Sample records for 3c clamped downhole

  1. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson


    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400

  2. Distributed downhole drilling network (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.


    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  3. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner


    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  4. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group


    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  5. Battery switch for downhole tools (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.


    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  6. A microelectromechanical system digital 3C array seismic cone penetrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghose, R.


    A digital 3C array seismic cone penetrometer has been developed for multidisciplinary geophysical and geotechnical applications. Seven digital triaxial microelectromechanical system accelerometers are installed at 0.25-m intervals to make a 1.5-m-long downhole seismic array. The accelerometers have

  7. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.


    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  8. To clamp or not to clamp late?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Iacovidou


    Full Text Available When resuscitating a neonate, one encounters controversial issues and a great deal of confusion. These issues include the question as to when should the umbilical cord be clamped. Clamping and cutting the umbilical cord at birth is the oldest intervention in humans. Even though many aspects of the timing for cord clamping have been clarified, some questions still remain unanswered. If delayed cord clamping is to become a standard approach which timing is the optimal? And depending on the mode of delivery should timing be the same or different for normal vaginal delivery or for caesarean section? What about  the compromised neonate, or the very preterm one? We have more questions than answers. More randomized controlled studies are needed in normal and pathologic neonates, in order to address these questions, before we practice delayed cord clamping with safety for the babies and the mothers.

  9. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert


    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  10. Photovoltaic panel clamp (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert


    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  11. Radial wedge flange clamp (United States)

    Smith, Karl H.


    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  12. 275 C Downhole Microcomputer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Hutchens; Hooi Miin Soo


    An HC11 controller IC and along with serial SRAM and ROM support ICs chip set were developed to support a data acquisition and control for extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions greater than 275 C. The 68HC11 microprocessor is widely used in well logging tools for control, data acquisition, and signal processing applications and was the logical choice for a downhole controller. This extreme temperature version of the 68HC11 enables new high temperature designs and additionally allows 68HC11-based well logging tools and MWD tools to be upgraded for high temperature operation in deep gas reservoirs, The microcomputer chip consists of the microprocessor ALU, a small boot ROM, 4 kbyte data RAM, counter/timer unit, serial peripheral interface (SPI), asynchronous serial interface (SCI), and the A, B, C, and D parallel ports. The chip is code compatible with the single chip mode commercial 68HC11 except for the absence of the analog to digital converter system. To avoid mask programmed internal ROM, a boot program is used to load the microcomputer program from an external mask SPI ROM. A SPI RAM IC completes the chip set and allows data RAM to be added in 4 kbyte increments. The HC11 controller IC chip set is implemented in the Peregrine Semiconductor 0.5 micron Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process using a custom high temperature cell library developed at Oklahoma State University. Yield data is presented for all, the HC11, SPI-RAM and ROM. The lessons learned in this project were extended to the successful development of two high temperature versions of the LEON3 and a companion 8 Kbyte SRAM, a 200 C version for the Navy and a 275 C version for the gas industry.

  13. Downhole drilling spotting fluid composition and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.R.; Campbell, G.J.


    This paper discusses a spotting fluid concentrate composition suitable for use in downhole drilling operations in a pill for releasing periodically stuck drill string. It comprises glycerophosphoric acid ester; a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof; an optional viscosifying agent for increasing the viscosity of the dispersion; and an optional sealing agent for preventing diffusion of water into the downhole formation. This patent also describes a method for lubricating a downhole well drilling operation. It comprises mixing a spotting fluid concentrate composition comprising glycerophosphoric acid ester, a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof, an optional viscosifying agent and an optional sealing agent with drilling mud; and circulating the mud mixture through the well.

  14. Downhole elemental analysis with LIBS (United States)

    Moreschini, P.; Zacny, K.; Rickman, D.


    top of the downhole probe allows radial scanning of the borehole. Analysis of iron and titanium in lunar simulant with LIBS was performed in air using the method of standard addition. The results for lunar simulant NU-LHT-2M show a value for the concentration of iron ranging between 2.29% and 3.05% depending on the atomic line selected. The accepted value for the sample analyzed is 2.83%, showing the capability for the system in development to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in real-time.

  15. Permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaques, P.; Ong, H.; Jupe, A.; Brown, I.; Jansenns, M.


    It is generally accepted that the 'Oilfield of the Future' will incorporate distributed permanent downhole seismic sensors in flowing wells. However the effectiveness of these sensors will be limited by the extent to which seismic signals can be discriminated, or de-coupled, from flow induced

  16. Communications System for Down-Hole Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijarez-Castro Rito


    Full Text Available Progressively deeper and hotter oil wells have driven design modification that enhances the performance in sensors and downhole electronic instruments. Oil reservoirs in Mexico are located at mean depths of 6,000 m; as a consequence, the requirements for measuring thermodynamic and geophysical parameters are challenging. This paper describes a bidirectional communication system that exchanges data from a down-hole high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT measurement tool to the surface installation. The communication medium is a 7 km mono-conductor 1K22 logging cable used also as a power supply transmission line. The system consists of a proprietary downhole measurement tool, composed of a HT/HP sensor and a high temperature DSP-based electronic device, and a data acquisition equipment located in the surface installation. The system employs a communication algorithm that automatically changes the carrier frequency of the modulation technique employed, to avoid issues derived from noise interference, cable attenuation and thermal drift of the front end passive elements. The laboratory tests results provide a firm basis for testing and evaluating the system in the field.

  17. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe


    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  18. Downhole dehydration - status report and implementation study; Downhole Dehydration - Statusbericht und Umsetzungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.; Schmidt, D. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Downhole dehydration, i.e. in-situ separation of water and oil, is an interesting new technology. The contribution describes the technology and the results of a field experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Tail-End Foerderphase in der deutschen Erdoelproduktion, welche durch hohe Wasserhebekosten gekennzeichnet ist, erfordert zur Aufrechterhaltung der Wirtschaftlichkeit neue Gedankenansaetze. Ein aus wirtschaftlicher und technischer Sicht reizvoller Optimierungsgedanke ist die untertaegige Wasser/Oel Separation, auch Downhole Dehydration genannt. Unter Downhole Dehydration (DHD) versteht man also die untertaegige (teilweise) Separation des Lagerstaettenwassers vom Nassoel, kurz nachdem das Gemisch untertaegig in das Bohrloch eingetreten ist. Dabei wird das abgetrennte Lagerstaettenwasser untertage in einen geeigneten Horizont unmittelbar wieder injiziert und das Oel (wie bei der konventionellen Foerderung) zutage gepumpt, mit dem Ziel der Nutzung der daraus resultierenden Kosten- und Investitionsersparnis. Ziel dieses Vortrages ist es, einen kurzen Einblick in die erstmalig in Europa angewandte Technik zu geben und von den Erfahrungen des praktizierten Feldversuches zu berichten. (orig.)

  19. Downhole emulsion breaker injection into the lift gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerlef, D.L.; Sindelar, S.T.; McLelland, W.G.; Blumer, D.J.


    A program is in operation at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska which injects emulsion breaker downhole with lift gas to enhance production. This paper addresses the reasons emulsions can limit production in a gas lifted well and the benefits that can be realized by breaking the emulsion downhole. A discussion of the simple but effective produced fluids emulsion screening test and the field implementation of downhole emulsion breaker in wells at Prudhoe Bay are included in this paper.

  20. Design and Analysis of an Active Helical Drive Downhole Tractor (United States)

    LI, Yujia; LIU, Qingyou; CHEN, Yonghua; REN, Tao


    During oil-gas well drilling and completion, downhole tools and apparatus should be conveyed to the destination to complete a series of downhole works. Downhole tractors have been used to convey tools in complex wellbores, however a very large tractive force is needed to carry more downhole tools to accomplish works with high efficiency. A novel serial active helical drive downhole tractor which has significantly improved performance compared with previous work is proposed. All previously reported helical drive downhole tractors need stators to balance the torque generated by the rotator. By contrast, the proposed serial downhole tractor does not need a stator; several rotator-driven units should only be connected to one another to achieve a tractive force multifold higher than that was previously reported. As a result, the length of a single unit is shortened, and the motion flexibility of the downhole tractor is increased. The major performance indicators, namely, gear ratio, velocity, and tractive force, are analyzed. Experimental results show that the maximum tractive force of a single-unit prototype with a length of 900 mm is 165.3 kg or 1620 N. The analysis and experimental results show that the proposed design has considerable potential for downhole works.

  1. Development of a downhole seismic source with controlled waveform; Hakei seigyogata kochu shingen no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, T.; Ikawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Meiho Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kakuma, H. [Akashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Onuma, H. [Engineering Advancement Association of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A downhole seismic source which can output continuous waves having arbitrary waveforms was developed. The development was targeted to make tomographic exploration purposed to evaluate geological properties of a ground bed before and after constructing a building in a ground several hundred meters deep from the ground surface. The source is considered to be used in an environment consisting of soft rocks or more robust rocks and having no casing. It can be used in a well hole having a diameter of 100 mm, is capable of measuring P and S waves in a distance between well holes of up to 100 m, can be used at a depth of up to 500 m, and can output waveforms having seismic source spectra of up to 1000 Hz. An oscillation actuator using laminated piezo-electric elements was used for the oscillation element. The seismic source consists of a hydraulic device to clamp the equipment onto hole walls, piezo-electric elements as the oscillation element, and an inertia weight for applying vibration from above and below. To make an oscillation, the main body is first clamped on the hole wall. For horizontal oscillation, the piezo-electric elements contained in a clamping device provide the horizontal oscillation. For vertical oscillation, the piezo-electric elements placed below the main body oscillates the inertia weight. The initially targeted specifications have been achieved. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Measurement strategies for downhole multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Erling A.; Johansen, Geir Anton; Tollefsen, Jarle; Aabro, Eirik [Bergen Univ.(Norway)


    There will be an increasing demand for multiphase subsea and downhole meters in the future. Both at the sea bottom and downhole the flow regimes in the production pipes or in the manifolds at the templates, may differ from the ideal homogeneous mixture. Further, in line mixers should be avoided to reduce pressure drops and maintenance costs. The next generation multiphase meters will therefore call for flow regime independent and non-intrusive sensor systems. Since all sensor principles used in multiphase flowmeters today are highly dependent on the distribution of the components in the mixture, and thus make the measurement range limited, multi-sensor principles may be the solution to obtain better accuracy for larger ranges of component fractions and applications. Both the capacitance-, conductance-, microwave- and gamma-principles can be used in multi-sensor arrangement to provide cross-sectional information about the component distribution. Hence, the meter can be used at all types of flow regimes and at any position without mixers or separators. (author)

  3. Downhole tool with replaceable tool sleeve sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, W. A.


    A downhole tool for insertion in a drill stem includes elongated cylindrical half sleeve tool sections adapted to be non-rotatably supported on an elongated cylindrical body. The tool sections are mountable on and removable from the body without disconnecting either end of the tool from a drill stem. The half sleeve tool sections are provided with tapered axially extending flanges on their opposite ends which fit in corresponding tapered recesses formed on the tool body and the tool sections are retained on the body by a locknut threadedly engaged with the body and engageable with an axially movable retaining collar. The tool sections may be drivably engaged with axial keys formed on the body or the tool sections may be formed with flat surfaces on the sleeve inner sides cooperable with complementary flat surfaces formed on a reduced diameter portion of the body around which the tool sections are mounted.

  4. Management of umbilical cord clamping. (United States)

    Webbon, Lucy


    The Royal College of Midwives (RCM) has updated its third stage of labour guidelines (RCM 2012) to be clearly supportive of a delay in umbilical cord clamping, although specific guidance on timing is yet to be announced. It is therefore imperative that both midwives and student midwives understand and are able to integrate delaying into their practice, as well as communicating to women the benefits; only in this way can we give women fully informed choices on this aspect of care. The main benefit of delayed cord clamping is the protection it can provide in reducing childhood anaemia, which is a major issue, especially in poorer countries. A review of the evidence found no risks linked to delayed clamping, and no evidence that it cannot be used in combination with the administration of uterotonic drugs. Delayed cord clamping can be especially beneficial for pre term and compromised babies.

  5. Downhole Vibration Monitoring and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. The key feature of this system is its use of a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) to allow the damping coefficient to be changed extensively, rapidly and reversibly without the use of mechanical valves, but only by the application of a current. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. Much of the effort was devoted to the design and testing of the MRF damper, itself. The principal objectives of Phase II were: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in a drilling laboratory. Phase II concluded on January 31, 2006, and a final report was issued. Work on Phase III of the project began during the first quarter, 2006, with the objectives of building precommercial prototypes, testing them in a drilling laboratory and the field; developing and implementing a commercialization plan. All of these have been accomplished. The Downhole Vibration Monitoring & Control System (DVMCS) prototypes have been successfully proven in testing at the TerraTek drilling facility and at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (RMOTC.) Based on the results of these tests, we have signed a definitive development and distribution agreement with Smith, and commercial deployment is underway. This current version of the DVMCS monitors and controls axial vibrations. Due to time and budget constraints of this program, it was not possible to complete a system that would also deal with lateral and torsional (stick-slip) vibrations as originally planned; however, this effort is continuing without DOE

  6. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy Using Robotic Bulldog Clamps



    Background and Objectives: The need for a skilled assistant to perform hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy is a potential limitation of the technique. We describe our experience using robotic bulldog clamps applied by the console surgeon for hilar clamping. Methods: A total of 60 consecutive patients underwent robotic partial nephrectomy, 30 using laparoscopic bulldog clamps applied by the assistant and 30 using robotic bulldog clamps applied with the robotic Prograsp instrument...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Sullivan Mammoth Pacific, L.P.


    Synopsis of project activity: 1998--Awarded cost share grant from DOE. 1st Qtr 1999--Developed fail safe lubricating system. 2nd Qtr 1999--Performed first large scale test with nitrile based bearings. It failed due to material swelling. Failure was blamed on improper tolerance. 3rd Qtr 1999--Material tests were performed with autoclaves and exposure tests to Casa Diablo fluids. Testing of Viton materials began. Alternate bearing designs were developed to limit risk of improper tolerances. 4th Qtr 1999--Site testing indicated a chemical attack on the bearing material caused the test failure and not improper bearing tolerance. 1st Qtr 2000--The assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory was obtained in evaluating the chemical attack. The National Laboratory also began more elaborate laboratory testing on bearing materials. 2nd Qtr 2000--Testing indicated Viton was an inappropriate material due to degradation in Casa Diablo fluid. Testing of EPDM began. 3rd Qtr 2001--EPDM bearings were installed for another large scale test. Bearings failed again due to swelling. Further testing indicated that larger then expected oil concentrations existed in lubricating water geothermal fluid causing bearing failure. 2002-2003--Searched for and tested several materials that would survive in hot salt and oil solutions. Kalrez{reg_sign}, Viton{reg_sign}ETP 500 and Viton{reg_sign}GF were identified as possible candidates. 2003-2005--Kalrez{reg_sign}has shown superior resistance to downhole conditions at Casa Diablo from among the various materials tested. Viton ETP-500 indicated a life expectancy of 13 years and because it is significantly less expensive then Kalrez{reg_sign}, it was selected as the bearing material for future testing. Unfortunately during the laboratory testing period Dupont Chemical chose to stop manufacturing this specific formulation and replaced it with Viton ETP 600S. The material is available with six different fillers; three based on zinc oxide and three

  8. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  9. Radio Polarimetry of 3C119, 3C318, and 3C343 at milliarcsecond resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, F; Junor, W; Saikia, D J; Salter, C J


    We report VLBA polarimetric observations of the CSS sources 3C119, 3C318, and 3C343 at 5 and 8.4 GHz. The CSS source 3C119 has source rest-frame RM values up to ~10200 rad/m**2 in a region which coincides with a change in the direction of the inner jet. This component is located ~325 pc from the core, which is variable and has a peaked radio spectrum. In the case of 3C318, a rest-frame RM of ~3030 rad/m**2 has been estimated for the brightest component which contributes almost all of the polarised emission. Further, two more extended components have been detected, clearly showing "wiggles" in the jet towards the southern side of the source. The CSS source 3C343 contains two peaks of emission and a curved jet embedded in more diffuse emission. It exhibits complex field directions near the emission peaks, which indicate rest-frame RM values in excess of ~6000 rad/m**2. The locations of the cores in 3C318 and 3C343 are not clear. The available data on mas-scale rest-frame RM estimates for CSS sources show that t...

  10. Automated planar patch-clamp. (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens


    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-RueiShiu; Feng-ChuOu; Sih-LiChen


    A new 3C duct design method is proposed for designing a high quality, energy-efficiency cost-effective air duct system. It not only considers the demand of volume flow rate, but also takes into consideration a number of issues including system pressure balance, noise, vibration, space limitation and total system cost. This new method comprises three major calculation procedures:initial computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided simulation (CAS) and correction processes (CP). An example is presented in this study to understand the characteristics of 3C method. It shows that 3C duct design method provides a simple computation procedure for an optimum air duct system. It also shortens the design schedule, prevents human calculation errors, and reduces the dependence on designer experience. In addition to apply in a new duct system design, 3C duct design method is also a powerful design tool for the expansion of an existing duct system.

  12. Multifrequency Excitation of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar R.


    We present analytical and experimental investigation of an electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam under a twosource harmonic excitation. The first frequency is swept around the first mode of vibration where the second one is fixed. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel form top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. We demonstrate the excitation of additive and subtractive type resonance. We show that by properly tuning the frequency and the amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is increased. Theoretically, we solved the eigenvalue problem for different axial forces to find the natural frequencies ratio that match the experimental values. Using Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device where using three symmetric mode shapes provided a good agreement with experimental data. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.

  13. Distributed Temperature Sensing as a downhole tool in hydrogeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Bour, O.; Borgne, Le T.; Coleman, T.; Krause, S.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.; Ciocca, F.; Selker, J.S.


    Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology enables downhole temperature monitoring to study hydrogeological processes at unprecedentedly high frequency and spatial resolution. DTS has been widely applied in passive mode in site investigations of groundwater flow, in-well flow, and subsurfac

  14. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.


    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to de

  15. Analysis list: Clamp [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clamp Cell line + dm3 ...

  16. Is early cord clamping, delayed cord clamping or cord milking best? (United States)

    Vatansever, Binay; Demirel, Gamze; Ciler Eren, Elif; Erel, Ozcan; Neselioglu, Salim; Karavar, Hande Nur; Gundogdu, Semra; Ulfer, Gozde; Bahadir, Selcen; Tastekin, Ayhan


    To compare the antioxidant status of three cord clamping procedures (early clamping, delayed clamping and milking) by analyzing the thiol-disulfide balance. This randomized controlled study enrolled 189 term infants who were divided into three groups according to the cord clamping procedure: early clamping, delayed clamping and milking. Blood samples were collected from the umbilical arteries immediately after clamping, and the thiol/disulfide homeostasis was analyzed. The native and total thiol levels were significantly (p cord clamping group compared with the other two groups. The disulfide/total thiol ratio was significantly (p = .026) lower in the delayed cord clamping and milking groups compared with the early clamping groups. Early cord clamping causes the production of more disulfide bonds and lower thiol levels, indicating that oxidation reactions are increased in the early cord clamping procedure compared with the delayed cord clamping and milking procedures. The oxidant capacity is greater with early cord clamping than with delayed clamping or cord milking. Delayed cord clamping or milking are beneficial in neonatal care, and we suggest that they be performed routinely in all deliveries.

  17. Delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature neonates. (United States)

    Kaempf, Joseph W; Tomlinson, Mark W; Kaempf, Andrew J; Wu, YingXing; Wang, Lian; Tipping, Nicole; Grunkemeier, Gary


    Delayed umbilical cord clamping is reported to increase neonatal blood volume. We estimated the clinical outcomes in premature neonates who had delayed umbilical cord clamping compared with a similar group who had early umbilical cord clamping. This was a before-after investigation comparing early umbilical cord clamping with delayed umbilical cord clamping (45 seconds) in two groups of singleton neonates, very low birth weight (VLBW) (401-1,500 g) and low birth weight (LBW) (greater than 1,500 g but less than 35 weeks gestation). Neonates were excluded from delayed umbilical cord clamping if they needed immediate major resuscitation. Primary outcomes were provision of delivery room resuscitation, hematocrit, red cell transfusions, and the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes. In VLBW neonates (77 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 1,099±266 g; 77 early umbilical cord clamping 1,058±289 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with less delivery room resuscitation, higher Apgar scores at 1 minute, and higher hematocrit. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with significant differences in the overall transfusion rate, peak bilirubin, any of the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes, or mortality. In LBW neonates (172 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 2,159±384 g; 172 early umbilical cord clamping 2,203±447 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with higher hematocrit and was not associated with a change in delivery room resuscitation or Apgar scores or with changes in the transfusion rate or peak bilirubin. Regression analysis showed increasing gestational age and birth weight and delayed umbilical cord clamping were the best predictors of higher hematocrit and less delivery room resuscitation. Delayed umbilical cord clamping can safely be performed in singleton premature neonates and is associated with a higher hematocrit, less delivery room

  18. Loading dynamics of a sliding DNA clamp.

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Won-Ki


    Sliding DNA clamps are loaded at a ss/dsDNA junction by a clamp loader that depends on ATP binding for clamp opening. Sequential ATP hydrolysis results in closure of the clamp so that it completely encircles and diffuses on dsDNA. We followed events during loading of an E. coli β clamp in real time by using single-molecule FRET (smFRET). Three successive FRET states were retained for 0.3 s, 0.7 s, and 9 min: Hydrolysis of the first ATP molecule by the γ clamp loader resulted in closure of the clamp in 0.3 s, and after 0.7 s in the closed conformation, the clamp was released to diffuse on the dsDNA for at least 9 min. An additional single-molecule polarization study revealed that the interfacial domain of the clamp rotated in plane by approximately 8° during clamp closure. The single-molecule polarization and FRET studies thus revealed the real-time dynamics of the ATP-hydrolysis-dependent 3D conformational change of the β clamp during loading at a ss/dsDNA junction.

  19. The RFC clamp loader: structure and function. (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y; O'Donnell, Mike


    The eukaryotic RFC clamp loader couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to open and close the circular PCNA sliding clamp onto primed sites for use by DNA polymerases and repair factors. Structural studies reveal clamp loaders to be heteropentamers. Each subunit contains a region of homology to AAA+ proteins that defines two domains. The AAA+ domains form a right-handed spiral upon binding ATP. This spiral arrangement generates a DNA binding site within the center of RFC. DNA enters the central chamber through a gap between the AAA+ domains of two subunits. Specificity for a primed template junction is achieved by a third domain that blocks DNA, forcing it to bend sharply. Thus only DNA with a flexible joint can bind the central chamber. DNA entry also requires a slot in the PCNA clamp, which is opened upon binding the AAA+ domains of the clamp loader. ATP hydrolysis enables clamp closing and ejection of RFC, completing the clamp loading reaction.

  20. Research on Overflow Monitoring Mechanism Based on Downhole Microflow Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ge


    Full Text Available The flow rate variation of the drilling fluid and micro-overflow loss is difficult to analyze. The purpose to prevent the occurrence of kick, lost circulation, and other complex conditions is not easy to be achieved. Therefore, the microflow-induced annulus multiphase flow rate and annulus pressure field model were studied, and a downhole microflow measurement system has been developed. A differential pressure type flow measurement was used in the system, and real-time downhole information was obtained to achieve deep, narrow windows and other safety-density complex formation security. This paper introduced a new bottom-hole flow meter which can measure the annular flux while drilling and monitor overflow and circulation loss. The accuracy and reliability of the MPD (managed pressure drilling system can be improved obviously by applying the device; as a result, the safety of drilling is enhanced and the cost is reduced.

  1. Program to develop improved downhole drilling motors. Semiannual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.


    The following are described: the history of turbodrill development, positive displacement motor development, the theory of turbodrills, the theory of positive displacement motors, basic motor components, forces on thrust bearings, thrust bearing design, radial bearing design, rotary seal design, sealed lubrication system, lubricants, and project status. Included in appendices are materials on high-temperature lubricants and a progress report on the design of downhole motor seal, bearing, and lubrication test systems. (MHR)

  2. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  3. Mechanical Analysis of the Down-Hole String in a Deep Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-fa; LIU Qing-you; ZHU Xiao-lan


    In a deep well, under high pressure and temperature, the force, deformation, and movement of the downhole string are very complicated. In this paper, based on the analysis of the working environment and load properties of the down-hole string in deep wells, the factors of high temperature, high pressure, and the complex structure of wells have been taken into consideration. The loads of the down-hole string, stability, back buckle configuration, dynamic characteristics, mechanical strength, and deformation have been systematically studied. On this basis, mechanical models of a down-hole string under different conditions have been established and software for aiding analysis has been developed. By using this software, deep well strings under different construction parameters can be simulated and analyzed, providing a theoretical basis and method for down-hole string assembly, as well as string down-hole construction and operation.

  4. How Does Patch Clamp Work?--An easy approach to understanding patch clamp mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关兵才; 李之望


    In order to help patch clamp users,most of whom are not good enough at electrics and electronics,to understandthe complicated principles of patch clamp technique,we present a readily accessible explanation of patch clamp mechanism,in-cluding basic analysis of membrane currents under voltage clamp,achievement of voltage clamp and current recording,capaci-tance compensation,series resistance compensation,voltage offset correction,leak subtraction and current clamp,based on ourworking and teaching experience and with the aid of some useful formulae.

  5. Electrostatic clamp manufactured by novel method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, E. te; Storm, A.; Koster, N.B.


    Electrostatic clamps (ESCs), used in reticle and wafer handling, are presently manufactured using glass bonding and polishing technologies. We present a patented alternative concept to this process, relying on coating and etching processes rather than bonding. We manufactured a first prototype clamp

  6. 21 CFR 870.4450 - Vascular clamp. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular clamp. 870.4450 Section 870.4450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4450 Vascular clamp. (a) Identification. A vascular...

  7. Downhole tools can increase deep drilling rig productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, D.A.; Doiron, H.H.


    Explains how there is much to be gained by better utilization of current drilling equipment, particularly for the much more expensive deep drilling. Optimized mud weight, better hydraulics, and higher rpm offer the best opportunities with increased bit weight as a fourth possibility. Current RandD in such areas as shock absorbers, downhole motors, new materials and designs for bits, and improved instrumentation will decrease drilling costs. Concludes that a reasonable projection is that drilling time for deep wells can be halved within the next decade.

  8. Time to implement delayed cord clamping. (United States)

    McAdams, Ryan M


    Immediate umbilical cord clamping after delivery is routine in the United States despite little evidence to support this practice. Numerous trials in both term and preterm neonates have demonstrated the safety and benefit of delayed cord clamping. In premature neonates, delayed cord clamping has been shown to stabilize transitional circulation, lessening needs for inotropic medications and reducing blood transfusions, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. In term neonates, delayed cord clamping has been associated with decreased iron-deficient anemia and increased iron stores with potential valuable effects that extend beyond the newborn period, including improvements in long-term neurodevelopment. The failure to more broadly implement delayed cord clamping in neonates ignores published benefits of increased placental blood transfusion at birth and may represent an unnecessary harm for vulnerable neonates.

  9. Combat ready clamp medic technique. (United States)

    Tovmassian, Robert V; Kragh, John F; Dubick, Michael A; Baer, David G; Blackbourne, Lorne H


    Junctional hemorrhage control device use on the battlefield might be lifesaving, but little experience is reported. The purpose of the present case report is to detail prehospital use of the Combat Ready Clamp (called the CRoC by its users, Combat Medical Systems, Fayetteville, NC; Instructions for Use, 2010) in casualty care in order to increase awareness of junctional hemorrhage control. The CRoC was used to control difficult inguinal bleeding on the battlefield for an Afghani man with a hindquarter traumatic amputation. The device promptly controlled exsanguination from a critical injury when placed during rotary-wing casualty evacuation. The flight medic applied the device in 90 seconds. The device performed well without complications to control bleeding. The CRoC, a new junctional hemorrhage control device, was used as indicated on the battlefield with mechanical and physiologic success and without device problems. By controlling difficult inguinal bleeding resulting from battlefield trauma, the device facilitated casualty stabilization and delivery to a surgical facility. The device facilitated the ability of a new flight medic to focus his expertise on a critically injured battlefield casualty with demonstrable success. 2012.

  10. Downhole control of deviation with steerable straight-hole turbodrills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynor, T.M.


    Advances in directional drilling have until recently been confined to issues that are peripheral to the central problem of controlling assembly behavior downhole. Examples of these advances are measurement while drilling (MWD) and the increasing use of computer assistance in well planning. These were significant steps forward, but the major problem remained. Changes in formation deviation tendencies led to trips to change bottomhole assemblies (BHA's) to cope with the new conditions. There is almost no direct control of deviation behavior. The steerable straight-hole turbodrill (SST) addresses this problem directly, allowing alteration of the well course without the need to trip. The availability of such a system radically changes the way in which directional well planning may be approached. This paper describes the equipment used and the equipment's construction and operational requirements. It discusses the capabilities and current limitation of the systems. Field results are presented for some 300,000 ft (91 500 m) of deviated drilling carried out over 2 years in Alaska and the North Sea. A series of four highly deviated wells totaling 35,000 ft (10 700m) with only three deviation trips is included. The SST is the first deviation drilling system to achieve deviation control over long sections without tripping to change BHA's. Bits and downhole equipment are now more reliable and long-lived than ever, therefore, deviation trips are becoming a major target for well cost saving.

  11. Downhole stuffing box aids pumping of heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, A.


    Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has found a new way to produce heavy oil from pumping wells. The key component is a bottomhole stuffing box which reduces the friction of the pumping string during the downstroke. The relatively simple system, already proven successful in the Ebano-Panuco area of Mexico, could be easily applied wherever operators are faced with the task of producing highly viscous oil and coping with the problem of constant sucker-rod string breakage. Basically, Pemex' method consists of a special downhole stuffing box and polished rod anchored at the end of the pumping string. The isolated tubing is filled with water to minimize friction, and the heavy oil is produced through the annular space between the tubing and casing strings. With Pemex' new downhole stuffing box, friction is minimized. Even though the system is applicable to practically any type of completion (any size of tubing and casing), Pemex has found it to be ideally suited for wells having 8-5/8-8in. casing or larger. The accompanying line diagram of a hookup for a well with 8-5/8-in. casing and 3-in. tubing shows the necessary installations. The stuffing box features a groove bolt at the top to allow tightening of a packing element without having to remove the assembly from the hole.

  12. Dynamic clamp with StdpC software. (United States)

    Kemenes, Ildikó; Marra, Vincenzo; Crossley, Michael; Samu, Dávid; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György; Nowotny, Thomas


    Dynamic clamp is a powerful method that allows the introduction of artificial electrical components into target cells to simulate ionic conductances and synaptic inputs. This method is based on a fast cycle of measuring the membrane potential of a cell, calculating the current of a desired simulated component using an appropriate model and injecting this current into the cell. Here we present a dynamic clamp protocol using free, fully integrated, open-source software (StdpC, for spike timing-dependent plasticity clamp). Use of this protocol does not require specialist hardware, costly commercial software, experience in real-time operating systems or a strong programming background. The software enables the configuration and operation of a wide range of complex and fully automated dynamic clamp experiments through an intuitive and powerful interface with a minimal initial lead time of a few hours. After initial configuration, experimental results can be generated within minutes of establishing cell recording.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Polymerase Clamp Loaders (United States)

    Kelch, Brian; Makino, Debora; Simonetta, Kyle; O'Donnell, Mike; Kuriyan, John

    Clamp loaders are ATP-driven multiprotein machines that couple ATP hydrolysis to the opening and closing of a circular protein ring around DNA. This ring-shaped clamp slides along DNA, and interacts with numerous proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and cell cycle control. Recently determined structures of clamp loader complexes from prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases have revealed exciting new details of how these complex AAA+ machines perform this essential clamp loading function. This review serves as background to John Kuriyan's lecture at the 2010 Erice School, and is not meant as a comprehensive review of the contributions of the many scientists who have advanced this field. These lecture notes are derived from recent reviews and research papers from our groups.

  14. Clamp force and alignment checking device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Cai, Wayne W.; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Mink, Keith


    A check fixture measures a total clamp force applied by a welder device. The welder device includes a welding horn having a plurality of weld pads and welding anvil having a plurality of weld pads. The check fixture includes a base member operatively supporting a plurality of force sensors. The base member and the force sensors are received between the weld pads of the welding horn and the anvil pads of the welding anvil. Each force sensor is configured to measure an individual clamp force applied thereto by corresponding weld and anvil pads when the base member is received between the welding horn and the welding anvil and the welder device is in the clamped position. The individual clamp forces are used to determine whether the weld and/or anvil pads are worn or misaligned.

  15. Ergonomic redesign and evaluation of a clamping tool handle. (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Chul; Hallbeck, M Susan


    The handle of a commercial bar clamp was redesigned using ergonomic principles and then compared with an original clamp. Ten male and ten female students participated in simulated clamping tasks under various conditions, including different clamping heights, clamping methods, and handle-gripping methods, with respect to the dependent variables of clamping and handle-squeezing forces. The results showed that the redesigned clamp produced larger clamping force with lower handle-squeezing forces than the original clamp. As expected, males exerted more force than females in both clamping and squeezing forces. A pistol grip method was superior to an upside-down handle-gripping method. Two-handed operation was recommended for this type of clamp by simultaneously pulling the trigger and sliding the bar in order to initially tighten around objects. This study shows that the application of ergonomic guidelines increases the efficiency and usability of manual handtools.

  16. 275 C Downhole Switched-Mode Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Hutchens; Vijay Madhuravasal


    A vee-square (V2) control based controller IC is developed for a switch mode power supply capable of operating at extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions. A buck type regulator with silicon carbide power junction field effect transistors (JFET) as power devices is used to analyze the performance of controller. Special emphases are made on the analog sub-blocks--voltage reference, operational transconductance amplifier and comparator as individual building blocks. Transformer coupled gate drives and high temperature operable magnetic cores and capacitors are identified and tested for use in the design. Conventional ceramic chip packaging of ICs combined with lead carrier type mounting of passive filter components is introduced for hybrid packaging of the complete product. The developed SMPS is anticipated to support the operation of down-hole microcontrollers and other electronics devices that require low/medium power filtered dc inputs over an operating temperature of 275 C.

  17. Experimental studies of operating characteristics of a downhole electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, E.M.; Sergeev, A.I.; Sheinman, A.B.


    A new type of electric downhole heater for deparaffinization and heating of formations in oil wells is described. The heater is a hollow hermetic cylinder, which contains an electrode insulated from the body of the heater. The cylinder contains a predetemined volume of water of fixed electrical resistance. Resistance of this water is adjusted by addition of salt. A cable supplying the electrode with electric current also ground the heater by body. The current passes through the water, heats it, and produces steam. The steam heats up the hermetically sealed body of the heater, and heat flows to the well fluid around the heater. A schematic diagram of the heater is shown. Thermal output of the heater depends on current supplied, dimension of heater and components, resistance and volume of water in heater, and other parameters. All these factors are correlated with heat output by a series of graphs and equations.

  18. Rotating pulse valve for downhole fluid telemetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.


    An apparatus for generating pressure pulses in a drilling fluid in a drill collar section of a drill string is described comprising: rotating valve means substantially diametrically mounted in a drill string segment, said rotating valve means alternating between a first position corresponding to more resistance to the flow of drilling fluid and a second position corresponding to less resistance to the flow of drilling fluid, said rotating valve means being impelled by the flow of drilling fluid; and restraining means disposed in the drill collar segment, said restraining means restraining said rotating valve means in said first position and releasing said rotating valve means from said first position in response to control signals indicative of a downhole condition.

