques (such as aperture masking), allowing a previously inaccessible part of the star to planet contrast-separation parameter space to be explored.

  20. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    Full Text Available Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN, preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR. The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased

  1. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  2. Hybrid microscaffold-based 3D bioprinting of multi-cellular constructs with high compressive strength: A new biofabrication strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu Jun; Tan, Xipeng; Yeong, Wai Yee; Tor, Shu Beng

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid 3D bioprinting approach using porous microscaffolds and extrusion-based printing method is presented. Bioink constitutes of cell-laden poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous microspheres with thin encapsulation of agarose-collagen composite hydrogel (AC hydrogel). Highly porous microspheres enable cells to adhere and proliferate before printing. Meanwhile, AC hydrogel allows a smooth delivery of cell-laden microspheres (CLMs), with immediate gelation of construct upon printing on cold build platform. Collagen fibrils were formed in the AC hydrogel during culture at body temperature, improving the cell affinity and spreading compared to pure agarose hydrogel. Cells were proven to proliferate in the bioink and the bioprinted construct. High cell viability up to 14 days was observed. The compressive strength of the bioink is more than 100 times superior to those of pure AC hydrogel. A potential alternative in tissue engineering of tissue replacements and biological models is made possible by combining the advantages of the conventional solid scaffolds with the new 3D bioprinting technology. PMID:27966623

  3. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (pcontrast media (pcontrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  4. Petrophysical analysis of limestone rocks by nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.S. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, I., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy, IPRJ-UERJ, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Ferrucio, P.L.; Abreu, C.J.; Borghi, L. [Geology Department, Geosciences Institute, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    This study presents the pore-space system analysis of the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well cores, which were drilled in the Sao Jose do Itaborai Basin, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. The analysis presented herein has been developed based on two techniques: nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. Nuclear logging has been proven to be the technique that provides better quality and more quantitative information about the porosity using radioactive sources. The Density Gamma Probe and the Neutron Sonde used in this work provide qualitative information about bulk density variations and compensated porosity of the geological formation. The samples obtained from the well cores were analyzed by microtomography. The use of this technique in sedimentary rocks allows quantitative evaluation of pore system and generates high-resolution 3D images ({approx}microns order). The images and data obtained by microtomography were integrated with the response obtained by nuclear logging. The results obtained by these two techniques allow the understanding of the pore-size distribution and connectivity, as well as the porosity values. Both techniques are important and they complement each other.

  5. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  6. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  7. 3D similarity-dissimilarity plot for high dimensional data visualization in the context of biomedical pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Basalamah, Saleh

    2013-06-01

    In real life biomedical classification applications, it is difficult to visualize the feature space due to high dimensionality of the feature space. In this paper, we have proposed 3D similarity-dissimilarity plot to project the high dimensional space to a three dimensional space in which important information about the feature space can be extracted in the context of pattern classification. In this plot it is possible to visualize good data points (data points near to their own class as compared to other classes) and bad data points (data points far away from their own class) and outlier points (data points away from both their own class and other classes). Hence separation of classes can easily be visualized. Density of the data points near each other can provide some useful information about the compactness of the clusters within certain class. Moreover, an index called percentage of data points above the similarity-dissimilarity line (PAS) is proposed which is the fraction of data points above the similarity-dissimilarity line. Several synthetic and real life biomedical datasets are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed 3D similarity-dissimilarity plot.

  8. High-temperature compatible 3D-integration processes for a vacuum-sealed CNT-based NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, R.; Lee, S. W.; Akiyama, T.; Briand, D.; Roman, C.; Hierold, C.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    A System-in-Package (SiP) concept for the 3D-integration of a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with its CMOS driving electronics is presented. The key element of this advanced SiP is the monolithic 3D-integration of the MEMS with the CMOS electronics using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) on an SOI wafer. This SiP includes: A glass cap vacuum-sealed to the main wafer using an eutectic bonding process: a low leak rate of 2.7 10-9 mbar•l/s was obtained; Platinum-TSVs, compatible with the SWCNT growth and release process; The TSVs were developed in a "via first" process and characterized at high-temperature — up to 850 °C. An ohmic contact between the Pt-metallization and the SOI silicon device layer was obtained; The driving CMOS electronic device is assembled to the MEMS using an Au stud bump technology. Keywords: System-in-Package (SiP), vacuum packaging, eutectic bonding, "via-first" TSVs, high-temperature platinum interconnects, ohmic contacts, Au-stud bumps assembly, CMOS electronics.

  9. High-resolution, 3D radiative transfer modeling : I. The grand-design spiral galaxy M51

    CERN Document Server

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George J; Cortese, Luca; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Camps, Peter; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane; Davies, Jon I; De Geyter, Gert; Hughes, Thomas M; Jones, Anthony P; Karczewski, Oskar L; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lu, Nanyao; Madden, Suzanne C; Rémy-Ruyer, Aurélie; Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Matthew W L; Viaene, Sebastien; Wilson, Christine D

    2014-01-01

    Context: Dust reprocesses about half of the stellar radiation in galaxies. The thermal re-emission by dust of absorbed energy is considered driven merely by young stars and, consequently, often applied to trace the star formation rate in galaxies. Recent studies have argued that the old stellar population might anticipate a non-negligible fraction of the radiative dust heating. Aims: In this work, we aim to analyze the contribution of young (< 100 Myr) and old (~ 10 Gyr) stellar populations to radiative dust heating processes in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 using radiative transfer modeling. High-resolution 3D radiative transfer (RT) models are required to describe the complex morphologies of asymmetric spiral arms and clumpy star-forming regions and model the propagation of light through a dusty medium. Methods: In this paper, we present a new technique developed to model the radiative transfer effects in nearby face-on galaxies. We construct a high-resolution 3D radiative transfer model with...

  10. Toward 3D graphene oxide gels based adsorbents for high-efficient water treatment via the promotion of biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chong Sage; Deng, Jie; Lei, Bei; He, Ai; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lang; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Changsheng

    2013-12-15

    Recent studies showed that graphene oxide (GO) presented high adsorption capacities to various water contaminants. However, the needed centrifugation after adsorption and the potential biological toxicity of GO restricted its applications in wastewater treatment. In this study, a facile method is provided by using biopolymers to mediate and synthesize 3D GO based gels. The obtained hybrid gels present well-defined and interconnected 3D porous network, which allows the adsorbate molecules to diffuse easily into the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments indicate that the obtained porous GO-biopolymer gels can efficiently remove cationic dyes and heavy metal ions from wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV), two cationic dyes, are chosen as model adsorbates to investigate the adsorption capability and desorption ratio; meanwhile, the influence of contacting time, initial concentration, and pH value on the adsorption capacity of the prepared GO-biopolymer gels are also studied. The GO-biopolymer gels displayed an adsorption capacity as high as 1100 mg/g for MB dye and 1350 mg/g for MV dye, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the MB were studied in details. The experimental data of MB adsorption fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, and the results indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. Moreover, the adsorption data revealed that the porous GO-biopolymer gels showed good selective adsorbability to cationic dyes and metal ions.

  11. High throughput 3D super-resolution microscopy reveals Caulobacter crescentus in vivo Z-ring organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Seamus J; Pengo, Thomas; Meibom, Karin L; Fernandez Fernandez, Carmen; Collier, Justine; Manley, Suliana

    2014-03-25

    We created a high-throughput modality of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) that enables automated 3D PALM imaging of hundreds of synchronized bacteria during all stages of the cell cycle. We used high-throughput PALM to investigate the nanoscale organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ in live Caulobacter crescentus. We observed that FtsZ predominantly localizes as a patchy midcell band, and only rarely as a continuous ring, supporting a model of "Z-ring" organization whereby FtsZ protofilaments are randomly distributed within the band and interact only weakly. We found evidence for a previously unidentified period of rapid ring contraction in the final stages of the cell cycle. We also found that DNA damage resulted in production of high-density continuous Z-rings, which may obstruct cytokinesis. Our results provide a detailed quantitative picture of in vivo Z-ring organization.

  12. Investigating Cardiac Motion Patterns Using Synthetic High-Resolution 3D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Images and Statistical Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Benedetta; Bruse, Jan L.; Zuluaga, Maria A.; Ntsinjana, Hopewell N.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Schievano, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of ventricular dysfunction in congenital heart disease is more and more based on medical imaging, which allows investigation of abnormal cardiac morphology and correlated abnormal function. Although analysis of 2D images represents the clinical standard, novel tools performing automatic processing of 3D images are becoming available, providing more detailed and comprehensive information than simple 2D morphometry. Among these, statistical shape analysis (SSA) allows a consistent and quantitative description of a population of complex shapes, as a way to detect novel biomarkers, ultimately improving diagnosis and pathology understanding. The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of a SSA method for the investigation of 3D left ventricular shape and motion patterns and to test it on a small sample of 4 congenital repaired aortic stenosis patients and 4 age-matched healthy volunteers to demonstrate its potential. The advantage of this method is the capability of analyzing subject-specific motion patterns separately from the individual morphology, visually and quantitatively, as a way to identify functional abnormalities related to both dynamics and shape. Specifically, we combined 3D, high-resolution whole heart data with 2D, temporal information provided by cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, and we used an SSA approach to analyze 3D motion per se. Preliminary results of this pilot study showed that using this method, some differences in end-diastolic and end-systolic ventricular shapes could be captured, but it was not possible to clearly separate the two cohorts based on shape information alone. However, further analyses on ventricular motion allowed to qualitatively identify differences between the two populations. Moreover, by describing shape and motion with a small number of principal components, this method offers a fully automated process to obtain visually intuitive and numerical information on cardiac shape and motion

  13. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W W; Faisal, A A

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s(-1), more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark--the control of the video arcade game 'Pong'.

  14. Fully-3D PET image reconstruction using scanner-independent, adaptive projection data and highly rotation-symmetric voxel assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheins, J J; Herzog, H; Shah, N J

    2011-03-01

    For iterative, fully 3D positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction intrinsic symmetries can be used to significantly reduce the size of the system matrix. The precalculation and beneficial memory-resident storage of all nonzero system matrix elements is possible where sufficient compression exists. Thus, reconstruction times can be minimized independently of the used projector and more elaborate weighting schemes, e.g., volume-of-intersection (VOI), are applicable. A novel organization of scanner-independent, adaptive 3D projection data is presented which can be advantageously combined with highly rotation-symmetric voxel assemblies. In this way, significant system matrix compression is achieved. Applications taking into account all physical lines-of-response (LORs) with individual VOI projectors are presented for the Siemens ECAT HR+ whole-body scanner and the Siemens BrainPET, the PET component of a novel hybrid-MR/PET imaging system. Measured and simulated data were reconstructed using the new method with ordered-subset-expectation-maximization (OSEM). Results are compared to those obtained by the sinogram-based OSEM reconstruction provided by the manufacturer. The higher computational effort due to the more accurate image space sampling provides significantly improved images in terms of resolution and noise.

  15. 3D strain engineered self-rolled thin-film architecture for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Griffin; Gong, Chen; Yu, Cynthia; Blythe, Clayton; Leite, Marina

    Recently, multiple 3D geometries have been implemented into energy storage devices (e . g . nanowire anodes and arrays of interdigitated rods) in order to better accommodate the large volume expansion experienced by the anode during lithiation and to increase the structure energy density. However, most approached structures are difficult to scale up. Here we show how self-rolled thin-films can maintain a high energy density and can potentially accommodate the volume expansion suffered by the anode. The self-rolled tubes are fabricated by physical deposition of the active layers, creating a stress gradient between thin-film stack due to differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon a sacrificial layer removal, the thin-film rolls to relieve this built-in stress. We predict the final dimension of self-rolled battery tubes using known elastic properties of materials commonly used as the active layers of the device. We will discuss an appropriate figure-of-merit that defines how the winding process can ultimately affect the volumetric capacity of 3D self-rolled batteries.

  16. 3D metal-organic framework as highly efficient biosensing platform for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Lu, Xianbo; Wu, Lidong; Chen, Jiping

    2015-03-15

    As is well known, bisphenol A (BPA), usually exists in daily plastic products, is one of the most important endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this work, copper-centered metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF) was synthesized, which was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR and electrochemical method. The resultant Cu-MOF was explored as a robust electrochemical biosensing platform by choosing tyrosinase (Tyr) as a model enzyme for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of BPA. The Cu-MOF provided a 3D structure with a large specific surface area, which was beneficial for enzyme and BPA absorption, and thus improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Furthermore, Cu-MOF as a novel sorbent could increase the available BPA concentration to react with tyrosinase through π-π stacking interactions between BPA and Cu-MOF. The Tyr biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 0.2242A M(-1) for BPA, a wide linear range from 5.0×10(-8) to 3.0×10-6moll(-1), and a low detection limit of 13nmoll(-1). The response time for detection of BPA is less than 11s. The proposed method was successfully applied to rapid and selective detection of BPA in plastic products with satisfactory results. The recoveries are in the range of 94.0-101.6% for practical applications. With those remarkable advantages, MOFs-based 3D structures show great prospect as robust biosensing platform for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of BPA.

  17. 3D printed sample holder for in-operando EPR spectroscopy on high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemöller, Arvid; Jakes, Peter; Kayser, Steffen; Lin, Yu; Lehnert, Werner; Granwehr, Josef

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical cells contain electrically conductive components, which causes various problems if such a cell is analyzed during operation in an EPR resonator. The optimum cell design strongly depends on the application and it is necessary to make certain compromises that need to be individually arranged. Rapid prototyping presents a straightforward option to implement a variable cell design that can be easily adapted to changing requirements. In this communication, it is demonstrated that sample containers produced by 3D printing are suitable for EPR applications, with a particular emphasis on electrochemical applications. The housing of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) with a phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membrane was prepared from polycarbonate by 3D printing. Using a custom glass Dewar, this fuel cell could be operated at temperatures up to 140°C in a standard EPR cavity. The carbon-based gas diffusion layer showed an EPR signal with a characteristic Dysonian line shape, whose evolution could be monitored in-operando in a non-invasive manner.

  18. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  19. High-resolution 3D imaging of whole organ after clearing: taking a new look at the zebrafish testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétaud, Maxence; Rivière, Laurie; Job, Élodie De; Gay, Stéphanie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Affaticati, Pierre; Thermes, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have focused on 2D images, which is time consuming and implies extrapolation of results. Three-dimensional imaging of whole organs recently became an important challenge to better understand their architecture and allow cell enumeration. Several protocols have thus been developed to enhance sample transparency, a limiting step for imaging large biological samples. However, none of these methods has been applied to the zebrafish testis. We tested five clearing protocols to determine if some of them could be applied with only small modifications to the testis. We compared clearing efficiency at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. CUBIC and PACT were suitable for an efficient transparency, an optimal optical penetration, the GFP fluorescence preservation and avoiding meaningful tissue deformation. Finally, we succeeded in whole testis 3D capture at a cellular resolution with both CUBIC and PACT, which will be valuable in a standard workflow to investigate the 3D architecture of the testis and its cellular content. This paves the way for further development of high content phenotyping studies in several fields including development, genetic or toxicology. PMID:28211501

  20. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V, E-mail: valerio.re@unibg.i [University of Bergamo, Department of Industrial Engineering, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  1. 3D printed sample holder for in-operando EPR spectroscopy on high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemöller, Arvid; Jakes, Peter; Kayser, Steffen; Lin, Yu; Lehnert, Werner; Granwehr, Josef

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical cells contain electrically conductive components, which causes various problems if such a cell is analyzed during operation in an EPR resonator. The optimum cell design strongly depends on the application and it is necessary to make certain compromises that need to be individually arranged. Rapid prototyping presents a straightforward option to implement a variable cell design that can be easily adapted to changing requirements. In this communication, it is demonstrated that sample containers produced by 3D printing are suitable for EPR applications, with a particular emphasis on electrochemical applications. The housing of a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) with a phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membrane was prepared from polycarbonate by 3D printing. Using a custom glass Dewar, this fuel cell could be operated at temperatures up to 140 °C in a standard EPR cavity. The carbon-based gas diffusion layer showed an EPR signal with a characteristic Dysonian line shape, whose evolution could be monitored in-operando in a non-invasive manner.

  2. Development of a 3D Tissue Culture-Based High-Content Screening Platform That Uses Phenotypic Profiling to Discriminate Selective Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, T.H.; Klop, M.J.; Yan, K.; Szántai-Kis, C.; Szokol, B.; Orfi, L .; Water, van de B.; Keri, G.; Price, L.S.

    2016-01-01

    3D tissue cultures provide a more physiologically relevant context for the screening of compounds, compared with 2D cell cultures. Cells cultured in 3D hydrogels also show complex phenotypes, increasing the scope for phenotypic profiling. Here we describe a high-content screening platform that uses

  3. A Dielectric-Filled Waveguide Antenna Element for 3D Imaging Radar in High Temperature and Excessive Dust Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition was developed. A cylinder and cuboid composite structure was employed at the terminal of the antenna element, which improved the return loss performance and reduced the size. The proposed antenna element was easily integrated into a T-shape multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO imaging radar system and tested in both the laboratory environment and real blast furnace environment. The measurement results show that the proposed antenna element works very well in industrial 3D imaging radar.

  4. A Dielectric-Filled Waveguide Antenna Element for 3D Imaging Radar in High Temperature and Excessive Dust Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ding; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Xianzhong; Wang, Zhengpeng; Wu, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition was developed. A cylinder and cuboid composite structure was employed at the terminal of the antenna element, which improved the return loss performance and reduced the size. The proposed antenna element was easily integrated into a T-shape multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging radar system and tested in both the laboratory environment and real blast furnace environment. The measurement results show that the proposed antenna element works very well in industrial 3D imaging radar. PMID:27556469

  5. A Dielectric-Filled Waveguide Antenna Element for 3D Imaging Radar in High Temperature and Excessive Dust Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ding; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Xianzhong; Wang, Zhengpeng; Wu, Jianhua

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition was developed. A cylinder and cuboid composite structure was employed at the terminal of the antenna element, which improved the return loss performance and reduced the size. The proposed antenna element was easily integrated into a T-shape multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging radar system and tested in both the laboratory environment and real blast furnace environment. The measurement results show that the proposed antenna element works very well in industrial 3D imaging radar.

  6. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    released, stratigraphic setting and tectonic activity can be recognized. As a consequence, rock-falls have been occurring, even recently, with unstable rock mass volumes ranging from 0.1 m3 up to over some hundreds m3. Slope instability, acceleration of crack deformation and consequent increasing of rock-fall hazard conditions, could threaten the safety of tourist as well as the integrity of the heritage. 3D surface model coming from Terrestrial Laser Scanner acquisitions was developed almost all over the site of Petra, including the Siq. Comprehensively, a point cloud of five billion points was generated making the site of Petra likely the largest scanned archaeological site in the word. As far as the Siq, the scanner was positioned on the path floor at intervals of not more than 10 meters from each station. The total number of scans in the Siq was 220 with an average point cloud interval of approximately 3 cm. Subsequently, for the definition of the main rockfall source areas, a spatial kinematic analysis for the whole Siq has been performed, by using discontinuity orientation data extracted from the point cloud by means of the software Diana. Orientation, number of sets, spacing/frequency, persistence, block size and scale dependent roughness was obtained combining fieldwork and automatic analysis. This kind of analysis is able to establish where a particular instability mechanism is kinematically feasible, given the geometry of the slope, the orientation of discontinuities and shear strength of the rock. The final outcome of this project was a detail landslide kinematic index map, reporting main potential instability mechanisms for a given area. The kinematic index was finally calibrated for each instability mechanism (plane failure; wedge failure; block toppling; flexural toppling) surveyed in the site. The latter is including the collapse occurred in May 2015, likely not producing any victim, in a sector clearly identified by the susceptibility maps produced by the

  7. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  8. Fabrication of a Highly Aligned Neural Scaffold via a Table Top Stereolithography 3D Printing and Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Jun; Nowicki, Margaret; Harris, Brent; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2017-01-11

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly emerging technique in the field of tissue engineering to fabricate extremely intricate and complex biomimetic scaffolds in the range of micrometers. Such customized 3D printed constructs can be used for the regeneration of complex tissues such as cartilage, vessels, and nerves. However, the 3D printing techniques often offer limited control over the resolution and compromised mechanical properties due to short selection of printable inks. To address these limitations, we combined stereolithography and electrospinning techniques to fabricate a novel 3D biomimetic neural scaffold with a tunable porous structure and embedded aligned fibers. By employing two different types of biofabrication methods, we successfully utilized both synthetic and natural materials with varying chemical composition as bioink to enhance biocompatibilities and mechanical properties of the scaffold. The resulting microfibers composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer and PCL mixed with gelatin were embedded in 3D printed hydrogel scaffold. Our results showed that 3D printed scaffolds with electrospun fibers significantly improve neural stem cell adhesion when compared to those without the fibers. Furthermore, 3D scaffolds embedded with aligned fibers showed an enhancement in cell proliferation relative to bare control scaffolds. More importantly, confocal microscopy images illustrated that the scaffold with PCL/gelatin fibers greatly increased the average neurite length and directed neurite extension of primary cortical neurons along the fiber. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to create unique 3D neural tissue constructs by combining 3D bioprinting and electrospinning techniques.

  9. High-frequency submicrosecond electroporator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij Novickij

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel electroporator which is capable of generating single and bursts of high power (3 kV, 60 A square wave pulses of variable duration (100 ns to 1 ms with predefined repetition frequency (1 Hz to 3.5 MHz. The proposed synchronized crowbar implementation ensures a constant pulse rise and fall times, which are independent from the load, thus highly relevant in electroporation. The electroporator was successfully tested for the inactivation of the human pathogen Candida albicans. The device is compatible with standard commercial electroporation cuvettes.

  10. Analysis of nuclear organization with TANGO, software for high-throughput quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollion, Jean; Cochennec, Julien; Loll, François; Escudé, Christophe; Boudier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly organized cellular organelle that contains the genome. An important step to understand the relationships between genome positioning and genome functions is to extract quantitative data from three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence imaging. However, such approaches are limited by the requirement for processing and analyzing large sets of images. Here we present a practical approach using TANGO (Tools for Analysis of Nuclear Genome Organization), an image analysis tool dedicated to the study of nuclear architecture. TANGO is a generic tool able to process large sets of images, allowing quantitative study of nuclear organization. In this chapter a practical description of the software is drawn in order to give an overview of its different concepts and functionalities. This description is illustrated with a precise example that can be performed step-by-step on experimental data provided on the website http://biophysique.mnhn.fr/tango/HomePage.

  11. Continuous high-yield production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on 2D and 3D substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán de Villoria, Roberto; Hart, A John; Wardle, Brian L

    2011-06-28

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) have certain advantages over bulk CNT powders and randomly oriented CNT mats for applications in flexible electronic devices, filtration membranes, biosensors and multifunctional aerospace materials. Here, a machine and a process to synthesize VACNTs in a continuous manner are presented showing uniform growth on 2D and 3D substrates, including alumina fibers, silicon wafer pieces, and stainless steel foils. Aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) are synthesized at substrate feed rates of up to 6.8 cm/min, and the CNTs reach up to 60 μm in length depending on residence time in the reactor. In addition to the aligned morphology indicative of high yield growth, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the CNTs are of comparable quality to CNTs grown via a similar batch process. A significant reduction in time, reaction products, gases, and energy is demonstrated relative to batch processing, paving the way for industrial production of VACNTs.

  12. Single objective light-sheet microscopy for high-speed whole-cell 3D super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, Marjolein B M; Liu, Sheng; Finnegan, Patrick S; Edwards, Thayne L; James, Conrad D; Lidke, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a method for performing light-sheet microscopy with a single high numerical aperture lens by integrating reflective side walls into a microfluidic chip. These 45° side walls generate light-sheet illumination by reflecting a vertical light-sheet into the focal plane of the objective. Light-sheet illumination of cells loaded in the channels increases image quality in diffraction limited imaging via reduction of out-of-focus background light. Single molecule super-resolution is also improved by the decreased background resulting in better localization precision and decreased photo-bleaching, leading to more accepted localizations overall and higher quality images. Moreover, 2D and 3D single molecule super-resolution data can be acquired faster by taking advantage of the increased illumination intensities as compared to wide field, in the focused light-sheet.

  13. High-resolution 3D surface displacements from 2004 - 2012 at Santorini volcano, Greece measured by LiDAR-differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, M.; Pyle, D. M.; Nissen, E.; Mather, T. A.; Raptakis, C.; Nomikou, P.

    2012-12-01

    In January 2011 Santorini volcano entered a period of unrest characterised by earthquake swarms and caldera-wide uplift. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements indicate vertical motions of 8 - 14 cm across the central volcanic island of Nea Kameni since the onset of unrest. In April 2004, a NERC funded Airborne Research and Survey Facility (ARSF) flight acquired high-resolution (1m per pixel) light detection and ranging laser radar (LiDAR) data over the central volcanic islands of Nea Kameni and Palea Kameni. This survey was repeated in May 2012 to provide an updated digital elevation model (DEM). We apply a new method of differencing pre- and post- deformation LiDAR point clouds using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm to produce a high-resolution grid of 3D surface displacements from 2004 - 2012. The 2004 ("source") and 2012 ("target") point clouds are first split into square subsets ("windows") and the displacement for each window is determined by iterating three steps: (1) identifying closest point pairs; (2) calculating the translation and rotation required that best aligns the paired points; (3) applying this transformation to the source cloud. The surface displacement map spans both a period of slow subsidence (from 2004 - 2010), and a subsequent period of inflation (from 2011 - 2012). We shall compare our results with those obtained from simple DEM elevation differencing and from InSAR. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the ICP technique to measuring volcanic deformation. This approach may be implemented at other volcanoes to monitor 3D surface displacements during periods of unrest.

  14. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  15. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-06-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  16. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  17. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  18. Influence of ultrasound power on acoustic streaming and micro-bubbles formations in a low frequency sono-reactor: mathematical and 3D computational simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis.

  19. Commissioning of a 3D image-based treatment planning system for high-dose-rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongbok; Modrick, Joseph M; Pennington, Edward C; Kim, Yusung

    2016-03-08

    The objective of this work is to present commissioning procedures to clinically implement a three-dimensional (3D), image-based, treatment-planning system (TPS) for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) for gynecological (GYN) cancer. The physical dimensions of the GYN applicators and their values in the virtual applicator library were varied by 0.4 mm of their nominal values. Reconstruction uncertainties of the titanium tandem and ovoids (T&O) were less than 0.4 mm on CT phantom studies and on average between 0.8-1.0 mm on MRI when compared with X-rays. In-house software, HDRCalculator, was developed to check HDR plan parameters such as independently verifying active tandem or cylinder probe length and ovoid or cylinder size, source calibration and treatment date, and differences between average Point A dose and prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms were validated using another independent TPS. Comprehensive procedures to commission volume optimization algorithms and process in 3D image-based planning were presented. For the difference between line and volume optimizations, the average absolute differences as a percentage were 1.4% for total reference air KERMA (TRAK) and 1.1% for Point A dose. Volume optimization consistency tests between versions resulted in average absolute differences in 0.2% for TRAK and 0.9 s (0.2%) for total treatment time. The data revealed that the optimizer should run for at least 1 min in order to avoid more than 0.6% dwell time changes. For clinical GYN T&O cases, three different volume optimization techniques (graphical optimization, pure inverse planning, and hybrid inverse optimization) were investigated by comparing them against a conventional Point A technique. End-to-end testing was performed using a T&O phantom to ensure no errors or inconsistencies occurred from imaging through to planning and delivery. The proposed commissioning procedures provide a clinically safe implementation technique for 3D image-based TPS for HDR