  19. Passive Downhole Pressure Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology. (United States)

    Quintero, Sully M M; Figueiredo, Sávio W O; Takahashi, Victor L; Llerena, Roberth A W; Braga, Arthur M B


    A passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) pressure sensor was developed for real-time pressure monitoring in downhole application. The passive pressure sensor consists of a SAW resonator, which is attached to a circular metal diaphragm used as a pressure transducer. While the membrane deflects as a function of pressure applied, the frequency response changes due to the variation of the SAW propagation parameters. The sensitivity and linearity of the SAW pressure sensor were measured to be 8.3 kHz/bar and 0.999, respectively. The experimental results were validated with a hybrid analytical-numerical analysis. The good results combined with the robust design and packaging for harsh environment demonstrated it to be a promising sensor for industrial applications.

  20. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques (United States)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  1. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.


    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  2. Program to develop improved downhole drilling motors. Semi-annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.


    Research progress is reported in two main sections: downhole drilling motor design and design of downhole motor seal, bearing, and test lubrication systems. Information on downhole drilling motor design is presented under the following subsection headings: Turbodrill development; positive displacement motor development; theory of Turbodrills; theory of positive displacement motors; basic motor components; forces on thrust bearings; thrust bearing design; radial bearing design; rotary seal design; sealed lubrication system; lubricants; and project status. The appendix contains information on high temperature lubricants. Information on the design of downhole motor seal, bearing, and test lubrication systems is presented under the following subsection headings: seal, bearing, and lubrication test design criteria; basic test conditions; independent and dependent variable parameters; alternative concepts for seal test apparatus; design of the seal test system; and bearing test system description. A schedule for remaining tasks is included. (JGB)

  3. Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

  4. Arterial clamping leads to stenosis at clamp sites after femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, Bianca H. R.; Pol, Robert A.; Hulsebos, Robin G.; van Det, Rob J.; van der Palen, Job; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Geelkerken, Robert H.


    BACKGROUND: To date, the incidence and clinical relevance of arterial stenosis at clamp sites after femoropopliteal bypass surgery is unknown. METHODS: Ninety-four patients underwent a femoropopliteal bypass in which the arterial inflow and outflow clamp sites were controlled by the Fogarty-Soft-Inl

  5. Arterial clamping leads to stenosis at clamp sites after femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, Bianca H.R.; Pol, Robert A.; Hulsebos, Robin G.; Det, van Rob J.; Palen, van der Job; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Geelkerken, Robert H.


    Background To date, the incidence and clinical relevance of arterial stenosis at clamp sites after femoropopliteal bypass surgery is unknown. Methods Ninety-four patients underwent a femoropopliteal bypass in which the arterial inflow and outflow clamp sites were controlled by the Fogarty-Soft-Inla

  6. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals


    Yue Shen; Ling-Tan Zhang; Shi-Li Cui; Li-Min Sheng; Lin Li; Yi-Nao Su


    The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path...

  7. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.


    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Vascular clamping in liver surgery: physiology, indications and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherqui Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the historical evolution of hepatic vascular clamping and their indications. The anatomic basis for partial and complete vascular clamping will be discussed, as will the rationales of continuous and intermittent vascular clamping. Specific techniques discussed and described include inflow clamping (Pringle maneuver, extra-hepatic selective clamping and intraglissonian clamping and outflow clamping (total vascular exclusion, hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow. The fundamental role of a low Central Venous Pressure during open and laparoscopic hepatectomy is described, as is the difference in their intra-operative measurements. The biological basis for ischemic preconditioning will be elucidated. Although the potential dangers of vascular clamping and the development of modern coagulation devices question the need for systemic clamping; the pre-operative factors and unforseen intra-operative events that mandate the use of hepatic vascular clamping will be highlighted.

  9. Compact, Stiff, Remotely-Actuable Quick-Release Clamp (United States)

    Tsai, Ted W. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a clamp that is compact and lightweight, yet provides high holding strength and stiffness or rigidity. The clamp uses a unique double slant interface design which provides mechanical advantages to resist forces applied to the clamp member as the load increases. The clamp allows for rapid and remote-activated release of the clamp jaws by applying only a small operating force to an over-center lock/release mechanism, such as by pulling a manual tether.

  10. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia


    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  11. Design and application of multifunctional stomach clamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Fu Lu; Pi Wu Li; Xir Xin Zhang


    AIM Pylorus and pyloric vagus preserving gastrectomy (PPVPG) is an efficient operation mode for treatinggastric and duodenal ulcers. For its better application and popularization, we have designed andmanufactured a special multifunctional stomach clamp.METHODS The clamp has been designed carefully in view of the different sizes of the patients' stomachsand the different starting points of Latarjer nerves so as to facilitate the execution of the present operationmode, which requires the preservation of the vagus innervated pyloric region so as to make the remnantstomach maintain its normal physiological function and the vagus branches clinging antral seromuscular flapkept in proper size so that avoiding too much remaining antral mucosa is removed to cause greater difficultyin operation. With this in view, we observed and measured the distance between the Latarjer nerves distribution and the pyloric rings of 42 patients' stomachs in the course of operations. We bent an aluminumstring 3 mm thick for each stomach according to the size of antral seromuecular flap and chose an optimalcurvature from the 42 sizes for manufacturing the clamp. The clamp is made of 3 Cr13 stainless steel,consisting of three parts, the curved head, the fastening ring and the handle. The curved head is shapedalmost exactly like the remained antral seromuscular flap. The ring at its tip when in place fastens the twosides of the clamp so that the tissue of the stomach between will be clutched by an even force. On one sideare three cuts for moving the ring upwards, each cut representing 1 mm for fastening and adjustments can bemade in view of the thickness or thinness of the tissue. The handles bend backward for fighting shy of thecuts so as to facilitate the operation.RESULTS With the stomach disassociated in the light of PPVPG procedures, the clamp may easily beapplied from the upper part of the Latarjer nerves. The following merits can be noted. ① The curving line ofthe flap can be precisely

  12. Downhole water flow controller for aquifer storage recovery wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, R.D.


    This patent describes a downhole flow control device for continuous automatic control of water flowing into or out of wells, aquifers and the like through pipe columns. The upper end of the first tubular member is mounted to the pipe column so as to be in fluid communication therewith. The lower end of the first tubular member is substantially closed. A second tubular member is mounted concentrically within and proximate to the first tubular member and has an open upper end and side walls and a substantially closed lower end. First openings are spaced in vertical relationship to the second openings. Third openings are through the second tubular member. The second tubular member is vertically movable with respect to the first tubular member so as to selectively align the third openings with either of the first and second openings. Biasing means are located between the lower ends of the first and second tubular members for normally urging the second tubular member vertically upward with respect to the first tubular member. The biasing means are yieldable upon the introduction of water into the pump column to permit the second tubular member to be vertically displaced relative to the first tubular member to thereby close the third openings with respect to the first or second openings. The third openings align with one of the first and second openings dependent upon the direction of fluid flow within the pipe column.

  13. Drilling Optimization Utilizing Surface Instrumentaton for Downhole Event Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins


    This DOE project was undertaken to develop and test an instrumented data-acquisition sub that is mounted in a drill string below the top drive and used to detect downhole events. Data recorded at the surface during drilling operations would then be processed and presented to the driller to discern undesirable drilling conditions and help optimize drilling rates and maximize the life of components in the BHA. This instrumented sub was originally conceived and developed solely as a single-point collection center for rig data that would be used in a number of Noble's products. The sub was designed to collect hook load, rotary torque, rotary speed, rotary position, drill pipe pressure, mud temperature, triaxial vibration, and triaxial magnetometer data. The original design and fabrication was by Sandia National Labs under Noble's direction, which was then tested with Sandia's diagnostics-while-drilling downhole package. After initial results were analyzed, the team surmised that important information describing performance and condition of the bottom-hole assembly (BHA) was embedded in the data recorded by the instrumented sub, and began investigating the potential of using surface measurements from the sub to highlight problems occurring downhole before they could be discerned by the driller. Later, a proposal was submitted to DOE for funding to more broadly investigate use of the system for detecting downhole problems while drilling. Soon after DOE awarded this contract, the Noble team responsible for the previous developments was disbanded and their work terminated (due to factors unrelated to the sub development). This change halted the complementary work that Noble had planned to conduct during the DOE project, and necessitated that all the development work be completed by the DOE project. More effort was expended on the project to develop a field-ready prototype than was originally foreseen. The sub's design had to be significantly modified

  14. Prolonged penile strangulation with metal clamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chirag Patel; Richard Kim; Michael Delterzo; Run Wang


    Various different objects have been reported to strangulate the penis. We reported on a patient who used metal radiator clamps for an extended period of time. Workup included history, physical examination and urinalysis. The patient was taken to the operating room for further evaluation with cystourethroscopy and orthopedic wire cutters were used to break the metal bands.

  15. Cerebral haemodynamics during carotid cross-clamping. (United States)

    Pistolese, G R; Ippoliti, A; Appolloni, A; Ronchey, S; Faraglia, V


    Carotid artery cross-clamping ischaemia during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) causes 5-30% of perioperative neurological deficits. This study was performed to identify possible clinical situations at higher risk for carotid cross-clamping ischaemia. 606 consecutive patients underwent CEA and were retrospectively studied; they were grouped according to risk factors, presence of associated vascular diseases, clinical pattern, angiographic and CT scan findings. Stump pressure measurement was provided in all patients, perioperative monitoring during CEA was performed by electroencephalogram (EEG) in 469 (77%) and somatosensorial evoked potentials (SEP) in 137 (23%). Local anaesthesia was used in 88 (14.5%) patients. Ischaemic changes during carotid cross-clamping were registered in 118 patients (19.5%). The incidence of cross-clamping ischaemia was then related to different factors; it affected 5.6% of asymptomatics, 25.4% of patients with fixed stroke and 38.5% of those with stenosis and contralateral occlusion. Angiographic and clinical correlation showed that patients with more severe lesions are mostly affected by clamping ischaemia (up to 55% in those with stroke and stenosis with contralateral occlusion). Age, hypertension and diabetes do not significantly affect incidence of ischaemic changes. Positive CT scan increased this risk; statistical relevance was found in regard to patients with unilateral or bilateral stenosis and in those with transient ischaemic attacks. A higher risk can be expected for subjects with more severe clinical and instrumental findings, even if no patients can be considered completely at risk or risk free. Perioperative monitoring is always mandatory and is of great importance in detecting ischaemic changes and preventing cerebral damage using a temporary intraluminal shunt.

  16. Dynamics and Stability of Pinned-Clamped and Clamped-Pinned Cylindrical Shells Conveying Fluid (United States)

    Misra, A. K.; Wong, S. S. T.; Païdoussis, M. P.


    The paper examines the dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells having pinned-clamped or clamped-pinned boundary conditions, where ``pinned'' is an abbreviation for ``simply supported''. Flügge's equations are used to describe the shell motion, while the fluid-dynamic perturbation pressure is obtained utilizing the linearized potential flow theory. The solution is obtained using two methods - the travelling wave method and the Fourier-transform approach. The results obtained by both methods suggest that the negative damping of the clamped-pinned systems and positive damping of the pinned-clamped systems, observed by previous investigators for any arbitrarily small flow velocity, are simply numerical artefacts; this is reinforced by energy considerations, in which the work done by the fluid on the shell is shown to be zero. Hence, it is concluded that both systems are conservative.

  17. Imperfect space clamp permits electrotonic interactions between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic conductances, distorting voltage clamp recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Poleg-Polsky

    Full Text Available The voltage clamp technique is frequently used to examine the strength and composition of synaptic input to neurons. Even accounting for imperfect voltage control of the entire cell membrane ("space clamp", it is often assumed that currents measured at the soma are a proportional indicator of the postsynaptic conductance. Here, using NEURON simulation software to model somatic recordings from morphologically realistic neurons, we show that excitatory conductances recorded in voltage clamp mode are distorted significantly by neighboring inhibitory conductances, even when the postsynaptic membrane potential starts at the reversal potential of the inhibitory conductance. Analogous effects are observed when inhibitory postsynaptic currents are recorded at the reversal potential of the excitatory conductance. Escape potentials in poorly clamped dendrites reduce the amplitude of excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded at the reversal potential of the other conductance. In addition, unclamped postsynaptic inhibitory conductances linearize the recorded current-voltage relationship of excitatory inputs comprising AMPAR and NMDAR-mediated components, leading to significant underestimation of the relative contribution by NMDARs, which are particularly sensitive to small perturbations in membrane potential. Voltage clamp accuracy varies substantially between neurons and dendritic arbors of different morphology; as expected, more reliable recordings are obtained from dendrites near the soma, but up to 80% of the synaptic signal on thin, distant dendrites may be lost when postsynaptic interactions are present. These limitations of the voltage clamp technique may explain how postsynaptic effects on synaptic transmission could, in some cases, be attributed incorrectly to presynaptic mechanisms.

  18. A Modelling Study for Predicting Life of Downhole Tubes Considering Service Environmental Parameters and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Zhao


    Full Text Available A modelling effort was made to try to predict the life of downhole tubes or casings, synthetically considering the effect of service influencing factors on corrosion rate. Based on the discussed corrosion mechanism and corrosion processes of downhole tubes, a mathematic model was established. For downhole tubes, the influencing factors are environmental parameters and stress, which vary with service duration. Stress and the environmental parameters including water content, partial pressure of H2S and CO2, pH value, total pressure and temperature, were considered to be time-dependent. Based on the model, life-span of an L80 downhole tube in oilfield Halfaya, an oilfield in Iraq, was predicted. The results show that life-span of the L80 downhole tube in Halfaya is 247 months (approximately 20 years under initial stress of 0.1 yield strength and 641 months (approximately 53 years under no initial stress, which indicates that an initial stress of 0.1 yield strength will reduce the life-span by more than half.

  19. Imaging hydraulic fractures by microseismic migration for downhole monitoring system (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Zhang, Haijiang


    It has been a challenge to accurately characterize fracture zones created by hydraulic fracturing from microseismic event locations. This is because generally detected events are not complete due to the associated low signal to noise ratio and some fracturing stages may not produce microseismic events even if fractures are well developed. As a result, spatial distribution of microseismic events may not well represent fractured zones by hydraulic fracturing. Here, we propose a new way to characterize the fractured zones by reverse time migration (RTM) of microseismic waveforms from some events. This is based on the fact that fractures filled with proppants and other fluids can act as strong scatterers for seismic waves. Therefore, for multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, recorded waveforms from microseismic events induced in a more recent stage may be scattered by fractured zones from previous stages. Through RTM of microseismic waveforms in the current stage, we can determine fractured zones created in previous stages by imaging area of strong scattering. We test the feasibility of this method using synthetic models with different configurations of microseismic event locations and borehole sensor positions for a 2D downhole microseismic monitoring system. Synthetic tests show that with a few events fractured zones can be directly imaged and thus the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) can be estimated. Compared to the conventional location-based SRV estimation method, the proposed new method does not depend on the completeness of detected events and only a limited number of detected and located events are necessary for characterizing fracture distribution. For simplicity, the 2D model is used for illustrating the concept of microseismic RTM for imaging the fracture zone but the method can be adapted to real cases in the future.

  20. Towards a Dynamic Clamp for Neurochemical Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Maria Rivera


    Full Text Available The classic dynamic clamp technique uses a real-time electrical interface between living cells and neural simulations in order to investigate hypotheses about neural function and structure. One of the acknowledged drawbacks of that technique is the limited control of the cells’ chemical microenvironment. In this manuscript, we use a novel combination of nanosensor and microfluidic technology and microfluidic and neural simulations to add sensing and control of chemical concentrations to the dynamic clamp technique. Specifically, we use a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip to generate distinct chemical concentration gradients (ions or neuromodulators, to register the concentrations with embedded nanosensors and use the processed signals as an input to simulations of a neural cell. The ultimate goal of this project is to close the loop and provide sensor signals to the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip to mimic the interaction of the simulated cell with other cells in its chemical environment.

  1. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of carotid artery clamps. (United States)

    Dujovny, M; Kossovsky, N; Kossowsky, R; Segal, R; Diaz, F G; Kaufman, H; Perlin, A; Cook, E E


    The mechanical and metallurgical properties of carotid artery clamps were evaluated. The pressure plate retreat propensity, metallurgical composition, surface morphology, magnetic properties, and corrosion resistance of the Crutchfield, Selverstone, Salibi, and Kindt clamps were tested. None of the clamps showed evidence of pressure plate retreat. The clamps differed significantly in their composition, surface cleanliness, magnetic properties, and corrosion resistance. The Crutchfield clamp was the only one manufactured from an ASTM-ANSI-approved implantable stainless steel (AISI 316) and the only clamp in which the surfaces were clean and free of debris. The Selverstone clamp was made principally from AISI 304 stainless steel, as was one Salibi clamp. The pressure plate on another Salibi clamp was made from a 1% chromium and 1% manganese steel. Machining and surface debris consisting principally of aluminum, silicon, and sulfur was abundant on the Selverstone and Salibi clamps. The Kindt clamp was manufactured from AISI 301 stainless steel with a silicate-aluminized outer coating. The Crutchfield and Selverstone clamps were essentially nonferromagnetic, whereas the Salibi and Kindt clamps were sensitive to magnetic flux. In the pitting potential corrosion test, the Crutchfield clamp demonstrated good corrosion resistance with a pitting potential of 310 mV and no surface corrosion or pitting by scanning electron microscopy examination. The Selverstone clamp had lower pitting potentials and showed various degrees of corrosion and surface pitting by scanning electron microscopy. The Salibi pressure plate had a very low pitting potential of -525 mV and showed severe corrosion. By metallurgical criteria, only the Crutchfield clamp is suitable for long term implantation.

  2. Γ-source Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    Transformer based Z-source inverters are recently proposed to achieve promising buck-boost capability. They have improved higher buck-boost capability, smaller size and less components count over Z-source inverters. On the other hand, neutral point clamped inverters have less switching stress...... and better output performance comparing with traditional two-level inverters. Integrating these two types of configurations can help neutral point inverters achieve enhanced votlage buck-boost capability....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An active valve for use e.g. in fluidic microsystems is provided, wherein the active valve comprises a membrane having at least one flow gate, arranged between a first and a second substantially rigid element. Adjusting means provides an adjustment of the clamping force on membrane arranged between...... the first and second substantially rigid element. Hereby the flow rate through the active valve can be continuously and precisely controlled....

  4. Vibration of an eccentrically clamped annular plate (United States)

    Tseng, J.-G.; Wickert, J. A.


    Small amplitude vibration of an eccentric annular plate, which is free along its outer edge and clamped along the interior, is investigated through experimental and analytical methods. A disk with this geometry, or a stacked array in which the clamping and symmetry axes of each disk are nominally coincident, is common in data storage and brake systems applications. In the present case, the geometric imperfections on the boundary can have important implications for the disk's dynamic response. Changes that occur in the natural frequency spectrum, the mode shapes, and the free response under eccentric mounting are studied through laboratory measurements and an approximate discrete model of the plate. The natural frequencies and modes are found through global discretization of the Kamke quotient for a classical thin plate. For the axisymmetric geometry, the natural frequencies of the sine and cosine vibration modes for a specified number of nodal diameters are repeated. With increasing eccentricity, on the other hand, each pair of repeated frequencies splits at a rate that depends on the number of nodal diameters. Over a range of clamping and eccentricity ratios, the model's predictions are compared to the measured results.

  5. Numerical simulation of surface and downhole deformation induced by hydraulic fracturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Yi-Yuan; Zhang Bao-Ping; Duan Yu-Ting; Xue Cheng-Jin; Yan Xin; He Chuan; Hu Tian-Yue


    Tiltmeter mapping technology infers hydraulic fracture geometry by measuring fracture-induced rock deformation, which recorded by highly sensitive tiltmeters placed at the surface and in nearby observation wells. By referencing Okada’s linear elastic theory and Green’s function method, we simulate and analyze the surface and downhole deformation caused by hydraulic fracturing using the homogeneous elastic half-space model and layered elastic model. Simulation results suggest that there is not much difference in the surface deformation patterns between the two models, but there is a significant difference in the downhole deformation patterns when hydraulic fracturing penetrates a stratum. In such cases, it is not suitable to assume uniform elastic half-space when calculating the downhole deformation. This work may improve the accuracy and reliability of the inversion results of tiltmeter monitoring data.

  6. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens


    , distributed pressure measurements from wired pipe, and statistical change detection methods. Using statistical change detection methods, it is possible to detect the incidents and their location at a very early stage when small changes in operating parameters are covered in measurement noise. The method has......Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...

  7. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens


    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics......, distributed pressure measurements from wired pipe, and statistical change detection methods. Using statistical change detection methods, it is possible to detect the incidents and their location at a very early stage when small changes in operating parameters are covered in measurement noise. The method has...

  8. Apparatus and method for compensating for clock drift in downhole drilling components (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy


    A precise downhole clock that compensates for drift includes a prescaler configured to receive electrical pulses from an oscillator. The prescaler is configured to output a series of clock pulses. The prescaler outputs each clock pulse after counting a preloaded number of electrical pulses from the oscillator. The prescaler is operably connected to a compensator module for adjusting the number loaded into the prescaler. By adjusting the number that is loaded into the prescaler, the timing may be advanced or retarded to more accurately synchronize the clock pulses with a reference time source. The compensator module is controlled by a counter-based trigger module configured to trigger the compensator module to load a value into the prescaler. Finally, a time-base logic module is configured to calculate the drift of the downhole clock by comparing the time of the downhole clock with a reference time source.

  9. Design Enhancement and Performance Examination of External Rotor Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for Downhole Application (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Sulaiman, E.; Soomro, H. A.; Jusoh, L. I.; Bahrim, F. S.; Omar, M. F.


    The recent change in innovation and employments of high-temperature magnets, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) has turned out to be one of the suitable contenders for seaward boring, however, less intended for downhole because of high atmospheric temperature. Subsequently, this extensive review manages the design enhancement and performance examination of external rotor PMFSM for the downhole application. Preparatory, the essential design parameters required for machine configuration are computed numerically. At that point, the design enhancement strategy is actualized through deterministic technique. At last, preliminary and refined execution of the machine is contrasted and as a consequence, the yield torque is raised from 16.39Nm to 33.57Nm while depreciating the cogging torque and PM weight up to 1.77Nm and 0.79kg, individually. In this manner, it is inferred that purposed enhanced design of 12slot-22pole with external rotor is convenient for the downhole application.

  10. Multilevel-clamped multilevel converters (MLC2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Bellar, Maria Dias; Muñoz-Aguliar, Raúl Santiago;


    This letter introduces a new series of multilevel (ML) converters based on the ML clamping concept. By applying this technique, a ML clamping unit (MCU) conveys additional levels for synthesizing the output waveforms of a diode-clampedML dc– ac power converter. The basic building block of the ML ...

  11. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov


    Full Text Available Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and defines the conditions to ensure the trouble-free clamping lock. The circular and rhombic clamping of pallet is simultaneous. Further, a clamping load is calculated from the pallet mass (together with the work-piece and the geometric parameters of the pallet clamping.The paper reveals three movement stages of the clamping lock in a vertical plane when setting the pallet in work positioning:- a clamping lock free play till it encounters with the location bushing;- a clamping lock play length when the lead-in chamfer contacts the bushing chamfer;- a clamping lock play length over the circular surface of bushing.The study of this process has allowed us to calculate the time of pallet clamping and dynamic loads acting on the clamping lock. These calculations made it possible to calculate the required diameter of the clamping lock. The presented calculations allow a reasonable assigning the main design parameters of work positioning for the pallet automatic lines.

  12. Single molecule study of a processivity clamp sliding on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, T A; Kwon, Y; Johnson, A; Hollars, C; O?Donnell, M; Camarero, J A; Barsky, D


    Using solution based single molecule spectroscopy, we study the motion of the polIII {beta}-subunit DNA sliding clamp ('{beta}-clamp') on DNA. Present in all cellular (and some viral) forms of life, DNA sliding clamps attach to polymerases and allow rapid, processive replication of DNA. In the absence of other proteins, the DNA sliding clamps are thought to 'freely slide' along the DNA; however, the abundance of positively charged residues along the inner surface may create favorable electrostatic contact with the highly negatively charged DNA. We have performed single-molecule measurements on a fluorescently labeled {beta}-clamp loaded onto freely diffusing plasmids annealed with fluorescently labeled primers of up to 90 bases. We find that the diffusion constant for 1D diffusion of the {beta}-clamp on DNA satisfies D {le} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/s, much slower than the frictionless limit of D = 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2}/s. We find that the {beta} clamp remains at the 3-foot end in the presence of E. coli single-stranded binding protein (SSB), which would allow for a sliding clamp to wait for binding of the DNA polymerase. Replacement of SSB with Human RP-A eliminates this interaction; free movement of sliding clamp and poor binding of clamp loader to the junction allows sliding clamp to accumulate on DNA. This result implies that the clamp not only acts as a tether, but also a placeholder.

  13. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460 Section 882.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used...

  14. Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Plamp


    As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to

  15. NATO-3C/Delta launch (United States)


    NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.

  16. Analyzing polarization swings in 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Kiehlmann, S; Jorstad, S G; Sokolovsky, K V; Schinzel, F K; Agudo, I; Arkharov, A A; Benitez, E; Berdyugin, A; Blinov, D A; Bochkarev, N G; Borman, G A; Burenkov, A N; Casadio, C; Doroshenko, V T; Efimova, N V; Fukazawa, Y; Gomez, J L; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Heidt, J; Hiriart, D; Itoh, R; Joshi, M; Kimeridze, G N; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Korobtsev, I V; Kovalev, Y Y; Krajci, T; Kurtanidze, O; Kurtanidze, S O; Larionov, V M; Larionova, E G; Larionova, L V; Lindfors, E; Lopez, J M; Marscher, A P; McHardy, I M; Molina, S N; Morozova, D A; Nazarov, S V; Nikolashvili, M G; Nilsson, K; Pulatova, N G; Reinthal, R; Sadun, A; Sergeev, S G; Sigua, L A; Sorcia, M; Spiridonova, O I; Takalo, L O; Taylor, B; Troitsky, I S; Ugolkova, L S; Zensus, J A; Zhdanova, V E


    Quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit episodes of optical polarization angle rotation. We present new, well-sampled optical polarization data for 3C 279 and introduce a method to distinguish between random and deterministic electric vector position angle (EVPA) variations. We observe EVPA rotations in both directions with different amplitudes and find that the EVPA variation shows characteristics of both random and deterministic cases. Our analysis indicates that the EVPA variation is likely dominated by a random process in the low brightness state of the jet and by a deterministic process in the flaring state.

  17. Analyzing polarization swings in 3C 279

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiehlmann S.


    Full Text Available Quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit episodes of optical polarization angle rotation. We present new, well-sampled optical polarization data for 3C 279 and introduce a method to distinguish between random and deterministic electric vector position angle (EVPA variations. We observe EVPA rotations in both directions with different amplitudes and find that the EVPA variation shows characteristics of both random and deterministic cases. Our analysis indicates that the EVPA variation is likely dominated by a random process in the low brightness state of the jet and by a deterministic process in the flaring state.

  18. Timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants. (United States)

    Ceriani Cernadas, José María


    For at least over 200 years, multiple controversies have arisen around the timing of umbilical cord clamping. In the past decades, early cord clamping (within the first 15 seconds) had markedly prevailed. Only in the 21st century, randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefits of delayed cord clamping (at 2-3 minutes). Delayed cord clamping has been practiced in obstetrics based on the recommendations made by scientific societies and in systematic reviews, which have provided solid evidence to support this practice in term infants. This review describes the most relevant factors supporting the use of delayed cord clamping in term infants. It points out the essential role played by physiological mechanisms which, undoubtedly, allow us to understand the benefits of delayed cord clamping and advise us to wait for what nature has established. Other relevant aspects supporting delayed cord clamping are also described here. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. L3+C air shower array

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    Photo 01: a view of the L3+C air shower array; 50 scintillators on the roof of the SX-hall above L3. Photo 02: view of one of the detectors of the array.Photo 04: detectors seen against the background of the LEP Point 2 facilities.

  20. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.


    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely

  1. Effect on the Performance of Drilling Fluids at Downhole Rock Surfaces at Low Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming Zheng; Guosheng Jiang; Tianle Liu; Fulong Ning; Ling Zhang; V F Chikhotkin


    To maintain gas hydrate stability, low-temperature drilling fluids and high drilling speeds should be used while drilling in gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The effect of the drilling fluid on downhole rock surfaces at low temperatures is very important to increase the drilling rate. This paper analyzed the action mechanism of the drilling fluid on downhole rock surfaces and established a corresponding evaluation method. The softening effect of six simulated drilling fluids with 0.1 wt.% of four common surfactants and two common organic salts on the downhole rock surface strength was evaluated experimentally using the established method at low temperature. The experimental results showed that the surfactants and organic salts used in the drilling fluids aided in the reduction of the strength of the downhole rock surface, and the established evaluation method was able to quantitatively reveal the difference in the softening effect of the different drilling fluids through comparison with water. In particular, the most common surfactant that is used in drilling fluids, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), had a very good softening effect while drilling under low-temperature conditions, which can be widely applied during drilling in low-temperature formations, such as natural gas hydrate-bearing sediments, the deep seafloor and permafrost.

  2. Soft-sensing for multilateral wells with downhole pressure and temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruif, B.J. de; Leskens, M.; Linden, R. van der; Alberts, G.J.N.


    Real-time monitoring of downhole oil, gas and water flows in wells can significantly improve the production performance of these wells when this flow rate information is used to manipulate inflow control valves. An example of this is the allocation of a gas or water cone to its entrance point in a m

  3. Downhole multiphase metering in wells by means of soft-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.; Kruif, B. de; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Gryzlov, A.


    Multiphase flow meters are indispensable tools for achieving optimal operation and control of wells as these meters deliver real-time information about their performance. For example, multiphase flow meters located downhole can improve the production of multilateral and multizone wells by timely all

  4. A downhole passive sampling system to avoid bias and error from groundwater sample handling. (United States)

    Britt, Sanford L; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A


    A new downhole groundwater sampler reduces bias and error due to sample handling and exposure while introducing minimal disturbance to natural flow conditions in the formation and well. This "In Situ Sealed", "ISS", or "Snap" sampling device includes removable/lab-ready sample bottles, a sampler device to hold double end-opening sample bottles in an open position, and a line for lowering the sampler system and triggering closure of the bottles downhole. Before deployment, each bottle is set open at both ends to allow flow-through during installation and equilibration downhole. Bottles are triggered to close downhole without well purging; the method is therefore "passive" or "nonpurge". The sample is retrieved in a sealed condition and remains unexposed until analysis. Data from six field studies comparing ISS sampling with traditional methods indicate ISS samples typically yield higher volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations; in one case, significant chemical-specific differentials between sampling methods were discernible. For arsenic, filtered and unfiltered purge results were negatively and positively biased, respectively, compared to ISS results. Inorganic constituents showed parity with traditional methods. Overall, the ISS is versatile, avoids low VOC recovery bias, and enhances reproducibility while avoiding sampling complexity and purge water disposal.

  5. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen


    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  6. Optimization of a clamped plate silencer. (United States)

    Wang, Chunqi; Han, Jun; Huang, Lixi


    A previous theoretical study [L. Huang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2628-2638 (2006)] shows that, in a duct, a simply supported plate covering a side-branch rigid cavity can function effectively as a wave reflector over a broad range of low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the boundary condition of clamped plate, which is easier to implement in practice. The theoretical model is tested experimentally using balsawood, which has a very high stiffness to mass ratio. The spectral peaks and shapes of the measured TL are in agreement with those calculated theoretically, attempts are also made to account for the considerable sound absorption in the rig. Further numerical studies based on the validated model show that, for a uniform plate, the optimal stopband is narrower and the lower band limit is worse than that of the simply supported configuration. However, a wave reflector using nonuniform, clamped plates with thinner ends out-performs the simply supported configuration in every aspect. Analyses show that the improvement is attributed to the increased acoustic radiation efficiency over the bulk length of the nonuniform plate, which behaves more like a rigid plate.

  7. Multifrequency observations of extended radio galaxies V - 3C 31, 3C 33.1, 3C 35, 3C 66B, 3C 129, 3C 130, 3C 223, 3C 310, 3C 390.3 and 4C 48.29 (United States)

    van Breugel, W.; Jagers, W.


    A sample of 3C radio sources of large angular size has been observed in total and polarized intensity at several wavelengths with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The sources were selected such that their largest angular size was greater than about 200 arcsec and their declination greater than about 25 degrees. Some additional sources with radio jets or peculiar morphology were also included. The name of each source, its structural type classification, wavelength of observation, and data references are given.

  8. Obstetricians' attitudes and beliefs regarding umbilical cord clamping. (United States)

    Jelin, Angie C; Kuppermann, Miriam; Erickson, Kristine; Clyman, Ronald; Schulkin, Jay


    Although delayed umbilical cord clamping has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal sepsis, and decrease the need for neonatal transfusions (without affecting cord pH, Apgar scores or the need for phototherapy), the extent to which this practice is being employed is unknown. We conducted a survey of US obstetricians to assess their attitudes and beliefs about cord clamping. Questionnaires were randomly mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (CARN). The data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student t tests. The response rates for the CARN and other ACOG members were 47% and 21%, respectively. Most (88%) responders reported their hospital had no umbilical cord clamping policy. The most frequent response for optimal timing of umbilical cord clamping, regardless of gestational age, was "don't know". Potential for neonatal red blood cell transfusion was the only concern cited as a reason for being somewhat or very inclined to delay umbilical cord clamping (51%). Delayed neonatal resuscitation (76%) was listed as a reason to clamp the cord immediately, despite the paucity of literature to support immediate cord clamping in this cohort. Despite substantial evidence supporting the practice of delayed cord clamping, few institutions have policies regarding this practice. Moreover, obstetricians' beliefs about the appropriate timing for umbilical cord clamping are not consistent with the evidence that demonstrates its beneficial impact on neonatal outcomes.

  9. Delayed cord clamping and cord gas analysis at birth. (United States)

    Xodo, Serena; Xodo, Luigi; Berghella, Vincenzo


    Delayed cord clamping for at least 60 seconds in both term and preterm babies is a major recent change in clinical care. Delayed cord clamping has several effects on other possible interventions. One of these is the effect of delayed cord clamping on umbilical artery gas analysis. When indicated, umbilical artery gas analysis can safely be done either with early cord clamping, or, probably most of the times it is necessary, during delayed cord clamping with the cord still unclamped. Paired blood samples (one from the umbilical artery and one from the umbilical vein) can be taken from the pulsating and unclamped cord, immediately after birth, during delayed cord clamping, without any effect on either the accuracy of umbilical artery gas analysis or on the transfusion of blood through delayed cord clamping. Umbilical artery gas analysis should instead not be done after delayed cord clamping, since delayed cord clamping alters several acid-based parameters and lactate values. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. ALMA Polarization Science Verification: 3C 286 (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Amigano, A.; Vlahakis, C.; Remijan, A.; ALMA Polarization Team


    The ALMA polarization science verification results on 3C 286 are presented. The measured polarization percentage and polarization position angle of the continuum emission at 1.3 mm are about 16% and 39 degrees, respectively. They are quite similar to those at longer wavelength, but seem to increase slightly. Similar trends were also found in the previous measurement using the IRAM 30-m telescope (Agudo et al. 2012). The final image rms on the polarization image is better than 0.1% of the total intensity, demonstrating the very high polarization sensitivity of ALMA.