  20. A High-resolution 3D Geodynamical Model of the Present-day India-Asia Collision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B.; Baumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 3D geodynamic model of the present-day India-Asia collision system. The model is separated into multiple tectonic blocks, for which we estimate the first order rheological properties and the impact on the dynamics of the collision system. This is done by performing systematic simulations with different rheologies to minimize the misfit to observational constraints such as the GPS-velocity field. The simulations are performed with the parallel staggered grid FD code LaMEM using a numerical resolution of at least 512x512x256 cells to resolve dynamically important shear zones reasonably well. A fundamental part of this study is the reconstruction of the 3D present-day geometry of Tibet and the adjacent regions. Our interpretations of crust and mantle lithosphere geometry are jointly based on a globally available shear wave tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013) and the Crust 1.0 model (Laske et al. http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html). We regionally refined and modified our interpretations based on seismicity distributions and focal mechanisms and incorporated regional receiver function studies to improve the accuracy of the Moho in particular. Results suggest that we can identify at least one "best-fit" solution in terms of rheological model properties that reproduces the observed velocity field reasonably well, including the strong rotation of the GPS velocity around the eastern syntax of the Himalaya. We also present model co-variances to illustrate the trade-offs between the rheological model parameters, their respective uncertainties, and the model fit. Schaeffer, A.J., Lebedev, S., 2013. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophysical Journal International 194, 417-449. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  1. Fluid Micro-Reservoirs Array Design with Auto-Pressure Regulation for High-Speed 3D Printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Einat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D printing technology is rapidly evolving such that printing speed is now a crucial factor in technological developments and future applications. For printing heads based on the inkjet concept, the number of nozzles on the print head is a limiting factor of printing speed. This paper offers a method to practically increase the number of nozzles unlimitedly, and thus to dramatically ramp up printing speed. Fluid reservoirs are used in inkjet print heads to supply fluid through a manifold to the jetting chambers. The pressure in the reservoir’s outlet is important and influences device performance. Many efforts have been made to regulate pressure inside the fluid reservoirs so as to obtain a constant pressure in the chambers. When the number of nozzles is increased too much, the regulation of uniform pressure among all the nozzles becomes too complicated. In this paper, a different approach is taken. The reservoir is divided into an array of many micro-reservoirs. Each micro-reservoir supports one or a few chambers, and has a unique structure with auto-pressure regulation, where the outlet pressure is independent of the fluid level. The regulation is based on auto-compensation of the gravity force and a capillary force having the same dependence on the fluid level; this feature is obtained by adding a wedge in the reservoir with a unique shape. When the fluid level drops, the gravitational force and the capillary force decrease with it, but at similar rates. Terms for the force balance are derived and, consequently, a constant pressure in the fluid micro-reservoir segment is obtained automatically, with each segment being autonomous. This micro reservoir array is suggested for the enlargement of an inkjet print head and the achievement of high-speed 3D printing.

  2. High-frequency magnetic components

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    A unique text on the theory and design fundaments of inductors and transformers, updated with more coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices and many new design examples The first edition is popular among a very broad audience of readers in different areas of engineering and science. This book covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of high-frequency power inductors and transformers for a variety of applications, including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant dc-to-ac power inverters and dc-to-dc power converters. It describes eddy-current phenomena (su

  3. A Novel Multiparametric Drug-Scoring Method for High-Throughput Screening of 3D Multicellular Tumor Spheroids Using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbes, Scott; Kessel, Sarah; McMenemy, Scott; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor models have been increasingly used to investigate and characterize cancer drug compounds. The ability to perform high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can highly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of discovering potential cancer drug candidates. Previously, the Celigo Image Cytometer has demonstrated a novel method for high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we employed the Celigo Image Cytometer to examine the effects of 14 cancer drug compounds on 3D MCTS of the glioblastoma cell line U87MG in 384-well plates. Using parameters such as MCTS diameter and invasion area, growth and invasion were monitored for 9 and 3 d, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescent staining with calcein AM, propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, and caspase 3/7 was performed at day 9 posttreatment to measure viability and apoptosis. Using the kinetic and endpoint data generated, we created a novel multiparametric drug-scoring system for 3D MCTS that can be used to identify and classify potential drug candidates earlier in the drug discovery process. Furthermore, the combination of quantitative and qualitative image data can be used to delineate differences between drugs that induce cytotoxic and cytostatic effects. The 3D MCTS-based multiparametric scoring method described here can provide an alternative screening method to better qualify tested drug compounds.

  4. Sea level history in 3D: Data acquisition and processing for an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedimovic, M. R.; Mountain, G. S.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Aali, M.; Baldwin, K.; Bhatnagar, T.; Johnson, C.; Küçük, H. M.; Newton, A.; Stanley, J.

    2015-12-01

    In June-July 2015, we acquired the first 3D/2D hybrid (short/long streamer) multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection dataset. These data were collected simultaneously across IODP Exp. 313 drillsites, off New Jersey, using R/V Langsethand cover ~95% of the planned 12x50 km box. Despite the large survey area, the lateral and vertical resolution for the 3D dataset is almost a magnitude of order higher than for data gathered for standard petroleum exploration. Such high-resolution was made possible by collection of common midpoint (CMP) lines whose combined length is ~3 times the Earth's circumference (~120,000 profile km) and a source rich in high-frequencies. We present details on the data acquisition, ongoing data analysis, and preliminary results. The science driving this project is presented by Mountain et al. The 3D component of this innovative survey used an athwartship cross cable, extended laterally by 2 barovanes roughly 357.5 m apart and trailed by 24 50-m P-Cables spaced ~12.5 m with near-trace offset of 53 m. Each P-Cable had 8 single hydrophone groups spaced at 6.25 m for a total of 192 channels. Record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with no low cut and an 824 Hz high cut filter. We ran 77 sail lines spaced ~150 m. Receiver locations were determined using 2 GPS receivers mounted on floats and 2 compasses and depth sensors per streamer. Streamer depths varied from 2.1 to 3.7 m. The 2D component used a single 3 km streamer, with 240 9-hydrophone groups spaced at 12.5 m, towed astern with near-trace offset of 229 m. The record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with low cut filter at 2 Hz and high cut at 412 Hz. Receiver locations were recorded using GPS at the head float and tail buoy, combined with 12 bird compasses spaced ~300 m. Nominal streamer depth was 4.5 m. The source for both systems was a 700 in3 linear array of 4 Bolt air guns suspended at 4.5 m towing depth, 271.5 m behind the ship's stern. Shot spacing was 12.5 m. Data analysis to

  5. A Novel 2D Image Compression Algorithm Based on Two Levels DWT and DCT Transforms with Enhanced Minimize-Matrix-Size Algorithm for High Resolution Structured Light 3D Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Image compression techniques are widely used on 2D image 2D video 3D images and 3D video. There are many types of compression techniques and among the most popular are JPEG and JPEG2000. In this research, we introduce a new compression method based on applying a two level discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a two level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in connection with novel compression steps for high-resolution images. The proposed image compression algorithm consists of four steps. (1) Transform an image by a two level DWT followed by a DCT to produce two matrices: DC- and AC-Matrix, or low and high frequency matrix, respectively, (2) apply a second level DCT on the DC-Matrix to generate two arrays, namely nonzero-array and zero-array, (3) apply the Minimize-Matrix-Size algorithm to the AC-Matrix and to the other high-frequencies generated by the second level DWT, (4) apply arithmetic coding to the output of previous steps. A novel decompression algorithm, Fast-Match-Search algorithm (FMS), is used to reconstruct all high-frequency matrices. The FMS-algorithm computes all compressed data probabilities by using a table of data, and then using a binary search algorithm for finding decompressed data inside the table. Thereafter, all decoded DC-values with the decoded AC-coefficients are combined in one matrix followed by inverse two levels DCT with two levels DWT. The technique is tested by compression and reconstruction of 3D surface patches. Additionally, this technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 algorithm through 2D and 3D root-mean-square-error following reconstruction. The results demonstrate that the proposed compression method has better visual properties than JPEG and JPEG2000 and is able to more accurately reconstruct surface patches in 3D.

  6. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  7. Scalable, incremental learning with MapReduce parallelization for cell detection in high-resolution 3D microscopy data

    KAUST Repository

    Sung, Chul

    2013-08-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal count and distribution is central to the understanding of the organization and layout of cortical maps in the brain, and changes in the cell population induced by brain disorders. High-throughput 3D microscopy techniques such as Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM) are enabling whole-brain survey of neuronal distributions. Data from such techniques pose serious challenges to quantitative analysis due to the massive, growing, and sparsely labeled nature of the data. In this paper, we present a scalable, incremental learning algorithm for cell body detection that can address these issues. Our algorithm is computationally efficient (linear mapping, non-iterative) and does not require retraining (unlike gradient-based approaches) or retention of old raw data (unlike instance-based learning). We tested our algorithm on our rat brain Nissl data set, showing superior performance compared to an artificial neural network-based benchmark, and also demonstrated robust performance in a scenario where the data set is rapidly growing in size. Our algorithm is also highly parallelizable due to its incremental nature, and we demonstrated this empirically using a MapReduce-based implementation of the algorithm. We expect our scalable, incremental learning approach to be widely applicable to medical imaging domains where there is a constant flux of new data. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. The 3D printing of gelatin methacrylamide cell-laden tissue-engineered constructs with high cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Thomas; Gevaert, Elien; De Schryver, Thomas; Cornelissen, Maria; Dubruel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the combined efforts of material chemistry, engineering and biology as a systemic approach for the fabrication of high viability 3D printed macroporous gelatin methacrylamide constructs. First, we propose the use and optimization of VA-086 as a photo-initiator with enhanced biocompatibility compared to the conventional Irgacure 2959. Second, a parametric study on the printing of gelatins was performed in order to characterize and compare construct architectures. Hereby, the influence of the hydrogel building block concentration, the printing temperature, the printing pressure, the printing speed, and the cell density were analyzed in depth. As a result, scaffolds could be designed having a 100% interconnected pore network in the gelatin concentration range of 10-20 w/v%. In the last part, the fabrication of cell-laden scaffolds was studied, whereby the application for tissue engineering was tested by encapsulation of the hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Printing pressure and needle shape was revealed to impact the overall cell viability. Mechanically stable cell-laden gelatin methacrylamide scaffolds with high cell viability (>97%) could be printed.

  9. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Abdulla, Raafa; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Kim, Keekyoung

    2015-12-22

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning.

  10. Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating Structural Quartz Substrates for High-Performance Pressure-Sensitive Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefen; Sun, Tai; Yang, Jun; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dacheng; Fang, Liang; Lu, Bin; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-07-06

    Conformal graphene films have directly been synthesized on the surface of grating microstructured quartz substrates by a simple chemical vapor deposition process. The wonderful conformality and relatively high quality of the as-prepared graphene on the three-dimensional substrate have been verified by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra. This conformal graphene film possesses excellent electrical and optical properties with a sheet resistance of 80% (at 550 nm), which can be attached with a flat graphene film on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate, and then could work as a pressure-sensitive sensor. This device possesses a high-pressure sensitivity of -6.524 kPa(-1) in a low-pressure range of 0-200 Pa. Meanwhile, this pressure-sensitive sensor exhibits super-reliability (≥5000 cycles) and an ultrafast response time (≤4 ms). Owing to these features, this pressure-sensitive sensor based on 3D conformal graphene is adequately introduced to test wind pressure, expressing higher accuracy and a lower background noise level than a market anemometer.

  11. DCT and DST Based Image Compression for 3D Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new method for 2D image compression whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction using structured light techniques and 3D reconstruction from multiple viewpoints. The method is based on two discrete transforms: (1) A one-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to each row of the image. (2) The output from the previous step is transformed again by a one-dimensional Discrete Sine Transform (DST), which is applied to each column of data generating new sets of high-frequency components followed by quantization of the higher frequencies. The output is then divided into two parts where the low-frequency components are compressed by arithmetic coding and the high frequency ones by an efficient minimization encoding algorithm. At decompression stage, a binary search algorithm is used to recover the original high frequency components. The technique is demonstrated by compressing 2D images up to 99% compression ratio. The decompressed images, which include images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction and from multiple viewpoints, are of high perceptual quality yielding accurate 3D reconstruction. Perceptual assessment and objective quality of compression are compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results show that the proposed compression method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000 concerning 3D reconstruction, and with equivalent perceptual quality to JPEG2000.

  12. GIS-based 3D limit equilibrium analysis for design optimization of a 600 m high slope in an open pit mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meifeng Cai; Mowen Xie; Chunlei Li

    2007-01-01

    Combining the GIS (geographic information systems) grid-based data with four proposed column-based 3D slope stability analysis models,a comprehensive solution of a high-steep open-pit slope has been obtained.For six searching ranges,19 critical slip surfaces of different sizes have been studied,in which the minimum 3D safety factor is 1.33.Comparison of 3D safety factors of designed and proposed slope plans shows for all the critical slip surfaces for the proposed plan,the smallest 3D safety factor is 1.33 under the most unfavorable condition.This means that the proposed plan of the high slopes,about 600 m,of an open pit (2-5°steeper than designed plan) is feasible.

  13. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  14. High frequency welded (ERW) casing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duisberg, J. (Hoesch Roehrenwerke A.G., Hamm (Germany, F.R.))

    1980-09-01

    Due to the up-to-date standard in welding and testing techniques, the significance of ERW-casing is growing rapidly. The basic items of ERW-pipe are explained in detail. The forming mechanism, the high frequency welding by induction and contact welding processes is explained in detail as well as destructive and non-destructive testing methods. Finishing the ends as threading, thread control (gauging), power tight connection, pressure test and final quality control are rounding up the picture of the production of ERW-casing. Last but not least the test results from the joint strength- and collapse tests which are of outstanding interest for casings, are compared with API requirements in order to demonstrate compliance with API requirements.

  15. 基于图像频谱分析三维网格模型数字浮雕生成算法%Frequency Domain Approach to Generating Bas-relief from 3D Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江嘉晋; 刘胜兰; 李博

    2011-01-01

    由3维模型生成2.5维数字浮雕曲面是最近国内外数字浮雕研究的热点,通过对三维网格模型频率域的能量进行压缩来得到几何高度被压缩的浮雕模型.算法通过对三维模型进行重新采样,获得视线方向上的规则化深度图,然后利用图像傅里叶变换对深度图进行频谱分析,最后将模型高度的压缩转换为频谱域能量系数的压缩来得到浮雕曲面模型.在压缩过程中,应用高通滤波器工具对低频能量进行压缩、应用对数压缩函数对高频边缘压缩,从而使得生成的浮雕达到较好的效果.实例表明在频率域对三维模型的能量进行压缩来生成浮雕是可行的,算法对细节不太丰富的模型同样具有较好的效果.%Automatic generation of 2.5D digital bas-relief from 3D model recently becomes a hot spot in relief design. This paper proposes the algorithm for semi-automatic generation of bas-relief from 3D triangle mesh,and compresses the 3D model through non-linear decreasing geometric energy in the frequency domain. In order to meet the image spectral analysis,the triangle mesh of original models is changed into range image by resampling. In the compression process, the low frequency energy is compressed through high pass filter tools and application of methods such as logarithmic compression function on edge of mesh models to achieve better results. Examples show that generating the bas-relief in frequency domain is feasible,and the model without rich details is used to produce the same better digital bas-relief.

  16. 3D flexible O/N Co-doped graphene foams for supercapacitor electrodes with high volumetric and areal capacitances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianfeng; Wan, Zunyuan; Wang, Zilei; Wen, Yuxiang; Liu, Mengting; Peng, Shanglong; He, Deyan; Hou, Juan; Huang, Fei; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-12-01

    3D flexible O/N co-doped graphene foams (GF) have been designed and fabricated successfully via combining the compression/hot curing strategy with chemical reduction and hydrothermal treatment, in which melamine foams were used not only as the source of N/O functional groups for the introduction of pseudocapacitance but also as the sacrificial template to inhibit the agglomeration of graphene. Also, the mechanism for method of the compressing/hot curing has been investigated systematically. And the resultant GF demonstrates excellent mechanical strength and flexibility. When the compacting GF is used as free-standing electrodes for supercapacitor, it exhibits more excellent ability of charge storage than that of pristine graphene foams. And 10 MPa-GF electrodes delivers high areal capacitance of 375 μF cm-2 at a current density of 1 A g-1, excellent rate capabilities and superior cycling stability of above 100%. According to the analysis of capacitance contribution for 10 MPa-GF electrode, the pseudocapacitance originated from N/O functional groups is up to ∼65% of the contribution of total capacitance. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor comprised of 10 MPa-GF electrodes presents a maximum energy density of 16 Wh kg-1 (8 Wh L-1) and a maximum power density of 17 kW kg-1 (8.6 kW L-1).

  17. High-resolution 3-D imaging of surface damage sites in fused silica with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, G; Bass, I; Hackel, R; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2007-10-30

    In this work, we present the first successful demonstration of a non-contact technique to precisely measure the 3D spatial characteristics of laser induced surface damage sites in fused silica for large aperture laser systems by employing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). What makes OCT particularly interesting in the characterization of optical materials for large aperture laser systems is that its axial resolution can be maintained with working distances greater than 5 cm, whether viewing through air or through the bulk of thick optics. Specifically, when mitigating surface damage sites against further growth by CO{sub 2} laser evaporation of the damage, it is important to know the depth of subsurface cracks below the damage site. These cracks are typically obscured by the damage rubble when imaged from above the surface. The results to date clearly demonstrate that OCT is a unique and valuable tool for characterizing damage sites before and after the mitigation process. We also demonstrated its utility as an in-situ diagnostic to guide and optimize our process when mitigating surface damage sites on large, high-value optics.

  18. Highly optimized simulations on single- and multi-GPU systems of the 3D Ising spin glass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, M.; Bernaschi, M.; Parisi, G.

    2015-11-01

    We present a highly optimized implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulator for the three-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with bimodal disorder, i.e., the 3D Edwards-Anderson model running on CUDA enabled GPUs. Multi-GPU systems exchange data by means of the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The chosen MC dynamics is the classic Metropolis one, which is purely dissipative, since the aim was the study of the critical off-equilibrium relaxation of the system. We focused on the following issues: (i) the implementation of efficient memory access patterns for nearest neighbours in a cubic stencil and for lagged-Fibonacci-like pseudo-Random Numbers Generators (PRNGs); (ii) a novel implementation of the asynchronous multispin-coding Metropolis MC step allowing to store one spin per bit and (iii) a multi-GPU version based on a combination of MPI and CUDA streams. Cubic stencils and PRNGs are two subjects of very general interest because of their widespread use in many simulation codes.

  19. Study on Bubbly Two-Phase Flow Across Twisted Tube Bundles Based on Quasi 3D High Speed Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In flooded evaporators, refrigerants are boiling outside the tubes. This paper focuses on the bubbly two-phase flow characteristics in twisted tube bundles. The quasi 3-D high speed video method and computational fluid dynamics are carried out to understand the effects which angles between the major axis of the cylinder and vertical direction ( and bubble diameters have on the motion behaviours of bubbly flow.  is adjusted to 0°, 30°, 45° and 60°,respectively. Bubble diameter is 4mm, 6mm and 8mm, respectively. The turbulence intensity of fluid outside the tubes which is resulted by bubble rising behaviour is also investigated. The results show that the elliptical cylinders with different  s lead to bubble sliding out the surface of tubes, rising steadily and spreading widely in tube bundles. And larger bubbles have a stronger effect on turbulence intensity of liquid phase flow. It also can be concluded that the surface geometry of twisted tube plays an active role in heat transfer enhancement of the twisted tube evaporator

  20. Self-arrangement of nanoparticles toward crystalline metal oxides with high surface areas and tunable 3D mesopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Ik; Lee, Yoon Yun; Kang, Dong-Uk; Lee, Kirim; Kwon, Young-Uk; Kim, Ji Man

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a new design concept where the interaction between silica nanoparticles (about 1.5 nm in diameter) with titania nanoparticles (anatase, about 4 nm or 6 nm in diameter) guides a successful formation of mesoporous titania with crystalline walls and controllable porosity. At an appropriate solution pH (~1.5, depending on the deprotonation tendencies of two types of nanoparticles), the smaller silica nanoparticles, which attach to the surface of the larger titania nanoparticles and provide a portion of inactive surface and reactive surface of titania nanoparticles, dictate the direction and the degree of condensation of the titania nanoparticles, resulting in a porous 3D framework. Further crystallization by a hydrothermal treatment and subsequent removal of silica nanoparticles result in a mesoporous titania with highly crystalline walls and tunable mesopore sizes. A simple control of the Si/Ti ratio verified the versatility of the present method through the successful control of mean pore diameter in the range of 2-35 nm and specific surface area in the ranges of 180-250 m2 g-1. The present synthesis method is successfully extended to other metal oxides, their mixed oxides and analogues with different particle sizes, regarding as a general method for mesoporous metal (or mixed metal) oxides.

  1. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  2. Plant tissues in 3D via X-ray tomography: simple contrasting methods allow high resolution imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick M Staedler

    Full Text Available Computed tomography remains strongly underused in plant sciences despite its high potential in delivering detailed 3D phenotypical information because of the low X-ray absorption of most plant tissues. Existing protocols to study soft tissues display poor performance, especially when compared to those used on animals. More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy. Grayscale values for floral tissues and background were measured as a function of time. Contrast was quantified via a contrast index. The thick buds of Marcgravia were scanned to determine which contrasting agents best penetrate thick tissues. The highest contrast increase with cytoplasm-rich tissues was obtained with phosphotungstate, whereas osmium tetroxide and bismuth tatrate displayed the highest contrast increase with vacuolated tissues. Phosphotungstate also displayed the best sample penetration. Furthermore, infiltration with phosphotungstate allowed imaging of all plants parts at a high resolution of 3 µm, which approaches the maximum resolution of our equipment: 1.5 µm. The high affinity of phosphotungstate for vasculature, cytoplasm-rich tissue, and pollen causes these tissues to absorb more X-rays than the surrounding tissues, which, in turn, makes these tissues appear brighter on the scan data. Tissues with different brightness can then be virtually dissected from each other by selecting the bracket of grayscale to be visualized. Promising directions for the future include in silico phenotyping and developmental studies of plant inner parts (e.g., ovules, vasculature, pollen, and cell nuclei via virtual dissection as well as correlations of quantitative phenotypes with omics datasets. Therefore, this work represents a crucial improvement of previous methods, allowing new directions of

  3. Plant tissues in 3D via X-ray tomography: simple contrasting methods allow high resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staedler, Yannick M; Masson, David; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography remains strongly underused in plant sciences despite its high potential in delivering detailed 3D phenotypical information because of the low X-ray absorption of most plant tissues. Existing protocols to study soft tissues display poor performance, especially when compared to those used on animals. More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy. Grayscale values for floral tissues and background were measured as a function of time. Contrast was quantified via a contrast index. The thick buds of Marcgravia were scanned to determine which contrasting agents best penetrate thick tissues. The highest contrast increase with cytoplasm-rich tissues was obtained with phosphotungstate, whereas osmium tetroxide and bismuth tatrate displayed the highest contrast increase with vacuolated tissues. Phosphotungstate also displayed the best sample penetration. Furthermore, infiltration with phosphotungstate allowed imaging of all plants parts at a high resolution of 3 µm, which approaches the maximum resolution of our equipment: 1.5 µm. The high affinity of phosphotungstate for vasculature, cytoplasm-rich tissue, and pollen causes these tissues to absorb more X-rays than the surrounding tissues, which, in turn, makes these tissues appear brighter on the scan data. Tissues with different brightness can then be virtually dissected from each other by selecting the bracket of grayscale to be visualized. Promising directions for the future include in silico phenotyping and developmental studies of plant inner parts (e.g., ovules, vasculature, pollen, and cell nuclei) via virtual dissection as well as correlations of quantitative phenotypes with omics datasets. Therefore, this work represents a crucial improvement of previous methods, allowing new directions of research to be

  4. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media. PMID:28225007

  5. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-02-22

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media.

  6. High loading of graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes into PDLLA: A route towards the design of osteoconductive, bactericidal and non-immunogenic 3D porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Hudson [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratory of Energy Storage & Supply - ES& S, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12.244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno Vinícius Manzolli [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro Neto, Wilson Alves; Bretas, Rosario Elida Suman [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 – SP-310, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Da-Silva, Newton Soares [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Tissue, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda Roberta [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Lobo, Anderson, E-mail: aolobo@pq.cnpq.br [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    We have prepared a novel 3D porous biomaterial combining poly (DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes oxides (MWCNTO-GO) composite. PDLLA as control and a high loading of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO (50/50 w/w) bioscaffolds were prepared and functionalized. MWCNTs were exfoliated to form MWCNTO-GO by oxygen plasma etching. The later was also applied to enhance the scaffolds wettability, attaching oxygen-containing groups on their surfaces. This approach produced a porous architecture observed by scanning electron microscopy and semi-quantified by electrochemical analysis. The later also indicated a notable increase on the conductivity of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffold compared to MWCNTO-GO free PDLLA (about 5 orders of magnitudes at low frequencies). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. The PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds had significant cellular adhesion, did not present cytotoxicity effect, besides reduced bactericidal proliferation and produced mineralized tissues in SBF media. The metallic MWCNTO-GO powder held together by PDLLA polymer opens a whole new branch of applications, including bioelectroanalyses, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We produced a novel 3D porous material from PDLLA, graphene oxide and MWCNT oxide. • MWCNTO-GO loading (50/50 w/w) increased notably the conductivity of PDLLA scaffold. • MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds did not present cytotoxicity effect. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds presented bioactivity properties.

  7. High 3D:5D ratio: A possible correlate of externalizing and internalizing problems: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther I. de Bruin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The second to fourth (2D:4D digit ratio is a sexually dimorphic trait which has been studied to examine the association between fetal hormones and a variety of behaviors. Lower 2D:4D ratios, suggestive of exposure to higher levels of prenatal testosterone, have been associated with male-linked disorders, while higher 2D:4D ratios, suggestive of exposure to weaker prenatal androgen action, have been associated with female-linked disorders. Past research has concentrated on the 2D:4D ratio, whereas the relationship between other ratios, such as the 3D:5D ratio, and psychopathology has not much been studied before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2D:4D and 3D:5D ratio, and internalizing as well as externalizing symptoms, in a large non-clinical sample (143 boys, 150 girls of white Caucasian children aged 7 to 13 years. Methods: Externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Results: The 3D:5D ratio in boys and in girls was positively associated with scores on Externalizing Problems. Further, in girls only, the 3D:5D ratio was positively correlated to scores on Internalizing Problems. Conclusions: The 3D:5D ratio can be considered a correlate of externalizing and internalizing problems in children from the general population.

  8. 3D MODELING OF GJ1214b's ATMOSPHERE: FORMATION OF INHOMOGENEOUS HIGH CLOUDS AND OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnay, B.; Meadows, V.; Misra, A.; Arney, G. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98125 (United States); Leconte, J., E-mail: bcharnay@uw.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum that may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4–0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 μm, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths >3 μm. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit the observed spectra we generate transit, emission, and reflection spectra and phase curves for GJ1214b. We show that a stratospheric thermal inversion would be readily accessible in near- and mid-infrared atmospheric spectral windows. We find that the amplitude of the thermal phase curves is strongly dependent on metallicity, but only slightly impacted by clouds. Our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by the James Webb Space Telescope in the near- to mid-infrared should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  9. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  10. Detection of latent fingerprints using high-resolution 3D confocal microscopy in non-planar acquisition scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    In digitized forensics the support of investigators in any manner is one of the main goals. Using conservative lifting methods, the detection of traces is done manually. For non-destructive contactless methods, the necessity for detecting traces is obvious for further biometric analysis. High resolutional 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) grants the possibility for a detection by segmentation approach with improved detection results. Optimal scan results with CLSM are achieved on surfaces orthogonal to the sensor, which is not always possible due to environmental circumstances or the surface's shape. This introduces additional noise, outliers and a lack of contrast, making a detection of traces even harder. Prior work showed the possibility of determining angle-independent classification models for the detection of latent fingerprints (LFP). Enhancing this approach, we introduce a larger feature space containing a variety of statistical-, roughness-, color-, edge-directivity-, histogram-, Gabor-, gradient- and Tamura features based on raw data and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) using high resolutional data. Our test set consists of eight different surfaces for the detection of LFP in four different acquisition angles with a total of 1920 single scans. For each surface and angles in steps of 10, we capture samples from five donors to introduce variance by a variety of sweat compositions and application influences such as pressure or differences in ridge thickness. By analyzing the present test set with our approach, we intend to determine angle- and substrate-dependent classification models to determine optimal surface specific acquisition setups and also classification models for a general detection purpose for both, angles and substrates. The results on overall models with classification rates up to 75.15% (kappa 0.50) already show a positive tendency regarding the usability of the proposed methods for LFP detection on varying surfaces in non

  11. Development of a 3D Tissue Culture-Based High-Content Screening Platform That Uses Phenotypic Profiling to Discriminate Selective Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Tijmen H; Klop, Maarten J D; Yan, Kuan; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Szokol, Balint; Orfi, Laszlo; van de Water, Bob; Keri, Gyorgy; Price, Leo S

    2016-10-01

    3D tissue cultures provide a more physiologically relevant context for the screening of compounds, compared with 2D cell cultures. Cells cultured in 3D hydrogels also show complex phenotypes, increasing the scope for phenotypic profiling. Here we describe a high-content screening platform that uses invasive human prostate cancer cells cultured in 3D in standard 384-well assay plates to study the activity of potential therapeutic small molecules and antibody biologics. Image analysis tools were developed to process 3D image data to measure over 800 phenotypic parameters. Multiparametric analysis was used to evaluate the effect of compounds on tissue morphology. We applied this screening platform to measure the activity and selectivity of inhibitors of the c-Met and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases in 3D cultured prostate carcinoma cells. c-Met and EGFR activity was quantified based on the phenotypic profiles induced by their respective ligands, hepatocyte growth factor and EGF. The screening method was applied to a novel collection of 80 putative inhibitors of c-Met and EGFR. Compounds were identified that induced phenotypic profiles indicative of selective inhibition of c-Met, EGFR, or bispecific inhibition of both targets. In conclusion, we describe a fully scalable high-content screening platform that uses phenotypic profiling to discriminate selective and nonselective (off-target) inhibitors in a physiologically relevant 3D cell culture setting.