  11. Thermal stiffening of clamped elastic ribbons (United States)

    Wan, Duanduan; Nelson, David R.; Bowick, Mark J.


    We use molecular dynamics to study the vibrations of a thermally fluctuating two-dimensional elastic membrane clamped at both ends. We directly extract the eigenmodes from resonant peaks in the frequency domain of the time-dependent height and measure the dependence of the corresponding eigenfrequencies on the microscopic bending rigidity of the membrane, taking care also of the subtle role of thermal contraction in generating a tension when the projected area is fixed. At finite temperatures we show that the effective (macroscopic) bending rigidity tends to a constant as the bare bending rigidity vanishes, consistent with theoretical arguments that the large-scale bending rigidity of the membrane arises from a strong thermal renormalization of the microscopic bending rigidity. Experimental realizations include covalently bonded two-dimensional atomically thin membranes such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide or soft matter systems such as the spectrin skeleton of red blood cells or diblock copolymers.

  12. The multiwavelength variability of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Soldi, S; Paltani, S; Aller, H D; Aller, M F; Bürki, G; Chernyakova, M; Lähteenmäki, A; McHardy, I M; Robson, E I; Staubert, R; Tornikoski, M; Walter, R; Courvoisier, T J -L


    We present an update of 3C 273's database hosted by the ISDC, completed with data from radio to gamma-ray observations over the last 10 years. We use this large data set to study the multiwavelength properties of this quasar,especially focussing on its variability behaviour. We study the amplitude of the variations and the maximum variability time scales across the broad-band spectrum and correlate the light curves in different bands, specifically with the X-rays, to search for possible connections between the emission at different energies. 3C 273 shows variability at all frequencies, with amplitudes and time scales strongly depending on the energy and being the signatures of the different emission mechanisms. The variability properties of the X-ray band imply the presence of either two separate components (possibly a Seyfert-like and a blazar-like) or at least two parameters with distinct timing properties to account for the X-ray emission below and above ~20 keV. The dominant hard X-ray emission is most pr...

  13. The PCNA-RFC families of DNA clamps and clamp loaders. (United States)

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J


    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCNA functions at multiple levels in directing DNA metabolic pathways. Unbound to DNA, PCNA promotes localization of replication factors with a consensus PCNA-binding domain to replication factories. When bound to DNA, PCNA organizes various proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA modification, and chromatin modeling. Its modification by ubiquitin directs the cellular response to DNA damage. The ring-like PCNA homotrimer encircles double-stranded DNA and slides spontaneously across it. Loading of PCNA onto DNA at template-primer junctions is performed in an ATP-dependent process by replication factor C (RFC), a heteropentameric AAA+ protein complex consisting of the Rfc1, Rfc2, Rfc3, Rfc4, and Rfc5 subunits. Loading of yeast PCNA (POL30) is mechanistically distinct from analogous processes in E. coli (beta subunit by the gamma complex) and bacteriophage T4 (gp45 by gp44/62). Multiple stepwise ATP-binding events to RFC are required to load PCNA onto primed DNA. This stepwise mechanism should permit editing of this process at individual steps and allow for divergence of the default process into more specialized modes. Indeed, alternative RFC complexes consisting of the small RFC subunits together with an alternative Rfc1-like subunit have been identified. A complex required for the DNA damage checkpoint contains the Rad24 subunit, a complex required for sister chromatid cohesion contains the Ctf18 subunit, and a complex that aids in genome stability contains the Elg1 subunit. Only the RFC-Rad24 complex has a known associated clamp, a heterotrimeric complex consisting of Rad17, Mec3, and Ddc1. The other putative clamp loaders could either act on clamps yet to be identified or act on the two known clamps.

  14. Analysis of Contact Characteristic of Overhead Line and Suspension Clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xinze


    Full Text Available In this paper, a LGJ150/25 type ACSR transmission line and a CGU-3 type suspension clamp are taken as research objects. A contact model of the conductor and the clamp was established by using finite element method. The effects of sag angle of the conductor, holding force and tension force in section are analyzed. The results showed that the contact area in the middle of the clamp is of belt-like type. The extreme values of tress were observed on the edge of the contact area and near the edge of keeper. In clamp section, suspension angle had the greatest influence on contact stress, and then the clamp force. The tension force in section played a most important role in these affecting factors. In the exit section of clamp, the biggest impact factor was tension force in this section, then the suspension angle, the third was clamp force. The results provide theoretical basis on reducing corona loss, optimization the clamp. Doubtlessly, the conclusion has important theoretical significance and application value.

  15. Advanced patch-clamp techniques and single-channel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biskup, B; Elzenga, JTM; Homann, U; Thiel, G; Wissing, F; Maathuis, FJM


    Much of our knowledge of ion-transport mechanisms in plant cell membranes comes from experiments using voltage-clamp. This technique allows the measurement of ionic currents across the membrane, whilst the voltage is held under experimental control. The patch-clamp technique was developed to study t

  16. Studying mechanosensitive ion channels with an automated patch clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthmes, Maria; Jose, Mac Donald F; Birkner, Jan Peter; Brüggemann, Andrea; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Kocer, Armagan


    Patch clamp electrophysiology is the main technique to study mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs), however, conventional patch clamping is laborious and success and output depends on the skills of the operator. Even though automated patch systems solve these problems for other ion channels, they cou

  17. Applications of alcohol clamping in early drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, Remco Wiebe Martijn


    This thesis describes the development of a novel alcohol clamp, a new method to obtain stable plasma levels of alcohol and its application in CNS-research. The method might have several advantages that were explored in subsequent studies described in this thesis. The stability of the alcohol clamp w


    Raju, Tonse N. K.; Singal, Nalini


    Synopsis This paper provides a brief overview of pros and cons of clamping the cord too early (within seconds) after birth. It also highlights evolving data that suggests that delaying cord clamping for 30–60 seconds after birth is beneficial to the baby and the mother, with no measurable negative effects. PMID:23164185

  19. 21 CFR 876.5160 - Urological clamp for males. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological clamp for males. 876.5160 Section 876.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5160 Urological clamp for...

  20. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin


    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-ε Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  1. Sonde for Downhole Measurement of Water Turbidity and Dye Tracer Concentration


    Schnegg, Pierre-André; Bossy, F.


    A new flow-through field fluorometer sonde has been designed for use in downhole tracer tests in 2’’ boreholes. The instrument is capable of determining the partial concentration of two dye tracers present simultaneously in the water. In addition, turbidity can be measured if the water is free of tracers. Although the sonde is aimed at boreholed hydrological investigations, it can also be used in surface waters.

  2. Fluid flow monitoring in oilfields using downhole measurements of electrokinetic potential (United States)

    Jackson, M. D.; Saunders, J. H.; Pain, C. C.


    Permanently installed downhole sensors are increasingly being deployed to provide `real-time' reservoir data during hydrocarbon production, which helps to reduce uncertainty in the reservoir description and contributes to reservoir management decisions. Where wells are equipped with inflow control valves (so called `intelligent' wells), it is possible to develop a feedback loop between measurement and control to optimize production. We suggest that measurements of electrokinetic potential during production, using permanently installed downhole electrodes, could be used to detect water encroachment towards an intelligent oil well. Downhole electrodes mounted at the production well on the outside of insulated casing, have been successfully applied in subsurface resistivity surveys during oil production. Similar technology could be used to measure electrokinetic potential. Moreover, recent and ongoing work has changed our understanding of electrokinetic coupling under two-phase conditions. We present the results of numerical simulations of fluid movement during hydrocarbon production, using a new formulation which captures both the changing fluid distributions and the resulting electrical potentials. We suggest that encroaching water causes changes in electrokinetic potential at the production well which could be resolved above background electrical noise; indeed, changes in water saturation could be detected several 10's to 100's of metres away from the well. This contrasts with most other downhole monitoring techniques, which sample only the region immediately adjacent to the wellbore. Signal resolution is improved if the water has a relatively low salinity, and the pressure gradient into the well is large. However, significant uncertainties remain concerning the nature of electrokinetic coupling during the flow of oil and water, particularly in mixed and oil-wet reservoirs.

  3. Back azimuth constrained double-difference seismic location and tomography for downhole microseismic monitoring (United States)

    Chen, Yukuan; Zhang, Haijiang; Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yinsheng; Liu, Qiang


    We have developed a new seismic tomography method, back azimuth constrained double-difference (DD) seismic tomography, which is suitable for downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing. The new method simultaneously locates microseismic events and determines three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models for the fracturing zone using differential arrival times from pairs of events and event back azimuths in addition to absolute arrival times. Compared to the existing DD location and tomography method, our method incorporates back azimuth information to better constrain microseismic event locations in the case of poor spatial station coverage such as the linear downhole seismic array generally used for microseismic monitoring. By incorporating the relative arrival time and back azimuth information of events, the extended DD method can provide better relative event locations, and thus can better characterize the fracture distribution. In addition to microseismic locations, seismic velocity anomalies determined around the fracturing zone may also provide valuable information for fracture development. Due to the existence of fractures and fluids, the seismic velocity is expected to be lower in the fractured zone compared to the surrounding regions. Therefore the area of low seismic velocity anomaly may be used as a proxy for the stimulated reservoir volume. We have applied the new method to a downhole microseismic dataset from shale gas hydraulic fracturing. The microseismic events are more accurately relocated than the conventional grid search location method, and they are generally associated with low velocity anomalies.

  4. Development and Application of the Downhole Drilling String Shock-Absorption and Hydraulic Supercharging Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwang Liu


    Full Text Available It is a hot topic for deep/ultradeep wells to improve rock-breaking efficiency and drilling speed by available downhole energy. Based on different downhole energies and working conditions, specialized plunger pump is proposed to convert longitudinal vibration of drilling string into rock-breaking energy. Technical design is developed to generate high-pressure water jet. And then a simulation model is built to verify feasibility of the technical design. Through simulation, the influence law of key factors is obtained. On this basis, this device is tested in several wells. The result indicates this device can increase drilling speed as much as 136%. Meanwhile the harmful vibration can be absorbed. The energy from drilling string vibration is of high frequency and increases as well depth and formation anisotropy increase. By reducing adverse vibration, this device is able to increase the drilling speed and the service life also meets the demand of field application. The longest working time lasts for more than 130 hours. The performance of this device demonstrates great application prospect in deep/ultradeep resources exploration. To provide more equipment support for deep/ultradeep wells, more effort should be put into fundamental study on downhole drill string vibration and related equipment.

  5. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang


    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  6. FBG sensing temperature characteristic and application in oil/gas down-hole measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaomin LI; Xiaoying LIU; You LI; Shenlong YANG; Chong LIU


    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been used to sense numerous parameters such as strain, temperature, and pressure. Cost-effective multipoint measurements have been achieved by connecting FBGs in parallel, serial, and other topologies as well as by using spatial, wavelength, and time-domain multiplexing techniques. This paper presents a method of measuring temperature of the oil/gas down-hole. Detailed contents include the basic theory and characteristics of fiber gratings, analysis of the sensing mechanism of fiber-optic gratings, and the cross-sensitivity effect between temperature and strain; the method of making the light-source of the fiber-optic gratings and the technology of measuring wavelength shift, building an experimental system of the temperature measurement, and dealing with the experimental data. The paper makes a comparison of several kinds of FBG sensing systems used in oil/gas down-hole to measure temperature and the analysis of the experimental results of building the temperature measurement experimental sys-tem. It demonstrates that the fiber-optic grating sensing method is the best choice in all methods of measuring temperature in oil/gas down-hole, which has a brilliant applied prospect.

  7. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping (United States)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth


    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  8. Photometric reverberation mapping of 3C120

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, F Pozo; Westhues, C; Bruckmann, C; Haas, M; Chini, R; Steenbrugge, K; Murphy, M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219107


    We present the results of a five month monitoring campaign of the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) 3C120. Observations with a median sampling of two days were conducted with the robotic 15cm telescope VYSOS-6 located near Cerro Armazones in Chile. Broad band (B,V) and narrow band (NB) filters were used in order to measure fluxes of the AGN and the H_beta broad line region (BLR) emission line. The NB flux is constituted by about 50% continuum and 50% H_beta emission line. To disentangle line and continuum flux, a synthetic H_beta light curve was created by subtracting a scaled V-band light curve from the NB light curve. Here we show that the H_beta emission line responds to continuum variations with a rest frame lag of 23.6 +/- 1.69 days. We estimate a virial mass of the central black hole M_BH = 57 +/- 27 * 10^6 solar masses, by combining the obtained lag with the velocity dispersion of a single contemporaneous spectrum. Using the flux variation gradient (FVG) method, we determined the host galaxy subtracte...

  9. Low-frequency study of two giant radio galaxies: 3C 35 and 3C 223 (United States)

    Orrù, E.; Murgia, M.; Feretti, L.; Govoni, F.; Giovannini, G.; Lane, W.; Kassim, N.; Paladino, R.


    Aims: Radio galaxies with a projected linear size ⪆1 Mpc are classified as giant radio sources. According to the current interpretation these are old sources which have evolved in a low-density ambient medium. Because radiative losses are negligible at low frequency, extending spectral aging studies in this frequency range will allow us to determine the zero-age electron spectrum injected and then to improve the estimate of the synchrotron age of the source. Methods: We present Very Large Array images at 74 MHz and 327 MHz of two giant radio sources: 3C 35 and 3C 223. We performed a spectral study using 74, 327, 608 and 1400 GHz images. The spectral shape is estimated in different positions along the source. Results: The radio spectrum follows a power-law in the hotspots, while in the inner region of the lobe the shape of the spectrum shows a curvature at high frequencies. This steepening agrees with synchrotron aging of the emitting relativistic electrons. In order to estimate the synchrotron age of the sources, the spectra were fitted with a synchrotron model of emission. They show that 3C 35 is an old source of 143 ± 20 Myr, while 3C 223 is a younger source of 72 ± 4 Myr.

  10. Trends in Aortic Clamp Use During Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: The Effect of Aortic Clamping Strategies on Neurologic Outcomes (United States)

    Daniel, William T.; Kilgo, Patrick; Puskas, John D.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Lattouf, Omar M.; Guyton, Robert A.; Halkos, Michael E.


    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of different clamping strategies during CABG on the incidence of postoperative stroke. Methods In this case-control study, all patients at Emory hospitals from 2002–2009 with postoperative stroke after isolated CABG (N=141) were matched 1:4 to a contemporaneous cohort of patients without postoperative stroke (N=565). Patients were matched according to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Predicted Risk of Postoperative Stroke (PROPS), which is based on 26 variables. On- (ONCAB) and off-pump (OPCAB) patients were matched separately. Multiple logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratios (OR) was performed to identify operative variables associated with postoperative stroke. Results Among the ONCAB cohort, the single cross-clamp technique was associated with a decreased risk of stroke compared to the double clamp (cross clamp + partial clamp) technique (OR=0.385, p=0.044). Within the OPCAB cohort, there was no significant difference in stroke according to clamp use. Epiaortic ultrasound of the ascending aorta increased from 45.3% in 2002 to 89.4% in 2009. From 2002–2009, clamp use decreased from 97.7% of cases to 72.7%. Conclusions During ONCAB, the use of a single cross-clamp compared to the double clamp technique decreases the risk of postoperative stroke. The use of any aortic clamp has decreased and epiaortic ultrasound use has increased from 2002–2009, indicating a change in operative technique and surgeon awareness of the potential complications associated with manipulation of the aorta. PMID:23477689

  11. Committee Opinion No. 684: Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth. (United States)


    Delayed umbilical cord clamping appears to be beneficial for term and preterm infants. In term infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping increases hemoglobin levels at birth and improves iron stores in the first several months of life, which may have a favorable effect on developmental outcomes. There is a small increase in jaundice that requires phototherapy in this group of infants. Consequently, health care providers adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants should ensure that mechanisms are in place to monitor for and treat neonatal jaundice. In preterm infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant neonatal benefits, including improved transitional circulation, better establishment of red blood cell volume, decreased need for blood transfusion, and lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage or increased blood loss at delivery, nor was it associated with a difference in postpartum hemoglobin levels or the need for blood transfusion. Given the benefits to most newborns and concordant with other professional organizations, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in vigorous term and preterm infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth. The ability to provide delayed umbilical cord clamping may vary among institutions and settings; decisions in those circumstances are best made by the team caring for the mother-infant dyad.

  12. Effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on blood gas analysis. (United States)

    Valero, Javier; Desantes, Domingo; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Rubio, Juan; Diago Almela, Vicente J; Perales, Alfredo


    To ascertain if there are differences in umbilical cord blood gas analysis between immediate and delayed cord clamping. In a prospective observational study on 60 vaginally delivered healthy term newborns, we sampled umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery and at the time umbilical cord pulsation spontaneously ceased. There were significant decreases in pH, oxygen saturation (sO(2)), glycemia, oxygen content (ctO(2)), bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) and base excess (BE). Lactate and [Formula: see text] increased. Delayed cord clamping pH correlated with immediate cord clamping pH, [Formula: see text] , ctHb, sO(2) and time (r(2)=0.77, pcord clamping lactate was associated with immediate cord clamping lactate and time (r(2)=0.83, pcord clamping alters acid-base parameters and lactate values compared to immediate cord clamping. Those variations depend mainly on time, prior pH and lactate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single electrode dynamic clamp with StdpC. (United States)

    Samu, David; Marra, Vincenzo; Kemenes, Ildiko; Crossley, Michael; Kemenes, György; Staras, Kevin; Nowotny, Thomas


    Dynamic clamp is a powerful approach for electrophysiological investigations allowing researchers to introduce artificial electrical components into target neurons to simulate ionic conductances, chemical or electrotonic inputs or connections to other cells. Due to the rapidly changing and potentially large current injections during dynamic clamp, problematic voltage artifacts appear on the electrode used to inject dynamic clamp currents into a target neuron. Dynamic clamp experiments, therefore, typically use two separate electrodes in the same cell, one for recording membrane potential and one for injecting currents. The requirement for two independent electrodes has been a limiting factor for the use of dynamic clamp in applications where dual recordings of this kind are difficult or impossible to achieve. The recent development of an active electrode compensation (AEC) method has overcome some of these prior limitations, permitting artifact-free dynamic clamp experimentation with a single electrode. Here we describe an AEC method for the free dynamic clamp software StdpC. The AEC component of StdpC is the first such system implemented for the use of non-expert users and comes with a set of semi-automated configuration and calibration procedures that facilitate its use. We briefly introduce the AEC method and its implementation in StdpC and then validate it with an electronic model cell and in two different biological preparations.

  14. Avoiding aortic clamping during CABG reduces postoperative stroke (United States)

    Moss, Emmanuel; Puskas, John D; Thourani, Vinod H; Kilgo, Patrick; Chen, Edward P; Leshnower, Bradley G; Lattouf, Omar M; Guyton, Robert A.; Glas, Kathryn E; Halkos, Michael E.


    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether the incidence of postoperative stroke (PS) could be reduced by eliminating aortic clamping during CABG. Methods From 2002–2013, 12,079 patients underwent primary, isolated CABG at a single US academic institution. Aortic manipulation was completely avoided by using in-situ internal mammary arteries for inflow in 1,552 (12.9%) patients (no-touch), a clampless facilitating device (CFD) was used for proximal anastomoses in 1,548 (12.8%) patients, and aortic clamping was used in 8,979 (74.3%) patients. These strategies were assessed in a logistic regression model controlling for relevant variables. Results The overall incidence of PS was 1.4% (n=165), with an unadjusted incidence of 0.6% (n=10) in the no-touch group, 1.2% (n=18) in the CFD group, and 1.5% (n=137) in the clamp group (p<0.01 for no-touch vs clamp). The ratio of observed to expected stroke rate increased as the degree of aortic manipulation increased, from 0.48 in the no-touch group, to 0.61 in the CFD group, and 0.95 in the clamp group. Aortic clamping was independently associated with an increase in PS compared to a no-touch technique (AOR 2.50, p<0.01). When separated by CPB utilization, both the off-pump partial clamp and on-pump cross-clamp techniques increased the risk of PS compared to no-touch (AOR 2.52, p<0.01 and AOR 4.25, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion A no-aortic touch technique has the lowest risk for postoperative stroke for patients undergoing CABG. Clamping the aorta during CABG increases the risk of PS, regardless of the severity of aortic disease. PMID:25293356

  15. Is "Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping" Beneficial for Premature Newborns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian


    Full Text Available Background: The appropriate moment for clamping the umbilical cord is controversial. Immediate cord clamping (ICC is an item of active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL. Unclamped umbilical cord may cause inconvenience in preterm neonates because they commonly need some levels of emergent services. Some studies revealed delayed cord clamping (DCC of preterm neonates results in better health conditions like lower rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, less morbidities in labor room and lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on premature neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this single‑center randomized control trial study, sixty premature neonates (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks were randomly assigned to ICC (cord clamped at 5–10 seconds or DCC (30–45 seconds groups and followed up in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Primary outcomes were 1st and 5th minute Apgar score, average of level of hematocrit after birth, intra ventricle hemorrhage and need some levels of resuscitation. Results: Differences in demographic characteristics were not statistically significant. After birth, neonates who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean hematocrit after at 4-hour of birth (49.58+5.15gr/dl vs. 46.58+5.40gr/dlin DCC vs. ICC groups, respectively (P=0.031. Delayed cord clamping reduced the duration of need to nasal continues positive airway pressure (NCPAP (86.7% and 60.0% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P= 0.039. Attractively, the results showed lower incidence of clinical sepsis in delayed cord clamping neonates (53.3% vs. 23.3% in ICC and DCC groups, respectively, P=0.033. Conclusion: Prematurity complications might decrease by delay umbilical cord clamping which improve the hematocrit, duration of need to NCPAP and incidence of clinical sepsis. Furthermore, DCC may have no negative impact on neonatal resuscitation.

  16. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2. (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula


    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments.

  17. Integral transform solutions of dynamic response of a clamped-clamped pipe conveying fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Jijun; An Chen [Ocean Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68508, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Duan Menglan [Offshore Oil/Gas Research Center, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Levi, Carlos [Ocean Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68508, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Su Jian, E-mail: [Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic response of pipe conveying fluid was studied numerically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) was applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical solutions with automatic global accuracy control were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent convergence behavior was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modal separation analysis was carried out and the influence of mass ratio was analyzed. - Abstract: Analysis of dynamic response of pipe conveying fluid is an important aspect in nuclear power plant design. In the present paper, dynamic response of a clamped-clamped pipe conveying fluid was solved by the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The governing partial differential equation was transformed into a set of second-order ordinary differential equations which is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DIVPAG from IMSL Library. A thorough convergence analysis was performed to yield sets of reference results of the transverse deflection at different time and spanwise position. We found good agreement between the computed natural frequencies at mode 1-3 and those obtained by previous theoretical study. Besides, modal separation analysis was carried out and the influence of mass ratio on deflection and natural frequencies was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed.

  18. Dynamic Study of a Capacitive MEMS Switch with Double Clamped-Clamped Microbeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Samaali


    Full Text Available We study a capacitive MEMS switch composed of two clamped-clamped exible microbeams. We first develop a mathematical model for the MEMS switch where the upper microbeam represents the ground transmission line and the lower one represents the central transmission line. An electrostatic force is applied between the two microbeams to yield the switch to its ON and OFF states. We derive the equations of motion of the system and associated boundary conditions and solve the static and dynamic problems using the differential quadratic method. We show that using only nine grid points gives relatively accurate results when compared to those obtained using FEM. We also examine the transient behavior of the microswitch and obtain results indicating that subsequent reduction in actuation voltage, switching time, and power consumption are expected along with relatively good RF performances. ANSYS HFSS simulator is used in this paper to extract the RF characteristics of the microswitch. HFSS simulation results show that the insertion loss is as low as −0.31 dB and that the return loss is better than −12.41 dB at 10 GHz in the ON state. At the OFF state, the isolation is lower than −23 dB in the range of 10 to 50 GHz.

  19. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48 (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan


    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  20. A clamp-like biohybrid catalyst for DNA oxidation (United States)

    van Dongen, Stijn F. M.; Clerx, Joost; Nørgaard, Kasper; Bloemberg, Tom G.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Trakselis, Michael A.; Nelson, Scott W.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.


    In processive catalysis, a catalyst binds to a substrate and remains bound as it performs several consecutive reactions, as exemplified by DNA polymerases. Processivity is essential in nature and is often mediated by a clamp-like structure that physically tethers the catalyst to its (polymeric) template. In the case of the bacteriophage T4 replisome, a dedicated clamp protein acts as a processivity mediator by encircling DNA and subsequently recruiting its polymerase. Here we use this DNA-binding protein to construct a biohybrid catalyst. Conjugation of the clamp protein to a chemical catalyst with sequence-specific oxidation behaviour formed a catalytic clamp that can be loaded onto a DNA plasmid. The catalytic activity of the biohybrid catalyst was visualized using a procedure based on an atomic force microscopy method that detects and spatially locates oxidized sites in DNA. Varying the experimental conditions enabled switching between processive and distributive catalysis and influencing the sliding direction of this rotaxane-like catalyst.

  1. The cardiovascular effects of aortic clamping and unclamping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increase in the slope of the Ea line represents an increase in ... increase. (for example as the subject exercises), stroke work ... aortic clamping is that afterload and blood pressure increase ..... nitroglycerine does not increase heart rate nor.

  2. Delay in Clamping Umbilical Cord Benefits Babies, Doctors Say (United States)

    ... doctors' group said. Although delayed clamping increases the newborn's risk of jaundice that will require treatment, ACOG said there's no evidence that waiting increases the mother's risk of hemorrhage. The guidelines are to be published in the ...

  3. Planar patch-clamp force microscopy on living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamir, Evren [Center for Nano Science, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Amalienstr 54, 80799 Munich (Germany); George, Michael; Fertig, Niels [Nanion Technologies GmbH, Erzgiessereistr. 4, 80335 Munich (Germany); Benoit, Martin [Center for Nano Science, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Amalienstr 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)], E-mail:


    Here we report a new combination of the patch-clamp technique with the atomic force microscope (AFM). A planar patch-clamp chip microstructured from borosilicate glass was used as a support for mechanical probing of living cells. The setup not only allows for immobilizing even a non-adherent cell for measurements of its mechanical properties, but also for simultaneously measuring the electrophysiological properties of a single cell. As a proof of principle experiment we measured the voltage-induced membrane movement of HEK293 and Jurkat cells in the whole-cell voltage clamp configuration. The results of these measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. By using the planar patch-clamp chip for immobilization, the AFM not only can image non-adhering cells, but also gets easily access to an electrophysiologically controlled cellular probe at low vibrational noise.

  4. [Time of cord clamping and neonatal complications, a prospective study]. (United States)

    Rincón, D; Foguet, A; Rojas, M; Segarra, E; Sacristán, E; Teixidor, R; Ortega, A


    To assess the effects of early or late clamping of the umbilical cord in term newborns, assessing the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ferritin, and their correlation with some of the complications. A prospective study of healthy newborns at term or born by dystotic or eutocic delivery in our hospital between May 2009 until May 2010. Patients were assigned according to the time of clamping, group 1 (clamping (g1: 111 mg/dl, g2: 125 mg/dl, g3: 173 mg/dl; pcord clamping is associated with an increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin and ferritin at 48 hours of life, as well as an increased risk of polycythemia present with symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Choosing the wire clamp microdrive for termosonic microwelding equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.


    Full Text Available The article describes research of three types of wire clamp microdrive for termosonic microwelding equipment, covering an expanded range microconductors from 12,5 up to 75 mm. The most preferable, in the light of their high-speed and easy-programming qualities, proved to be the mechanisms of conductor clamp with piezoelement drives and the loading system based on "voice-coil" type electromagnet.

  6. Prehospital Emergency Inguinal Clamp Controls Hemorrhage in Cadaver Model (United States)


    the CRoC preassembled for quick use. The clamp compresses the casualty’s tissues and is unat- tached to things like a litter. When screwed down, it is...for use on the battlefield to control difficult bleeds in the inguinal area. Study Design The study design was a sequence of experiments of clamp...temperature 4 hours before testing. The torso was rotated onto a wood block to intubate the aorta through a left thoracotomy incision. The thoracic aorta

  7. Lotus birth, a holistic approach on physiological cord clamping. (United States)

    Zinsser, Laura A


    The positive effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been extensively researched. DCC means: waiting at least one minute after birth before clamping and cutting the cord or till the pulsation has stopped. With physiological clamping and cutting (PCC) the clamping and cutting can happen at the earliest after the pulsation has stopped. With a Lotus birth, no clamping and cutting of the cord is done. A woman called Clair Lotus Day imitated the holistic approach of PCC from an anthropoid ape in 1974. The chimpanzee did not separate the placenta from the newborn. The aim of this case report is to discuss and learn a different approach in the third stage of labour. Three cases of Lotus birth by human beings were observed. All three women gave birth in an out-of-hospital setting and had ambulant postnatal care. The placenta was washed, salted and herbs were put on 2-3h post partum. The placenta was wrapped in something that absorbs the moisture. The salting was repeated with a degreasing frequency depending on moistness of the placenta. On life day six all three Lotus babies experiences a natural separation of the cord. All three Lotus birth cases were unproblematic, no special incidence occurred. One should differentiate between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and physiological cord clamping (PCC). Lotus birth might lead to an optimisation of the bonding and attachment. Research is needed in the areas of both PCC and Lotus birth. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Injected Fluids on Pre-existing Faults observed from Surface and Downhole Seismic Arrays (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Niu, F.; Chen, H.; Zuo, Q.


    Hydraulic fracturing is the key stimulation technology to improve unconventional hydrocarbon recovery. It involves pumping high-pressure fluid into reservoir rocks to force the opening of cracks, which could allow oil and gas to flow freely. The effects of injected fluids and associated stress changes on pre-existing faults must be monitored carefully to avoid undesirable ruptures. We deployed a small-scale seismic array consisting of 22 broadband seismographs at the surface and 20 downhole seismographs to study the dynamic processes involved in hydraulic fracturing. The simultaneous monitoring of surface and downhole seismic array could increase the detectability of microseismic events and enhance location accuracy. The downhole seismic array detected a total of 7270 microseismic events and 961 events were recorded by surface seismic array with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). We found that induced seismicity occurred during and after the fluid injection with large spatial variations. This is also true to the inverted focal mechanisms. We noticed that several clusters of events are located >1 km away from the perforation shots such that their occurrence seems to have no direct involvement of the inject fluid. More likely they seem to be triggered slips on pre-existing faults. The pre-existing faults were reactivated by the injection of the early stages, and the triggered seismicity continued during the later operation regardless whether there is inflow of the fluid injected by the later stages. Overall, the "dry" triggered remote seismicity seems to have a higher average magnitude and a lower b-value in comparison with the "wet" inducted seismicity around the perforation shots.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark


    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS

  10. Development and exploitation features of methane-coal wells using downhole pumping equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurganova Elena


    Full Text Available In this article extraction of methane from coal beds is presented. The article presents results of the study of downhole pumping equipment used in the exploitation of coal bed methane wells. The features of various types of equipment such as piston sucker-rod pumping units, electrical centrifugal pumping units and sucker-rod screw pumping units have been considered. The results show benefits of sucker-rod screw pumping units because of their versatility and resistance to higher content of mechanical impurities.

  11. Fault diagnosis of downhole drilling incidents using adaptive observers and statistical change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Blanke, Mogens; Imsland, Lars


    Downhole abnormal incidents during oil and gas drilling causes costly delays, any may also potentially lead to dangerous scenarios. Dierent incidents willcause changes to dierent parts of the physics of the process. Estimating thechanges in physical parameters, and correlating these with changes...... are assessed and optimized using data-based learning to obtainthresholds for hypothesis testing. Data from a 1400 m horizontal ow loop isused to test the method, and successful diagnosis of the incidents drillstringwashout (pipe leakage), lost circulation, gas in ux, and drill bit plugging aredemonstrated....

  12. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping) improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs. (United States)

    Polglase, Graeme R; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kluckow, Martin; Gill, Andrew W; Davis, Peter G; Te Pas, Arjan B; Crossley, Kelly J; McDougall, Annie; Wallace, Euan M; Hooper, Stuart B


    As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known. We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs. Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2) were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation). Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1) prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2) after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping. Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping. The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  13. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known.We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2 were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation. Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1 prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2 after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping.Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping.The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  14. Analysis list: Nr3c1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr3c1 Adipocyte,Blood,Breast,Embryo,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Neural + mm9,,,http

  15. Advanced Data Communications for Downhole Data Logging and Control Applications in the Oil Industry (United States)

    Spracklen, C. T.; Aslam, Tariq


    We present details of 'Mercury', a high-speed downhole communications system that utilizes the (metallic) wall of a gas or oil pipeline or a drill 'string' as the communications 'channel' to control or monitor equipment or sensors used in the oil industry. Conventional downhole communication systems typically use 'mud pulse' telemetry for 'Measurement While Drilling' (MWD) operations. Current mud pulse telemetry technology offers bandwidths of up to 40 bit/s. However the data rate drops with increasing length of the wellbore and is typically as low as 1.5 bit/s - 3.0 bit/s at a depth of 35,000 ft. - 40,000 ft. The system described, by contrast, offers data rates of several megabits per second over distances of many kilometres and uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) coupled with Wideband Frequency Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA). This paper presents details of our system; results of several trials undertaken on actual gas pipelines in the UK will be presented at the Conference.

  16. Downhole measurements in the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica (United States)

    Morin, R.; Williams, T.; Henrys, S.; Crosby, T.; Hansaraj, D.


    A comprehensive set of downhole measurements was collected in the AND-1B drillhole as part of the on-ice scientific programme defined for the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project. Geophysical logs were recorded over two operation phases and consisted of calliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, induction resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma activity, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, and dipmeter. In addition, two standard vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and one walk-away VSP were obtained. Radioactive logs (porosity and density) were not run because of unstable borehole conditions. Although the total depth of the hole is 1285 metres below seafloor (mbsf), the depth range for in situ measurements was limited by the length of the wireline (1018 mbsf) and by the nullification of some geophysical logs due to the presence of steel casing. A depth correction was derived to account for systematic discrepancies in depth between downhole measurements and cores; consequently, log responses can be directly compared to core properties. The resulting data are amenable to studies of cyclicity and climate, heat flux and fluid flow, and stricture and stress. When integrated with physical properties and fractures measured on the core, this information should play a significant role in addressing many of the scientific objectives of the ANDRILL programme.

  17. Discovery of the Eureka volcanogenic massive sulphide lens using downhole electromagnetics (United States)

    Paggi, Jacob; Macklin, Daniel


    The Eureka volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) lens forms part of the Stockman Project in north-east Victoria. Eureka was discovered in early 2013, heralding the first new VMS mineralised zone to be discovered at the project since 1979. Key drivers to the detection of Eureka included the combination of downhole electromagnetics (EM) and a robust geological model. The lens is located 350 m to the north-east of the Currawong deposit, at a vertical depth of 360 m. Surface EM methods played a significant role in the discovery of the nearby Currawong and Wilga deposits during the late 1970s. Despite this, modern day airborne and fixed-loop transient EM (FLTEM) surveys failed to detect Eureka, most likely due to its depth, moderate conductance and loop-edge effects masking anomalies. The key component in discovering the lens was the interpretation of two subtle downhole transient electromagnetics (DHTEM) responses from 2012 exploration drillholes. These responses were further strengthened by structural and short wave infrared modelling, presenting a compelling multi-component drill target. The lens was discovered soon thereafter, with a discovery intercept of 22.65 m at 1.2% Cu, 0.7% Pb, 3.9% Zn, 43 g/t Ag and 1.3 g/t Au.