  12. An efficient compact fourth order FD method for simulating 3-D mantle convection at high Rayleigh number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G. B.; Barnett, G. A.; Yuen, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    , 533, 1984. Isosurfaces of the temperature field from a 3-D mantle convection simulation at Rayleigh number 10**7 during the transition from a purely conductive state to a double-layer convection state. Simulation was performed using the compact fourth order finite difference scheme at a resolution of 200-by-200-by-100 (length-by-width-by-height).

  13. Econometrics of financial high-frequency data

    CERN Document Server

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    This book covers major approaches in high-frequency econometrics. It discusses implementation details, provides insights into properties of high-frequency data as well as institutional settings and presents applications.

  14. Reconstruct the high myopic eye modules with 3D-MRI imaging technology%应用3D-MRI成像技术重建高度近视眼球形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施靖容; 何玉萍; 赵婷婷; 陈秋莹; 华怡红; 胡运胜; 李念云; 张琳; 张贵祥

    2016-01-01

    目的 利用3D-MRI眼球建模技术探讨高度近视眼的MRI影像表现、形态特征,并与其他影像方法比较,评估其临床价值.方法 横断面研究.65例(124眼)高度近视患者(球镜度高于-6.00 D,且眼轴长度≥26 mm)进行眼部常规临床检查、眼眶磁共振检查,其中40例(80眼)进行眼部B超检查.磁共振图像经处理为眼球模型.按年龄分为<50岁组和≥50岁组.按球镜度分为:①-6.00~-12.00 D组,②-12.25~-18.00 D组,③-18.25~-24.00 D组.按眼轴分为:①26.00~28.00 mm组,②28.01~30.00 mm组,③30.01~32.00 mm组,④>32.00 mm组.MRI与B超对于后巩膜葡萄肿的诊断准确率比较采用McNemar检验,不同组别中眼球类型的分布差异采用卡方检验.结果 B超检出后巩膜葡萄肿的诊断准确率为70%,MRI检出后巩膜葡萄肿的诊断准确率为100%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).高度近视眼球形态可分为球型、锥型、碗型、柱型4种类型,碗型、锥型视为后巩膜葡萄肿存在.而4种眼球类型的分布在不同年龄组(x2=57.19,P<0.05)、不同眼轴组(x2=87.36,P<0.05)中的差异有统计学意义,在不同球镜度组(x2=67.94,P>0.05)中的差异没有统计学意义.部分病例于MRI眼球模型上可见不规则隆起与凹陷,但B超不能精确显示.结论 3D-MRI眼球建模能清晰显示高度近视眼球形态与后巩膜葡萄肿的位置及特征,在眼科影像检查手段中诊断准确率高于B超检查,可作为高度近视眼科检查的新手段.%Objective Analyze the shapes and features of high myopic eyes by 3D-MRI exanmination.To investigate 3D-MRI exanmination methods and imaging manifestations of high myopic eyes,and to evaluate its clinical values when comparing with other diagnostic imaging facilities.Methods 65 cases (124 eyes) of high myopic (the spherical diopter was equal or less than-6.00 diopter,and the eye axial length was equal or more than 26 mm) accepted the routine

  15. 三自由度疲劳振动台的设计及固有频率分析%Design and Natural Frequency Analysis of 3D Fatigue Shaking Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫海彬; 苏建; 徐观; 王兴宇; 张志国; 王星

    2012-01-01

    为模拟高速列车传动系统的多轴随机振动环境,建立了一种能对传动系统沉浮、侧滚、横摆三自由度振动模拟的三自由度牵引传动系统疲劳振动台模型.通过对系统进行运动学分析,利用三维振动台的位姿关系及振动台各分支刚度构造了刚度矩阵和质量矩阵,建立了振动台系统的无阻尼动力学方程,据此研究了系统不同姿态下的固有频率.该计算模型也可以用于其他类型的并联结构固有频率计算.计算结果表明:文中设计的振动台能够满足试验要求.%A design scheme for 3D electro-hydraulic shaking table is proposed to simulate the random vibration environment of high speed train drive system. Three degree motions of ups and downs,roll and yaw can be realized. By kinematic analysis,the stiffness matrix and mass matrix of the 3D electro-hydraulic shaking sable is established by using its locations and orientations, and the no-damp kinetic equation of the shaking table system is developed. Accordingly the natural frequency of the shaking table is studied under different positions and orientations. This calculation model also has reference value for other types of parallel structure for natural frequency calculation. The calculation results show that the vibration table designed can meet the test requirements.

  16. Self-Assembled Hierarchical Formation of Conjugated 3D Cobalt Oxide Nanobead-CNT-Graphene Nanostructure Using Microwaves for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Pratap; Yadav, Ram Manohar

    2015-07-15

    Here we report the electrochemical performance of a interesting three-dimensional (3D) structures comprised of zero-dimensional (0D) cobalt oxide nanobeads, one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene, stacked hierarchically. We have synthesized 3D self-assembled hierarchical nanostructure comprised of cobalt oxide nanobeads (Co-nb), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene nanosheets (GNSs) for high-performance supercapacitor electrode application. This 3D self-assembled hierarchical nanostructure Co3O4 nanobeads-CNTs-GNSs (3D:Co-nb@CG) is grown at a large scale (gram) through simple, facile, and ultrafast microwave irradiation (MWI). In 3D:Co-nb@CG nanostructure, Co3O4 nanobeads are attached to the CNT surfaces grown on GNSs. Our ultrafast, one-step approach not only renders simultaneous growth of cobalt oxide and CNTs on graphene nanosheets but also institutes the intrinsic dispersion of carbon nanotubes and cobalt oxide within a highly conductive scaffold. The 3D:Co-nb@CG electrode shows better electrochemical performance with a maximum specific capacitance of 600 F/g at the charge/discharge current density of 0.7A/g in KOH electrolyte, which is 1.56 times higher than that of Co3O4-decorated graphene (Co-np@G) nanostructure. This electrode also shows a long cyclic life, excellent rate capability, and high specific capacitance. It also shows high stability after few cycles (550 cycles) and exhibits high capacitance retention behavior. It was observed that the supercapacitor retained 94.5% of its initial capacitance even after 5000 cycles, indicating its excellent cyclic stability. The synergistic effect of the 3D:Co-nb@CG appears to contribute to the enhanced electrochemical performances.

  17. First intraoperative experience with three-dimensional (3D) high-definition (HD) nasal endoscopy for lacrimal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2017-02-02

    The aim of this study is to report our preliminary experiences with regard to safety and feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopic lacrimal surgeries with a recently launched latest generation 3D endoscope. A 4-mm rigid three-dimensional (3D) endoscope (TIPCAM 1S 3D ORL(R), Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) was used. Fifteen patients who underwent various endoscopic lacrimal procedures by a single surgeon (MJA) were included. The procedures included probing with nasolacrimal intubation, cruciate marsupialization of intranasal cysts for congenital dacryoceles, powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, post-operative stent removal with ostium granuloma excision. The implementation, visualization, optical performance, ease of tissue handling and complications were noted. Ten surgical observers filled a questionnaire to rate their experiences. Enhanced depth perception was found to be very beneficial intraoperatively. Greater anatomical delineation facilitated improved hand-eye coordination and dexterity. Intraoperative assessment and handling of tissues and surgical manoeuvring were precise and did not require the additional spatial cues that the surgeon derives from a two-dimensional image. These benefits were more appreciated in the complex cases. The setup was easy on previous endoscopic platforms and did not consume any additional time. All the surgical procedures were completed successfully without any complications. The surgical observers unanimously noted enhanced anatomical understanding and surgical learning as compared to the routine 2D planes. Operating in 3D planes enhances depth perception, dexterity and precision. Although initial results are promising, further randomized studies with head-on comparisons between 3D and 2D would help formulate specific guidelines.

  18. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity.

  19. Highly-flexible 3D Li2S/graphene cathode for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Chen, Yuanfu; Lv, Weiqiang; Wen, Kechun; Li, Pingjian; Qi, Fei; Wang, Zegao; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Qin, Wu; He, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional Li2S/graphene hierarchical architecture (3DLG) is synthesized with a facile infiltration method. Highly-crystalline Li2S nanoparticles are deposited homogenously into three-dimensional graphene foam (3DGF) network grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in 3DLG with high surface area, porosity, flexibility and conductivity. The 3DLG is employed as flexible, free-standing and binder-free cathode without metallic current collectors or conducting additives. Due to the unique structure, the 3DLG exhibits a high discharge capacity of 894.7 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, a high capacity retention of 87.7% after 300 cycles at 0.2 C, and the high-rate capacity up to 4 C reaches 598.6 mAh g-1. The cyclic performance is record-breaking compared to the previous reports on free-standing graphene-Li2S cathodes. Flexible lithium-sulfur batteries based on the high-capacity 3DLG cathode have promising application potentials in flexible electronics, electrical vehicles, etc.

  20. Lagrangian 3D particle tracking in high-speed flows: Shake-The-Box for multi-pulse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Matteo; Schanz, Daniel; Reuther, Nico; Kähler, Christian J.; Schröder, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The Shake-The-Box (STB) particle tracking technique, recently introduced for time-resolved 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) images, is applied here to data from a multi-pulse investigation of a turbulent boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradient in air at 36 m/s ( Re τ = 10,650). The multi-pulse acquisition strategy allows for the recording of four-pulse long time-resolved sequences with a time separation of a few microseconds. The experimental setup consists of a dual-imaging system and a dual-double-cavity laser emitting orthogonal polarization directions to separate the four pulses. The STB particle triangulation and tracking strategy is adapted here to cope with the limited amount of realizations available along the time sequence and to take advantage of the ghost track reduction offered by the use of two independent imaging systems. Furthermore, a correction scheme to compensate for camera vibrations is discussed, together with a method to accurately identify the position of the wall within the measurement domain. Results show that approximately 80,000 tracks can be instantaneously reconstructed within the measurement volume, enabling the evaluation of both dense velocity fields, suitable for spatial gradients evaluation, and highly spatially resolved boundary layer profiles. Turbulent boundary layer profiles obtained from ensemble averaging of the STB tracks are compared to results from 2D-PIV and long-range micro particle tracking velocimetry; the comparison shows the capability of the STB approach in delivering accurate results across a wide range of scales.

  1. 3D tissue-engineered construct analysis via conventional high-resolution microcomputed tomography without X-ray contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Roman S; VanGordon, Samuel B; Shambaugh, Robert L; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2013-05-01

    As the field of tissue engineering develops, researchers are faced with a large number of degrees of freedom regarding the choice of material, architecture, seeding, and culturing. To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue-engineered strategy, histology is typically done by physically slicing and staining a construct (crude, time-consuming, and unreliable). However, due to recent advances in high-resolution biomedical imaging, microcomputed tomography (μCT) has arisen as a quick and effective way to evaluate samples, while preserving their structure in the original state. However, a major barrier for using μCT to do histology has been its inability to differentiate between materials with similar X-ray attenuation. Various contrasting strategies (hardware and chemical staining agents) have been proposed to address this problem, but at a cost of additional complexity and limited access. Instead, here we suggest a strategy for how virtual 3D histology in silico can be conducted using conventional μCT, and we provide an illustrative example from bone tissue engineering. The key to our methodology is an implementation of scaffold surface architecture that is ordered in relation to cells and tissue, in concert with straightforward image-processing techniques, to minimize the reliance on contrasting for material segmentation. In the case study reported, μCT was used to image and segment porous poly(lactic acid) nonwoven fiber mesh scaffolds that were seeded dynamically with mesenchymal stem cells and cultured to produce soft tissue and mineralized tissue in a flow perfusion bioreactor using an osteogenic medium. The methodology presented herein paves a new way for tissue engineers to identify and distinguish components of cell/tissue/scaffold constructs to easily and effectively evaluate the tissue-engineering strategies that generate them.

  2. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    and OMCT forcing fields give no hint for increased excitation power in the Chandler band. Thus it is assumed, that continuous high frequency excitation due to stochastic weather phenomena is responsible for the perpetuation of the Chandler wobble.

  3. Characterization of a high resolution and high sensitivity pre-clinical PET scanner with 3D event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rissi, M; Bolle, E; Dorholt, O; Hines, K E; Rohne, O; Skretting, A; Stapnes, S; Volgyes, D

    2012-01-01

    COMPET is a preclinical PET scanner aiming towards a high sensitivity, a high resolution and MRI compatibility by implementing a novel detector geometry. In this approach, long scintillating LYSO crystals are used to absorb the gamma-rays. To determine the point of interaction (P01) between gamma-ray and crystal, the light exiting the crystals on one of the long sides is collected with wavelength shifters (WLS) perpendicularly arranged to the crystals. This concept has two main advantages: (1) The parallax error is reduced to a minimum and is equal for the whole field of view (FOV). (2) The P01 and its energy deposit is known in all three dimension with a high resolution, allowing for the reconstruction of Compton scattered gamma-rays. Point (1) leads to a uniform point source resolution (PSR) distribution over the whole FOV, and also allows to place the detector close to the object being imaged. Both points (1) and (2) lead to an increased sensitivity and allow for both high resolution and sensitivity at the...

  4. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  5. A facile and green strategy for preparing newly-designed 3D graphene/gold film and its application in highly efficient electrochemical mercury assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Yan; Ding, Shiming; Chu, Zhenyu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Danfeng; Luo, Jingyi; Jin, Wanqin

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we report a facile and green strategy for in situ and one step preparation of a novel 3D graphene/gold (G/Au) film. Triggering with unique driving force from hydrothermal growth, a 3D interlaced graphene framework with hierarchically porous structures was directly attached on a gold substrate pretreated with a self-assembled monolayer. Simultaneously, highly dispersive Au nanoparticles with tunable morphologies were anchored on the framework utilizing generated graphene as an endogenous reductant. Newly-designed 3D G/Au film possessed excellent properties of significantly large specific area, good electrical conductivity, high structure stability and substrate binding strength, etc. As a paradigm, an electrochemical Hg(2+) biosensor was constructed on 3D G/Au film, in which an exonuclease III-assisted target recycling was introduced. Impressively, an ultralow detection limit of 50 aM (S/N=3), a wide linear range from 0.1 fM to 0.1μM, a high selectivity and a good reliability for Hg(2+) assay in real water and serum samples were realized using prepared biosensor. It is highly envisioned that this work opens the door towards simply fabricating varying types of 3D graphene based hybrid films, and such G/Au film will have widespread applications in electroanalysis and electrocatalysis.

  6. Reconstruction of high-resolution 3D dose from matrix measurements : error detection capability of the COMPASS correction kernel method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godart, J.; Korevaar, E. W.; Visser, R.; Wauben, D. J. L.; van t Veld, Aart

    2011-01-01

    TheCOMPASS system (IBADosimetry) is a quality assurance (QA) tool which reconstructs 3D doses inside a phantom or a patient CT. The dose is predicted according to the RT plan with a correction derived from 2D measurements of a matrix detector. This correction method is necessary since a direct recon

  7. Alternative technology concepts for low-cost and high-speed 2D and 3D interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Smets, M.; Kniknie, B.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Pohl, R.; Huis In't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The current industrial process of choice for Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 3D features, e.g. Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), etc., is the Bosch process, which uses alternative SF 6 etch cycles and C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles in a time-sequenced mo

  8. Alternative technology concepts for low-cost and high-speed 2D and 3D interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Smets, M.; Kniknie, B.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Pohl, R.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The current industrial process of choice for Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 3D features, e.g. Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), etc., is the Bosch process, which uses alternative SF6 etch cycles and C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles in a time-sequenced mod

  9. In vivo application of 3D-line skeleton graph analysis (LSGA) technique with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of trabecular bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuaud, Laurent; Newitt, David C; Lu, Ying; MacDonald, Brian; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2004-05-01

    Over the last several years magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as a means of measuring in vivo 3D trabecular bone structure. In particular, MR based diagnosis could be used to complement standard bone mineral density (BMD) methods for assessing osteoporosis and evaluating longitudinal changes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the 3D-LSGA technique for the evaluation of trabecular bone structure of high-resolution MR images, particularly for assessing longitudinal changes, in vivo. First, the reproducibility of topological 3D-LSGA based measurements was evaluated in a set of seven volunteers, and coefficients of variations ranged from 3.5% to 6%. Second, high-resolution MR images of the radius in 30 postmenopausal women from a placebo controlled drug study (Idoxifene), divided into placebo ( n=9) and treated ( n=21) groups, were obtained at baseline (BL) and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up, FU). In addition, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of BMD were obtained in the distal radius. Standard morphological measurements based on the mean intercept length (MIL) technique as well as 3D-LSGA based measurements were applied to the 3D MR images. Significant changes from BL to FU were detected, in the treated group, using the topological 3D-LSGA based measurements, morphological measures of volume of connected trabeculae and App Tb.N from MIL analysis. The duration of the study was short, and the number of patients remaining in the study was small, hence these results cannot be interpreted with regard to a true therapeutic response. Furthermore, the site (wrist) and the drug (idoxifene) are not optimal for follow-up study. However, this paper demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-LSGA based evaluation coupled with in vivo high-resolution MR imaging as a complementary approach for the monitoring of trabecular bone changes in individual subjects.

  10. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  11. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  12. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  13. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  14. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  15. Sea Level History in 3D: Early results of an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Kucuk, H. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Newton, A.; Baldwin, K.; Johnson, C.; Stanley, J. N.; Bhatnagar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although globally averaged sea level is rising at roughly 3 mm/yr (and is accelerating), rates of local sea-level change measured at coastlines may differ from this number by a factor of two or more; at some locations, sea level may even be falling. This is due to local processes that can match or even reverse the global trend, making it clear that reliable predictions of future impacts of sea-level rise require a firm understanding of processes at the local level. The history of local sea-level change and shoreline response is contained in the geologic record of shallow-water sediments. We report on a continuing study of sea-level history in sediments at the New Jersey continental margin, where compaction and glacial isostatic adjustment are currently adding 2 mm/yr to the globally averaged rise. We collected 570 sq km of ultra-high resolution 3D MCS data aboard the R/V Langseth in June-July 2015; innovative recording and preliminary results are described by Nedimovic et al. in this same session. The goal was to provide regional context to coring and logging at IODP Exp 313 sites 27-29 that were drilled 750 m into the New Jersey shelf in 2009. These sites recovered a nearly continuous record of post-Eocene sediments from non-marine soils, estuaries, shoreface, delta front, pro-delta and open marine settings. Existing seismic data are good but are 2D high-resolution profiles at line spacings too wide to enable mapping of key nearshore features. The Langseth 3D survey used shallow towing of a tuned air gun array to preserve high frequencies, and twenty-four 50-m PCables each 12.5 apart provided 6.25 x 3.125 m common-midpoint bins along seventy-seven 50-km sail lines. With this especially dense spatial resolution of a pre-stack time migrated volume we expect to map rivers, incised valleys, barrier islands, inlets and bays, pro-delta clinoforms, tidal deltas, sequence boundaries, debris flow aprons, and more. Seismic attributes linked to sedimentary facies and

  16. 3D Object Visual Tracking for the 220 kV/330 kV High-Voltage Live-Line Insulator Cleaning Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; YANG Ru-qing

    2009-01-01

    The 3D object visual tracking problem is studied for the robot vision system of the 220 kV/330 kV high-voltage live-line insulator cleaning robot. The SUSAN Edge based Scale Invariant Feature (SESIF) algorithm based 3D objects visual tracking is achieved in three stages: the first frame stage, tracking stage, and recovering stage. An SESIF based objects recognition algorithm is proposed to fred initial location at both the first frame stage and recovering stage. An SESIF and Lie group based visual tracking algorithm is used to track 3D object. Experiments verify the algorithm's robustness. This algorithm will be used in the second generation of the 220 kV/330 kV high-voltage five-line insulator cleaning robot.

  17. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  18. Viral Infection at High Magnification: 3D Electron Microscopy Methods to Analyze the Architecture of Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses need to hijack their cellular hosts and reprogram their machineries in order to replicate their genomes and produce new virions. For the direct visualization of the different steps of a viral life cycle (attachment, entry, replication, assembly and egress) electron microscopy (EM) methods are extremely helpful. While conventional EM has given important information about virus-host cell interactions, the development of three-dimensional EM (3D-EM) approaches provides unprecedented insights into how viruses remodel the intracellular architecture of the host cell. During the last years several 3D-EM methods have been developed. Here we will provide a description of the main approaches and examples of innovative applications.

  19. Tracking earthquake source evolution in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, B. L. N.; Gorbatov, A.; Spiliopoulos, S.

    2014-08-01

    Starting from the hypocentre, the point of initiation of seismic energy, we seek to estimate the subsequent trajectory of the points of emission of high-frequency energy in 3-D, which we term the `evocentres'. We track these evocentres as a function of time by energy stacking for putative points on a 3-D grid around the hypocentre that is expanded as time progresses, selecting the location of maximum energy release as a function of time. The spatial resolution in the neighbourhood of a target point can be simply estimated by spatial mapping using the properties of isochrons from the stations. The mapping of a seismogram segment to space is by inverse slowness, and thus more distant stations have a broader spatial contribution. As in hypocentral estimation, the inclusion of a wide azimuthal distribution of stations significantly enhances 3-D capability. We illustrate this approach to tracking source evolution in 3-D by considering two major earthquakes, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomons islands event that ruptured across a plate boundary and the 2013 Mw 8.3 event 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. In each case we are able to provide estimates of the evolution of high-frequency energy that tally well with alternative schemes, but also to provide information on the 3-D characteristics that is not available from backprojection from distant networks. We are able to demonstrate that the major characteristics of event rupture can be captured using just a few azimuthally distributed stations, which opens the opportunity for the approach to be used in a rapid mode immediately after a major event to provide guidance for, for example tsunami warning for megathrust events.

  20. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of ~5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes art...

  1. High-resolution fiber tract reconstruction in the human brain by means of three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAxer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional interactions between different brain regions require connecting fiber tracts, the structural basis of the human connectome. To assemble a comprehensive structural understanding of neural network elements from the microscopic to the macroscopic dimensions, a multimodal and multiscale approach has to be envisaged. However, the integration of results from complementary neuroimaging techniques poses a particular challenge. In this paper, we describe a steadily evolving neuroimaging technique referred to as three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI. It is based on the birefringence of the myelin sheaths surrounding axons, and enables the high-resolution analysis of myelinated axons constituting the fiber tracts. 3D-PLI provides the mapping of spatial fiber architecture in the postmortem human brain at a sub-millimeter resolution, i.e. at the mesoscale. The fundamental data structure gained by 3D-PLI is a comprehensive 3D vector field description of fibers and fiber tract orientations – the basis for subsequent tractography. To demonstrate how 3D-PLI can contribute to unravel and assemble the human connectome, a multiscale approach with the same technology was pursued. Two complementary state-of-the-art polarimeters providing different sampling grids (pixel sizes of 100 μm and 1.6 μm were used. To exemplarily highlight the potential of this approach, fiber orientation maps and 3D fiber models were reconstructed in selected regions of the brain (e.g., Corpus callosum, Internal capsule, Pons. The results demonstrate that 3D-PLI is an ideal tool to serve as an interface between the microscopic and macroscopic levels of organization of the human connectome.

  2. A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.

  3. 3D documentation of footwear impressions and tyre tracks in snow with high resolution optical surface scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Albertini, Nicola; Naether, Silvio; Thali, Michael J

    2007-09-13

    The three-dimensional documentation of footwear and tyre impressions in snow offers an opportunity to capture additional fine detail for the identification as present photographs. For this approach, up to now, different casting methods have been used. Casting of footwear impressions in snow has always been a difficult assignment. This work demonstrates that for the three-dimensional documentation of impressions in snow the non-destructive method of 3D optical surface scanning is suitable. The new method delivers more detailed results of higher accuracy than the conventional casting techniques. The results of this easy to use and mobile 3D optical surface scanner were very satisfactory in different meteorological and snow conditions. The method is also suitable for impressions in soil, sand or other materials. In addition to the side by side comparison, the automatic comparison of the 3D models and the computation of deviations and accuracy of the data simplify the examination and delivers objective and secure results. The results can be visualized efficiently. Data exchange between investigating authorities at a national or an international level can be achieved easily with electronic data carriers.

  4. Transformation Model with Constraints for High-Accuracy of 2D-3D Building Registration in Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel rigorous transformation model for 2D-3D registration to address the difficult problem of obtaining a sufficient number of well-distributed ground control points (GCPs in urban areas with tall buildings. The proposed model applies two types of geometric constraints, co-planarity and perpendicularity, to the conventional photogrammetric collinearity model. Both types of geometric information are directly obtained from geometric building structures, with which the geometric constraints are automatically created and combined into the conventional transformation model. A test field located in downtown Denver, Colorado, is used to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The comparison analysis of the accuracy achieved by the proposed method and the conventional method is conducted. Experimental results demonstrated that: (1 the theoretical accuracy of the solved registration parameters can reach 0.47 pixels, whereas the other methods reach only 1.23 and 1.09 pixels; (2 the RMS values of 2D-3D registration achieved by the proposed model are only two pixels along the x and y directions, much smaller than the RMS values of the conventional model, which are approximately 10 pixels along the x and y directions. These results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to significantly improve the accuracy of 2D-3D registration with much fewer GCPs in urban areas with tall buildings.

  5. TEHNOLOGIJE 3D TISKALNIKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  6. High Resolution Frequency Swept Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-14

    centers on practical targets. (iv) Greater immunity to phase fluctuations arising from turbulance and inhomogenieties in the propagation medium because...frequency swept illumination. Since the impulse reponse of a time invariant linear system can also be deduced from white noise excitation and

  7. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  8. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  9. Assessment of the 3-d reconstruction and high-resolution geometrical modeling of the human skeletal trunk from 2-D radiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, S; Petit, Y; de Guise, J A; Labelle, H; Aubin, C E; Dansereau, J

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents an in vivo validation of a method for the three-dimensional (3-D) high-resolution modeling of the human spine, rib cage, and pelvis for the study of spinal deformities. The method uses an adaptation of a standard close-range photogrammetry method called direct linear transformation to reconstruct the 3-D coordinates of anatomical landmarks from three radiographic images of the subject's trunk. It then deforms in 3-D 1-mm-resolution anatomical primitives (reference bones) obtained by serial computed tomography-scan reconstruction of a dry specimen. The free-form deformation is calculated using dual kriging equations. In vivo validation of this method on 40 scoliotic vertebrae gives an overall accuracy of 3.3 +/- 3.8 mm, making it an adequate tool for clinical studies and mechanical analysis purposes.