  18. Downhole microseismic monitoring for low signal-to-noise ratio events (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jie


    Microseismic monitoring plays an important role in the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas/oil production. The accuracy of event location is an essential issue in microseismic monitoring. The data obtained from downhole monitoring system usually show a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than the recorded data from the surface. For small microseismic events, however, P waves recorded in a downhole array may be very weak, while S waves are generally dominant and strong. Numerical experiments suggest that inverting S-wave arrival times alone is not sufficient to constrain event locations. In this study, we perform extensive location tests with various noise effects using a grid search method that matches the travel time data of the S wave across a recording array. We conclude that fitting S-wave travel time data along with at least one P-wave travel time of the same event can significantly improve location accuracy. In practice, picking S-wave arrival time data and at least one P-wave pick is possible for many small events. We demonstrate that fitting the combination of the travel time data is a robust approach, which can help increase the number of microseismic events to be located accurately during hydraulic fracturing.

  19. Linking downhole logging data with geology and drilling /coring operations - Example from Chicxulub Expedition 364. (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Smith, Dave; Delahunty, Chris; Le Ber, Erwan; Mellet, Claire; Brun, Laurent; Henry, Gilles; Paris, Jehanne


    Expedition 364 was a joint IODP/ICDP mission specific platform expedition to explore the Chicxulub impact crater buried below the Yucatán continental shelf. In April and May 2016, our Expedition drilled a single borehole at Site M0077A into the crater's peak ring. It allowed recovering 303 excellent quality cores from 505.7 to 1334.7 meters below sea floor and acquiring more than 5.8 km of high resolution open hole logs. Downhole logs are rapidly collected, continuous with depth, and measured in situ; these data are classically interpreted in terms of stratigraphy, lithology, porosity, fluid content, geochemical composition and structure of the formation drilled. Downhole logs also allow assessing borehole quality (eg. shape and trajectory), and can provide assistance for decision support during drilling operations. In this work, Expedition 364 downhole logs are used to improve our understanding of the drilling/coring operation history. Differentiating between natural geological features and borehole artifacts are also critical for data quality assessment. The set of downhole geophysical tools used during Expedition 364 was constrained by the scientific objectives, drilling/coring technique, hole conditions and temperature at the drill site. Wireline logging data were acquired with slimline tools in three logging phases at intervals 0-503, 506-699 and 700-1334 mbsf. Logs were recorded either with standalone logging tools or, for the first time in IODP, with stackable slimline tools. Log data included total gamma radiation, sonic velocity, acoustic and optical borehole images, resistivity, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, caliper and borehole fluid parameters. The majority of measurements were performed in open borehole conditions. During the drilling operations some problems were encountered directly linked to the geology of the drilled formation. For example, two zones of mud circulation losses correlate in depth with the presence of karst cavities or open

  20. Umbilical cord clamping. An analysis of a usual neonatological conduct. (United States)

    Papagno, L


    Here we described a critical analysis of the neonatological procedure of early cord clamping, meaning this, within 40 seconds after birth. Fifty three cases are here analysed, in which this practice was not performed, but instead a late umbilical cord clamping was done after birth or after the cord had stopped beating. Variations in hematocrito values within 24 to 36 hours after birth were studied. A transitory polycithemia, with a maximum peak 12 hours post-delivery was observed. These values returned to normal levels between 24 and 36 hours after birth. K vitamin was not administered to any of the newborns. No pathology appeared related to this transitory polycithemia. In can be concluded that the late umbilical cord clamping represents no risk to the new-born and that the pathological phenomena described under these circumstances may be attributed to the increase in K vitamin dependent coagulation factors that are induced by the routinary administration of phitonadione to all normal newborns.

  1. Arterial Clamping Increases Central Renal Cryoablation Efficacy: An Animal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonboe, Lasse Larsen; Nielsen, Tommy Kjaergaard; Høyer, Søren;


    INTRODUCTION: The minimally invasive treatment of small renal masses with cryoablation has become increasingly widespread during the past 15 years. Studies with long-term follow-up are beginning to emerge, showing good oncological control, however, tumors with a central and endophytic location seem...... to possess an increased risk of treatment failure. Such tumors are likely to be subjected to a high volume of blood giving thermal protection to the cancerous cells. Arterial clamping during freezing might reduce this effect but at the same time subject the kidney to ischemia. The aim of this study...... was to evaluate the effect of renal artery clamping during cryoablation in a porcine survival model. METHODS: Ten Danish Landrace pigs (approximately 40 kg) underwent bilateral laparoscopic cryoablation with clamping of the right renal artery during freezing. The cryoablation consisted of a standard double...

  2. [Advantage of delayed umbilical cord clamping in the newborn infant]. (United States)

    Menget, A; Mougey, C; Thiriez, G; Riethmuller, D


    The timing of umbilical cord clamping remains controversial. Although most maternity wards use the early clamping (5-15s), randomized studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefit of delayed clamping for term and preterm newborn infants over the past 10 years. Indeed, placentofetal transfusion of 20-30 ml/kg in 2-3 min improves the iron status of term infants and prevents infant hypochromic anemia. Infant anemia is a public health problem in many developing countries. For preterm newborns, placental transfusion for 45 s or milking the cord for 15 s improves cardiovascular adaptation, with better hemodynamic stability, as well as decreased intraventricular hemorrhages, need for transfusion, and late-onset sepsis. A new look at this symbolic act is needed and professionals need to be persuaded of the importance of the "wait a minute" policy for a better physiological delivery.

  3. Using physiology to guide time to cord clamping. (United States)

    Kluckow, Martin; Hooper, Stuart B


    Immediate clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord at birth has been the accepted standard of care for decades. The physiologic rationale relating umbilical cord clamping (UCC) to the events of the circulatory transition is not considered in arbitrarily recommended cord clamping times. Systematic review of early versus deferred UCC shows significant hemodynamic benefits to the deferred group. Mechanisms for this protective effect are considered in this review. The original concept of a placental transfusion with a volume load and prevention of low cardiac output relies on the physiological end point of the amount of blood transfused. The newer concept of an ordered physiological transition is increasingly supported. This model places aeration of the lungs and an increase in pulmonary blood flow back at the centre of the circulatory transition with timing of UCC being related to establishment of respiration. The need for "physiologically based" UCC is discussed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis. (United States)

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L


    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. New redshift determinations for three 3C radio sources. (United States)

    Reynaldi, V.


    I report the new redshift determinations of three radio sources 3C 196.1, 3C 268.2 and 3C 303.1 by using GMOS/Gemini North long-slit optical spectroscopy. The details of the observations are summarized in the following table (the B600 grating was used for the three observations): Object | RA(J2000) | DEC(J2000) | Date of obs. | width-slit(arcsec) | PA(deg) | Exp.Time(sec) 3C 196.1 | 8:15:27.8 | -03:08:27 | Mar 2012 | 0.5 | 50 | 2560 3C 268.2| |12:00:59.1 | 31:33:28 | Feb 2011 | 0.5 | 165 | 2576 3C 303.1 | 14:43:14.5 | 77:07:28 | Feb 2012 | 1 | 145 | 2560 The three of the sources have extended regions of ionized gas that do not obey a spherical distribution.

  6. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.


    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  7. Plasma temperature clamping in filamentation laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Phillips, Mark C.


    Ultrafast laser filament induced breakdown spectroscopy is a very promising method for remote material detection. We present characteristics of plasmas generated in a metal target by laser filaments in air. Our measurements show that the temperature of the ablation plasma is clamped along the filamentation channel due to intensity clamping in a filament. Nevertheless, significant changes in radiation intensity are noticeable, and this is essentially due to variation in the number density of emitting atoms. The present results also partly explains the reason for the occurrence of atomic plume during fs LIBS in air compared to long-pulse ns LIBS.

  8. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...... during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core....

  9. The problem of isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Erdem İmrak; Ismail Gerdemeli


    The examination of the exact solution of the governing equation of the rectangular plate is important for many reasons. This report discusses in exact solution of the governing equation of an isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges. A numerical method for clamped isotropic rectangular plate under distributed loads and an exact solution of the governing equation in terms of trigonometric and hyperbolic function are given. Finally, an illustrative example is given and the results are compared with those reported earlier. This method is found to be easier and effective. The results show reasonable agreement with other available results, but with a simpler and practical approach.

  10. Evaluation of selected martensitic stainless steels for use in downhole tubular expansion - Results of a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Robert [Shell International E and P, b.v. Kessler Park 1, Postbus 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk (Netherlands)


    A laboratory program was performed to evaluate the potential of selected martensitic stainless steels for downhole cladding applications. The evaluation of the effects of tubular expansion on mechanical properties, defects, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking demonstrated that some steels were acceptable for the intended application. The results were used to qualify and select the stainless steel for the intended sweet cladding applications. (authors)

  11. Effect of Measured Wellhead Parameters and Well Scaling on the Computed Downhole Conditions in Cerro Prieto Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.


    This paper is devoted to the discussion of the wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  12. Preliminary analysis of downhole logging data from ICDP Lake Junin drilling Project, Peru (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Kück, Jochem; Rodbell, Donald T.; Abbott, Mark B.


    The International Continental Drilling Programm (ICDP) has supported a scientific drilling campaign in Peru during the summer season 2015. The Lake Junin Drilling Project mainly aims at obtaining high-resolution paleoclimate records from lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of the continental records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles. Lake Junín is located at 4000 m a.s.l. in the tropical Andes of Peru, and is characterized by a thick (> 125 m) sediment package deposited at a high rate (0.2 to 1.0 mm yr-1). Lake Junín is one of the few lakes in the tropical Andes that predates the maximum extent of glaciation and is in a geomorphic position to record the waxing and waning of glaciers in nearby cordillera, hence making the lake a key site for the investigation of the Quaternary climate evolution in the inner-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere. Continous coring was performed at three sites in overall 11 boreholes on the lake with at least two overlapping boreholes per site to avoid core gaps. The depth of the boreholes varied between approx. 30 m and 110 m depending on the drill site. The core bit had a bit size of 122.6 mm and yielded a core diameter of 85 mm. Upon completion of coring operations downhole geophysical logging was performed in five of the 11 boreholes (1A, 1C, 1D, 2A and 3B) by the Operational Support Group of ICDP. The main objective was to record in-situ the physical properties of the lacustrine sediments of Lake Junin. Downhole logs provide a powerful tool to fill in information at intervals with core gaps and as depth reference for depth matching of the discontinous cores. Furthermore it will be used for the lithological reconstruction and interpretation. The OSG downhole logging comprised total and spectrum gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, borehole geometry, temperature, and sonic P-wave velocity. Unstable and collapsing borehole walls made it neccessary to carry out logging in several sections instead of in one run. The

  13. Improved analysis of transient temperature data from permanent down-hole gauges (PDGs) (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqun; Zheng, Shiyi; Wang, Qi


    With the installation of permanent down-hole gauges (PDGs) during oil field development, large volumes of high resolution and continuous down-hole information are obtainable. The interpretation of these real-time temperature and pressure data can optimize well performance, provide information about the reservoir and continuously calibrate the reservoir model. Although the dynamic temperature data have been interpreted in practice to predict flow profiling and provide characteristic information of the reservoir, almost all of the approaches rely on established non-isothermal models which depend on thermodynamic parameters. Another problem comes from the temperature transient analysis (TTA), which is underutilized compared with pressure transient analysis (PTA). In this study, several model-independent methods of TTA were performed. The entire set of PDG data consists of many flow events. By utilizing the wavelet transform, the exact points of flow-rate changes can be located. The flow regime changes, for example, from early time linear flow to later time pseudo-radial flow, among every transient period with constant flow-rate. For the early time region (ETR) that is caused by flow-rate change operations, the TTA, along with the PTA can greatly reduce the uncertainties in flow regime diagnosis. Then, the temperature variations during ETR were examined to infer the true reservoir temperature history, and the relationships between the wavelet detailed coefficients and the flow-rate changes were analysed. For the scenarios with constant reservoir-well parameters, the detailed flow-rate history can be generated by calculating the coefficient of relationship in advance. For later times, the flow regime changes to pseudo-radial flow. An analytical solution was introduced to describe the sand-face temperature. The formation parameters, such as permeability and skin factor, were estimated with the previously calculated flow-rate. It is necessary to analyse temperature

  14. IVC CLAMP: infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping during hepatectomy - a randomised controlled trial in an interdisciplinary setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reissfelder Christoph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraoperative haemorrhage is a known predictor for perioperative outcome of patients undergoing hepatic resection. While anaesthesiological lowering of central venous pressure (CVP by fluid restriction is known to reduce bleeding during transection of the hepatic parenchyma its potential side effects remain poorly investigated. In theory it may have negative effects on kidney function and tissue perfusion and bears the risk to result in severe haemodynamic instability in case of profound intraoperative blood loss. The present randomised controlled trial evaluates efficacy and safety of infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC clamping as an alternative surgical technique to reduce CVP during hepatic resection. Methods/Design The proposed IVC CLAMP trial is a single-centre randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients and outcome-assessors are blinded for the treatment intervention. Patients undergoing elective hepatic resection due to any reason are enrolled in IVC CLAMP. All patients admitted to the Department of General-, Visceral-, and Transplant Surgery, University of Heidelberg for elective hepatic resection are consecutively screened for eligibility and written informed consent is obtained on the day before surgery. The primary objective of this trial is to assess and compare the amount of blood loss during hepatic resection in patients receiving surgical CVP reduction by clamping of the IVC as compared to anaesthesiological CVP without infrahepatic IVC clamping reduction. In addition to blood loss a set of general as well as surgical variables are analysed. Discussion This is a randomised controlled patient and observer blinded two-group parallel trial designed to assess efficacy and safety of infrahepatic IVC clamping during elective hepatectomy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials NCT00732979

  15. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.


    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengHuiming; HeZeng; LiMing; ZhaoGaoyu


    This paper investigates how the magnetic constrained layer damping (MCLD) treatment suppresses the displacement and acceleration resonant peak of a clamped-clamped beam. Because MCLI) treatment reduces input work and gives more dissipation energy, the vibration from external excitation can be effectively suppressed.The vibration reduction effects of MCLD and other conventional constrained damping treatments are also evaluated. In many cases, using MCLD treatments can yield smaller displacement and acceleration resonant peak especially in mode 1 compared to the other treatments without greatly changing the natural frequencies of the base beam.

  17. Complement C3c as a Biomarker in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frey


    Full Text Available Introduction. Experimental data indicates an important role of the innate immune system in cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF. Complement is a central effector pathway of the innate immune system. Animals lacking parts of the complement system are protected from adverse remodeling. Based on these data, we hypothesized that peripheral complement levels could be a good marker for adverse remodeling and prognosis in patients with HF. Methods and Results. Since complement activation converges on the complement factor C3, we measured serum C3c, a stable C3-conversion product, in 197 patients with stable systolic HF. Subgroups with normal and elevated C3c levels were compared. C3c levels were elevated in 17% of the cohort. Patients with elevated C3c levels exhibited a trend to better survival, slightly higher LVEF, and lower NTpro-BNP values in comparison to patients with normal C3c values. No differences were found regarding NYHA functional class. Significantly more patients with elevated C3c had preexisting diabetes. The prevalence of CAD, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation was not increased in patients with elevated C3c. Conclusion. Elevated C3c levels are associated with less adverse remodeling and improved survival in patients with stable systolic heart failure.

  18. Mex3c mutation reduces adiposity and increases energy expenditure. (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; George, Sunil K; Zhao, Qingguo; Hulver, Matthew W; Hutson, Susan M; Bishop, Colin E; Lu, Baisong


    The function of MEX3C, the mammalian homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA-binding protein muscle excess 3 (MEX-3), was unknown until our recent report that MEX3C is necessary for normal postnatal growth and enhances the expression of local bone Igf1 expression. Here we report the pivotal role of Mex3c in energy balance regulation. Mex3c mutation caused leanness in both heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice, as well as a more beneficial blood glucose and lipid profile in homozygous transgenic mice, in both sexes. Although transgenic mice showed normal food intake and fecal lipid excretion, they had increased energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Mutant mice had normal body temperature, Ucp1 expression in brown adipose tissue, and muscle and liver fatty acid oxidation. Mex3c is expressed in neurons and is detectable in the arcuate nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus, and the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Mex3c was not detected in NPY or POMC neurons but was detected in leptin-responsive neurons in the ventromedial nucleus. Mex3c and Leptin double mutant mice were growth retarded and obese and had blood profiles similar to those of ob/ob mice but showed none of the steatosis observed in ob/ob mice. Our data show that Mex3c is involved in energy balance regulation.

  19. Chaotic Feature in the Light Curve of 3C 273

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu


    Some nonlinear dynamical techniques, including state-space reconstruction and correlation integral, are used to analyze the light curve of 3C 273. The result is compared with a chaotic model. The similarities between them suggest there is a low-dimension chaotic attractor in the light curve of 3C 273.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the last few years, Indonesian urban growth has tends to be lead to the overground space. This was caused by the significant population increasement the lackness of land availability. The phenomenon is also marked with the increasing number of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers. However, high-rise buildings and skyscrapers have the potential dangers against earthquakes, even more Indonesia lay on an earthquake-prone areas. There are two main things that need to be considered in the planning of earthquake-resistant buildings, which is strength and ductility. Deformation capability and the connection strength between the reinforcement taken into consideration in the design of earthquake-resistant structures. From the steel clamp tensile test results for D13’s mechanical connection reinforcement, it gained 270.69 Mpa for yield strength, 351.45 MPa for ultimate tensile strength and 4757 kg for maximum load with 40% elongation. As for the D16’s mechanical connection reinforcement gained 217.80 MPa for yield strength, 327 605 MPa for ultimate tensile strength and 6717 kg for maximum load with 32% elongation. This study uses two pieces of steel clamp, but in order to obtain a better result then it need to be add more clamps while increasing the steel clamp material quality.

  1. Do not overlook an umbilical cord hernia before clamping. (United States)

    Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur


    An umbilical cord hernia is a rare midline abdominal defect. These masses may be easily overlooked at birth, which may result in an intestinal injury due to careless proximal application of the cord clamp. Herein, we present a newborn infant with an umbilical cord hernia who was managed by primary closure of the lesion.

  2. A piezoelectric vibration harvester based on clamped-guided beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Matova, S.; Elfrink, R.; Jambunathan, M.; Nooijer, C. de; Schaijk, R. van; Vullers, R.J.M.


    The paper addresses the design, modeling, fabrication and experimental results of a piezoelectric energy harvester based on clamped-guided beams. The design is featured by shorter mass displacement and higher reliability than cantilever beams. Two separate sets of capacitors allow exploiting both te


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett


    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well

  4. The application limits of alloyed 13%Cr tubular steels for downhole duties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooling, P.J.; Kennani, M.B.; Martin, J.W. [BP Exploration, Sunbury on Thames (United Kingdom); Nice, P.I. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)


    In the past few years, a new family of materials has entered the downhole tubular market, known as the ``alloyed 13%Cr steels.`` These are a development of the conventional API 5CT grade 13%Cr steels to which alloying elements of Ni, Mo and Cu have been added, hence offering a number of advantages. In the present paper, domains of application for the 95ksi grade alloyed 13%Cr steels with respect to sour service conditions have been defined on pH vs. H{sub 2}S partial pressure plots. Corrosion properties have also been determined for two other aspects; chloride stress corrosion cracking (ClSCC) and high temperature corrosion resistance. The results have reiterated the importance of solution chemistry, pH and H{sub 2}S partial pressure in defining the corrosion properties of steels.

  5. Down-Hole Heat Exchangers: Modelling of a Low-Enthalpy Geothermal System for District Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carlini


    Full Text Available In order to face the growing energy demands, renewable energy sources can provide an alternative to fossil fuels. Thus, low-enthalpy geothermal plants may play a fundamental role in those areas—such as the Province of Viterbo—where shallow groundwater basins occur and conventional geothermal plants cannot be developed. This may lead to being fuelled by locally available sources. The aim of the present paper is to exploit the heat coming from a low-enthalpy geothermal system. The experimental plant consists in a down-hole heat exchanger for civil purposes and can supply thermal needs by district heating. An implementation in MATLAB environment is provided in order to develop a mathematical model. As a consequence, the amount of withdrawable heat can be successfully calculated.

  6. Theoretical background and the flow fields in downhole liquid-liquid hydrocyclone (LLHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Harrison


    Full Text Available Hydrocyclone system for downhole oil-water separation provides an effective technique of enhancing the economic viability of higher water-cut wells while at the same time reducing the risk of environmental pollution. This paper describes the hydrodynamics of the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones and the flow fields within it are paramount for achieving successful separation process. Some of the important hydrodynamic flow phenomenon within the liquid-liquid hydrocyclone and how they influence the separation efficiency of water/oil was analyzed through analytical solution. The properties of the liquids were based on Bayan offshore field measured properties. The results indicated that there are two swirling zones separated by stagnant flow field. The inner is the light liquid zone, while the outer is the heavy liquid zone.

  7. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O' Connor


    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  8. Downhole water injection review of Addison Energy 6-18-59-14W5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D. [Kudu Industries Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the natural gas production history of the Windfall 6-18-59-14W5 well which was put into production in December 1984. The last production was in 1993 after a cumulative gas production of 4.3 Bcf over nine years. The well was abandoned in 1996 and re-entered in 1998 by Addison Energy. This presentation included several schematics and a description of the downhole water injection (DHI) system which was installed in July 2000 to workover the well. By September 2002, production had peaked to 529 mcf/day. The total production to date using the DHI system has been 0.177 Bcf, and the injected water has averaged 75 bbls/day. An estimated $159,390 has been saved in water disposal costs and more than $545,833 has been earned from additional recovered gas. tabs., figs.

  9. Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; van Wijk, J.


    Farnsworth Oil Field in North Texas hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. This study is focused on passive seismic monitoring at the carbon injection site to measure, locate, and catalog any induced seismic events. A Geometrics Geode system is being utilized for continuous recording of the passive seismic downhole bore array in a monitoring well. The array consists of 3-component dual Geospace OMNI-2400 15Hz geophones with a vertical spacing of 30.5m. Downhole temperature and pressure are also monitored. Seismic data is recorded continuously and is produced at a rate of over 900GB per month, which must be archived and reviewed. A Short Term Average/Long Term Average (STA/LTA) algorithm was evaluated for its ability to search for events, including identification and quantification of any false positive events. It was determined that the algorithm was not appropriate for event detection with the background level of noise at the field site and for the recording equipment as configured. Alternatives are being investigated. The final intended outcome of the passive seismic monitoring is to mine the continuous database and develop a catalog of microseismic events/locations and to determine if there is any relationship to CO2 injection in the field. Identifying the location of any microseismic events will allow for correlation with carbon injection locations and previously characterized geological and structural features such as faults and paleoslopes. Additionally, the borehole array has recorded over 1200 active sources with three sweeps at each source location that were acquired during a nearby 3D VSP. These data were evaluated for their usability and location within an effective radius of the array and were stacked to improve signal-noise ratio and are used to calibrate a full field velocity model to enhance event location accuracy. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  10. Privacy Issues of the W3C Geolocation API

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, Nick; Wilde, Erik


    The W3C's Geolocation API may rapidly standardize the transmission of location information on the Web, but, in dealing with such sensitive information, it also raises serious privacy concerns. We analyze the manner and extent to which the current W3C Geolocation API provides mechanisms to support privacy. We propose a privacy framework for the consideration of location information and use it to evaluate the W3C Geolocation API, both the specification and its use in the wild, and recommend some modifications to the API as a result of our analysis.

  11. Four- year thyroidectomy procedures: Ligasure Vs. clamp & tie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki AR


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system is an adjunct to the hemostatic technique, which has been successfully used in many abdominal operation, recently made available to thyroid surgery. The purpose of this was compare the outcomes of new hemostatic technique with traditional method of clamp and tie."n"nMethods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study has been done in surgery's wards of Milad & Rasul- Akram hospitals in Tehran, Iran. During three- year period between 2005-2008 all patients with different kind of pathology that need operation were assessed. Time duration of surgery and hospital stay and post surgery complication in two group, ligasure (n=45 and clamp & tie (n=145 were compared with each others."n"nResults: No difference was seen between two groups in time duration of surgery. Significant difference was seen in hospital stay and complications of surgery. Time of operation in Ligasure group was 132/22 minute and in clamp and tie group was 130/10 minute. There was found significant difference in duration of hospital stay and postoperative complication. Hypocalcemia were seen in two and 24 cases in Ligasure and Clamp & Tie group, respectively (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 2

  12. Molecular Gas in the Powerful Radio Galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264 Major or Minor Mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, J; Combes, F


    We report the detection of $^{12}$CO~($1 \\to 0$) and $^{12}$CO~($2 \\to 1$) emission from the central regions ($\\lesssim 5$--$10 {\\rm kpc}$) of the two powerful radio galaxies 3C~31 and 3C~264. Their individual CO emission exhibits a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of both galaxies. For a CO to H$_2$ conversion factor similar to that of our Galaxy, the corresponding total mass in molecular hydrogen gas is $(1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~31 and $(0.31 \\pm 0.06) \\times 10^9 {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$ in 3C~264. Despite their relatively large molecular-gas masses and other peculiarities, both 3C~31 and 3C~264, as well as many other powerful radio galaxies in the (revised) 3C catalog, are known to lie within the fundamental plane of normal...

  13. Timing of umbilical cord clamping: effect on iron endowment of the newborn and later iron status. (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M


    The optimal timing of umbilical cord clamping has been debated in the scientific literature for at least the last century, when cord clamping practices shifted from delayed towards immediate clamping. Recent research provides evidence for the beneficial effect of delayed cord clamping on infant iron status. The present review describes the physiological basis for the impact of cord clamping time on total body iron at birth and the relationship between birth body iron, as affected by cord clamping time, and iron status later in infancy. This research is discussed in the context of current clamping practices, which tend towards early cord clamping in most settings, as well as the high levels of anemia present in young infants in many countries worldwide. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fei Guo; Hao Jing Zhang


    All the data of the blazar 3C446 at 8, 4.8, 14 and 22 GHz, presented in publications from 1977 to 2006, have been compiled to generate light curves. The light curves show violent activity of 3C446. Using Period04 analysis method, we have found that there is a period of 7.2 yr, which is consistent with the results that we found using wavelet analysis method. We get the instability region as = 123.83.

  15. Gigaseal formation in patch clamping with applications of nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Malboubi, Majid


    This book presents an investigation of gigaseal formation using micro/nanotechnology. The aims of the book are twofold. First, it explains the mechanisms of gigaseal formation using the latest discoveries. Second, it provides practical techniques for frequent formation of high resistance seals. The formation of a high-resistance electrical seal, also known as a gigaseal, between a cell membrane and a glass micropipette tip is essential in patch-clamp experiments. Even though four decades have passed since the introduction of the patch-clamping technique by Neher and Sakmann, gigaseal formation remains an obstacle in developing the high-throughput ion channel screening systems required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here the authors share their latest methods for achieving gigaseal formation and describe techniques that are highly desirable at both research and industrial levels. Nanotechnology has been found to be a powerful tool for studying and modifying glass micropipettes and in tackling the problem of g...

  16. A new configuration for multilevel converters with diode clamped topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, A.; Zare, F.; Ledwich, G.


    of load changes which can avoid neutral point balancing problem in such converters. In addition, the presented topology is suitable for renewable energy systems to boost the low rectified output-voltage. In order to verify the proposed topology, steady state analysis, modelling and simulations are carried......Due to the increased use of renewable energy and power elctronic applications, more multilevel converters (MLC) are developed. A Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter is one of the most used multilevel topologies for wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) applications. One of the most crucial...... points in this type of converter is dc-voltage control. In this paper, a novel multi output dc-dc converter connected to a diode clamped topology is presented. This converter, for a given duty cycles, is able to regulate the capacitor voltage to provide an appropriate input voltage for NPC regardless...

  17. Active energy recovery clamping circuit to improve the performance of power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Bret; Barkley, Adam


    A regenerative clamping circuit for a power converter using clamping diodes to transfer charge to a clamping capacitor and a regenerative converter to transfer charge out of the clamping capacitor back to the power supply input connection. The regenerative converter uses a switch connected to the midpoint of a series connected inductor and capacitor. The ends of the inductor and capacitor series are connected across the terminals of the power supply to be in parallel with the power supply.

  18. Timing of umbilical cord clamping and neonatal haematological status. (United States)

    Jaleel, Riffat; Deeba, Farah; Khan, Ayesha


    To determine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on Hb (haemoglobin) and bilirubin levels of neonates and to identify newborn babies with anaemia and refer them for treatment. This Randomized Controlled Trial was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit V, Dow Medical College and Lyari General Hospital and Department of Pathology, Lyari General Hospital, between 1st November, 2006 and 15th July, 2007. Patients admitted to labour ward were selected according to inclusion criteria of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups. Group A included women in whom umbilical cord was clamped immediately after birth. In Group B, clamping was delayed until cessation of pulsations in the cord. After cutting the cord, sample of blood was collected from the cut end of cord of the newborn for Hb and bilirubin. After 6 hours of birth, another sample of blood was drawn from antecubital vein for serum bilirubin. Samples were sent to laboratory for analysis. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 11. Two hundred women were studied, 100 in each of the 2 groups. Mean maternal Hb was 9.75 g/dl in Group A and 9.95 g/dl in Group B. The average neonatal Hb was 14.1 g/dl in Group A and 15.2 g/dl in Group B (p = 0.008). In all 49% neonates in Group A and 37% in Group B had Hb umbilical cord clamping at birth seems to be safe and can be expected to reduce the prevalence of anaemic newborn babies in our community.

  19. Indentation metrology of clamped, ultra-thin elastic sheets


    Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny


    We study the indentation of ultrathin elastic sheets clamped to the edge of a circular hole. This classical setup has received considerable attention lately, being used by various experimental groups as a probe to measure the surface properties and stretching modulus of thin solid films. Despite the apparent simplicity of this method, the geometric nonlinearity inherent in the mechanical response of thin solid objects renders the analysis of the resulting data a nontrivial task. Importantly, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Ayu Sri Wulandari Pramana


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Delayed Cord Clamping is still a controversial issue in the world of medicine. Until recently, the perfect times to do a Delayed Cord Clamping in various parts of the Earth in the world are still very diverse. There are a few things that became a major concern associated with Delayed Cord Clamping, one of which is the increase in blood volume due to an increase in the number of erythrocytes which led to occurrence of neonatal polycythemia which later can lead to various complications. Polycythemia in neonates is a situation where the value of venous blood hematokrit over 65% (0.65 or the amount of hemoglobin more than 22gr/Dl. However, to date the data from a variety of the latest research and analysis of the studies mention that the polycythemia that occurs in neonates with umbilical cord pinching the flush delay was mild polycythemia that can improve after 48 to 72 hours after the baby is born.

  1. Cleaning patch-clamp pipettes for immediate reuse (United States)

    Kolb, I.; Stoy, W. A.; Rousseau, E. B.; Moody, O. A.; Jenkins, A.; Forest, C. R.


    Patch-clamp recording has enabled single-cell electrical, morphological and genetic studies at unparalleled resolution. Yet it remains a laborious and low-throughput technique, making it largely impractical for large-scale measurements such as cell type and connectivity characterization of neurons in the brain. Specifically, the technique is critically limited by the ubiquitous practice of manually replacing patch-clamp pipettes after each recording. To circumvent this limitation, we developed a simple, fast, and automated method for cleaning glass pipette electrodes that enables their reuse within one minute. By immersing pipette tips into Alconox, a commercially-available detergent, followed by rinsing, we were able to reuse pipettes 10 times with no degradation in signal fidelity, in experimental preparations ranging from human embryonic kidney cells to neurons in culture, slices, and in vivo. Undetectable trace amounts of Alconox remaining in the pipette after cleaning did not affect ion channel pharmacology. We demonstrate the utility of pipette cleaning by developing the first robot to perform sequential patch-clamp recordings in cell culture and in vivo without a human operator. PMID:27725751

  2. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Jong, de B.R.; Boer, de M.J.; Jansen, H.V.; Dijk, van J.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Soemers, H.M.J.R.


    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. s

  3. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micromanipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; van Dijk, Johannes; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Soemers, Herman


    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with arelatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fixa six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. sub

  4. File list: Oth.ALL.10.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp All cell types SRX159170,SRX15917...2,SRX159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  5. File list: Oth.ALL.05.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp All cell types SRX159172,SRX15917...0,SRX159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  6. File list: Oth.CeL.10.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.10.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp Cell line SRX159170,SRX159172,SRX...159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  7. File list: Oth.CeL.20.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.20.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp Cell line SRX159172,SRX159170,SRX...159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  8. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp All cell types SRX159172,SRX15917...0,SRX159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  9. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp All cell types SRX159172,SRX15917...0,SRX159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  10. File list: Oth.CeL.05.Clamp.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.05.Clamp.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Clamp Cell line SRX159172,SRX159170,SRX...159174,SRX159166,SRX159173 ...

  11. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emhamed, Musbah Omar; van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J


    This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Ma

  12. Investigation of the Dynamics of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam Near the Third Mode Using a Partial Electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Karim M.


    We present an investigation of the dynamics of a clamped-clamped microbeam excited electrostatically near its third mode. To maximize the response at the third mode, a partial electrode configuration is utilized. A multi-mode Galerkin method is used to develop a reduced order model (ROM) of the beam. A shooting method to find the periodic motion is utilized to generate frequency response curves. The curves show hardenining behavior and dynamic pull-in. We show that the dynamic amplitude of the partial configuration is higher than that of a full electrode configuration. These results are promising for the use of higher-order modes for mass detection and for ultra sensitive resonant sensors.

  13. Imaging Fracking Zones by Microseismic Reverse Time Migration for Downhole Microseismic Monitoring (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, H.


    Hydraulic fracturing is an engineering tool to create fractures in order to better recover oil and gas from low permeability reservoirs. Because microseismic events are generally associated with fracturing development, microseismic monitoring has been used to evaluate the fracking process. Microseismic monitoring generally relies on locating microseismic events to understand the spatial distribution of fractures. For the multi-stage fracturing treatment, fractures created in former stages are strong scatterers in the medium and can induce strong scattering waves on the waveforms for microseismic events induced during later stages. In this study, we propose to take advantage of microseismic scattering waves to image fracking zones by using seismic reverse time migration method. For downhole microseismic monitoring that involves installing a string of seismic sensors in a borehole near the injection well, the observation geometry is actually similar to the VSP (vertical seismic profile) system. For this reason, we adapt the VSP migration method for the common shot gather to the common event gather. Microseismic reverse-time migration method involves solving wave equation both forward and backward in time for each microseismic event. At current stage, the microseismic RTM is based on 2D acoustic wave equation (Zhang and Sun, 2008), solved by the finite-difference method with PML absorbing boundary condition applied to suppress the reflections of artificial boundaries. Additionally, we use local wavefield decomposition instead of cross-correlation imaging condition to suppress the imaging noise. For testing the method, we create a synthetic dataset for a downhole microseismic monitoring system with multiple fracking stages. It shows that microseismic migration using individual event is able to clearly reveal the fracture zone. The shorter distance between fractures and the microseismic event the clearer the migration image is. By summing migration images for many

  14. Chronic Pancreatitis, Type 3c Diabetes, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Whitcomb


    Full Text Available About half of all patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP develop diabetes mellitus (DM due to the loss of islet cell mass, not just beta cells as in Type 1 DM (T1DM, or due to insulin resistance, as in Type 2 DM (T2DM. Patients with DM from loss of islets due to pancreatic disease or resection are diagnosed with pancreatogenic or Type 3c DM (T3cDM. Patients with T3cDM also lose counter-regulatory hormones, such as glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide, and experience maldigestion associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Patients with T3cDM are therefore more susceptible to hypoglycemia and a mismatch (asynchrony between food ingestion and nutrient absorption. At the same time, the use of incretin therapy is likely useless, since maldigestion leads to the release of higher levels of hind gut hormones, including GLP1. Thus, T3cDM caused by CP or destruction of the islets involves a special class of potential risks and comorbidity that may be overlooked if the CP has not been diagnosed.

  15. Phonons in A3C60 Lattice and Structural Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Larsson


    Full Text Available The critical temperature ( of superconductivity in A3C60 compounds is generally lower smaller with alkali atoms (A. Furthermore decreases with applied pressure. In the BCS model, these trends are explained by the lower density of states at the Fermi level for a decreased lattice constant (R. There is more than one counterexample, however, suggesting that BCS does not give the whole truth. The most important one is that the compound with the largest lattice constant, Cs3C60, is not superconducting at all at ambient pressure. In this paper we derive a novel model where a negative lattice contribution to Hubbard U, proportional to 1/R, is taken into account. It is possible to explain why A3C60 compounds with A = Li, and Na have a low or are not superconducting at all, and why Cs3C60 is superconducting only at applied pressure and then with the highest of all C60 alkali fullerides. It is concluded that the density of states mechanism derived in the BCS model is in doubt. Nevertheless superconductivity in A3C60 depends on electron-phonon coupling. The dominating phonon is the bond stretching Ag phonon, a breathing phonon for the whole fullerene molecular ion.

  16. Timing of umbilical cord clamping: new thoughts on an old discussion. (United States)

    Arca, Gemma; Botet, Francesc; Palacio, Montse; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier


    The optimal time to clamp the umbilical cord in preterm and full-term neonates after birth continues to be a matter of debate. A review of randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of early versus late cord clamping on maternal and infant outcomes was performed to assess data in favor of immediate or delayed clamping. Although there is no conclusive evidence, delayed cord clamping seems to be beneficial in preterm and full-term neonates without compromising the initial postpartum adaptation phase or affecting the mother in the short term. However, further randomised clinical studies are needed to confirm the benefits of delayed cord clamping.

  17. Clamping stiffness and its influence on load distribution between paired internal spinal fixation devices. (United States)

    Rohlmann, A; Calisse, J; Bergmann, G; Radvan, J; Mayer, H M


    The load distribution between two internal spinal fixation devices depends, besides other factors, on their stiffness. The stiffness ranges were determined experimentally for the clamps of the AO internal fixator with lateral nut and with posterior nut as well as for the clamps of the SOCON fixator. The stiffness of eight devices each differed by a factor of 3.1 for the clamp with lateral nut, by a factor of 1.5 for the clamp with posterior nut, and by a factor of 1.4 for the clamp of the SOCON fixator. For the AO clamp with lateral nut, the influence of the nut-tightening torque on the stiffness was determined. Using instrumented internal spinal fixation devices mounted to plastic vertebrae and simulating a corpectomy, the load distribution between the implants was measured for different tightening torques. It could be shown that, for the AO internal fixator whose clamps have a lateral nut, a nut-tightening torque > 5 Nm has only a negligible influence on load-sharing between the implants. Tooth damage occurs when the teeth of the clamp body and clamping jaw of the clamp with lateral nut do not gear together exactly, which leads to changes in the clamping stiffness and load-sharing between the two implants.

  18. The timing of cord clamping and oxidative stress in term newborns. (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Florido, Jesus; Kajarabille, Naroa; Garrido-Sánchez, Maria; Padilla, Carmen; de Paco, Catalina; Navarrete, Luis; Ochoa, Julio J


    Clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord is the most prevalent of all operations, but the optimal timing of cord clamping is controversial, with different timings offering advantages and disadvantages. This study, for the first time, compares the influence of early and late cord clamping in correlation with oxidative stress and inflammation signaling, Because cord clamping timing may have a significant influence on placenta-to-infant blood transfer, thereby modifying oxygenation of maternal and fetal tissues, and on the transfer of inflammatory mediators throughout the placenta. Sixty-four pregnant subjects were selected at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Services Department of the Clinico San Cecilio Hospital, Granada, Spain, based on disease-free women who experienced a normal course of pregnancy and a spontaneous, vaginal, single delivery. Half of the subjects had deliveries with early-clamped newborn infants (at 10 s), and the other half had late-clamped deliveries (at 2 min). Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly greater in the late-clamped group than in the early-clamped group (P umbilical vein and P clamped group compared with the early-clamped group (P cord clamping, produced by an increase in antioxidant capacity and moderation of the inflammatory-mediated effects induced during delivery of term neonates. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Surface and downhole shear wave seismic methods for thick soil site investigations (United States)

    Hunter, J.A.; Benjumea, B.; Harris, J.B.; Miller, R.D.; Pullan, S.E.; Burns, R.A.; Good, R.L.


    Shear wave velocity-depth information is required for predicting the ground motion response to earthquakes in areas where significant soil cover exists over firm bedrock. Rather than estimating this critical parameter, it can be reliably measured using a suite of surface (non-invasive) and downhole (invasive) seismic methods. Shear wave velocities from surface measurements can be obtained using SH refraction techniques. Array lengths as large as 1000 m and depth of penetration to 250 m have been achieved in some areas. High resolution shear wave reflection techniques utilizing the common midpoint method can delineate the overburden-bedrock surface as well as reflecting boundaries within the overburden. Reflection data can also be used to obtain direct estimates of fundamental site periods from shear wave reflections without the requirement of measuring average shear wave velocity and total thickness of unconsolidated overburden above the bedrock surface. Accurate measurements of vertical shear wave velocities can be obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer in soft sediments, or with a well-locked geophone array in a borehole. Examples from thick soil sites in Canada demonstrate the type of shear wave velocity information that can be obtained with these geophysical techniques, and show how these data can be used to provide a first look at predicted ground motion response for thick soil sites. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Fast and objective detection and analysis of structures in downhole images (United States)

    Wedge, Daniel; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Mike; Spadaccini, Nick


    Downhole acoustic and optical televiewer images, and formation microimager (FMI) logs are important datasets for structural and geotechnical analyses for the mineral and petroleum industries. Within these data, dipping planar structures appear as sinusoids, often in incomplete form and in abundance. Their detection is a labour intensive and hence expensive task and as such is a significant bottleneck in data processing as companies may have hundreds of kilometres of logs to process each year. We present an image analysis system that harnesses the power of automated image analysis and provides an interactive user interface to support the analysis of televiewer images by users with different objectives. Our algorithm rapidly produces repeatable, objective results. We have embedded it in an interactive workflow to complement geologists' intuition and experience in interpreting data to improve efficiency and assist, rather than replace the geologist. The main contributions include a new image quality assessment technique for highlighting image areas most suited to automated structure detection and for detecting boundaries of geological zones, and a novel sinusoid detection algorithm for detecting and selecting sinusoids with given confidence levels. Further tools are provided to perform rapid analysis of and further detection of structures e.g. as limited to specific orientations.

  1. The kinetics of carbonate scaling. Application for the prediction of downhole carbonate scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Farquhar, R. [Read Well Services Ltd., Offshore Technology Park 1, Claymore Avenue, AB23 8GW Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Shaw, H. [Centre for Petroleum Studies, T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, SW7 2BP London (United Kingdom); Dawe, R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)


    Reliable prediction of calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}, scaling for estimating scale production oilfield production wells and surface facilities requires both thermodynamic models to indicate the tendency for scaling from solution and kinetic models to predict the rate of scaling and thus the time required to cause blockage. The application of such models could contribute to field scale management and in the development of more effective treatments of carbonate scale during oilfield production. The performance of a kinetic model for calcium carbonate scaling rate based on the measurements of individual calcite crystal growth rates is tested against scale deposition in tube blocking experiments using synthetic formation brines under pressure and temperature levels. The profile of the scale formed on the internal surface of the tube during the experiments was measured and compared with the predicted results from the kinetic model. The application of the kinetic model to the prediction of carbonate scaling in a North Sea well has also been tested. The results from the model are in good agreement with the actual scale profile recorded in the tubing by a downhole multi-finger caliper (MFC) tool.

  2. New infrared spectral component of the quasar 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, E.I.; Gear, W.K.; Brown, L.M.J.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Smith, M.G.; Griffin, M.J.; Blecha, A.


    Following the dramatic infrared to millimetre-wavelength flare seen in the quasar 3C273 during 1983, the authors have continued to monitor its overall continuum emission. Recent measurements show that the to 3-mm emission has decayed to a level well below any seen previously, while the emission has remained relatively constant. This behaviour has revealed the presence of an apparently non-variable component which dominates the near-infrared emission in 3C273 and includes the small 'bump' at approx. 3.5 in the power-law continuum.

  3. Umbilical cord clamping at birth--practice in Norwegian maternity wards. (United States)

    Lundberg, Camilla; Øian, Pål; Klingenberg, Claus


    The timing and practice used for umbilical cord clamping of neonates are controversial internationally as well as in Norway. We therefore wished to investigate routines and practices for umbilical cord clamping of neonates in Norway. A web-based questionnaire was sent to heads of departments of all maternity wards in Norway (n = 52). They were asked about their practice with regard to umbilical cord clamping of neonates and whether written routines had been prepared for this purpose. We defined early umbilical cord clamping as immediate or within 30 seconds and late clamping as ≥ 1 minute or not until pulsation in the umbilical cord had ceased. Fifty (96%) of the maternity institutions returned a completed questionnaire. Twelve institutions (24%) reported to clamp the umbilical cord of full-term neonates early, and 38 (76%) reported to practise late clamping. Nineteen maternity wards (38%) followed written routines for umbilical cord clamping of full-term neonates, and among these, early umbilical cord clamping was practised in nine (47%). In the 31 maternity wards that had no written routines, early umbilical cord clamping was practised in three (10%). Twenty-seven of the maternity wards reported that the child is placed on the maternal abdomen before clamping of the umbilical cord, 14 reported that the child commonly is held below the introitus before umbilical cord clamping, and the rest did not report any consistent practice. There is wide variation in the practice for umbilical cord clamping in Norwegian maternity wards, many of which have no written guidelines. We argue that national guidelines for umbilical cord clamping of neonates should be established.

  4. Clamped seismic metamaterials: ultra-low frequency stop bands (United States)

    Achaoui, Y.; Antonakakis, T.; Brûlé, S.; Craster, R. V.; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.


    The regularity of earthquakes, their destructive power, and the nuisance of ground vibration in urban environments, all motivate designs of defence structures to lessen the impact of seismic and ground vibration waves on buildings. Low frequency waves, in the range 1-10 Hz for earthquakes and up to a few tens of Hz for vibrations generated by human activities, cause a large amount of damage, or inconvenience; depending on the geological conditions they can travel considerable distances and may match the resonant fundamental frequency of buildings. The ultimate aim of any seismic metamaterial, or any other seismic shield, is to protect over this entire range of frequencies; the long wavelengths involved, and low frequency, have meant this has been unachievable to date. Notably this is scalable and the effects also hold for smaller devices in ultrasonics. There are three approaches to obtaining shielding effects: bragg scattering, locally resonant sub-wavelength inclusions and zero-frequency stop-band media. The former two have been explored, but the latter has not and is examined here. Elastic flexural waves, applicable in the mechanical vibrations of thin elastic plates, can be designed to have a broad zero-frequency stop-band using a periodic array of very small clamped circles. Inspired by this experimental and theoretical observation, all be it in a situation far removed from seismic waves, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve elastic surface (Rayleigh) wave reflectors at very large wavelengths in structured soils modelled as a fully elastic layer periodically clamped to bedrock. We identify zero frequency stop-bands that only exist in the limit of columns of concrete clamped at their base to the bedrock. In a realistic configuration of a sedimentary basin 15 m deep we observe a zero frequency stop-band covering a broad frequency range of 0-30 Hz.

  5. Discovery of a faint optical jet in 3C 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Sorensen, A. N.;


    the optical condensation A of the galaxy, which includes the bright 4" radio knot, is found to be 12 % polarized with the electric field vectors perpendicular to the jet. These findings indicate that 3C 120 contains the 6th known extragalactic optical synchrotron jet, quite similar in its properties...

  6. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadeddu, MP


    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  7. Search for exotic events from the L3+C data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Lin-Kai; HE Zuo-Xiu; HUO An-Xiang; JING Cai-Liu; KUANG Hao-Huai; LEI Yu; LI Li; MA Xin-Hua; MA Yu-Qian; QING Cheng-Rui; WANG Rui-Guang; YAO Zhi-Guo; YU Zhong-Qiang; ZHANG Chao; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Jing; ZHU Qing-Qi


    An effort to search for Kolar-like events within the data set of the L3+C experiment is reported. From a total of 0.89×1010 triggered events there are no reliable two-prong Kolar-like events observed. The some reasonable assumptions.

  8. The Double–Double Radio Galaxy 3C293

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. A. Joshi; S. Nandi; D. J. Saikia; C. H. Ishwara-Chandra; C. Konar


    We present the results of radio continuum observations at frequencies ranging from ∼ 150–5000 MHz of the misaligned double–double radio galaxy (DDRG) 3C293 (J1352+3126) using the GMRT and the VLA, and estimate the time-scale of interruption of jet activity to be less than ∼ 0.1 Myr.

  9. A decade of 3C technologies: insights into nuclear organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, E.; de Laat, W.


    Over the past 10 years, the development of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and the subsequent genomic variants thereof have enabled the analysis of nuclear organization at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The technology relies on the original and, in hindsight, remarkably

  10. Position Measurements of the Core in 3C 66B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G.-Y. Zhao; Y.-J. Chen; Z.-Q. Shen; H. Sudou; S. Iguchi; Y. Murata; Y. Taniguchi


    It was argued that 3C 66B, a nearby radio galaxy, harbors a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). To investigate this, a 4-epoch VLBA phase referencing imaging observation was performed in 2004–2005. Here we present some preliminary results of this project. We found a large position difference compared to previous results.

  11. Accelerated commutation for passive clamp isolated boost converters



    An efficient and cost effective bidirectional DC/DC converter reduces switch voltage stress via accelerated commutation allowing use of a low-cost passive clamp circuit in boost mode. The converter includes a primary circuit, transformer and secondary circuit. The primary circuit takes the form of a “full bridge converter,” a “push-pull converter,” or an “L-type converter.”. The primary circuit may include a dissipator such as a snubber circuit or small buck converter. A secondary side of the...

  12. Potassium Chloride Versus Voltage Clamp Contractures in Ventricular Muscle (United States)

    Morad, M.; Reeck, S.; Rao, M.


    In frog ventricle, developed tension was markedly larger in response to depolarization caused by a voltage clamp step than to depolarization induced by high concentrations of potassium chloride. Measurement of extracellular potassium activity at the surface and at the depth of muscle during the development of contractures showed that the diffusion of potassium is much slower than the spread of depolarization through the cross section of muscle. These two observations suggest that competition between the depolarizing and the negative inotropic effects of an increase in the extracellular potassium ion concentration may determine the time course and magnitude of contractile tension in heart muscle.

  13. Effect of Clamping Rigidity of the Armour on Ballistic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit


    Full Text Available Influence of the manner in which the armour plates are held during their ballistic testing on the armour performance, has been evaluated. One armour plate was clamped rigidly to the test stand while a second plate of identical composition, hardness, and dimensions was hung loosely from the target holder. Both these plates were impacted with the same type of projectiles and over the same impact velocity range. The nature of ballistic damage evaluated indicates that the manner in which the armour is held during ballistic testing has a negligible influence on its performance at least when the mass of the plate is substantially higher than that of the projectile.

  14. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley


    Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity...... and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study, we measured insulin sensitivity (M/I) using the euglycemic clamp technique in 1073 healthy European adults (587 women, 486 men) aged 30 to 60 years followed up 3 years later. Systolic BP (SBP) at baseline was higher in insulin-resistant women (ie, those in the low sex...

  15. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng


    discussed in the existing literature. Addressing the previously described issues, this paper focuses on the operational mode analysis of a three-level indirect matrix converter implemented using a neutral-point-clamped inversion stage and the design of a number of PWM and modulation ratio compensation...... schemes for controlling the converter with improved waveform quality. The performances and practicalities of the designed schemes are verified in simulation and experimentally using an implemented laboratory prototype with some representative results captured and presented in this paper....

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1V37A-2YW3C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1V37A-2YW3C 1V37 2YW3 A C --------MELWLVRH--------GETLWNREGRLLGWT...41 ALA CA 498 2YW3 C 2YW3C...CA 453 2YW3 C 2YW3C.../pdbChain> 2YW3C LEITL-RTEKG EEE - HH...VID> 3 2YW3 C 2YW3C

  17. Connection Between X-Ray Emission and Relativistic Jets in the Radio Galaxies 3C 111 and 3C 120 (United States)

    Aller, Margo F.


    This work represents a part of a longterm study of the X-ray flux variability in radio galaxies and its relation to flux and structural changes in the associated radio jet. The work described here included: 1) continued study of the emission properties of the FR I radio galaxy 3C 120 known to exhibit a jet/disk connection from our past work; and 2) the commencement of monitoring of a second radio galaxy, the FR I1 object 3C 111 which was selected because of similar radio and X-ray properties to 3C 120, including the presence of Fe K a emission. The association between X-ray dips and new superluminal components, suggesting a picture in which the radio jet is fed by accretion events near the black hole, was identified in 3C 120 using combined RXTE and radio flux monitoring data and bi-monthly to monthly imaging data from the VLBA at 43 GHz. Such data were also obtained for both targets during the period described here. Specific goals were to more broadly investigate the X-ray dip/superluminal connection in 3C 120, thereby determining the epochs of X-ray minima and superluminal ejections more accurately (and hence more precisely determining the distance between the accretion disk and the core of the radio jet), and to determine whether a similar pattern is present in the data for a second radio galaxy. In 3C 111 a different time scale (longer time delays between X-ray dips and superluminal ejections) was expected due to the higher black hole mass implied by its higher radio luminosity: no black hole mass is published for this object but one can be determined from a PDS analysis of the RXTE data. The addition of the second source to the study would identify whether a similar connection was present in other sources and, if found, would provide important information on how time scale (and hence size scale) of accretion disk/jet systems depends on black hole mass. The grant included funding for the reduction and analysis of data obtained during the time period of Rossi

  18. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia


    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  19. Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after delivery and implications for public cord blood banking. (United States)

    Allan, David S; Scrivens, Nicholas; Lawless, Tiffany; Mostert, Karen; Oppenheimer, Lawrence; Walker, Mark; Petraszko, Tanya; Elmoazzen, Heidi


    Public banking of umbilical cord blood units (CBUs) containing higher numbers of cells ensures timely engraftment after transplantation for increasing numbers of patients. Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth may benefit some infants by preventing iron deficiency. Implications of delayed cord clamping for public cord blood banking remains unclear. CBUs collected by Canadian Blood Services at one collection site between November 1, 2014, and March 17, 2015, were analyzed. The delay in cord clamping after birth was timed and classified as "no delay," 20 to 60 seconds, more than 60 seconds, or more than 120 seconds. Of 367 collections, 100 reported no delay in clamping while clamping was delayed by 20 to 60 seconds (n = 69), more than 60 seconds (n = 98), or more than 120 seconds (n = 100) in the remaining cases. The mean volume and total nucleated cells (TNCs) in units with no delay in clamping were significantly greater than mean volumes for all categories of delayed clamping (Tukey's test, p clamping was delayed (p = 5.5 × 10(-8) ). The difference was most marked for cords that were clamped more than 120 seconds after delivery (6.2% compared with 39%). Delayed cord clamping greatly diminishes the volume and TNC count of units collected for a public cord blood bank. Creating an inventory of CBUs with high TNC content may take more time than expected. © 2015 AABB.

  20. Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping in the 21st Century: Indications for Practice. (United States)

    Bayer, Kimberly


    Health care providers have debated the timing of umbilical cord clamping since the days of Aristotle. Delayed cord clamping was the mainstay of practice until about the 1950s when it was changed to immediate clamping on the basis of a series of blood volume studies combined with the introduction of active management of the third stage of labor. However, in recent years, several systematic reviews advise that delayed cord clamping should be used in all births for at least 30 to 60 seconds. The purpose of this article is to discuss the physiology of umbilical cord clamping, the potential benefits and adverse effects of delayed cord clamping, and how this affects the advanced practice nurse. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, and Clinical Key was used to find relevant research on the topic of umbilical cord clamping. Potential benefits of delayed cord clamping include decreased frequency of iron-deficiency anemia in the first year of life with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes in term infants, reduced need for blood transfusions, possible autologous transfusion of stem cells, and a decreased incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Apprehension exists regarding the feasibility of the practice as well as the potential hindrance of immediate resuscitation. There is a need to begin to look for populations for which delayed cord clamping can be implemented. Recommendations are inconsistent on the patient population and timing; therefore, further studies are needed to understand the multiple variables that affect timing of umbilical cord clamping.

  1. Randomised trial of cord clamping and initial stabilisation at very preterm birth. (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Dorling, Jon; Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Oddie, Sam J; Yoxall, Charles William; Schoonakker, Bernard; Bradshaw, Lucy; Mitchell, Eleanor J; Fawke, Joe Anthony


    For very preterm births, to compare alternative policies for umbilical cord clamping and immediate neonatal care. Parallel group randomised (1:1) trial, using sealed opaque numbered envelopes. Eight UK tertiary maternity units. 261 women expected to have a live birth before 32 weeks, and their 276 babies. Cord clamping after at least 2 min and immediate neonatal care with cord intact, or clamping within 20 s and immediate neonatal care after clamping. Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), death before discharge. 132 women (137 babies) were allocated clamping ≥2 min and neonatal care cord intact, and 129 (139) clamping ≤20 s and neonatal care after clamping; six mother-infant dyads were excluded (2, 4) as birth was after 35(+6) weeks, one withdrew (death data only available) (0, 1). Median gestation was 28.9 weeks for those allocated clamping ≥2 min, and 29.2 for those allocated clamping ≤20 s. Median time to clamping was 120 and 11 s, respectively. 7 of 135 infants (5.2%) allocated clamping ≥2 min died and 15 of 135 (11.1%) allocated clamping ≤20 s; risk difference (RD) -5.9% (95% CI -12.4% to 0.6%). Of live births, 43 of 134 (32%) had IVH vs 47 of 132 (36%), respectively; RD -3.5% (-14.9% to 7.8%). There were no clear differences in other outcomes for infants or mothers. This is promising evidence that clamping after at least 2 min and immediate neonatal care with cord intact at very preterm birth may improve outcome; a large trial is urgently needed. ISRCTN 21456601. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Patch-clamp detection of macromolecular translocation along nuclear pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante J.O.


    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the application of patch-clamp principles to the detection and measurement of macromolecular translocation along the nuclear pores. We demonstrate that the tight-seal 'gigaseal' between the pipette tip and the nuclear membrane is possible in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores. We show that the ability to form a gigaseal in nucleus-attached configurations does not mean that only the activity of channels from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope can be detected. Instead, we show that, in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores, it is likely that the large-conductance ion channel activity recorded derives from the nuclear pores. We conclude the technical section with the suggestion that the best way to demonstrate that the nuclear pores are responsible for ion channel activity is by showing with fluorescence microscopy the nuclear translocation of ions and small molecules and the exclusion of the same from the cisterna enclosed by the two membranes of the envelope. Since transcription factors and mRNAs, two major groups of nuclear macromolecules, use nuclear pores to enter and exit the nucleus and play essential roles in the control of gene activity and expression, this review should be useful to cell and molecular biologists interested in understanding how patch-clamp can be used to quantitate the translocation of such macromolecules into and out of the nucleus

  3. Lessons Learned From the Analysis of the SAFOD Downhole Instrument Package. (United States)

    Johnson, Wade; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen


    In September of 2008 a downhole instrument package (DIP) consisting of a string of seismometers and tilt meters in isolated pressure vessels (PODs) was installed in the SAFOD main borehole. This package was designed to protect the sensors from the corrosive borehole environment and to operate for two years. The SAFOD borehole is not sealed at the bottom allowing borehole gasses and fluids infiltratration. Previous short-term installations of instruments in the SAFOD main borehole had also failed as a result of corrosion of the wireline cable head. The average failure time for these installations was two weeks. The use of stainless steel tubing connected to the pressure vessels through gas tight fittings was designed to block borehole fluid and gas infiltration of the individual instruments within the PODs. Unfortunately, the DIP completely failed within a month of its installation. In October of 2010, the DIP was removed from the borehole and a failure analysis was performed. This analysis involved to following steps: 1. Analysis of data to understand timeline of failure 2. Remove instrument safely, maintaining integrity of spliced section and documenting any external clues. Test instrument at surface 3. Open PODs in a way that allows for sampling and avoids damaging instruments. 4. Chemical analysis of fluids recovered from splices and PODs. 5. Instrument failure analysis by the instrument manufacturers. The analysis found that there were several design flaws in the DIP. This included the use of motor oil to take up air space in the individual PODs, use of a large number of gas tight seals, lack of internal seals, poorly done solder joints, use of non-temperature rated sensors, and lack of management oversight. The lessons learned from the attempts to instrument the SAFOD borehole are critical to the success of future deep borehole projects.

  4. 随钻井下姿态测量系统%Attitude measurement system Downhole drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾衡天; 张程光; 高文凯; 管康; 范锦辉; 彭浩; 邓乐


    In drilling oil drilling it′s important to accurately understand the attitude information of drilling tool. By measuring the attitude information accurately it can grasp the orientation parameters of borehole.With the development of petroleum industry in recent years, it need to use precise trajectory control technology for oil drilling technology to adapt to directional wells, horizontal wells and large displacement well application.This paper designs a downhole attitude measurement system which can work in drilling conditions. By measuring the signal of three axis gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetic sensor. and doing corresponding algorithm, it can get the attitude information of underground drilling.%在随钻石油钻探时需要准确地了解钻具的姿态信息,通过对姿态信息的测量可以准确地掌握井眼的方位参数。随着近年来石油工业的发展,要求石油钻井技术采用精确的轨迹控制技术,适应定向井、水平井和大位移井等应用的需要。设计一种井下姿态测量系统,可以工作在随钻条件下,通过测量三轴陀螺仪、加速度计和磁阻传感器的信号并进行相应的算法处理,得到钻具在井下的姿态信息。


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin L. Gildea; Stephen P. Farrington, P.E.; Wesley L. Bratton, Ph.D., PE


    Conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between sampling devices and containers, ultimately affecting the quality of the analytical results. Inaccurate characterization data often leads to improperly designed remedial systems that slow the clean-up process and increase the cost. For these reasons, in situ methods for sample extraction and real time analysis provide attractive alternatives to conventional sampling and analysis. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the investigators continued development of a system that combines High Speed Gas Chromatography techniques with Cone Penetration Testing to achieve near-real time analysis of soils and groundwater for chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbon contamination (PCE, TCE, BTEX) during site characterization. The system combines three new CPT tools with an up-hole analyzer. The Dynamic Thermal Desorption (DTD) probe provides the up-hole analyzer with continuously sampled soil gas, enhancing detection limits by heating the soil matrix during penetration to thermally desorb volatile organic contaminants. The CPT In Situ Purge Probe (CISP) purges a water sample in situ, transferring the purge gas up-hole for analysis. Alternatively, soil gas or purge gas from the DTD probe or the CISP can be diverted to a Downhole Trap Module (DTM), which traps contaminants on conventional trap media for later analysis in a fixed laboratory. While the effectiveness of the CISP was hampered by the tendency of fine grained materials to clog its sample inlet filter, the DTD probe and the DTM were demonstrated to perform their intended functions well.

  6. HST Polarimetry of the 3C 273 Jet (United States)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S.; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi Alison; Cheung, Chi C.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana M.; Martel, Andre; Urry, C. Megan; Stawarz, Lukasz; Coppi, Paolo S.; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Cara, Mihai; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Begelman, Mitchell C.


    We present preliminary results using HST polarimetry of the jet of 3C 273. Polarization is a critical parameter for understanding jet flows, and has proven essential in characterizing the physics of FR I jets; high-quality HST polarimetry has been done for just two other FR II jets previously. Our recent work on two quasar jets, where we measured high optical polarization in the brightest X-ray knots, has favored the synchrotron emission model over the alternative IC/CMB model for their optical to X-ray emission. These new observations of 3C 273 allow for the determination of the magnetic field structure and confirmation of which emission mechanisms are operating to create its optical to X-ray emission, and will allow us to greatly advance modeling efforts for this jet and nail down its kinetic power, a key unknown parameter for understanding quasars and their cosmological effects.

  7. A Complete Set of VSOP Observations of 3C279 (United States)

    Pant, N. D.; Piner, B. G.; Edwards, P. G.; Hirabayashi, H.; Wehrle, A. E.; Unwin, S. C.


    We have compiled a complete set of VSOP observations of 3C279, consisting of eight 5 GHz, and six 1.6 GHz, VSOP observations, all of which include the VLBA in the ground array. We are using the data-set to determine brightness temperature limits from model-fits to the visibilities, the transverse structure of the jet over its first 20 milliarcseconds, and parsec-scale spectral index maps.

  8. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Colliding Jets: Modeling 3C 75 (United States)

    Molnar, S. M.; Schive, H.-Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiueh, T.; Musoke, G.; Young, A. J.


    Radio observations suggest that 3C 75, located in the dumbbell shaped galaxy NGC 1128 at the center of Abell 400, hosts two colliding jets. Motivated by this source, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using a modified version of the GPU-accelerated Adaptive-MEsh-Refinement hydrodynamical parallel code (GAMER) to study colliding extragalactic jets. We find that colliding jets can be cast into two categories: (1) bouncing jets, in which case the jets bounce off each other keeping their identities, and (2) merging jets, when only one jet emerges from the collision. Under some conditions the interaction causes the jets to break up into oscillating filaments of opposite helicity, with consequences for their downstream stability. When one jet is significantly faster than the other and the impact parameter is small, the jets merge; the faster jet takes over the slower one. In the case of merging jets, the oscillations of the filaments, in projection, may show a feature that resembles a double helix, similar to the radio image of 3C 75. Thus we interpret the morphology of 3C 75 as a consequence of the collision of two jets with distinctly different speeds at a small impact parameter, with the faster jet breaking up into two oscillating filaments.

  9. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111 (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; Zensus, J. A.


    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  10. The inner kiloparsec of the jet in 3C264

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, L; Cotton, B; Feretti, L; Venturi, T; Lara, Lucas; Giovannini, Gabriele; Cotton, Bill; Feretti, Luigina; Venturi, Tiziana


    We present new multi-frequency EVN, MERLIN and VLA observations of the radio source 3C264, sensitive to linear scales ranging from the parsec to several kiloparsecs. The observations confirm the existence of regions with different properties in the first kiloparsec of the jet. The most remarkable feature is the transition between a well collimated narrow jet at distances from the core below 80 pc, to a conical-shaped wide jet, with an opening angle of 20 degrees. Another change of properties, consisting of an apparent deflection of the jet ridge line and a diminution of the surface brightness, occurs at a distance of 300 pc from the core, coincident with the radius of a ring observed at optical wavelengths. Our observations add new pieces of information on the spectrum of the radio-optical jet of 3C264, with results consistent with a synchrotron emission mechanism and a spectrum break frequency in the infrared. Brightness profiles taken perpendicularly to the jet of 3C264 are consistent with a spine brightene...

  11. Infrared spectrophotometry of three Seyfert galaxies and 3C 273 (United States)

    Cutri, R. M.; Puetter, R. C.; Rudy, R. J.; Willner, S. P.; Aitken, D. K.; Jones, B.; Merrill, K. M.; Roche, P. F.; Russell, R. W.; Soifer, B. T.


    Spectrophotometry in the range 2.1-4.0 microns is presented for the Seyfert galaxies NGC 1068, NGC 4151 and Mrk 231 and the quasar 3C 273, together with broadband and narrowband observations of the Seyfert galaxies in the range 8-13 microns. The spectra of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 are found to contain a significant component due to starlight, especially at shorter wavelengths. The nonstellar component in NGC 1068 is observed to fall off rapidly at wavelengths shorter than 4 microns, consistent with the interpretation of the excess beyond 5 microns as thermal reradiation by dust. Observations confirm the variability of NGC 4151, and indicate the presence of two components of the flux other than starlight: a nonthermal variable component predominant at shorter wavelengths and a constant, probably thermal component at wavelengths greater than 3 microns. Mrk 231 and 3C 273 exhibit no discernable stellar component and were not observed to vary by more than 10%. Evidence is obtained for a broad minimum in the 8 to 13 micron spectrum of Mrk 231, as well as possible structure between rest wavelengths of 2.8 and 2.9 microns, and the spectrum is not a power law. The spectrum of 3C 273 is consistent with a power law from 1.2 to 10 microns, with small but significant deviations.

  12. Optimal timing of umbilical cord clamping for term and preterm babies. (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Batey, Natalie


    Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between baby and placenta to continue for a few moments. This often leads to increased neonatal blood volume at birth. It also allows for longer transition to the neonatal circulation. Optimal timing for clamping the cord remains uncertain. This paper discusses the physiology of placental transfusion and presents the evidence from systematic reviews of randomised trials comparing alternative strategies for cord clamping for both term and preterm births. For healthy term infants, deferring cord clamping increases iron stores in infancy. Therefore, a more liberal approach to deferring cord clamping appears to be warranted, provided screening and treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available. For preterm births, although there are few data on the main clinical outcomes, the evidence is promising that deferred cord clamping may be beneficial. For both term and preterm infants there is little information about long term development. © 2013.

  13. Study of Structural Parameters of the Inlet of Downhole Hydrocyclones%井下水力旋流器入口结构参数试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凤霞; 张淑艳; 胡春伟


    Three different inlets of hydrocyclone are studied in combination with the construction of a downhole system and hydrocyclone. By comparing the relationship between the inlet structure & dimensional parameter of hydrocyclone and separation efficiency & pressure loss, the highest efficiency is obtained from the inlet of an involute curve with increasing depth-width ratio from the three types, in which the separation efficiency and pressure loss all drops slowly,for the length of the channel decreases, while it drops rapidly in the other two. The flow guiding ability of the inlet affects the separation efficiency greatly, so the corresponding involute type of inlet of hydrocyclone fits for downhole oil-water separation is optimized, which serves as a basis for the structural design of downhole hydrocyclone.

  14. Application of Numerical Simulation for the Verification of Design of Clamping a Workpiece in Jaws (United States)

    Oravcová, Jarmila; Riečičiarová, Eva


    This paper deals with the use of the numerical computer oriented method for the analysis and verification of the design of workpiece clamping. The inaccuracies of the positioning in clamping locating points were simulated using the FEM software ANSYS. The influence of inaccuracies in the positions of contact locating points on the displacements of the workpiece characteristic points and their position in clamped removable jaws was examined. The reaction forces in the contact locating points were also computed and analyzed.