  10. High frequency pressure oscillator for microcryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, S.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Jansen, H.V.; Zhao, Y.; Holland, H.J.; Burger, J.F.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Microminiature pulse tube cryocoolers should operate at a frequency of an order higher than the conventional macro ones because the pulse tube cryocooler operating frequency scales inversely with the square of the pulse tube diameter. In this paper, the design and experiments of a high frequency pre

  11. High-speed production line combines 3D printing with precision machining : Customized mass production in the factory of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.n.

    2015-01-01

    The development of additive manufacturing is progressing rapidly. One of the main advances in the progression of this technology is 3D printing of metals. To enhance this trend, TNO's additive manufacturing department in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is devel-oping "Hyproline", a "High Performance Pro

  12. 3D physical modeling of anisotropic grain growth at high temperature in local strong magnetic force field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beaugnon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism based on the effect of local magnetic forces on diffusing ions around a growing ferromagnetic precipitate is proposed. A 3D simulation based only on physical parameters is undertaken in which main assumption is of interface limited growth controlled by the effect of both curvature and local magnetic field distortion. Although usually neglected in magnetic field effect mechanisms, it is shown that these local magnetic forces acting on a single paramagnetic ion can change markedly affect the growth process and induce strong shape anisotropy.

  13. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  14. Accepting the T3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  15. Parametric 3D Atmospheric Reconstruction in Highly Variable Terrain with Recycled Monte Carlo Paths and an Adapted Bayesian Inference Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Ian; Davis, Anthony B.; Bal, Guillaume; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for accelerating a 3D Monte Carlo forward radiative transfer model to the point where it can be used in a new kind of Bayesian retrieval framework. The remote sensing challenge is to detect and quantify a chemical effluent of a known absorbing gas produced by an industrial facility in a deep valley. The available data is a single low resolution noisy image of the scene in the near IR at an absorbing wavelength for the gas of interest. The detected sunlight has been multiply reflected by the variable terrain and/or scattered by an aerosol that is assumed partially known and partially unknown. We thus introduce a new class of remote sensing algorithms best described as "multi-pixel" techniques that call necessarily for a 3D radaitive transfer model (but demonstrated here in 2D); they can be added to conventional ones that exploit typically multi- or hyper-spectral data, sometimes with multi-angle capability, with or without information about polarization. The novel Bayesian inference methodology uses adaptively, with efficiency in mind, the fact that a Monte Carlo forward model has a known and controllable uncertainty depending on the number of sun-to-detector paths used.

  16. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  17. R(2OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António F Martins

    Full Text Available While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R(2OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R(2OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R(2OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science.

  18. 3D-hybrid material design with electron/lithium-ion dual-conductivity for high-performance Li-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Tan, Rui; Yang, Jie; Wang, Kai; Gao, Rongtan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Yidong; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2017-02-01

    We report a novel 3D-hybrid cathode material with three-dimensional (3D) N-GO/CNT framework to load sulfur (77.6 wt %), and sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) of coating layer. Used as a cathode material, it possesses a high capacity (1196 mAh g-1@0.3 A g-1@1.6 mg cm-2), excellent charging-discharging rate (680 mAh g-1@7.5 A g-1) and long-life performance (maintaining 71.1% capacity over 450 cycles), which is mainly attributed to the benefits of excellent electronic/Li-ionic dual-conductivity and confinement effect of the 3D-hybrid N-GO/CNT framework coated by self-doping conducting polymer SPANI. Thus, a 3D sulfur cathode modified with electronic/Li-ionic dual-conduction network can significantly enhance the electrochemical performance and stability, and this novel type of material is very promising for commercial applications that require high energy and power density, long life, and excellent abuse tolerance.

  19. A new high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate volcanic blasts and pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, T. E.; Clarke, A.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.; Widiwijayanti, C.

    2005-12-01

    For the first time the dynamics of directed blasts from explosive lava-dome decompression have been investigated by means of transient, multiphase flow simulations in 2D and 3D. Multiphase flow models developed for the analysis of pyroclastic dispersal from explosive eruptions have been so far limited to 2D axisymmetric or Cartesian formulations which cannot properly account for important 3D features of the volcanic system such as complex morphology and fluid turbulence. Here we use a new parallel multiphase flow code, named PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code) (Esposti Ongaro et al., 2005), able to simulate the transient and 3D thermofluid-dynamics of pyroclastic dispersal produced by collapsing columns and volcanic blasts. The code solves the equations of the multiparticle flow model of Neri et al. (2003) on 3D domains extending up to several kilometres in 3D and includes a new description of the boundary conditions over topography which is automatically acquired from a DEM. The initial conditions are represented by a compact volume of gas and pyroclasts, with clasts of different sizes and densities, at high temperature and pressure. Different dome porosities and pressurization models were tested in 2D to assess the sensitivity of the results to the distribution of initial gas pressure, and to the total mass and energy stored in the dome, prior to 3D modeling. The simulations have used topographies appropriate for the 1997 Boxing Day directed blast on Montserrat, which eradicated the village of St. Patricks. Some simulations tested the runout of pyroclastic density currents over the ocean surface, corresponding to observations of over-water surges to several km distances at both locations. The PDAC code was used to perform 3D simulations of the explosive event on the actual volcano topography. The results highlight the strong topographic control on the propagation of the dense pyroclastic flows, the triggering of thermal instabilities, and the elutriation

  20. Kondo effect at low electron density and high particle-hole asymmetry in 1D, 2D, and 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žitko, Rok; Horvat, Alen

    2016-09-01

    Using the perturbative scaling equations and the numerical renormalization group, we study the characteristic energy scales in the Kondo impurity problem as a function of the exchange coupling constant J and the conduction-band electron density. We discuss the relation between the energy gain (impurity binding energy) Δ E and the Kondo temperature TK. We find that the two are proportional only for large values of J , whereas in the weak-coupling limit the energy gain is quadratic in J , while the Kondo temperature is exponentially small. The exact relation between the two quantities depends on the detailed form of the density of states of the band. In the limit of low electron density the Kondo screening is affected by the strong particle-hole asymmetry due to the presence of the band-edge van Hove singularities. We consider the cases of one- (1D), two- (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) tight-binding lattices (linear chain, square lattice, cubic lattice) with inverse-square-root, step-function, and square-root onsets of the density of states that are characteristic of the respective dimensionalities. We always find two different regimes depending on whether TK is higher or lower than μ , the chemical potential measured from the bottom of the band. For 2D and 3D, we find a sigmoidal crossover between the large-J and small-J asymptotics in Δ E and a clear separation between Δ E and TK for TKband edge. Furthermore, we find that in 1D the particle-hole asymmetry leads to a large decrease of TK compared to the standard result obtained by approximating the density of states to be constant (flat-band approximation), while in 3D the opposite is the case; this is due to the nontrivial interplay of the exchange and potential scattering renormalization in the presence of particle-hole asymmetry. The 2D square-lattice density of states behaves to a very good approximation as a band with constant density of states.

  1. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  2. High resolution 3D laser scanner measurements of a strike-slip fault quantify its morphological anisotropy at all scales

    CERN Document Server

    Renard, Francois; Marsan, Davd; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The surface roughness of a recently exhumed strikeslip fault plane has been measured by three independent 3D portable laser scanners. Digital elevation models of several fault surface areas, from 1 m2 to 600 m2, have been measured at a resolution ranging from 5 mm to 80 mm. Out of plane height fluctuations are described by non-Gaussian distribution with exponential long range tails. Statistical scaling analyses show that the striated fault surface exhibits self-affine scaling invariance with a small but significant directional morphological anisotropy that can be described by two scaling roughness exponents, H1 = 0.7 in the direction of slip and H2 = 0.8 perpendicular to the direction of slip.

  3. High-Precision 3D Geolocation of Persistent Scatterers with one Single-Epoch GCP and Lidar DSM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengshi; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Chang, Ling; Wang, Jinhu; Lindenbergh, Roderik R. C.; Liao, Mingsheng; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-08-01

    In persistent scatterer (PS) interferometry, the relatively poor 3D geolocalization precision of the measurement points (the scatterers) is still a major concern. It makes it difficult to attribute the deformation measurements unambiguously to (elements of) physical objects. Ground control points (GCP's), such as corner reflectors or transponders, can be used to improve geolocalization, but only in the range-azimuth domain. Here, we present a method which uses only one GCP, visible in only one single radar acquisition, in combination with a digital surface model (DSM) data to improve the geolocation precision, and to achieve an object snap by projecting the scatterer position to the intersection with the DSM model, in the metric defined by the covariance matrix (i.e. error ellipsoid) of every scatterer.

  4. Highly-accelerated quantitative 2D and 3D localized spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) and sensitivity encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Gabr, Refaat E.; Zhou, Jinyuan; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2013-12-01

    Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with chemical shift imaging (CSI) provides valuable metabolic information for research and clinical studies, but is often limited by long scan times. Recently, spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) was shown to provide compartment-averaged spectra resolved in one spatial dimension with many-fold reductions in scan-time. This was achieved using a small subset of the CSI phase-encoding steps from central image k-space that maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, SLAM is extended to two- and three-dimensions (2D, 3D). In addition, SLAM is combined with sensitivity-encoded (SENSE) parallel imaging techniques, enabling the replacement of even more CSI phase-encoding steps to further accelerate scan-speed. A modified SLAM reconstruction algorithm is introduced that significantly reduces the effects of signal nonuniformity within compartments. Finally, main-field inhomogeneity corrections are provided, analogous to CSI. These methods are all tested on brain proton MRS data from a total of 24 patients with brain tumors, and in a human cardiac phosphorus 3D SLAM study at 3T. Acceleration factors of up to 120-fold versus CSI are demonstrated, including speed-up factors of 5-fold relative to already-accelerated SENSE CSI. Brain metabolites are quantified in SLAM and SENSE SLAM spectra and found to be indistinguishable from CSI measures from the same compartments. The modified reconstruction algorithm demonstrated immunity to maladjusted segmentation and errors from signal heterogeneity in brain data. In conclusion, SLAM demonstrates the potential to supplant CSI in studies requiring compartment-average spectra or large volume coverage, by dramatically reducing scan-time while providing essentially the same quantitative results.

  5. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellstedt, Peter [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany); Herbst, Christian [Ubon Ratchathani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Haefner, Sabine; Leppert, Joerg; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai, E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC Prime C and 3D C Prime NCA with sequential {sup 13}C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC Prime H with sequential {sup 1}H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C'NH with broadband {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the {beta}1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  6. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  7. Construction of 3D V2O5/hydrogenated-WO3 nanotrees on tungsten foil for high-performance pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengmei; Li, Yuanchang; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Xu, Kai; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Zhenxing; He, Jun

    2014-06-28

    3D semiconductor nanostructures have proved to be a rich system for the exploring of high-performance pseudocapacitors. Herein, a novel 3D WO3 nanotree on W foil is developed via a facile and green method. Both capacitance and conductivity of the WO3 nanotree electrode are greatly improved after hydrogenation treatment (denoted as H-WO3). First-principles calculation based on the experiments reveals the mechanism of the hydrogenation treatment effect on the 3D WO3 nanotrees. The surface O of 3D WO3 nanotrees gains electrons from the adsorbed H, and consequently certain electrons are back-donated to the neighboring W, thus providing the conducting channel on the surface. Ultrathin V2O5 films were coated on the H-WO3 nanotrees via a simple, low-cost, environmentally friendly electrochemical technique. This V2O5/H-WO3 electrode exhibited a remarkable specific capacitance of 1101 F g(-1) and an energy density of 98 W h kg(-1). The solid-state device based on the V2O5/H-WO3 electrodes shows excellent stability and practical application. Our work opens up the potential broad application of hydrogenation treatment of semiconductor nanostructures in pseudocapacitors and other energy storage devices.

  8. Influence of extremely low frequency, low energy electromagnetic fields and combined mechanical stimulation on chondrocytes in 3-D constructs for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, Florian M; Ahrens, Philipp; Grad, Sibylle; Stoddart, Martin J; Dahmani, Chiheb; Wilken, Frauke L; Sauerschnig, Martin; Niemeyer, Philipp; Zwingmann, Jörn; Burgkart, Rainer; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Südkamp, Norbert P; Weyh, Thomas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Alini, Mauro; Salzmann, Gian M

    2014-02-01

    Articular cartilage, once damaged, has very low regenerative potential. Various experimental approaches have been conducted to enhance chondrogenesis and cartilage maturation. Among those, non-invasive electromagnetic fields have shown their beneficial influence for cartilage regeneration and are widely used for the treatment of non-unions, fractures, avascular necrosis and osteoarthritis. One very well accepted way to promote cartilage maturation is physical stimulation through bioreactors. The aim of this study was the investigation of combined mechanical and electromagnetic stress affecting cartilage cells in vitro. Primary articular chondrocytes from bovine fetlock joints were seeded into three-dimensional (3-D) polyurethane scaffolds and distributed into seven stimulated experimental groups. They either underwent mechanical or electromagnetic stimulation (sinusoidal electromagnetic field of 1 mT, 2 mT, or 3 mT; 60 Hz) or both within a joint-specific bioreactor and a coil system. The scaffold-cell constructs were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content, histology, and gene expression of collagen-1, collagen-2, aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), Sox9, proteoglycan-4 (PRG-4), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3 and -13). There were statistically significant differences in GAG/DNA content between the stimulated versus the control group with highest levels in the combined stimulation group. Gene expression was significantly higher for combined stimulation groups versus static control for collagen 2/collagen 1 ratio and lower for MMP-13. Amongst other genes, a more chondrogenic phenotype was noticed in expression patterns for the stimulated groups. To conclude, there is an effect of electromagnetic and mechanical stimulation on chondrocytes seeded in a 3-D scaffold, resulting in improved extracellular matrix production.