  15. Delaying cord clamping until ventilation onset improves cardiovascular function at birth in preterm lambs. (United States)

    Bhatt, Sasmira; Alison, Beth J; Wallace, Euan M; Crossley, Kelly J; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; te Pas, Arjan B; Morley, Colin J; Polglase, Graeme R; Hooper, Stuart B


    Delayed cord clamping improves circulatory stability in preterm infants at birth, but the underlying physiology is unclear. We investigated the effects of umbilical cord clamping, before and after ventilation onset, on cardiovascular function at birth. Prenatal surgery was performed on lambs (123 days) to implant catheters into the pulmonary and carotid arteries and probes to measure pulmonary (PBF), carotid (CaBF) and ductus arteriosus blood flows. Lambs were delivered at 126 ± 1 days and: (1) the umbilical cord was clamped at delivery and ventilation was delayed for about 2 min (Clamp 1st; n = 6), and (2) umbilical cord clamping was delayed for 3-4 min, until after ventilation was established (Vent 1st; n = 6). All lambs were subsequently ventilated for 30 min. In Clamp 1st lambs, cord clamping rapidly (within four heartbeats), but transiently, increased pulmonary and carotid arterial pressures (by ∼30%) and CaBF (from 30.2 ± 5.6 to 40.1 ± 4.6 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), which then decreased again within 30-60 s. Following ventilation onset, these parameters rapidly increased again. In Clamp 1st lambs, cord clamping reduced heart rate (by ∼40%) and right ventricular output (RVO; from 114.6 ± 14.4 to 38.8 ± 9.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), which were restored by ventilation. In Vent 1st lambs, cord clamping reduced RVO from 153.5 ± 3.8 to 119.2 ± 10.6 ml min(-1) kg(-1), did not affect heart rates and resulted in stable blood flows and pressures during transition. Delaying cord clamping for 3-4 min until after ventilation is established improves cardiovascular function by increasing pulmonary blood flow before the cord is clamped. As a result, cardiac output remains stable, leading to a smoother cardiovascular transition throughout the early newborn period.

  16. Delaying cord clamping until ventilation onset improves cardiovascular function at birth in preterm lambs (United States)

    Bhatt, Sasmira; Alison, Beth J; Wallace, Euan M; Crossley, Kelly J; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; te Pas, Arjan B; Morley, Colin J; Polglase, Graeme R; Hooper, Stuart B


    Delayed cord clamping improves circulatory stability in preterm infants at birth, but the underlying physiology is unclear. We investigated the effects of umbilical cord clamping, before and after ventilation onset, on cardiovascular function at birth. Prenatal surgery was performed on lambs (123 days) to implant catheters into the pulmonary and carotid arteries and probes to measure pulmonary (PBF), carotid (CaBF) and ductus arteriosus blood flows. Lambs were delivered at 126 ± 1 days and: (1) the umbilical cord was clamped at delivery and ventilation was delayed for about 2 min (Clamp 1st; n = 6), and (2) umbilical cord clamping was delayed for 3–4 min, until after ventilation was established (Vent 1st; n = 6). All lambs were subsequently ventilated for 30 min. In Clamp 1st lambs, cord clamping rapidly (within four heartbeats), but transiently, increased pulmonary and carotid arterial pressures (by ∼30%) and CaBF (from 30.2 ± 5.6 to 40.1 ± 4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), which then decreased again within 30–60 s. Following ventilation onset, these parameters rapidly increased again. In Clamp 1st lambs, cord clamping reduced heart rate (by ∼40%) and right ventricular output (RVO; from 114.6 ± 14.4 to 38.8 ± 9.7 ml min−1 kg−1), which were restored by ventilation. In Vent 1st lambs, cord clamping reduced RVO from 153.5 ± 3.8 to 119.2 ± 10.6 ml min−1 kg−1, did not affect heart rates and resulted in stable blood flows and pressures during transition. Delaying cord clamping for 3–4 min until after ventilation is established improves cardiovascular function by increasing pulmonary blood flow before the cord is clamped. As a result, cardiac output remains stable, leading to a smoother cardiovascular transition throughout the early newborn period. PMID:23401615

  17. Diuretic response to acute hypertension is blunted during angiotensin II clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Zhang, Yibin; Yang, Li E;


    ("ANG II clamp"). When blood pressure was acutely increased 50-60 mmHg by arterial constriction without ANG II clamp, urine output and endogenous lithium clearance increased 4.0- and 6.7-fold, respectively. With ANG II clamp, the effects of acute hypertension were reduced 50%: urine output...... and endogenous lithium clearance increased two- and threefold, respectively. We conclude that HOE-140, an inhibitor of the B(2) receptor, potentiates the sensitivity of arterial pressure to ANG II and that clamping systemic ANG II levels during acute hypertension blunts the magnitude of the pressure diuretic...

  18. Modeling of SVM Diode Clamping Three-Level Inverter Connected to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong


    PLECS is used to model the diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First the output voltage SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter with loads connected to Y. Then the output voltage SVM of diode clamping three-level inverter is simply...... is very powerful tool to real power circuits and it is very easy to simulate them. They have also verified that SVM control strategy is feasible to control the diode clamping three-level inverter....

  19. Electrically integrated SU-8 clamped graphene drum resonators for strain engineering (United States)

    Lee, Sunwoo; Chen, Changyao; Deshpande, Vikram V.; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Ilkyu; Lekas, Michael; Gondarenko, Alexander; Yu, Young-Jun; Shepard, Kenneth; Kim, Philip; Hone, James


    Graphene mechanical resonators are the ultimate two-dimensional nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with applications in sensing and signal processing. While initial devices have shown promising results, an ideal graphene NEMS resonator should be strain engineered, clamped at the edge without trapping gas underneath, and electrically integratable. In this Letter, we demonstrate fabrication and direct electrical measurement of circular SU-8 polymer-clamped chemical vapor deposition graphene drum resonators. The clamping increases device yield and responsivity, while providing a cleaner resonance spectrum from eliminated edge modes. Furthermore, the clamping induces a large strain in the resonator, increasing its resonant frequency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek


    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical cord clamping in the third stage of labour is still controversial. Early cord clamping is defined as clamping at 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds after delivery and delayed as clamping after 60 seconds or at 2-5 minutes after delivery, when the cord stops pulsating or when the placenta is visible within the birth canal. Early clamping is one of the three components of active management of the third stage of labour, which has been used widely in modern obstetrics during the last century. However, in some northern European countries, various parts of the USA and Canada and in developing countries physiological management is preferred.Conclusions: After publication of several trials describing advantages of delayed clamping, this has recently been progressively replacing early clamping. The most important advantages of delayed cord clamping are higher haemoglobin and ferritin levels, higher iron stores, lower incidence of iron deficiency anaemia, better cardiopulmonary adaptation, lower rate of respiratory distress syndrome, and longer duration of early breastfeeding in term neonates, while there is no increase in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. Delayed clamping seems to bring some advantages for preterm neonates as well. However, caution is still advised because of the potential adverse effects, especially polycythaemia with hyperviscosity, hyperbilirubinaemia and respiratory distress.

  1. Beliefs and practices of obstetric care providers regarding umbilical cord clamping. (United States)

    Hill, Allyson L; Fontenot, Holly B


    The optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping after birth has yet to be established, and controversy exists. There is evidence of potentially significant health benefits of delayed cord clamping for both full-term and preterm newborns, but this practice has not been widely adopted. This column takes a second look at two recent studies in which researchers examined the beliefs and practices of obstetric care providers regarding umbilical cord clamping in North America. Nurses who are aware of the latest science and who understand both existing practice patterns as well as practice barriers to delayed clamping can be leaders in and advocates for change. © 2014 AWHONN.

  2. Cryogenic Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeters using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Transducers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clamp-on ultrasound cryogenic flowmeters using single crystal piezoelectric transducers are proposed to enable reliable, accurate cryogenic instrumentation needs in...

  3. Mechanism of ATP-driven PCNA clamp loading by S. cerevisiae RFC. (United States)

    Chen, Siying; Levin, Mikhail K; Sakato, Miho; Zhou, Yayan; Hingorani, Manju M


    Circular clamps tether polymerases to DNA, serving as essential processivity factors in genome replication, and function in other critical cellular processes as well. Clamp loaders catalyze clamp assembly onto DNA, and the question of how these proteins construct a topological link between a clamp and DNA, especially the mechanism by which ATP is utilized for the task, remains open. Here we describe pre-steady-state analysis of ATP hydrolysis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp opening, and DNA binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C (RFC), and present the first kinetic model of a eukaryotic clamp-loading reaction validated by global data analysis. ATP binding to multiple RFC subunits initiates a slow conformational change in the clamp loader, enabling it to bind and open PCNA and to bind DNA as well. PCNA opening locks RFC into an active state, and the resulting RFC.ATP.PCNA((open)) intermediate is ready for the entry of DNA into the clamp. DNA binding commits RFC to ATP hydrolysis, which is followed by PCNA closure and PCNA.DNA release. This model enables quantitative understanding of the multistep mechanism of a eukaryotic clamp loader and furthermore facilitates comparative analysis of loaders from diverse organisms.

  4. Multiwavelength and Polarimetric Analysis of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars 3C 273 and 3C 279 (United States)

    Fernandes, Sunil; Patiño-Álvarez, Victor; Chavushyan, Vahram; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Carrasco, Luis; Valdés, José; Carramiñana, Alberto


    This poster presents results of multiwavelength analyses of 3C 273 and 3C 279. The main goals were to identify the gamma-ray emission region and dominant high-energy emission processes. Our methodology consisted of analyzing light curves from radio to gamma-rays over 6 - 8 years and polarimetric, spectral and line emission behavior.In 3C 279, we found that the emission from millimeter to ultraviolet was simultaneous and therefore co-spatial. We identified two active states where different high-energy emission processes were dominant. We found multiwavelength flaring events consistent with component ejections and shocks. We proposed that the gamma-ray emission region changed over time based on observations of both simultaneous and delayed gamma-rays emission with respect to low-energy emission during different time-frames.In 3C 273, we identified a non-thermal flare related to a component ejection and a thermal flare related to accretion. From reverberation mapping we found that the broad line region dynamical behavior over time possibly affects the derived supermassive black hole mass.In both objects we found that the gamma-ray spectral index was variable, and a trend of harder spectral index with higher gamma-ray luminosity. From the identification of different dominant high-energy emission processes, we concluded that the dominant high-energy emission mechanism changes with time. Overall, we concluded that similar results from both objects points to behavior that is potentially common to flat spectrum radio quasars. Increasing the sample size of objects analyzed with similar methodologies will provide more results to confirm or refine our conclusions.

  5. Electrothermally actuated tunable clamped-guided resonant microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha


    We present simulation and experimental investigation demonstrating active alteration of the resonant and frequency response behavior of resonators by controlling the electrothermal actuation method on their anchors. In-plane clamped-guided arch and straight microbeams resonators are designed and fabricated with V-shaped electrothermal actuators on their anchors. These anchors not only offer various electrothermal actuation options, but also serve as various mechanical stiffness elements that affect the operating resonance frequency of the structures. We have shown that for an arch, the first mode resonance frequency can be increased up to 50% of its initial value. For a straight beam, we have shown that before buckling, the resonance frequency decreases to very low values and after buckling, it increases up to twice of its initial value. These results can be promising for the realization of different wide–range tunable microresonator. The experimental results have been compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  6. Trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P. C.; Li, D.;


    Transformer based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters are recently proposed by extending the traditional Z-source inverter with higher buck-boost capability as well as reducing the passive components at the same time. Multi-Level Z-source inverters are single-stage topological solutions used...... modulation scheme, the three-level trans-Z-source inverter can function with minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (same as the traditional buck NPC inverter), while maintaining to produce the designed volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at ac output terminals. The designed...... for buck-boost energy conversion with all the favourable advantages of multi-level switching retained. This paper presents three-level trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter topology, which achieves both the advantages of trans-Z-source and three-level NPC inverter configuration. With proper...

  7. The timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth: physiological considerations. (United States)

    Hooper, Stuart B; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Polglase, Graeme R; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; Wallace, Euan M; Blank, Douglas; Te Pas, Arjan B


    While it is now recognized that umbilical cord clamping (UCC) at birth is not necessarily an innocuous act, there is still much confusion concerning the potential benefits and harms of this common procedure. It is most commonly assumed that delaying UCC will automatically result in a time-dependent net placental-to-infant blood transfusion, irrespective of the infant's physiological state. Whether or not this occurs, will likely depend on the infant's physiological state and not on the amount of time that has elapsed between birth and umbilical cord clamping (UCC). However, we believe that this is an overly simplistic view of what can occur during delayed UCC and ignores the benefits associated with maintaining the infant's venous return and cardiac output during transition. Recent experimental evidence and observations in humans have provided compelling evidence to demonstrate that time is not a major factor influencing placental-to-infant blood transfusion after birth. Indeed, there are many factors that influence blood flow in the umbilical vessels after birth, which depending on the dominating factors could potentially result in infant-to-placental blood transfusion. The most dominant factors that influence umbilical artery and venous blood flows after birth are lung aeration, spontaneous inspirations, crying and uterine contractions. It is still not entirely clear whether gravity differentially alters umbilical artery and venous flows, although the available data suggests that its influence, if present, is minimal. While there is much support for delaying UCC at birth, much of the debate has focused on a time-based approach, which we believe is misguided. While a time-based approach is much easier and convenient for the caregiver, ignoring the infant's physiology during delayed UCC can potentially be counter-productive for the infant.

  8. Influence of axial deformation of pipe string on down-hole operation%管柱轴向变形对井下作业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper reviews the impact of axial deformation of string on different down-hole operating conditions along with the importance of the calculation on axial deformation for the establishment of calculation model of down-hole string axial deformation theory.%综合分析了管柱轴向变形对井下不同作业工况的影响,阐述了计算井下作业管柱轴向变形的重要性,为建立井下作业管柱轴向变形理论计算模型做了很好的铺垫。

  9. Experience with Server Self Service Center (S3C)

    CERN Document Server

    Sucik, J; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    CERN has a successful experience with running Server Self Service Center (S3C) for virtual server provisioning which is based on Microsoft® Virtual Server 2005. With the introduction of Windows Server 2008 and its built-in hypervisor based virtualization (Hyper-V) there are new possibilities for the expansion of the current service. This paper describes the architecture of the redesigned virtual Server Self Service based on Hyper-V which provides dynamically scalable virtualized resources on demand as needed and outlines the possible implications on the future use of virtual machines at CERN.

  10. Delta-function Approximation SSC Model in 3C 273

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. J. Kang; Y. G. Zheng; Q. Wu


    We obtain an approximate analytical solution using approximate calculation on the traditional one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In this model, we describe the electron energy distribution by a broken power-law function with a sharp cut-off, and non-thermal photons are produced by both synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. We calculate the radiation energy spectrum of electrons by the function. We apply this model to the multi-wavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of the 3C 273 in different states, and obtain excellent fits to the observed spectra of this source.

  11. Experience with Server Self Service Center (S3C)

    CERN Multimedia

    Sucik, J


    CERN has a successful experience with running Server Self Service Center (S3C) for virtual server provisioning which is based on Microsoft® Virtual Server 2005. With the introduction of Windows Server 2008 and its built-in hypervisor based virtualization (Hyper-V) there are new possibilities for the expansion of the current service. This paper describes the architecture of the redesigned virtual Server Self Service based on Hyper-V which provides dynamically scalable virtualized resources on demand as needed and outlines the possible implications on the future use of virtual machines at CERN.

  12. Structure and Properties of the Nonface-Spiral Fullerenes T-C380, D3-C384, D3-C440, and D3-C672 and Their Halma and Leapfrog Transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Tonner, Ralf; Avery, James Emil;


    The structure and properties of the three smallest nonface-spiral (NS) fullerenes NS-T-C380, NS-D3-C384, NS-D3-C440, and the first isolated pentagon NS-fullerene, NS-D3-C672, are investigated in detail. They are constructed by either a generalized face-spiral algorithm or by vertex insertions fol...

  13. Lithological controls on gas hydrate saturation: Insights from signal classification of NMR downhole data (United States)

    Bauer, Klaus; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Henninges, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) downhole data are analyzed with a new strategy to study gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). NMR logging is a powerful tool to study geological reservoir formations. The measurements are based on interactions between the magnetic moments of protons in geological formation water and an external magnetic field. Inversion of the measured raw data provides so-called transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution curves or spectra. Different parts of the T2 curve are related with distinct pore radii and corresponding fluid components. A common practice in the analysis of T2 distribution curves is to extract single-valued parameters such as apparent total porosity. Moreover, the derived total NMR apparent porosity and the gamma-gamma density log apparent porosity can be combined to estimate gas hydrate saturation in hydrate-bearing sediments. To avoid potential loss of information, in our new approach we analyze the entire T2 distribution curves as quasi-continuous signals to characterize the rock formation. The approach is applied to NMR data measured in gas hydrate research well Mallik 5L-38. We use self-organizing maps, a neural network clustering technique, to subdivide the data set of NMR T2 distribution curves into classes with a similar and distinctive signal shape. The method includes (1) preparation of data vectors, (2) unsupervised learning, (3) cluster definition, and (4) classification and depth mapping of all NMR signals. Each signal class thus represents a specific pore size distribution which can be interpreted in terms of distinct lithologies and reservoir types. A key step in the interpretation strategy is to reconcile the NMR classes with other log data not considered in the clustering analysis, such as gamma ray, photo-electric factor, hydrate saturation, and other logs. Our results defined six main lithologies within the target zone. Gas hydrate layers were recognized by their low signal

  14. Downhole Logging Measurements from IODP Expedition 313: an Overview and Future Directions (United States)

    Inwood, J.; Lofi, J.; Scienceparty, E.


    Downhole geophysical measurements and images allow the characterization of the lithology and physical properties of the subsurface, thus making a powerful contribution to the evaluation of facies and sediment composition and to the recognition of key surfaces in siliciclastic successions. The mission-specific IODP Expedition 313 (May-July 2009) cored and logged sequences deposited on the New Jersey continental margin during the post-Eocene ice-house world. One of the aims of the Expedition is to evaluate sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. 5800 m of wireline logging data were collected in three boreholes drilled to a composite total of 2062 m; here we present an overview of these data. Continuous through-pipe spectral gamma ray logs were acquired in each borehole and repeated in open hole intervals for calibration. Magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, sonic and acoustic image logs were obtained in open hole at key intervals and/or where borehole conditions allowed. Due to space limitations on the offshore platform, Exp313 cores were not split. Samples from core catchers, whole-round multi-sensor track measurements, vertical seismic profiles and these logging data comprise the full data set at the time of this writing. Preliminary analysis shows lateral and vertical changes in the physical properties of the sediments that enable us to distinguish depositional intervals at several scales (cms - tens of meters). Medium to high resolution acoustic images of the borehole walls reveal sedimentary characteristics even within intervals of low core recovery, and provide an accurate core-depth positioning of some key surfaces. Likewise, the continuous spectral gamma logs allow assessment of lithologies in intervals with incomplete core recovery, and show great promise of providing excellent log-core-seismic correlations once the cores are split and fully

  15. HT/HP x-tree and downhole fiber optic connectors and their use on subsea intelligent wells (United States)

    Wright, Perry; Barlow, Stewart


    Offshore Oil and Gas R&D has been committed to improved reservoir performance through production monitoring. Technology improvements in these areas offer the greatest potential returns through increased knowledge of the reservoir, and the improvements in real-time production control that the technology and knowledge base can provide. One area of technology that supports this development is the growing application of fiber optic sensors for reservoir and production monitoring. These sensors cannot function in isolation, and need support in the form of fiber optic connection systems for x-tree penetrations. ODI have been developing products for fiber optic tree penetrations and down-hole wet connections for the last 4 years, working with Intelligent Wells Group at BP America Production Company in Houston. This paper discusses the application and reliability of fiber optic connectors, and reviews the development of the ODI I-CONN connection system and its application for vertical and horizontal x-trees, work-over systems and running tools, and down-hole systems.

  16. Comparison of P- and S-wave velocity profiles obtained from surface seismic refraction/reflection and downhole data (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.


    High-resolution seismic-reflection/refraction data were acquired on the ground surface at six locations to compare with near-surface seismic-velocity downhole measurements. Measurement sites were in Seattle, WA, the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, and the San Fernando Valley, CA. We quantitatively compared the data in terms of the average shear-wave velocity to 30-m depth (Vs30), and by the ratio of the relative site amplification produced by the velocity profiles of each data type over a specified set of quarter-wavelength frequencies. In terms of Vs30, similar values were determined from the two methods. There is reflections and first-arrival phase delays are essential for identifying velocity inversions. The results suggest that seismic reflection/refraction data are a fast, non-invasive, and less expensive alternative to downhole data for determining Vs30. In addition, we emphasize that some P- and S-wave reflection travel times can directly indicate the frequencies of potentially damaging earthquake site resonances. A strong correlation between the simple S-wave first-arrival travel time/apparent velocity on the ground surface at 100 m offset from the seismic source and the Vs30 value for that site is an additional unique feature of the reflection/refraction data that could greatly simplify Vs30 determinations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology in the Fuling shale gas field and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Liu


    Full Text Available The Fuling shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin, as a national shale gas demonstration area, is the largest commercially developed shale gas field in the world except those in North America. The fracturing technology in the mode of “well factory” has been applied widely in the gas field, but it is necessary to perform further investigation on the way to evaluate effectively the fracturing effect of multi-well platform “well factory” and the distribution laws of its induced fracture networks. In this paper, the fractures induced by the “well factory” at the JY 48 platform were real-time monitored by a surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology. The geometric size and extension direction of artificial fractures induced in the model of “well factory” fracturing in the Jiaoshiba block of Fuling Shale Gas Field were preliminarily understood. Moreover, the fracturing parameters under the mode of “well factory” were recognized by using the comprehensive interpretation results of surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology, together with the SRV fracturing prediction chart. Eventually, the distribution laws of artificial fractures during the “well-factory-zipper” fracturing in the Fuling Shale Gas Field were clarified definitely. This paper provides guidance for the optimization of fracturing parameters at the later stage.

  18. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang


    Full Text Available To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the installation and operation of the broadband downhole seismic network in the Taipei Basin. Some representative records from the Pingtung earthquake doublet in December 2006 are shown here. Ground displacement during the Pingtung earthquake doublet can be recovered from the velocity records without the baseline corrections that are required for the acceleration records. Our network offers excellent data for accurate and effective characterization of seismic motion in the study area. Seismic data from this network will be shared with other research institutions in Taiwan and abroad for further research.

  19. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Clusters of galaxies associated with quasars. I. 3C 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, E.; Yee, H.K.C.; Green, R.F.; Kinman, T.D. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA); Montreal Universite (Canada); Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))


    Multislit spectroscopy and three-color CCD photometry of the galaxies in the cluster associated with the quasar 3C 206 (PKS 0837-12) at z = 0.198 are presented. This cluster is the richest environment of any low-redshift quasar observed in an Abell richness class 1 cluster. The cluster has a very flattened structure and a very concentrated core about the quasar. Most of the galaxies in this field have colors and luminosities consistent with normal galaxies at this redshift. The background-corrected blue fraction of galaxies is consistent with values for other rich clusters. The existence of several blue galaxies in the concentrated cluster core is an anomaly for a region of such high galaxy density, however, suggesting the absence of a substantial intracluster medium. This claim is supported by the Fanaroff-Riley (1974) class II morphology of the radio source. The velocity dispersion calculated from 11 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members is 500 + or - 110 km/s, which is slightly lower than the average for Abell class 1 clusters. A high frequency of interaction between the quasar host galaxy and cluster core members at low relative velocities, and a low intracluster gas pressure, may comprise a favorable environment for quasar activity. The properties of the cluster of galaxies associated with 3C 206 are consistent with this model. 59 refs.

  1. Photoluminescence Properties of Nanocrystalline 3C-SiC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei; LU Xue-qin; LU Wan-bing; HAN Li; FU Guang-sheng


    Nanocrystalline (nc) 3C-SiC films on the Si substrate were prepared by the helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) technique. With the SiH4-CH4 gas flow ratio changing, the films exhibit different photoluminescence (PL) characteristics. Under the stoichiometric condition, the PL peak redshift from 470 nm to 515 nm is detected with the increase of excitation wavelength, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect radiation of 3C-SiC nanocrystals of different sizes. However, the appearance of an additional PL band at 436 nm in Si-rich film might be sourced back to the excess of Si defect centers in it. This is also the case for C-rich film for its PL band lying at 570 nm. The results above quoted indicate an important influence of gas flow ratio on the PL properties of the SiC films providing an effective guidance for analyzing the luminescence mechanism and exploring the high-efficiency light emission of the SiC films.

  2. Modelling the $\\gamma$-ray variability of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G; Huang, B R; Kang, S J


    We investigate MeV-GeV $\\gamma$-ray outbursts in 3C 273 in the frame of a time-dependent one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In this model, electrons are accelerated to extra-relativistic energy through the stochastic particle acceleration and evolve with the time, nonthermal photons are produced by both synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. Moreover, nonthermal photons during a quiescent are produced by the relativistic electrons in the steady state and those during a outburst are produced by the electrons whose injection rate is changed at some time interval. We apply the model to two exceptionally luminous $\\gamma$-ray outbursts observed by the Fermi-LAT from 3C 273 in September, 2009 and obtain the multi-wavelength spectra during the quiescent and during the outburst states, respectively. Our results show that the time-dependent properties of outbursts can be reproduced by adopting the appropriate injection rate function of the electron population.

  3. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C111

    CERN Document Server

    Kadler, M; Perucho, M; Kovalev, Y Y; Homan, D C; Agudo, I; Kellermann, K I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Lister, M L; Zensus, J A


    In 1996, a major radio flux-density outburst occured in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C111. It was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component, which has shaped the parsec-scale structure of 3C111 for almost a decade. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations conducted since 1995 as part of the VLBA 2 cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring programs. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than has been possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a leading and a following component, which are interpreted as a forward and a backward-shock. Both components evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the work flow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradien...

  4. The high energy spectrum of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, V; Jean, P; Tramacere, A; Türler, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Tornikoski, M


    Aims. The high energy spectrum of 3C 273 is usually understood in terms of inverse-Compton emission in a relativistic leptonic jet. This model predicts variability patterns and delays that could be tested with simultaneous observations from the radio to the GeV range. Methods. The instruments IBIS, SPI, JEM-X on board INTEGRAL, PCA on board RXTE, and LAT on board Fermi have enough sensitivity to follow the spectral variability of 3C 273 from the keV to the GeV. We looked for correlations between the different energy bands, including radio data at 37 GHz collected at the Mets\\"ahovi Radio Observatory and built quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength spectra in the high energy domain when the source is flaring either in the X-rays or in the {\\gamma} rays. Results. Both temporal and spectral analysis suggest a two-component model to explain the complete high energy spectrum. X-ray emission is likely dominated by a Seyfert-like component while the {\\gamma}-ray emission is dominated by a blazar-like component produced ...

  5. Far-infrared polarisation of the quasar 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Klaas, U; Clavel, J; Klaas, Ulrich; Laureijs, Rene J.; Clavel, Jean


    We present the first FIR polarisation results of the OVV quasar 3C 279 obtained with ISOPHOT for two epochs in 1996 and 1997. We describe its integral polarisation properties at a wavelength of 170 micron where the source shows a maximum in its energy distribution. After a gamma-ray flare in January 1996, a polarisation of 23 % closely aligned with the radio jet axis was measured in July 1996. In June 1997, the polarisation degree had decreased to 6.5 % with a less good alignment. On the other hand, the total 170 micron flux is the same for both epochs. Our measurements provide additional constraints for the multi-wavelength properties of synchrotron emission in radio jets and the temporal evolution of these properties: they show that the FIR radiation of 3C 279 is optically thin and that its origin is very close to the core. The variability of the FIR polarisation without any change of the total FIR flux can be explained by a disordering of the magnetic field in between the core and the first stationary VLBI...

  6. XMM-Newton observations of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Page, K L; Done, C; O'Brien, P T; Reeves, J N; Sembay, S; Stuhlinger, M


    A series of nine XMM-Newton observations of the radio-loud quasar 3C 273 are presented, concentrating mainly on the soft excess. Although most of the individual observations do not show evidence for iron emission, co-adding them reveals a weak, broad line (EW ~ 56 eV). The soft excess component is found to vary, confirming previous work, and can be well fitted with multiple blackbody components, with temperatures ranging between ~40 and ~330 eV, together with a power-law. Alternatively, a Comptonisation model also provides a good fit, with a mean electron temperature of ~350 eV, although this value is higher when the soft excess is more luminous over the 0.5-10 keV energy band. In the RGS spectrum of 3C 273, a strong detection of the OVII He-alpha absorption line at zero redshift is made; this may originate in warm gas in the local intergalactic medium, consistent with the findings of both Fang et al. (2003) and Rasmussen et al. (2003).

  7. Current umbilical cord clamping practices and attitudes of obstetricians and midwives toward delayed cord clamping in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadia O; Sukkarieh, Hatouf H; Bustami, Rami T; Alshammari, Elaf A; Alasmari, Lama Y; Al-Kadri, Hanan M


    In Saudi Arabia, as in many countries, there is usually no clear definition of the timing of umbilical cord clamping (UCC) in the policies and procedures used by hospitals. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends delayed cord clamping (DCC) ( > 1 minute after birth) as it can significantly improve hemodynamics and long-term neurodevelopment. To investigate current practices of healthcare professionals on the timing of UCC in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey. Five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during May to October 2016. Obstetricians and midwives completed a widely-used questionnaire on UCC practices. Current UCC practices and attitudes of obstetricians and midwives toward DCC. Eighty-two obstetricians and 75 midwives completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 80%. The majority of respondents were aged 30 years or older (81%) and 84% were females. Most respondents were non-Saudi (66%) and had an educational level of bachelor's degree or higher (72%). Only 42% of respondents reported the existence of UCC guidelines in their practice; 38% reported the existence of a set time for UCC when the neonate was term and healthy, and only 32% had a set time for UCC in preterm neonates. While lower levels of agreement were reported among obstetricians and midwives on the benefits of DCC for babies requiring positive pressure ventilation, the majority of respondents (69-71%) thought that DCC was generally good for both term and preterm babies and that its benefits extend beyond the neonatal period. While the majority of obstetricians and midwives that participated in this study had a positive perception toward DCC, this did not translate to their daily practice as most of these professionals reported a lack of existing UCC guidelines in their institutions. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Participant selection by convenience sampling.

  8. Structural insight into β-Clamp and its interaction with DNA Ligase in Helicobacter pylori. (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Tarique, Khaja Faisal; Mazumder, Mohit; Rehman, Syed Arif Abdul; Kumari, Nilima; Gourinath, Samudrala


    Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative and microaerophilic bacterium, is the major cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Owing to its central role, DNA replication machinery has emerged as a prime target for the development of antimicrobial drugs. Here, we report 2Å structure of β-clamp from H. pylori (Hpβ-clamp), which is one of the critical components of DNA polymerase III. Despite of similarity in the overall fold of eubacterial β-clamp structures, some distinct features in DNA interacting loops exists that have not been reported previously. The in silico prediction identified the potential binders of β-clamp such as alpha subunit of DNA pol III and DNA ligase with identification of β-clamp binding regions in them and validated by SPR studies. Hpβ-clamp interacts with DNA ligase in micromolar binding affinity. Moreover, we have successfully determined the co-crystal structure of β-clamp with peptide from DNA ligase (not reported earlier in prokaryotes) revealing the region from ligase that interacts with β-clamp.

  9. The transducer domain is important for clamp operation in human DNA topoisomerase IIalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Vibe H; Bjergbaek, Lotte; Skouboe, Camilla


    the clamp to the enzyme core. Although structurally conserved, it is unclear whether the transducer domain is involved in clamp mechanism. We have purified and characterized a human topoisomerase II alpha enzyme with a two-amino acid insertion at position 408 in the transducer domain. The enzyme retains...

  10. Angiotensin II clamp prevents the second step in renal apical NHE3 internalization during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; McDonough, Alicia A


    . Plasma ANG II concentration of anesthesized Sprague-Dawley rats was clamped by simultaneous infusion of the ANG I-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (12 microg/min) and ANG II (20 ng. kg(-1). min(-1)). Blood pressure was increased 50 mmHg for 20 min by arterial constriction +/- ANG II clamp or by sham...

  11. Implementing dynamic clamp with synaptic and artificial conductances in mouse retinal ganglion cells. (United States)

    Huang, Jin Y; Stiefel, Klaus M; Protti, Dario A


    Ganglion cells are the output neurons of the retina and their activity reflects the integration of multiple synaptic inputs arising from specific neural circuits. Patch clamp techniques, in voltage clamp and current clamp configurations, are commonly used to study the physiological properties of neurons and to characterize their synaptic inputs. Although the application of these techniques is highly informative, they pose various limitations. For example, it is difficult to quantify how the precise interactions of excitatory and inhibitory inputs determine response output. To address this issue, we used a modified current clamp technique, dynamic clamp, also called conductance clamp (1, 2, 3) and examined the impact of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on neuronal excitability. This technique requires the injection of current into the cell and is dependent on the real-time feedback of its membrane potential at that time. The injected current is calculated from predetermined excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances, their reversal potentials and the cell's instantaneous membrane potential. Details on the experimental procedures, patch clamping cells to achieve a whole-cell configuration and employment of the dynamic clamp technique are illustrated in this video article. Here, we show the responses of mouse retinal ganglion cells to various conductance waveforms obtained from physiological experiments in control conditions or in the presence of drugs. Furthermore, we show the use of artificial excitatory and inhibitory conductances generated using alpha functions to investigate the responses of the cells.

  12. Effect of delayed cord clamping on very preterm infants. (United States)

    Chiruvolu, Arpitha; Tolia, Veeral N; Qin, Huanying; Stone, Genna Leal; Rich, Diana; Conant, Rhoda J; Inzer, Robert W


    Despite significant proposed benefits, delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) is not practiced widely in preterm infants largely because of the question of feasibility of the procedure and uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the reported benefits, especially intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) vs the adverse consequences of delaying the neonatal resuscitation. The objective of this study was to determine whether implementation of the protocol-driven DCC process in our institution would reduce the incidence of IVH in very preterm infants without adverse consequences. We implemented a quality improvement process for DCC the started in August 2013 in infants born at ≤32 weeks' gestational age. Eligible infants were left attached to the placenta for 45 seconds after birth. Neonatal process and outcome data were collected until discharge. We compared infants who received DCC who were born between August 2013 and August 2014 with a historic cohort of infants who were born between August 2012 and August 2013, who were eligible to receive DCC, but whose cord was clamped immediately after birth, because they were born before the protocol implementation. DCC was performed on all the 60 eligible infants; 88 infants were identified as historic control subjects. Gestational age, birthweight, and other demographic variables were similar between both groups. There were no differences in Apgar scores or admission temperature, but significantly fewer infants in the DCC cohort were intubated in delivery room, had respiratory distress syndrome, or received red blood cell transfusions in the first week of life compared with the historic cohort. A significant reduction was noted in the incidence of IVH in the DCC cohort compared with the historic control group (18.3% vs 35.2%). After adjustment for gestational age, an association was found between the incidence of IVH and DCC with IVH was significantly lower in the DCC cohort compared with the historic cohort; an odds ratio of 0

  13. On the mechanism of loading the PCNA sliding clamp by RFC. (United States)

    Dionne, Isabelle; Brown, Nicola J; Woodgate, Roger; Bell, Stephen D


    Sliding clamps play central roles in a broad range of DNA replication and repair processes. The clamps form circular molecules that must be opened and resealed around DNA by the clamp loader complex to fulfil their function. While most eukaryotes and many archea possess a homo-trimeric PCNA, the PCNA of Sulfolobus solfataricus is a heterotrimer. Here, we exploit the asymmetry of S. solfataricus PCNA to create a series of circularly permuted PCNA subunit fusions, thereby covalently closing defined interfaces within the heterotrimer. Using these concatamers, we investigate the requirements for loading the clamp onto DNA and reveal that a single defined interface within the heterotrimer is opened during the loading process. Subunit-specific interactions between S. solfataricus RFC clamp loader and PCNA permit us to superimpose our data upon the structure of yeast RFC-PCNA complex, thereby presenting a general model for PCNA loading by RFC in archaea and eukaryotes.

  14. A reduction clamp for an aiming component in associated acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Fu Wang


    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of acetabular fractures is complex and requires specialized equipment. However, all currently available instruments have some disadvantages. A new reduction clamp that can firmly enable reduction and not hinder subsequent fixation procedures for some special fracture types is needed. Materials and Methods: In this study, we introduce a new acetabular clamp and its preliminary clinical application in three T-shaped acetabular fractures. Results: This new clamp can successfully pull the posterior column back to the anterior column and firmly maintain the reduction. This clamp′s aiming plate can facilitate the insertion of long lag screws. The clamp is also easy to assemble and use. Conclusion: This reduction clamp is a useful instrument that can facilitate open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures.

  15. The deformation of an elastic rod with a clamp sliding along a smooth and curved profile

    CERN Document Server

    Misseroni, D; Zaccaria, D; Bigoni, D


    The design of compliant mechanisms is crucial in several technologies and relies on the availability of solutions for nonlinear structural problems. One of these solutions is given and experimentally validated in the present article for a compliant mechanism moving along a smooth curved profile. In particular, a deformable elastic rod is held by two clamps, one at each end. The first clamp is constrained to slide without friction along a curved profile, while the second clamp moves in a straight line transmitting its motion through the elastic rod to the first clamp. For this system it is shown that the clamp sliding on the profile imposes nontrivial boundary conditions (derived via a variational and an asymptotic approach), which strongly influence buckling and nonlinear structural behaviour. Investigation of this behaviour shows that a compliant mechanism can be designed, which gives an almost neutral response in compression. This behavior could easily be exploited to make a force limiting device. Finally a...

  16. Note: High-efficiency energy harvester using double-clamped piezoelectric beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yingmei; Wu, Xuan; Parmar, Mitesh; Lee, Dong-weon, E-mail: [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, an improvement in energy conversion efficiency has been reported, which is realized by using a double-clamped piezoelectric beam, based on uniaxial stretching strain. The buckling mechanism is applied to maximize axial stress in the double-clamped beam. The voltage generated by using the double-clamped piezoelectric beam is higher than that generated by using other conventional structures, such as bending cantilevers coated/sandwiched with piezoelectric film, which is proven both theoretically and experimentally. The power generation efficiency is enhanced by further optimizing the double-clamped structure. The optimized high-efficiency energy harvester utilizing double-clamped piezoelectric beams generates a peak output power of 80 μW, under an acceleration of 0.1g.

  17. Note: high-efficiency energy harvester using double-clamped piezoelectric beams. (United States)

    Zheng, Yingmei; Wu, Xuan; Parmar, Mitesh; Lee, Dong-weon


    In this study, an improvement in energy conversion efficiency has been reported, which is realized by using a double-clamped piezoelectric beam, based on uniaxial stretching strain. The buckling mechanism is applied to maximize axial stress in the double-clamped beam. The voltage generated by using the double-clamped piezoelectric beam is higher than that generated by using other conventional structures, such as bending cantilevers coated/sandwiched with piezoelectric film, which is proven both theoretically and experimentally. The power generation efficiency is enhanced by further optimizing the double-clamped structure. The optimized high-efficiency energy harvester utilizing double-clamped piezoelectric beams generates a peak output power of 80 μW, under an acceleration of 0.1g.

  18. Multifrequency observations of the superluminal quasar 3C 345 (United States)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Roellig, T. P. L.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lester, D. F.


    Attention is given to the continuum properties of the superluminal quasar 3C 345, on the basis of radio, optical, IR, and X-ray frequency monitorings, as well as by means of simultaneous multifrequency spectra extending from the radio through the X-ray bands. Radio outbursts, which appear to follow IR-optical outbursts by about one year, first occur at the highest frequencies, as expected from optical depth effects; the peak flux is nevertheless often reached at several frequencies at once. The beginning of outbursts, as defined by mm-measurements, corresponds to the appearance of the three known 'superluminal' components. An increase in the X-ray flux during 1979-1980 corresponds to increased radio flux, while the IR flux changes in the opposite sense.

  19. The Multifrequency Campaign on 3C 279 in January 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W; Krichbaum, T P; Agudo, I; Bottacini, E; Bremer, M; Burwitz, V; Cuccchiara, A; Grupe, D; Gurwell, M


    We present the results of a multifrequency campaign from radio to hard X-ray energies on the blazar 3C 279 during an optical high-state in January 2006. We give the observational results (multifrequency light curves and spectra) and compile an SED. This complements an SED from an optical low-state in June 2003. Surprisingly the two SEDs differ only in their high-energy synchrotron emission (near-IR - UV), while the low-energy inverse-Compton emission (X- to Gamma-rays) remained unchanged. By interpreting with a steady-state leptonic emission model, the variability among the SED can be reproduced by a change solely of the low-energy cutoff of the relativistic electron distribution. In an internal shock model for blazar emission, such a change could e.g. achieved through a varying relative Lorentz factor of colliding shells producing internal shocks in the jet.

  20. An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C196?

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J


    Several hotspots of FRII radio sources have previously been detected in the X-ray at a flux level consistent with the X-rays being due to inverse-Compton scattering of radio synchrotron photons (`synchrotron self-Compton'), if the magnetic fields in the hotspots are close to their equipartition values. However, the number of hotspots compact and bright enough to exhibit detectable X-ray emission is small, so it is worth searching for synchrotron self-Compton emission in the optical, in spite of the obvious observational difficulties of such an approach. In this note I report on a possible detection of an optical inverse-Compton hotspot in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation of the distant quasar 3C196, at a level which implies a hotspot magnetic field strength close to equipartition if the electrons have a low-energy cutoff around gamma ~ 500.

  1. An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C 196? (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.


    Several hotspots of FRII radio sources have previously been detected in the X-ray at a flux level consistent with the X-rays being due to inverse-Compton scattering of radio ``synchrotron photons synchrotron self-Compton'', if the magnetic fields in the hotspots are close to their equipartition values. However, the number of hotspots compact and bright enough to exhibit detectable X-ray emission is small, so it is worth searching for synchrotron self-Compton emission in the optical, in spite of the obvious observational difficulties of such an approach. In this note I report on a possible detection of an optical inverse-Compton hotspot in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation of the distant quasar 3C 196, at a level which implies a hotspot magnetic field strength close to equipartition if the electrons have a low-energy cutoff around gamma ~ 500.

  2. 3C 84 Expanding Radio Lobe Revealed by VSOP Observations (United States)

    Asada, K.; Kameno, S.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Shinji, H.; Gabuzda, D. C.; Inoue, M.


    We report the detection of the expansion and inner proper motions of a young radio lobe associated with the bright radio source 3C 84 in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 using multi-epoch VSOP observation. The observed inner proper motions are consistent with the evolution scenario of classical double radio sources. The apparent expansion velocity is 0.50 ± 0.09 c, and the age of radio lobe is estimated to be 45.7 ± 8.9 years in 2001. The total flux density at 5 GHz increased at the end of the 1950's, with several peaks in the middle of the 1980's, and is in a decay phase now. The decay of total flux density can be naturally explained by an adiabatic cooling due to the expansion of the radio lobe, and previously measured spectral indices suggest that the emission comes from the surface of the radio lobe.

  3. Anisotropies in the HI gas distribution toward 3C 196 (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.


    Context. The local Galactic Hi gas was found to contain cold neutral medium (CNM) filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission. These filaments appear to be dominated by the magnetic field and in this case turbulence is expected to show distinct anisotropies. Aims: We use the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn Hi Survey (EBHIS) to derive 2D turbulence spectra for the Hi distribution in direction to 3C 196 and two more comparison fields. Methods: Prior to Fourier transform we apply a rotational symmetric 50% Tukey window to apodize the data. We derive average as well as position angle dependent power spectra. Anisotropies in the power distribution are defined as the ratio of the spectral power in orthogonal directions. Results: We find strong anisotropies. For a narrow range in position angle, in direction perpendicular to the filaments and the magnetic field, the spectral power is on average more than an order of magnitude larger than parallel. In the most extreme case the anisotropy reaches locally a factor of 130. Anisotropies increase on average with spatial frequency as predicted by Goldreich & Sridhar (1995, ApJ, 438, 763), at the same time the Kolmogorov spectral index remains almost unchanged. The strongest anisotropies are observable for a narrow range in velocity and decay with a power law index close to -8/3, almost identical to the average isotropic spectral index of -2.9 <γ< -2.6. Conclusions: Hi filaments, associated with linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations in direction to 3C 196, show turbulence spectra with marked anisotropies. Decaying anisotropies appear to indicate that we witness an ongoing shock passing the Hi and affecting the observed Faraday depth.

  4. The Jet and Circumnuclear Environment of 3C 293 (United States)

    Floyd, David J. E.; Perlman, Eric; Leahy, J. Patrick; Beswick, R. J.; Jackson, Neal J.; Sparks, William B.; Axon, David J.; O'Dea, Christopher P.


    We present new HST NIR polarimetry, broadband and narrowband imaging, and MERLIN 4.5 GHz multifrequency synthesis radio imaging of 3C 293, a unique radio galaxy whose host is an obvious merger remnant, in an exceptionally underdense region of space. We have discovered NIR, optical, and UV synchrotron emission from the jet. In the optical, the jet is mostly obscured by a dust lane, but three knots are clear in our HST NICMOS images at 1.6 and 2.0 μm, clearly aligning with features in the radio. The outer jet knot is highly polarized (~15%) at 2 μm, confirming the synchrotron emission mechanism. The radio-IR spectral index steepens significantly with distance from the nucleus, as in 3C 273 and in contrast to M87. The inner knot is visible (with hindsight) on the WFPC2 and STIS images obtained for the earlier 3CR HST snapshot surveys. There is no [Fe II] emission seen associated with the jet, constraining the role of shock-induced ionization by the jet. Overall there is a strong implication that the NIR jet emission is indeed synchrotron. From our NIR images, the core of the galaxy is clearly identifiable with the main feature in the western extension of the radio ``jet'' image, although no unresolved AGN component is identifiable even at K band, consistent with an FR II-like nucleus obscured by an optically thick torus. The galaxy appears to have a single nucleus, with any multiple nuclei falling within the central PPARC in the UK.

  5. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondouin, M.


    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  6. Effects of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping vs Early Clamping on Anemia in Infants at 8 and 12 Months: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Kc, Ashish; Rana, Nisha; Målqvist, Mats; Jarawka Ranneberg, Linda; Subedi, Kalpana; Andersson, Ola


    Delayed umbilical cord clamping has been shown to improve iron stores in infants to 6 months of age. However, delayed cord clamping has not been shown to prevent iron deficiency or anemia after 6 months of age. To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping, on hemoglobin and ferritin levels at 8 and 12 months of age in infants at high risk for iron deficiency anemia. This randomized clinical trial included 540 late preterm and term infants born vaginally at a tertiary hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, from October 2 to November 21, 2014. Follow-up included blood levels of hemoglobin and ferritin at 8 and 12 months of age. Follow-up was completed on December 11, 2015. Analysis was based on intention to treat. Infants were randomized to delayed umbilical cord clamping (≥180 seconds after delivery) or early clamping (≤60 seconds after delivery). Main outcomes included hemoglobin and anemia levels at 8 months of age with the power estimate based on the prevalence of anemia. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin and anemia levels at 12 months of age and ferritin level, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia at 8 and 12 months of age. In this study of 540 infants (281 boys [52.0%] and 259 girls [48.0%]; mean [SD] gestational age, 39.2 [1.1] weeks), 270 each were randomized to the delayed and early clamping groups. At 8 months of age, 212 infants (78.5%) from the delayed group and 188 (69.6%) from the early clamping group returned for blood sampling. After multiple imputation analysis, infants undergoing delayed clamping had higher levels of hemoglobin (10.4 vs 10.2 g/dL; difference, 0.2 g/dL; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4 g/dL). Delayed cord clamping also reduced the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin level clamping group in 60 (22.2%) vs 103 (38.1%) patients (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77; NNT, 6; 95% CI, 4-13). At 12 months, delayed cord clamping still resulted in a hemoglobin level of 0.3 (95% CI, 0.04-0.5) g/dL higher

  7. Simultaneous patch-clamping and calcium imaging in developing dendrites. (United States)

    Kleindienst, Thomas; Lohmann, Christian


    Calcium imaging has been used extensively to explore the role of action potential (AP) firing in the development of neuronal structure and synaptic function because increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) reliably and, within a certain range, linearly reflect neuronal spiking activity. Patterns of APs in individual cells can be deduced from calcium recordings, which have typically been performed at the level of cell bodies. However, neurons are particularly susceptible to phototoxicity when they are illuminated at the soma. Furthermore, for some imaging experiments (e.g., those that address the interactions between dendrites and axons during synapse formation), the cell body of a given neuron may simply not be in the field of view. In these situations, it would be helpful to determine the spiking patterns of a neuron from the calcium activity in its subcellular compartments such as stretches of dendrites or axons. Here, we describe an approach for determining the relationship between AP firing and dendritic calcium transients by simultaneously imaging calcium transients in small dendritic stretches of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in slice cultures from neonatal rats and recording spiking activity with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in these neurons. These experiments allow us to correlate the electrophysiological spiking pattern with the accompanying changes in the calcium concentration in individual dendritic segments.

  8. Non-Hookean statistical mechanics of clamped graphene ribbons (United States)

    Bowick, Mark J.; Košmrlj, Andrej; Nelson, David R.; Sknepnek, Rastko


    Thermally fluctuating sheets and ribbons provide an intriguing forum in which to investigate strong violations of Hooke's Law: Large distance elastic parameters are in fact not constant but instead depend on the macroscopic dimensions. Inspired by recent experiments on free-standing graphene cantilevers, we combine the statistical mechanics of thin elastic plates and large-scale numerical simulations to investigate the thermal renormalization of the bending rigidity of graphene ribbons clamped at one end. For ribbons of dimensions W ×L (with L ≥W ), the macroscopic bending rigidity κR determined from cantilever deformations is independent of the width when W ℓth , however, this thermally renormalized bending rigidity begins to systematically increase, in agreement with the scaling theory, although in our simulations we were not quite able to reach the system sizes necessary to determine the fully developed power law dependence on W . When the ribbon length L >ℓp , where ℓp is the W -dependent thermally renormalized ribbon persistence length, we observe a scaling collapse and the beginnings of large scale random walk behavior.

  9. Umbilical Cord Milking Versus Delayed Cord Clamping in Preterm Infants. (United States)

    Katheria, Anup C; Truong, Giang; Cousins, Larry; Oshiro, Bryan; Finer, Neil N


    Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended for premature infants to improve blood volume. Most preterm infants are born by cesarean delivery (CD), and placental transfusion may be less effective than in vaginal delivery (VD). We sought to determine whether infants umbilical cord milking (UCM) have higher measures of systemic blood flow than infants who undergo DCC. This was a 2-center trial. Infants delivered by CD were randomly assigned to undergo UCM or DCC. Infants delivered by VD were also randomly assigned separately. UCM (4 strippings) or DCC (45-60 seconds) were performed. Continuous hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography were done at site 1. A total of 197 infants were enrolled (mean gestational age 28 ± 2 weeks). Of the 154 infants delivered by CD, 75 were assigned to UCM and 79 to DCC. Of the infants delivered by CD, neonates randomly assigned to UCM had higher superior vena cava flow and right ventricular output in the first 12 hours of life. Neonates undergoing UCM also had higher hemoglobin, delivery room temperature, blood pressure over the first 15 hours, and urine output in the first 24 hours of life. There were no differences for the 43 infants delivered by VD. This is the first randomized controlled trial demonstrating higher systemic blood flow with UCM in preterm neonates compared with DCC. UCM may be a more efficient technique to improve blood volume in premature infants delivered by CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Committee Opinion No. 684 Summary: Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth. (United States)


    Delayed umbilical cord clamping appears to be beneficial for term and preterm infants. In term infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping increases hemoglobin levels at birth and improves iron stores in the first several months of life, which may have a favorable effect on developmental outcomes. There is a small increase in jaundice that requires phototherapy in this group of infants. Consequently, health care providers adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants should ensure that mechanisms are in place to monitor for and treat neonatal jaundice. In preterm infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant neonatal benefits, including improved transitional circulation, better establishment of red blood cell volume, decreased need for blood transfusion, and lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage or increased blood loss at delivery, nor was it associated with a difference in postpartum hemoglobin levels or the need for blood transfusion. Given the benefits to most newborns and concordant with other professional organizations, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in vigorous term and preterm infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth. The ability to provide delayed umbilical cord clamping may vary among institutions and settings; decisions in those circumstances are best made by the team caring for the mother-infant dyad.

  11. Committee Opinion No.543: Timing of umbilical cord clamping after birth. (United States)


    The optimal timing for clamping the umbilical cord after birth has been a subject of controversy and debate. Although many randomized controlled trials in term and preterm infants have evaluated the benefits of delayed umbilical cord clamping versus immediate umbilical cord clamping, the ideal timing for cord clamping has yet to be established. Several systematic reviews have suggested that clamping the umbilical cord in all births should be delayed for at least 30-60 seconds, with the infant maintained at or below the level of the placenta because of the associated neonatal benefits, including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, decreased incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in preterm infants, and lower frequency of iron deficiency anemia in term infants. Evidence exists to support delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants, when feasible. The single most important clinical benefit for preterm infants is the possibility for a nearly 50% reduction in intraventricular hemorrhage. However, currently, evidence is insufficient to confirm or refute the potential for benefits from delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants, especially in settings with rich resources.

  12. Blood gas values in clamped and unclamped umbilical cord at birth. (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Seravalli, Viola; Martini, Irene; La Torre, Pasquale; Dani, Carlo


    To determine the reliability of the cord blood gas analysis on the unclamped cord compared to the standard technique of sampling on double clamped cord. Prospective observational study conducted on 46 singleton neonates vaginally delivered at term. Matched pairs of umbilical artery and vein blood samples were collected from unclamped cord within 90s after birth and from the same cord after clamping, with the clamping occurring immediately after the first blood collection. A blood gas analysis was performed on each collected sample. Arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for pH, PO2, pCO2, SaO2, hemoglobin concentration (ctHb) and base excess (BE). The values were compared between the two groups (clamped vs unclamped) using a Wilcoxon test. No significant difference was found in pH, PO2, pCO2, SaO2 and ctHb values on arterial blood between unclamped and clamped cord. The only significant difference was related to BE (pblood, the values of pH, PO2, pCO2 were comparable between unclamped and clamped cord, while the values of SaO2, ctHb and BE were significantly different (pblood gas parameters and in the main venous blood gas parameters between unclamped and clamped cord. Sampling of cord blood for gas analysis may be performed on the unclamped cord right after birth without reducing the accuracy of the analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrieval of Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated MEMS gyroscope and direct rotation measurements (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A.; D'Anna, G.


    The absolute orientation of the horizontal components of ocean bottom or downhole seismic sensors are generally unknown. Almost all the methods proposed to overcome this issue are based on the post-processing of the acquired signals and so the results are strongly dependent on the nature, quantity and quality of the acquired data. We have carried out several test to evaluate the ability of retrieve sensor orientation using integrated low cost MEMS gyroscope. Our tests have shown that the tested MEMS gyroscope (the model 1044_0-3/3/3 Phidget Spatial Precision High Resolution) can be used to measure angular displacement and therefore to retrieve the absolute orientation of the horizontal components of a sensor that has been subjected to rotation in the horizontal plane. A correct processing of the acquired signals permit to retrieve, for rotation at angular rate between 0 and 180° s-1, angular displacement with error less 2°.

  14. Continuous record of geomagnetic field intensity between 4.7 and 2.7 Ma from downhole measurements (United States)

    Thibal, J.; Pozzi, J.-P.; Barthès, V.; Dubuisson, G.


    A continuous record of the geomagnetic field intensity from 4.7 to 2.7 Ma has been obtained, together with a precise magnetostratigraphy, from downhole magnetic measurements at Site 884 of ODP Leg 145 in the North Pacific. The record confirms the saw-tooth pattern of geomagnetic field intensity proposed by Valet et Meynadier [10]. Reversals are characterized by a steep intensity decrease followed by a quick regeneration. Over each polarity interval, rapid variations are superimposed over a progressive decrease in the mean intensity. We find that the duration of each polarity interval is inversely proportional to the mean rate of decrease in the field intensity over this period, and thus this duration seems to be pre-determined.

  15. 3C 273 with NuSTAR: Unveiling the AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Kristin K; Walton, Dominic J; Harrison, Fiona A; Ballantyne, David R; Boggs, Steve E; Brenneman, Laura W; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fabian, Andrew C; Forster, Karl; Grefenstette, Brian W; Guainazzi, Matteo; Hailey, Charles J; Madejski, Greg M; Matt, Giorgio; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W


    We present results from a 244 ks $NuSTAR$ observation of 3C 273, obtained during a cross-calibration campaign with the $Chandra$, $INTEGRAL$, $Suzaku$, $Swift$, and $XMM-Newton$ observatories. We show that the spectrum, when fit with a power-law model using data from all observatories except $INTEGRAL$ over the 1-78 keV band, leaves significant residuals in the $NuSTAR$ data between 30-78 keV. The $NuSTAR$ 3-78 keV spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cutoff power-law ($\\Gamma = 1.646 \\pm 0.006$, E$_\\mathrm{cutoff} = 202_{-34}^{+51}$ keV) with a weak reflection component from cold, dense material. There is also evidence for a weak ($EW = 23 \\pm 11$ eV) neutral iron line. We interpret these features as arising from coronal emission plus reflection off an accretion disk or distant material. Beyond 80 keV $INTEGRAL$ data show clear excess flux relative to an extrapolation of the AGN model fit to $NuSTAR$. This high-energy power-law is consistent with the presence of a beamed jet, which begins to domina...

  16. VLBA polarimetric observations of the CSS quasar 3C147

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, A; Dallacasa, D; Junor, W; Salter, C J; Saikia, D J; 10.1051/0004-6361/200811190


    Aims. We report new VLBA polarimetric observations of the compact steep-spectrum (CSS) quasar 3C147 (B0538+498) at 5 and 8.4GHz. Methods. By using multifrequency VLBA observations, we derived milliarcsecond-resolution images of the total intensity, polarisation, and rotation measure distributions, by combining our new observations with archival data. Results. The source shows a one-sided structure, with a compact region, and a component extending about 200 mas to the south-west. The compact region is resolved into two main components with polarised emission, a complex rotation measure distribution, and a magnetic field dominated by components perpendicular to the source axis. Conclusions. By considering all the available data, we examine the possible location of the core component, and discuss two possible interpretations of the observed structure of this source: core-jet and lobe-hot spot. Further observations to unambiguously determine the location of the core would help distinguish between the two possibil...

  17. Spectroscopic monitoring of the Blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, E; Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Dultzin, D; Martínez, O; Perez-Camargo, B; Torrealba, J


    We performed an optical spectroscopic monitoring of the blazar 3C 454.3 from September 2003 to July 2008. Sixteen optical spectra were obtained during different runs, which constitute the first spectroscopic monitoring done in the rest-frame UV region (z=0.859). An overall flux variation of the MgII (2800 A) by a factor ~ 3 was observed, while the corresponding UV continuum (F_cont at 3000 A) changed by a factor ~ 14. The MgII emission lines respond proportionally to the continuum variations when the source is in a low-activity state. In contrast, near the optical outbursts detected in 2005 and 2007, the MgII emission lines showed little response to the continuum flux variations. During the monitored period the UV FeII flux changed by a factor ~ 6 and correlated with F_cont (r = 0.92). A negative correlation between EW(Mg II) and F_cont was found, i.e. the so-called "Intrinsic Baldwin Effect".

  18. Integral field spectroscopy of the radio galaxy 3C 171

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Durret, F; Petitjean, P


    We have performed integral field spectroscopy of the radio galaxy 3C 171 (redshift z=0.238) with the TIGER instrument at the Canada France Hawaii telescope in the Hbeta-[OIII]4959-5007 wavelength region. We present the reconstructed Hbeta and [OIII] images and compare them to the HST and radio maps. We discuss the variations of the [OIII]/Hbeta line ratio throughout the nebulosity. We also analyze the velocity field in detail, in particular the presence of several components. We find that the kinematics derived with emission lines in the central region (inside 1 arcsec) are compatible with a disk-like rotation of low amplitude (50 km/s). The continuum surface brightness profile follows an r^{1/4} law, suggesting that the underlying galaxy is an elliptical with an effective radius of 15 kpc. We have fit two components in the region centered 2.7 arcsec to the West and of extension 3 arcsec^2. We find that the blueshifted component is an extension of the central part, whereas the second one is redshifted by 600 ...

  19. Suzaku observation of the giant radio galaxy 3C 326

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, Naoki; Gandhi, Poshak; Hayato, Asami; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hada, Kazuhiro; Seta, Hiromi; Matsuta, Keiko


    A Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy, 3C 326, which has a physical size of about 2 Mpc, was conducted on 2008 January 19 -- 21. In addition to several X-ray sources, diffuse emission was significantly detected associated with its west lobe, but the east lobe was contaminated by an unidentified X-ray source WARP J1552.4+2007. After careful evaluation of the X-ray and Non X-ray background, the 0.4 -- 7 keV X-ray spectrum of the west lobe is described by a power-law model. The photon index and 1 keV flux density was derived as $1.82_{-0.24}^{+0.26}\\pm0.04$ and $19.4_{-3.2}^{+3.3}\\pm 3.0$ nJy, respectively, where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones. The diffuse X-rays were attributed to be inverse Compton radiation by the synchrotron radio electrons scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons. This radio galaxy is the largest among those with lobes detected through inverse Compton X-ray emission. A comparison of the radio to X-ray fluxes yields the energy d...

  20. 3C 66A: Variability in 2007-2015 (United States)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Morozova, D. A.; Arkharov, A. A.; Hagen-Thorn, E. I.; Troitsky, I. S.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Milanova, Yu. V.; Volkov, E. V.; Takalo, L. O.; Sillanpää, A.


    The results of photometric ( BV RIJHK) and polarimetric ( R)monitoring of the blazar 3C 66A performed at the St. Petersburg State University and the Central AstronomicalObservatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2007-2015, radio observations performed by the Boston University team with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, and a gamma-ray light curve based on observations with the Fermi SpaceObservatory are presented. Color variations of the object are studied. Changes in the optical spectral energy distribution are observed at some times, indicating the appearance and disappearance of individual variable sources. A variable source with a degree of polarization of 36% is identified, which is responsible for the polarization variations observed during one episode. The correlations between the variations in the different spectral ranges indicate that the optical and gamma-ray radiation originates near the radio core detected at 43 GHz. The presence of five superluminal components emerging from the core is detected.

  1. Anisotropies in the HI gas distribution toward 3C196

    CERN Document Server

    Kalberla, P M W


    The local Galactic HI gas was found to contain cold neutral medium (CNM) filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission. These filaments appear to be dominated by the magnetic field and in this case turbulence is expected to show distinct anisotropies. We use the Galactic Effelsberg--Bonn HI Survey (EBHIS) to derive 2D turbulence spectra for the HI distribution in direction to 3C196 and two more comparison fields. Prior to Fourier transform we apply a rotational symmetric 50% Tukey window to apodize the data. We derive average as well as position angle dependent power spectra. Anisotropies in the power distribution are defined as the ratio of the spectral power in orthogonal directions. We find strong anisotropies. For a narrow range in position angle, in direction perpendicular to the filaments and the magnetic field, the spectral power is on average more than an order of magnitude larger than parallel. In the most extreme case the anisotropy reaches locally a factor of 130. Anisotropies increase on...

  2. Immunologic and infectious consequences of immediate versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature infants: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. (United States)

    Kugelman, Amir; Borenstein-Levin, Liron; Kessel, Aharon; Riskin, Arieh; Toubi, Elias; Bader, David


    To evaluate the immunologic and infectious consequences of delayed versus immediate cord clamping in premature infants (cord clamping (ICC) at 5-10 s and 30 infants to delayed cord clamping (DCC), at 30-45 s (14 and 15 infants in each group were cord clamping did not affect the immunologic or the infectious status of infants born at <35 weeks during the neonatal period.

  3. Down-hole magnetometric resistivity inversion for zinc and lead lenses localization at tobermalug, county Limerick, Ireland (United States)

    Abderrezak, Bouchedda; Bernard, Giroux; Michel, Allard


    The magnetometric resistivity (MMR) method consists of measuring the variation of magnetostatic field associated to current density variations. It is based on the principle that direct current flow between two electrodes takes the path of least resistance through the earth. Consequently, conductive or relatively conductive ore bodies such as massive, semi-massive to disseminated sulphides are preferentially energized, which increases the current density in their vicinity. MMR is more efficient than electromagnetic methods in the case of weak conductivity contrasts. To improve the signal to noise ratio the magnetic field can be measured in boreholes rather than on the surface. Down-hole magnetometric resistivity measurements have been conducted in Tobermalug prospect in County Limerick, Ireland. The survey was used as an alternative to down-hole electromagnetic to delineate subhorizontal zinc/lead mineralization lenses that can be poorly conductive. Two survey areas were investigated, DHMMR1 and DHMMR2. Interpretation is based on the regularized least-squares inversion of MMR data, in which the MMR forward problem is solved with a finite volume discretization of the electrostatic and magnetostatic equations. Inversion of synthetic data generated over two conductive horizontal discs model shows that conductive structures are well positioned but their extensions is biased along current electrodes orientation. Inversion of the field data allowed localizing a few conductive elongated targets. At DHMMR1, the conductivity is weaker and seems to be associated to disseminated mineralization. DHMMR2 contains a higher conductivity and more elongated target. It appears to be associated to semi-massive sulphides.

  4. Analysis of the role of PCNA-DNA contacts during clamp loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedken Eric R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sliding clamps, such as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA in eukaryotes, are ring-shaped protein complexes that encircle DNA and enable highly processive DNA replication by serving as docking sites for DNA polymerases. In an ATP-dependent reaction, clamp loader complexes, such as the Replication Factor-C (RFC complex in eukaryotes, open the clamp and load it around primer-template DNA. Results We built a model of RFC bound to PCNA and DNA based on existing crystal structures of clamp loaders. This model suggests that DNA would enter the clamp at an angle during clamp loading, thereby interacting with positively charged residues in the center of PCNA. We show that simultaneous mutation of Lys 20, Lys 77, Arg 80, and Arg 149, which interact with DNA in the RFC-PCNA-DNA model, compromises the ability of yeast PCNA to stimulate the DNA-dependent ATPase activity of RFC when the DNA is long enough to extend through the clamp. Fluorescence anisotropy binding experiments show that the inability of the mutant clamp proteins to stimulate RFC ATPase activity is likely caused by reduction in the affinity of the RFC-PCNA complex for DNA. We obtained several crystal forms of yeast PCNA-DNA complexes, measuring X-ray diffraction data to 3.0 Å resolution for one such complex. The resulting electron density maps show that DNA is bound in a tilted orientation relative to PCNA, but makes different contacts than those implicated in clamp loading. Because of apparent partial disorder in the DNA, we restricted refinement of the DNA to a rigid body model. This result contrasts with previous analysis of a bacterial clamp bound to DNA, where the DNA was well resolved. Conclusion Mutational analysis of PCNA suggests that positively charged residues in the center of the clamp create a binding surface that makes contact with DNA. Disruption of this positive surface, which had not previously been implicated in clamp loading function, reduces RFC

  5. A Central Swivel Point in the RFC Clamp Loader Controls PCNA Opening and Loading on DNA


    Sakato, Miho; O’Donnell, Mike; Hingorani, Manju M.


    Replication Factor C (RFC) is a 5-subunit complex that loads PCNA clamps onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) during replication. RFC subunits belong to the AAA+ superfamily, and their ATPase activity drives interactions between the clamp loader, clamp, and ptDNA, leading to topologically linked PCNA•ptDNA. We report the kinetics of transient events in S. cerevisiae RFC catalyzed PCNA loading, including ATP-induced RFC activation, PCNA opening, ptDNA binding, ATP hydrolysis, PCNA closing and PCNA...

  6. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit


    Planar silicon chips with 1-2-microm etched holes (average resistance: 2.04 +/- 0.02 MOmega in physiological buffer, n = 274) have been developed for patch-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from cells in suspension. An automated 16-channel parallel screening system, QPatch 16, has been...... developed using this technology. A single-channel prototype of the QPatch system was used for validation of the patch-clamp chip technology. We present here data on the quality of patch-clamp recordings and from actual drug screening studies of human potassium channels expressed in cultured cell lines...

  7. Modelling the clamping force distribution among chips in press-pack IGBTs using the finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasmasan, Adrian Augustin; Busca, Christian; Teodorescu, Remus


    In this paper, a FEM (finite element method) based mechanical model for PP (press-pack) IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors) is presented, which can be used to calculate the clamping force distribution among chips under various clamping conditions. The clamping force is an important paramet...

  8. The effect of high glucose levels on the hypermethylation of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C (PPP1R3C) gene in colorectal cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soo Kyung Lee; Ji Wook Moon; Yong Woo Lee; Jung Ok Lee; Su Jin Kim; Nami Kim; Jin Kim; Hyeon Soo Kim; Sun-Hwa Park


    DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that occurs frequently in colorectal cancer (CRC). Increased glucose level is a strong risk factor for CRC. Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C (PPP1R3C) modulates glycogen metabolism, particularly glycogen synthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose levels on DNA methylation of PPP1R3C in CRC. PPP1R3C was significantly hypermethylated in CRC tissues (76/105, 72.38%, < 0.05) and colon cancer cell lines ( < 0.05). CRC tissues obtained from patients with high glucose levels showed that the methylation of PPP1R3C was lower than in patients who had normal levels of glucose. When DLD-1 cells were cultured under conditions of high glucose, the methylation of PPP1R3C was repressed. The expression of PPP1R3C was inversely related to methylation status. In addition, a promoter luciferase assay showed that the transcriptional activity of PPP1R3C was increased in high glucose culture conditions. The number of cells decreased when PPP1R3C was silenced in DLD-1 cells. These results suggest that PPP1R3C, a novel hypermethylated gene in CRC, may play a critical role in cancer cell growth in association with glucose levels.

  9. Multiwavelength Observations of 3C66A in 2003 (United States)

    Boettcher, M.; Joshi, M.; Fossati, G.; Smith, I. A.; Mukherjee, R.; Bramel, D.; Cui, W.; WEBT Collaboration


    The radio-selected BL Lac object 3C66A was the target of an intensive multiwavelength observing campaign in the last quarter of 2003 and early 2004. It was monitored by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) collaboration of optical observers, in tandem with 20 X-ray monitoring observations by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), VHE gamma-ray observations by STACEE and VERITAS, and long-term monitoring at radio frequencies. In addition, 9 high-spatial-resolution observations using the VLA are being carried out during the campaign and throughout the year 2004 to follow possible structural changes of the source. A gradual brightening of the source over the course of the campaign was observed at all optical frequencies, culminating in a very bright flare at the end of January 2004. Optical light curves indicate intraday microvariability on time scales down to about 1.3 hours. No significant color-magnitude correlation for the entire data set was evident, but there is a slight indication of a hardness - intensity anti-correlation on intraday time scales. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a photon spectral index of ˜ 2.1, indicating that the RXTE energy band might be located right at the intersection of the synchrotron and the high-energy emission components of the broadband spectral energy distribution. No significant flux or spectral variability at X-ray energies was detected. We extracted snapshot spectral energy distributions at various times throughout the campaign, and present first spectral fits to those SEDs. This work was partially supported by NASA RXTE GO grant no. NNG 04GB13G.