  9. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  10. AE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  11. High frequency group pulse electrochemical machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gaoyang; ZHANG Zhijing; ZHANG Weimin; TANG Xinglun

    2007-01-01

    In the process of machining ultrathin metal structure parts,the signal composition of high frequency group pulse,the influence of frequency to reverse current,and the design of the cathode in high frequency group pulse electrochemical machining (HGPECM) are discussed.The experiments on process were carried out.Results indicate that HGPECM can greatly improve the characteristics of the inter-electrode gap flow field,reduce electrode passivation,and obtain high machining quality.The machining quality is obviously improved by increasing the main pulse frequency.The dimensional accuracy reaches 30-40 pro and the roughness attained is at 0.30-0.35 μm.High frequency group pulse electrochemical machining can be successfully used in machining micro-parts.

  12. 基于PMOS三维选通高速门控技术%3D Range-Gated High Speed Gate-Control Technology Based on PMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金宝; 周燕; 范松涛; 曾华林; 王新伟

    2012-01-01

    为三维选通成像提供了纳秒级阴极选通高速门控开关的设计与实现.该门控开关创新性地采用互补级联开关的方式实现阴极正负电压的高速选通.结合功率开关管的特性,使用功率PMOS作为前级开关,产生平项质量好的正脉冲;采用功率三极管作为后级开关,无需额外驱动,通过二者互补级联的方式产生阴极选通负脉冲.实验表明,最终开关的上升沿时间为13.4 ns,下降沿时间为24.6ns,最小脉宽为50 ns,最高工作频率100 kHz,导通电压-200 V,关断电压40V,满足三维选通门控要求.门控开关通过互补级联方式,不但寄生参数小,脉冲上升、下降时间小,脉冲平顶质量好,时序控制精度高,无需隔离驱动,而且通过功率三极管作后级开关,可以获得比TTL触发脉冲更窄的脉宽,具有良好的脉宽特性.%Design and implementation of nanosecond high speed gate-control switch was required for 3D range-gated imaging. Complementary cascade was used to implement the high speed switch with negative and positive voltage. Power PMOS and power triode transistor were used according to the switch prosperities. Power PMOS was the front switch which produced a positive pulse with good flat-roofed quality, and power triode transistor was the rear one which didnt require extra driver. Through the complementary cascade of the two switches, cathode negative pulse was obtained. Experiments showed that the rising time and the falling time of the gate-control switch were 13.4 ns and 24.6 ns respectively. The narrowest pulse width was 50 ns and the highest frequency was as high as 100 kHz. The turn-on voltage of the switch was -200 V and the turn-off voltage was 40 V. All of these met the requirements of 3D range-gated imaging. Through complementary cascade switch, the rising and falling time of the pulse are small, and good flat-roofed quality is obtained. In addition, the switch has many advantages such as simple structure

  13. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Validation of High-Resolution 3D Patient QA for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning and IMPT by Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardin, A; Avery, S; Ding, X; Kassaee, A; Lin, L [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maryanski, M [MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a

  15. An autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel M. Y.; Cheung, Benny C. F.; Whitehouse, David; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-11-01

    An in situ measurement is of prime importance when trying to maintain the position of the workpiece for further compensation processes in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the precision machining of three dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, the coordinates of most of the machine tools with closed machine interfaces and control system are not accessible for users, which make it difficult to use the motion axes of the machine tool for in situ measurements. This paper presents an autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools. It makes use of a designed tool path and an additional motion sensor to assist the registration of time-space data for the position estimation of a 2D laser scanner which measures the surface with a high lateral resolution and large area without the need to interface with the machine tool system. A prototype system was built and integrated into an ultra-precision polishing machine. Experimental results show that it measures the 3D surfaces with high resolution, high repeatability, and large measurement range. The system not only improves the efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining process but also extends the capability of machine tools.

  16. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  17. Glycerol-mediated nanostructure modification leading to improved transparency of porous polymeric scaffolds for high performance 3D cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaokang; Zeng, Yang; Wang, Bingjie; He, Yonghong; Du, Yanan

    2014-07-14

    Glycerol is among the most commonly used optical clearing agents for tissues clearance largely due to refractive index (RI) matching between glycerol and the submerged tissues. Here we applied glycerol as structure modifier at both macroscopic (as porogen) and nanoscopic (as nanostructure ameliorant) scales to fabricate transparent porous scaffolds made from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as well as other widely used biomaterials (e.g., PLGA, PA, or gelatin), whose nanostructures, in the scale of light wavelength, dominantly improved the optical transmittance of the scaffolds even when immersed in RI mismatched medium (e.g., culture medium or water). We further exploited the clearing mechanisms based on Mie scattering theory, illustrating that conformational changes of polymer chains induced by solvent effects of glycerol enhanced the anisotropy (i.e., directional alignment) of the nanostructures, leading to reduced crystallinity and scattering of the resulted PEG scaffolds. Our findings represent the first and systematic demonstration with both experimental and theoretical evidence in effectively clearing porous polymeric scaffolds by mechanisms other than RI matching, which could tackle the limitations of current optical imaging of cells cultured within three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous scaffolds, such as poor visibility, low spatial resolution, and small penetration depth.

  18. [3D-TOF MR-angiography with high spatial resolution for surgical planning in insular lobe gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykanov, A E; Pitskhelauri, D I; Pronin, I N; Tonoyan, A S; Kornienko, V N; Zakharova, N E; Turkin, A M; Sanikidze, A Z; Shkarubo, M A; Shkatova, A M; Shults, E I

    2015-01-01

    Цель — определение эффективности время-пролетной (3D-TOF) магнитно-резонансной ангиографии (МРА) с высоким разрешением в визуализации медиальных и латеральных лентикулостриарных артерий (ЛСА) и их соотношения с краем опухоли у пациентов с глиомами островковой доли. Материал и методы. Проведен анализ 3D-TOF МРА у 20 пациентов с первично выявленными глиомами головного мозга с вовлечением островковой доли. Всем больным выполнена 3D-TOF МРА без контрастного усиления, а в 6 наблюдениях — до и после него. Результаты. При 3D-TOF МРА до внутривенного контрастирования удавалось определить медиальные ЛСА у 19 (95%) пациентов и латеральные ЛСА — у 18 (90%). 3D-TOF МРА на фоне контрастного усиления позволяет лучше визуализировать как проксимальный, так и дистальный сегмент ЛСА. Выделено три варианта взаимоотношения опухоли и ЛСА: I — опухоль обрастала артерии без их смещения — 2 (10%) случая; II — опухоль смещала артерии медиально без признаков обрастания — 11 (55%); III — опухоль частично обрастала и смещала артерии — 2 (10%). У 5 (25%) пациентов опухоль плохо видна на 3D-TOF МРА из-за отсутствия различий сигнальных хар

  19. Investigation of the 2p_{32}-3d_{52} line emission of Au;{53+}-Au;{69+} for diagnosing high energy density plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Träbert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J H T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-06-01

    Measurements of the L -shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from Fe-like Au53+ through Ne-like Au69+ . Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge Z as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L -shell Au emission spectra.

  20. Liquid-type cathode enabled by 3D sponge-like carbon nanotubes for high energy density and long cycling life of Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiong; Yang, Gang; Yu, Choongho

    2014-11-26

    High energy density and long-term stability of Li-S batteries are achieved by employing a 3D sponge-like carbon nanotube cathode and a liquid-type polysulfide catholyte. Carbon nanotubes not only provide excellent electron pathways and polysulfide reservoirs, but they can also be used as a standalone cathode without current collectors, which greatly alleviates problems arising from insulating sulfur and polysulfide shuttles as well as remarkably increasing the energy density.

  1. Engineering 3D bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium storage with high rate capability and long cycle stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Jin, Jun; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong-En; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Bin-Jie; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    A highly crystalline three dimensional (3D) bicontinuous hierarchically macro-mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite constructed by nanoparticles in the range of 50~100 nm via a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal process followed by carbon coating have been synthesized as cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The abundant 3D macropores allow better penetration of electrolyte to promote Li+ diffusion, the mesopores provide more electrochemical reaction sites and the carbon layers outside LiFePO4 nanoparticles increase the electrical conductivity, thus ultimately facilitating reverse reaction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and alleviating electrode polarization. In addition, the particle size in nanoscale can provide short diffusion lengths for the Li+ intercalation-deintercalation. As a result, the 3D macro-mesoporous nanosized LiFePO4/C electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (129.1 mA h/g at 2 C; 110.9 mA h/g at 10 C) and cycling stability (87.2% capacity retention at 2 C after 1000 cycles, 76.3% at 5 C after 500 cycles and 87.8% at 10 C after 500 cycles, respectively), which are much better than many reported LiFePO4/C structures. Our demonstration here offers the opportunity to develop nanoscaled hierarchically porous LiFePO4/C structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries through microwave assisted solvothermal method.

  2. Breaking the Crowther limit: Combining depth-sectioning and tilt tomography for high-resolution, wide-field 3D reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovden, Robert, E-mail: rmh244@cornell.edu [School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ercius, Peter [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jiang, Yi [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Héctor D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elser, Veit [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To date, high-resolution (<1 nm) imaging of extended objects in three-dimensions (3D) has not been possible. A restriction known as the Crowther criterion forces a tradeoff between object size and resolution for 3D reconstructions by tomography. Further, the sub-Angstrom resolution of aberration-corrected electron microscopes is accompanied by a greatly diminished depth of field, causing regions of larger specimens (>6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over 100 dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability. - Highlights: • Develop tomography technique for high-resolution and large field of view. • We combine depth sectioning with traditional tilt tomography. • Through-focal tomography reduces tilts and improves resolution. • Through-focal tomography overcomes the fundamental Crowther limit. • Aberration-corrected becomes a benefit and not a hindrance for tomography.

  3. Efficient 3D nonlinear warping of computed tomography: two high-performance implementations using OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David; Dey, Damini; Slomka, Piotr

    2005-04-01

    We have implemented two hardware accelerated Thin Plate Spline (TPS) warping algorithms. The first algorithm is a hardware-software approach (HW-TPS) that uses OpenGL Vertex Shaders to perform a grid warp. The second is a Graphics Processor based approach (GPU-TPS) that uses the OpenGL Shading Language to perform all warping calculations on the GPU. Comparison with a software TPS algorithm was used to gauge the speed and quality of both hardware algorithms. Quality was analyzed visually and using the Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD) similarity metric. Warping was performed using 92 user-defined displacement vectors for 512x512x173 serial lung CT studies, matching normal-breathing and deep-inspiration scans. On a Xeon 2.2 Ghz machine with an ATI Radeon 9800XT GPU the GPU-TPS required 26.1 seconds to perform a per-voxel warp compared to 148.2 seconds for the software algorithm. The HW-TPS needed 1.63 seconds to warp the same study while the GPU-TPS required 1.94 seconds and the software grid transform required 22.8 seconds. The SAD values calculated between the outputs of each algorithm and the target CT volume were 15.2%, 15.4% and 15.5% for the HW-TPS, GPU-TPS and both software algorithms respectively. The computing power of ubiquitous 3D graphics cards can be exploited in medical image processing to provide order of magnitude acceleration of nonlinear warping algorithms without sacrificing output quality.

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  5. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  6. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  7. Genotoxic Effects of Low- and High-LET Radiation on Human Epithelial Cells Grown in 2-D Versus 3-D Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would

  8. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  9. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  10. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  11. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  12. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  13. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  14. Extracellular vesicles of calcifying turkey leg tendon characterized by immunocytochemistry and high voltage electron microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; McKee, M. D.; Nanci, A.; Song, M. J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Arena, J.; McEwen, B.

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure and possible function of extracellular vesicles in certain calcifying vertebrate tissues, normally mineralizing leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, have been studied in two separate investigations, one concerning the electron microscopic immunolocalization of the 66 kDa phosphoprotein, osteopontin, and the other detailing the organization and distribution of mineral crystals associated with the vesicles as determined by high voltage microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction. Immunolabeling shows that osteopontin is related to extracellular vesicles of the tendon in the sense that its initial presence appears coincident with the development of mineral associated with the vesicle loci. By high voltage electron microscopy and 3-D imaging techniques, mineral crystals are found to consist of small irregularly shaped particles somewhat randomly oriented throughout individual vesicles sites. Their appearance is different from that found for the mineral observed within calcifying tendon collagen, and their 3-D disposition is not regularly ordered. Possible spatial and temporal relationships of vesicles, osteopontin, mineral, and collagen are being examined further by these approaches.

  15. High-Throughput Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes for Forming Single-Nanotube Based Architectures for 3D Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; von Allmen, Paul; Kowalczyk, Robert; Baron, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We have developed manufacturable approaches to form single, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 micron deep trenches. These wafer-scale approaches were enabled by chemically amplified resists and inductively coupled Cryo-etchers for forming the 3D nanoscale architectures. The tube growth was performed using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and the materials used for the pre-fabricated 3D architectures were chemically and structurally compatible with the high temperature (700 C) PECVD synthesis of our tubes, in an ammonia and acetylene ambient. Tube characteristics were also engineered to some extent, by adjusting growth parameters, such as Ni catalyst thickness, pressure and plasma power during growth. Such scalable, high throughput top-down fabrication techniques, combined with bottom-up tube synthesis, should accelerate the development of PECVD tubes for applications such as interconnects, nano-electromechanical (NEMS), sensors or 3D electronics in general.

  16. Novel experimental technique for 3D investigation of high-speed cavitating diesel fuel flows by X-ray micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, M.; Mitroglou, N.; Santini, M.; Gavaises, M.

    2017-03-01

    An experimental technique for the estimation of the temporal-averaged vapour volume fraction within high-speed cavitating flow orifices is presented. The scientific instrument is designed to employ X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) as a quantitative 3D measuring technique applied to custom designed, large-scale, orifice-type flow channels made from Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK). The attenuation of the ionising electromagnetic radiation by the fluid under examination depends on its local density; the transmitted radiation through the cavitation volume is compared to the incident radiation, and combination of radiographies from sufficient number of angles leads to the reconstruction of attenuation coefficients versus the spatial position. This results to a 3D volume fraction distribution measurement of the developing multiphase flow. The experimental results obtained are compared against the high speed shadowgraph visualisation images obtained in an optically transparent nozzle with identical injection geometry; comparison between the temporal mean image and the microCT reconstruction shows excellent agreement. At the same time, the real 3D internal channel geometry (possibly eroded) has been measured and compared to