  10. Observations of Titan 3C-4 Transtage Fragmentation Debris (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.


    The fragmentation of a Titan 3C-4 Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper will present a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots will also be shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) believed to be associated with the Titan break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN# 25001, 33509, 33510) and the parent rocket body. Color index data will be used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In 2012, the SSN added 16 additional fragments to the catalogue. MODEST acquired magnitude data on ten Titan fragments in late 2012 and early 2013. The magnitude distribution of all the observed fragments are analyzed as a function of time. In order to better characterize the breakup fragments spectral measurements were acquired on the original rocket body and five Titan fragments using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., Aluminum and various paints) and categorized based on known absorption features for spacecraft materials.

  11. Investigating the X-ray and Gamma-ray Properties of the Galactic Supernova Remnants Kes 69, 3C 396, 3C 400.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ergin, Tülün; Yamazaki, Ryo


    Kes 69, 3C 396, and 3C 400.2 are mixed-morphology (MM) Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), where Kes 69 and 3C 396 are interacting with molecular clouds (MCs). Previous X-ray studies showed that the emission from these SNRs is thermal. It has been suggested that MM SNRs interacting with MCs are potential candidates for recombining plasma (RP) in X-rays and hadronic gamma-ray emission. Recently, Chandra observations revealed signs of RP in 3C 400.2. Our preliminary analyses show that the X-ray emission of NW and SE region of 3C 400.2 arises from recombining plasma. We detected GeV gamma-ray emission from Kes 69 and 3C 396 above 5$\\sigma$.

  12. Structure and Properties of the Nonface-Spiral Fullerenes T-C380, D3-C384, D3-C440, and D3-C672 and Their Halma and Leapfrog Transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Tonner, Ralf; Avery, James Emil


    followed by a force-field optimization using the recently introduced program Fullerene. The obtained structures were then further optimized at the density functional level of theory and their stability analyzed with reference to Ih-C60. The large number of hexagons results in a higher stability of the NS......The structure and properties of the three smallest nonface-spiral (NS) fullerenes NS-T-C380, NS-D3-C384, NS-D3-C440, and the first isolated pentagon NS-fullerene, NS-D3-C672, are investigated in detail. They are constructed by either a generalized face-spiral algorithm or by vertex insertions...... of NS-fullerenes. A similar result was found to not hold for the related leapfrog transformation. We also show that the first known NS-fullerene with isolated pentagons, NS-D3-C672, is a halma transform of D3-C168....

  13. Electrosurgical bipolar vessel sealing versus conventional clamping and suturing for total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Vos, M.C.; Roovers, J.P.


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of bipolar vessel sealing versus conventional clamping and suturing in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was performed. Patients were randomized to vessel sealing or conventional surgery. Postoperative pain wa

  14. Common voltage eliminating of SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong


    A novel method of common voltage eliminating is put forward for SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid by calculation of common voltage of its various switching states. PLECS is used to model this three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First...... analysis of common mode voltage for switching states of diode clamping 3-level inverter is given in detail. Second the common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter. Third, PLECS is briefly introduced. Fourth, the modeling of diode clamping...... three-level inverter is presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS is a very powerful tool to real power circuits modeling. They have also verified that proposed common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is feasible...

  15. Renal perfusion with venous blood extends the permissible suprarenal clamp time in abdominal aortic surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pichlmaier, Maximilian; Hoy, Ludwig; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Khaladj, Nawid; Haverich, Axel; Teebken, Omke E


    ... suprarenal clamping for aortic reconstructive surgery. Renal perfusion was achieved using a roller pump supplied with venous blood from a central venous catheter under medium-level heparinization to feed two perfusion balloon catheters...

  16. Suppression of Spiral Waves by Voltage Clamp Techniques in a Conductance-Based Cardiac Tissue Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lian-Chun; MA Jun; ZHANG Guo-Yong; CHEN Yong


    A new control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media, which is described by the Morris-Lecar cells model. It is confirmed that successful suppression of spiral waves can be obtained by spatially clamping the membrane voltage of the excitable cells. The low voltage clamping induces breakup of spiral waves and the fragments are soon absorbed by low voltage obstacles, whereas the high voltage clamping generates travel waves that annihilate spiral waves through collision with them. However, each method has its shortcomings. Furthermore, a two-step method that combines both low and high voltage clamp techniques is then presented as a possible way of out this predicament.

  17. Implementation of a fast 16-Bit dynamic clamp using LabVIEW-RT. (United States)

    Kullmann, Paul H M; Wheeler, Diek W; Beacom, Joshua; Horn, John P


    The dynamic-clamp method provides a powerful electrophysiological tool for creating virtual ionic conductances in living cells and studying their influence on membrane potential. Here we describe G-clamp, a new way to implement a dynamic clamp using the real-time version of the Lab-VIEW programming environment together with a Windows host, an embedded microprocessor that runs a real-time operating system and a multifunction data-acquisition board. The software includes descriptions of a fast voltage-dependent sodium conductance, delayed rectifier, M-type and A-type potassium conductances, and a leak conductance. The system can also read synaptic conductance waveforms from preassembled data files. These virtual conductances can be reliably implemented at speeds LabVIEW should make it relatively easy for others to adapt G-clamp for new experimental applications.

  18. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Philip T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  19. Patch Clamp: A Powerful Technique for Studying the Mechanism of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhang


    Full Text Available Cellular and molecular events can be investigated using electrophysiological techniques. In particular, the patch-clamp method provides detailed information. In addition, the patch-clamp technique has become a powerful method for investigating the mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture. In this paper, recent researches on how acupuncture might modulate electrophysiological responses in the central nervous system (CNS and affect peripheral structures are reviewed.

  20. Delayed umbilical cord clamping after childbirth: potential benefits to baby's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwins C


    Full Text Available Christina Uwins,1 David JR Hutchon2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Croydon University Hospital, Croydon, 2Department of Obstetrics, Darlington Memorial Hospital, Darlington, UKAbstract: Early cord clamping was initially introduced as part of the package of care known as “active management of the third stage”, which was implemented to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. It has now been shown to provide no benefit to the mother and to result in harm to the neonate. The clinical trial evidence relating to delayed cord clamping compared to immediate cord clamping is presented and the physiological rationale for delayed cord clamping is discussed in this paper. Most organizations (eg World Health Organization (WHO, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG, Resuscitation Council (UK,The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO, International Confederation of Midwives, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR and the European Resuscitation Council now advise a delay of 1–3 minutes before clamping the cord in term and preterm infants, and clinicians need to be aware of this change. Healthy neonates benefit from a more physiological and gentle transition from placental to pulmonary respiration, and we explain why this benefit should be provided to all neonates until there is any evidence to the contrary. The harm of early cord clamping is not limited to anemia and iron deficiency, and evidence for a wide range of possible harms of early cord clamping is presented. The need for resuscitation is one of the most common concerns, and ways of overcoming these concerns are described.Keywords: transition, cord clamping, hypovolemia, intraventricular hemorrhage

  1. Effect of non-ideal clamping shape on the resonance frequencies of silicon nanocantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Nicu, Liviu [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Perisanu, Sorin; Vincent, Pascal [LPMCN, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lazarus, Arnaud; Thomas, Olivier, E-mail: [Structural Mechanics and Coupled Systems Laboratory, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue Conte, 75003 Paris (France)


    In this paper, we investigate the effects of non-ideal clamping shapes on the dynamic behavior of silicon nanocantilevers. We fabricated silicon nanocantilevers using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers by employing stepper ultraviolet (UV) lithography, which permits a resolution of under 100 nm. The nanocantilevers were driven by electrostatic force inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both lateral and out-of-plane resonance frequencies were visually detected with the SEM. Next, we discuss overhanging of the cantilever support and curvature at the clamping point in the silicon nanocantilevers, which generally arises in the fabrication process. We found that the fundamental out-of-plane frequency of a realistically clamped cantilever is always lower than that for a perfectly clamped cantilever, and depends on the cantilever width and the geometry of the clamping point structure. Using simulation with the finite-elements method, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is attributed to the particular geometry of the clamping point (non-zero joining curvatures and a flexible overhanging) that is obtained in the fabrication process. The influence of the material orthotropy is also investigated and is shown to be negligible.

  2. A novel monolithic piezoelectric actuated flexure-mechanism based wire clamp for microelectronic device packaging (United States)

    Liang, Cunman; Wang, Fujun; Tian, Yanling; Zhao, Xingyu; Zhang, Hongjie; Cui, Liangyu; Zhang, Dawei; Ferreira, Placid


    A novel monolithic piezoelectric actuated wire clamp is presented in this paper to achieve fast, accurate, and robust microelectronic device packaging. The wire clamp has compact, flexure-based mechanical structure and light weight. To obtain large and robust jaw displacements and ensure parallel jaw grasping, a two-stage amplification composed of a homothetic bridge type mechanism and a parallelogram leverage mechanism was designed. Pseudo-rigid-body model and Lagrange approaches were employed to conduct the kinematic, static, and dynamic modeling of the wire clamp and optimization design was carried out. The displacement amplification ratio, maximum allowable stress, and natural frequency were calculated. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the wire clamp and wire electro discharge machining technique was utilized to fabricate the monolithic structure. Experimental tests were carried out to investigate the performance and the experimental results match well with the theoretical calculation and FEA. The amplification ratio of the clamp is 20.96 and the working mode frequency is 895 Hz. Step response test shows that the wire clamp has fast response and high accuracy and the motion resolution is 0.2 μm. High speed precision grasping operations of gold and copper wires were realized using the wire clamper.

  3. A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a high step-down interleaved buck coupled-inductor converter (IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion has been studied. In high step-down voltage applications, an IBCC can extend duty ratio and reduce voltage stresses on active switches. In order to reduce switching losses of active switches to improve conversion efficiency, a IBCC with soft-switching techniques is usually required. Compared with passive-clamp circuits, the IBCC with active-clamp circuits have lower switching losses and minimum ringing voltage of the active switches. Thus, the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion can significantly increase conversion efficiency. Finally, a 240 W prototype of the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits was built and implemented. Experimental results have shown that efficiency can reach as high as 91%. The proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits is presented in high step-down voltage applications to verify the performance and the feasibility for energy conversion of wind turbines.

  4. The effect of early and late umbilical cord clamping on neonatal hematocrit. (United States)

    Jahazi, A; Kordi, M; Mirbehbahani, N B; Mazloom, S R


    To compare the effect of early and late cord clamping (LCC) on neonatal hematocrit at 2 and 18 h of life. In this double-blind randomized trial, 64 healthy full-term vaginally born neonates were randomly allocated to either early (30 s) or late (3 min) umbilical cord clamping. During the interval between delivery and cord clamping, the attendant held the neonate supine at the level of the introitus. Neonatal venous hematocrit was measured at 2 and 18 h of life. Neonatal hematocrit at 2 h of life (61+/-4.9 vs 61.6+/-4.5%) and 18 h of life (56.9+/-4.1 vs 56.2+/-3.9%) was not significantly different between the two groups. This was also true for neonatal polycythemia (20 vs 23.5%). In the LCC group, placental residual blood volume (PRBV) was 39.5% lower and estimated neonatal blood volume (ENBV) was 7.1% higher than that in the early cord clamping (ECC) group (Pcord clamping does not lead to a significant difference in the hematocrit level of the neonate or neonatal polycythemia, but is associated with a significant increase in ENBV and a significant decrease in PRBV. Further trials should examine the effect of delaying cord clamping for a longer period of time or changing the position that the neonate is held in to determine whether these variations result in more clinically significant results.

  5. Late umbilical cord clamping, neonatal hematocrit and Apgar scores: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Salari, Z; Rezapour, M; Khalili, N


    Based on current evidence, there is a little agreement on the best timing for after birth umbilical cord clamping. This study was designed to compare the impact of using two different times for cord clamping on hematocrit concentration and Apgar scores of the neonate. Fifty-six healthy full-term vaginally born neonates were allocated to early (10 seconds after delivery) and late (3 minutes after delivery) umbilical cord clamping groups in this randomized clinical trial. We recorded the length of the 3rd stage of labor and Apgar score at 5 minutes. Infant's hematocrit was measured at 2 and 18 hours of age. Neonatal hematocrit differed between the two groups. Late cord clamping group had greater hematocrit at 2 hours (45.5 ± 4 vs. 49.5 ± 4.4, P = 0.0003) and 18 hours (47.7 ± 5.5 vs. 52.9 ± 4.3, P = 0.0002). Apgar scores at 5 minutes (9.3 ± 0.6 vs. 9.4 ± 0.6, p = 0.5) and duration of delivery 3rd stage (10.2 ± 3.7 min vs. 8.9 ± 5 min, P = 0.2) did not differ between early and late cord clamping groups respectively. Late cord clamping leads to a significant increase in the hematocrit of the neonate but it does not have effects on Apgar score and duration of the 3rd stage of labor.

  6. Can selective arterial clamping with fluorescence imaging preserve kidney function during robotic partial nephrectomy? (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Bjurlin, Marc A; Wysock, James S; Borofsky, Michael S; Marien, Tracy P; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Stifelman, Michael D


    To compare renal functional outcomes in robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) with selective arterial clamping guided by near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging to a matched cohort of patients who underwent RPN without selective arterial clamping and NIRF imaging. From April 2011 to December 2012, NIRF imaging-enhanced RPN with selective clamping was used in 42 cases. Functional outcomes of successful cases were compared with a cohort of patients, matched by tumor size, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), functional kidney status, age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score, who underwent RPN without selective clamping and NIRF imaging. In matched-pair analysis, selective clamping with NIRF was associated with superior kidney function at discharge, as demonstrated by postoperative eGFR (78.2 vs 68.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P = .04), absolute reduction of eGFR (-2.5 vs -14.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P functional outcomes when compared with RPN without selective arterial clamping and NIRF imaging. With this effect attenuated at later follow-up, randomized prospective studies and long-term assessment of kidney-specific functional outcomes are needed to further assess the benefits of this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Formation of the Surface during AN Abrasive Finishing at Constant and Variable Clamping Forces: Finishing at Constant and Variable Clamping Forces (United States)

    Muratov, Karim Ravilevich; Muratov, Ravil Arifovich; Ablyaz, Timur Rizovich; Gashev, Evgeniy Anatolyevich


    In this work the flat abrasive finishing process is reported. The mechanical and chemical phenomena taking place during the finishing process are described. The most common forming process schemes observed during abrasive treatment are reviewed. The schemes of pulsed, geometrical and energetic models are discussed. On the basis of the energetic hypothesis and Preston hypothesis, the rational law of clamping force variation during the finishing is established. This law allowed for the stabilization of the contact pressure and an increase of the treatment efficiency. An exponential dependence of a boundary contact area variation during the finishing of planes with different initial profiles of the macro-topography is developed. An experimental confirmation of the Preston hypothesis during the abrasive finishing is carried out with the plane-finishing machine “Rastr 220”. The comparison experiments are carried out at constant and variable clamping forces of the treated surface towards the tool. It is found that by varying the forces according to the exponential law (i.e. similar to the changing of the boundary contact area during the abrasive finishing) the process efficiency is increasing by a factor of 2.5-3. It is shown that the changes of the root mean square deviation σ of the roughness Ra of a treated surface in the beginning of the process (at time t=1 min) during the finishing at a constant clamping force is two times higher compared to the treatment at a variable clamping force in the same time period.

  8. Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)


    To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for CCS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 a contract to design, build and test a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Paulsson, Inc. has completed a design or a unique borehole seismic system consisting of a novel drill pipe based deployment system that includes a hydraulic clamping mechanism for the sensor pods, a new sensor pod design and most important – a unique fiber optic seismic vector sensor with technical specifications and capabilities that far exceed the state of the art seismic sensor technologies. These novel technologies were all applied to the new borehole seismic system. In combination these technologies will allow for the deployment of up to 1,000 3C sensor pods in vertical, deviated or horizontal wells. Laboratory tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed during this project have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown that the system can record events at magnitudes much smaller than M-2.3 at frequencies up to 2,000 Hz. The sensors have also proved to be about 100 times more sensitive than the regular coil geophones that are used in borehole seismic systems today. The fiber optic seismic sensors have furthermore been qualified to operate at temperatures over 300°C (572°F). The fibers used for the seismic sensors in the system are used to record Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) data allowing additional value added data to be recorded simultaneously with the seismic vector sensor data.

  9. M. tuberculosis sliding β-clamp does not interact directly with the NAD+-dependent DNA ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Kukshal

    Full Text Available The sliding β-clamp, an important component of the DNA replication and repair machinery, is drawing increasing attention as a therapeutic target. We report the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis β-clamp (Mtbβ-clamp to 3.0 Å resolution. The protein crystallized in the space group C222(1 with cell-dimensions a = 72.7, b = 234.9 & c = 125.1 Å respectively. Mtbβ-clamp is a dimer, and exhibits head-to-tail association similar to other bacterial clamps. Each monomer folds into three domains with similar structures respectively and associates with its dimeric partner through 6 salt-bridges and about 21 polar interactions. Affinity experiments involving a blunt DNA duplex, primed-DNA and nicked DNA respectively show that Mtbβ-clamp binds specifically to primed DNA about 1.8 times stronger compared to the other two substrates and with an apparent K(d of 300 nM. In bacteria like E. coli, the β-clamp is known to interact with subunits of the clamp loader, NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA and other partners. We tested the interactions of the Mtbβ-clamp with MtbLigA and the γ-clamp loader subunit through radioactive gel shift assays, size exclusion chromatography, yeast-two hybrid experiments and also functionally. Intriguingly while Mtbβ-clamp interacts in vitro with the γ-clamp loader, it does not interact with MtbLigA unlike in bacteria like E. coli where it does. Modeling studies involving earlier peptide complexes reveal that the peptide-binding site is largely conserved despite lower sequence identity between bacterial clamps. Overall the results suggest that other as-yet-unidentified factors may mediate interactions between the clamp, LigA and DNA in mycobacteria.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleobase-modified analogs of the anticancer compounds 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Jepsen, Jan S; Nielsen, Claus


    A series of nucleobase-modified analogs of the anticancer compounds 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) were designed to overcome the strict substrate specificity of the activating uridine-cytidine kinase. EUrd, ECyd and target nucleosides were obtained using a short conver...

  11. Multi-Frequency VLBA Studies of the Parsec-Scale Jets in 3C 66A and 3C 66B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G.-Y. Zhao; Y.-J. Chen; Z.-Q. Shen; H. Sudou; S. Iguchi; F. Gao; Y. Murata; Y. Taniguchi


    We report multi-frequency VLBA phase-referencing observation results of 3C 66A and 3C 66B, including high resolution maps and relative position measurements. The resulting images show similar morphology with that presented in previous works. We find core shift variations in both sources, indicating some physical condition changes in the jets.

  12. 井下智能节流器的设计与节流阀流场分析%Design and Flow Field Analysis of Downhole Intelligent Throttle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明格; 马发明; 林丽君; 殷国富


    In light of the needs of downhole intelligent throttling technological development,a set of downhole intelligent throttle suitable for remote control was designed.The structure and control mechanism of the intelligent throttling were introduced.The structural design and analytical method of the throttle were expounded.The ANSYS finite element software was applied to make a mechanical analysis of the throttle structure.The flow field analysis method was used to analyze the pressure,velocity and temperature field of the fluid in the key positions of the throttle.The analysis shows that the designed throttle structure satisfies the requirement.It can provide the equipment support for the implementation of downhole intelligent throttling technology.And it can serve as a reference for the development of relevant intelligent downhole tools.%为了满足智能完井和数字化油气田技术的发展需要,设计了一套适用于远程控制的井下智能节流器.介绍了智能节流器的结构体系和控制机理.通过ANSYS有限元软件对井下智能节流器结构进行了力学分析.采用流场分析方法对节流器的关键位置处流体的压力、速度以及温度场进行了分析.分析结果表明,设计的节流器结构满足要求,能为井下智能节流工艺技术的实施提供设备支撑,对相关智能化井下工具的研发具有参考意义.

  13. Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001. (United States)

    Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W


    Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices.

  14. A Two-Dimensional Zirconium Carbide by Selective Etching of Al3C3 from Nanolaminated Zr3Al3C5. (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zha, Xianhu; Chen, Fan Y; Ye, Qun; Eklund, Per; Du, Shiyu; Huang, Qing


    The room-temperature synthesis of a new two-dimensional (2D) zirconium-containing carbide, Zr3C2T(z) MXene is presented. In contrast to traditional preparation of MXene, the layered ternary Zr3Al3C5 material instead of MAX phases is used as source under hydrofluoric acid treatment. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of the synthesized 2D carbide are investigated, combined with first-principles density functional calculations. A comparative study on the structrual stability of our obtained 2D Zr3C2T(z) and Ti3C2T(z) MXenes at elevated temperatures is performed. The obtained 2D Zr3C2T(z) exhibits relatively better ability to maintain 2D nature and strucural integrity compared to Ti-based Mxene. The difference in structural stability under high temperature condition is explained by a theoretical investigation on binding energy.

  15. 井下作业铅模打印技术研究与分析%Analysis on the technology of downhole operation lead model print

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成贵; 蒋金平; 王海龙; 黄丽; 杨景堂


    During the construction of downhole operation, playing lead mold is an important way to understand the downhole casing fish top form and condition. This paper elaborated the technical parameters and lead mold analysis steps. The author analyzed and sorted many lead mold into the downhole, formed the analysis method for poles fall, tube fall, rope falling objects, technical conditions of conductor pipe and the other technical condition, and formulate the corresponding treatment measures according to different impressions.%井下作业施工,打铅印是了解井下落物鱼顶形态和套管状况的重要方法。本文对打印的技术参数和印模分析步骤进行了阐述,对多年入井的铅印进行了分析、整理和归纳,形成了针对杆类落物、管类落物、绳类落物、套管技术状况以及井下其它技术状况的印模分析方法,并制定了针对不同印痕的对应处理措施。

  16. Numerical simulation of downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells%生产油井井下温度场数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石颖; 宋延杰; 刘洪


    An improved numerical simulation method is presented to calculate the downhole temperature distribution for multiple pay zones in producing oil wells. Based on hydrodynamics and heat transfer theory, a 2-D temperature field model in cylindrical coordinates is developed. In the model, we considered general heat conduction as well as the heat convection due to fluid flow from porous formation to the borehole. We also take into account the fluid velocity variation in the wellbore due to multiple pay zones. We present coupled boundary conditions at the interfaces between the wellbore and adjacent formation, the wellbore and pay zone, and the pay zone and adjacent formation. Finally, an alternating direction implicit difference method (ADI) is used to solve the temperature model for the downhole temperature distribution. The comparison of modeled temperature curve with actual temperature log indicates that simulation result is in general quite similar to the actual temperature log. We found that the total production rate, production time, porosity, thickness of pay zones, and geothermal gradient, all have effects on the downhole temperature distribution.

  17. Development and testing of a high-pressure downhole pump for jet-assist drilling. Topical report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The goal of jet-assisted drilling is to increase the rate of penetration (ROP) in deeper gas and oil wells, where the rocks become harder and more difficult to drill. Increasing the ROP can result in fewer drilling days, and therefore, lower drilling cost. In late 1993, FlowDril and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) began a three-year development of a down hole pump (DHP{reg_sign}) capable of producing 30,000 psi out pressure to provide the high-pressure flow for high-pressure jet-assist of the drill bit. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Morgantown, WV (DOE-Morgantown) field office, joined with GRI and FlowDril to develop and test a second prototype designed for drilling in 7-7/8 inch holes. This project, {open_quotes}Development and Testing of a High-Pressure Down Hole Pump for Jet-Assist Drilling,{close_quotes} is for the development and testing of the second prototype. It was planned in two phases. Phase I included an update of a market analysis, a design, fabrication, and an initial laboratory test of the second prototype. Phase II is continued iterative laboratory and field developmental testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase II. In the downhole pump approach shown in the following figure, conventional drill pipe and drill collars are used, with the DHP as the last component of the bottom hole assembly next to the bit. The DHP is a reciprocating double ended, intensifier style positive displacement, high-pressure pump. The drive fluid and the high-pressure output fluid are both derived from the same source, the abrasive drilling mud pumped downhole through the drill string. Approximately seven percent of the stream is pressurized to 30,000 psi and directed through a high-pressure nozzle on the drill bit to produce the high speed jet and assist the mechanical action of the bit to make it drill faster.

  18. Application of Downhole Magnetic Field Measurements in the Identification of Petrological Variations in Basalts, Gabbros and Volcaniclastic Sediments (United States)

    Bartetzko, A.; Heike, D.


    Downhole magnetic field measurements are routinely carried out during many downhole-logging operations for spatial orientation of borehole wall images. The tools used for this purpose, like the Schlumberger General Purpose Inclinometer Tool (GPIT), were not specifically developed for geological interpretations but comparisons with measurements from precise magnetometers show very good correlations. However, systematic value shifts sometimes occur in some holes and this means that data from the GPIT should be used only qualitatively. We show examples from several holes drilled by the ODP demonstrating the potential of magnetic field logs for geologic and petrologic purposes. Variations in the magnetic field data are caused by different geologic processes in these examples. Injections of Fe-Ti-oxide rich gabbros into olivine gabbro of the lower oceanic crust drilled in ODP Holes 735B and 1105A (SW Indian Ridge) cause distinct signals in the magnetic field logs. The vertical resolution of the tool allows detection of thin layers (10 cm minimum thickness) with small anomalies in the magnetic field logs. Cyclicity in eruption processes at mid-ocean ridges can be revealed using the magnetic field logs. Slight petrologic differences between magmas from different eruptions and changes in the Earth?s magnetic field due to reversals, or secular variations in pauses between the eruptions cause characteristic patterns in the logs (e.g. ODP Holes 395A and 418A). Cooling and subsequent alteration processes cause the formation of different types of Fe- and/or Ti-oxide minerals. Typical examples of the formation of secondary magnetic minerals in subaerial lava flows are seen in ODP Hole 1137A (Kerguelen Plateau). Characteristic anomalies in the magnetic field log correlate well with total gamma ray measurement, which is an indicator for alteration in this type of rocks. Grain Size linked with crystallinity variations in basaltic volcaniclastic deposits and debris flows influence

  19. A central swivel point in the RFC clamp loader controls PCNA opening and loading on DNA. (United States)

    Sakato, Miho; O'Donnell, Mike; Hingorani, Manju M


    Replication factor C (RFC) is a five-subunit complex that loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamps onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) during replication. RFC subunits belong to the AAA(+) superfamily, and their ATPase activity drives interactions between the clamp loader, the clamp, and the ptDNA, leading to topologically linked PCNA·ptDNA. We report the kinetics of transient events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFC-catalyzed PCNA loading, including ATP-induced RFC activation, PCNA opening, ptDNA binding, ATP hydrolysis, PCNA closing, and PCNA·ptDNA release. This detailed perspective enables assessment of individual RFC-A, RFC-B, RFC-C, RFC-D, and RFC-E subunit functions in the reaction mechanism. Functions have been ascribed to RFC subunits previously based on a steady-state analysis of 'arginine-finger' ATPase mutants; however, pre-steady-state analysis provides a different view. The central subunit RFC-C serves as a critical swivel point in the clamp loader. ATP binding to this subunit initiates RFC activation, and the clamp loader adopts a spiral conformation that stabilizes PCNA in a corresponding open spiral. The importance of RFC subunit response to ATP binding decreases as RFC-C>RFC-D>RFC-B, with RFC-A being unnecessary. RFC-C-dependent activation of RFC also enables ptDNA binding, leading to the formation of the RFC·ATP·PCNA(open)·ptDNA complex. Subsequent ATP hydrolysis leads to complex dissociation, with RFC-D activity contributing the most to rapid ptDNA release. The pivotal role of the RFC-B/C/D subunit ATPase core in clamp loading is consistent with the similar central location of all three ATPase active subunits of the Escherichia coli clamp loader.

  20. Timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia: the role of maternal anaemia. (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Penny, Mary E; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Joseph, Serene A; Gagnon, Anita; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W


    Evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown that delayed cord-clamping is beneficial to infant iron status. The role of maternal anaemia in this relationship, however, has not been established. To determine the effect of maternal anaemia at delivery on the association between timing of umbilical cord-clamping and infant anaemia at 4 and 8 months of age. A cohort of pregnant women admitted to the labour room of Hospital Iquitos (Iquitos, Peru) and their newborns were recruited into the study during two time periods (18 May to 3 June and 6-20 July 2009). Between the two recruitment periods, the hospital's policy changed from early to delayed umbilical cord-clamping. Maternal haemoglobin levels were measured before delivery, and the time between delivery and cord-clamping was recorded at delivery for the entire cohort. Mother-infant pairs were followed-up at 4 (n = 207) and 8 months (n = 184) post partum. Infant haemoglobin levels were measured at follow-up visits. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (Hb cord-clamping and infant anaemia was modified by the mother's anaemia status. Significant benefits of delayed cord-clamping in preventing anaemia were found in infants born to anaemic mothers at both 4 months (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and 8 months (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.76) of age. The study contributes additional evidence in support of delayed cord-clamping. This intervention is likely to have most public health impact in areas with a high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy.

  1. Timing of umbilical cord clamping after birth for optimizing placental transfusion. (United States)

    Raju, Tonse N K


    A brief delay in clamping the umbilical cord after birth offers health benefits to the newborn, with no adverse effects to the mother or her infant. Yet, in most obstetric practice, the cord is clamped soon after birth. A summary of the current evidence on delayed cord clamping and some reasons for the disconnect between the evidence and practice are discussed here, along with the recommendations from professional organizations and societies about this practice. In term infants, umbilical cord clamping between 30 and 180 s after birth results in higher concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit during the neonatal period, and increased serum ferritin levels and a lower incidence of iron-deficiency anemia at 4-6 months of age. These are important benefits for children in low and middle income countries where iron-deficiency anemia is highly prevalent. In preterm infants, delayed cord clamping for at least 30 s increases the concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit, improves mean systemic blood pressure, urine output, and cardiac function, and decreases the need for vasopressors and blood transfusions during the neonatal period. It also decreases the prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and intraventricular hemorrhage (all grades). Milking of the unclamped umbilical cord toward the infant soon after birth also has similar beneficial effects. In some studies, more infants in the delayed cord clamping groups required phototherapy for jaundice. Many professional organizations, societies, and experts recommend at least a 30-s delay before clamping the umbilical cord, especially after preterm births. The value of this practice for term births in resource-rich settings has not been evaluated.

  2. Umbilical cord blood acid-base and gas analysis after early versus delayed cord clamping in neonates at term. (United States)

    De Paco, Catalina; Florido, Jesús; Garrido, Mari Carmen; Prados, Sonia; Navarrete, Luis


    To compare umbilical cord acid-base status and blood gas analysis between umbilical cords clamped within 10 s and at 2 min of delivery. A total of 158 healthy full-term mothers were randomly assigned to an early clamping (clamping (2 min post-delivery, n = 79) group. After application of inclusion criteria, umbilical vein blood acid-base status and gases were analyzed in 65 early clamped and 51 delayed clamped cords. Fewer cases could be examined in the umbilical artery: 55 cords in the early clamping group and 44 in the delayed one. Acid-base and gas analysis results did not significantly differ between the groups in the umbilical vein or umbilical artery, with the exception of a higher (p umbilical artery pO(2) value in the delayed versus early clamping group. No significant differences in umbilical vein or artery pCO(2) or HCO(3) (-) values were observed between the early and delayed clamp groups. A delay of 2 min before umbilical cord clamping does not significantly change acid-base and gas analysis results, with the exception of a higher mean umbilical artery pO(2) value in the delayed clamping group.

  3. Clampe de Ganz no tratamento de urgência em lesões do anel pélvico Ganz clamps to treat emergencies in pelvic ring lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Cação Pereira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência do clampe de Ganz na estabilização e redução dos deslocamentos da pelve, quando utilizado no tratamento de urgência, além de aquilatar eventuais dificuldades e facilidades do método. MÉTODOS: O clampe de Ganz foi utilizado no tratamento de urgência em 31 pacientes com graves lesões do anel pélvico (Tile C associadas a importante instabilidade hemodinâmica. RESULTADO: Entre os pacientes, 27 (87,1% apresentaram evolução favorável, com estabilização, redução dos deslocamentos e compressão da região posterior do anel, além de estabilização hemodinâmica, e quatro (12,9% evoluíram para óbito. CONCLUSÃO: O clampe de Ganz mostrou-se eficiente ferramenta no tratamento de urgência das lesões do anel pélvico, por ser de concepção simples, de rápida colocação, não impedir ou dificultar procedimentos no abdome e, principalmente, por permitir a estabilização da pelve, redução dos deslocamentos e compressão na região posterior do anel, local onde ocorrem os maiores sangramentos, reduzindo-os ou eliminando-os.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Ganz clamp to stabilize and reduce pelvic dislocations in emergency situations, and to assess possible difficult and easy aspects of the method. METHOD: Ganz clamp was used in the emergency treatment of 31 patients with severe lesions of the pelvic ring (Tile C associated to major hemodynamic instability. RESULTS: Among the patients, 27 (87.1% presented a favorable evolution, with stabilization, reduction of dislocations, and compression of the posterior portion of the ring, and also hemodynamic stabilization, and 4 (12.9% died. CONCLUSION: The Ganz clamp was found to be an effective tool in the emergency treatment of pelvic ring lesions because it has an uncomplicated conception, allowing for a fast placement, because it does not prevent nor make it difficult for abdominal procedures, and most of all because it allows for the

  4. High temperature wear performance of HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo and Cr3C2-NiCr hardmetal coatings (United States)

    Zhou, Wuxi; Zhou, Kesong; Li, Yuxi; Deng, Chunming; Zeng, Keli


    A novel Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo and commercial Cr3C2-NiCr thermal spray-grade powders with particle size of -45 + 15 μm were prepared by an agglomeration and sintering process. Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The fundamental properties of both coatings were evaluated and friction wear test against Al2O3 counterbodies of both coatings at high temperatures (450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) were carried out ball-on-disk high temperature tribometer. All specimens were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and 3D non-contact surface mapping profiler. The results have shown that the Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo coating exhibited lower porosity, higher micro-hardness compared to the Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo coating also exhibited better wear resistance and higher friction coefficient compared to the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against the Al2O3 counterpart. Wear rates of both coatings increased with raising temperature. Both coatings experienced abrasive wear; hard phase particles (WC and Cr3C2) with different sizes, distributed in the matrix phase, will effectively improve the resistance against wear at high temperatures.

  5. Incision Below The Clamp sebagai Modifikasi Teknik Insisi pada Frenektomi untuk Minimalisasi Perdarahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryono


    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Perlekatan frenulum tinggi berdampak merugikan bagi jaringan periodontal maupun fungsi estetik. Perlekatan tinggi yang terjadi pada labialis superior, menimbulkan gingivitis dan sentral diastema yang menjadikan indikasi untuk dilakukan frenektomi. Frenektomi dengan teknik melakukan insisi di atas dan di bawah clamp berakibat lebarnya luka karena tarikan otot bibir, yang berdampak terjadi banyak perdarahan. Tujuan. Melakukan evaluasi terhadap modifikasi teknik insisi yang diharapkan dapat mengurangi perdarahan. Kasus dan Penanganan. Laporan kasus ini memaparkan penanganan kasus pada perlekatan frenulum tinggi yang diikuti adanya sentral diastema. Pasien dengan diagnosa frenulum tinggi dan indikasi frenektomi dilakukan tindakan preoperasi. Tindakan operasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan pisau bedah, modifikasi insisi (Insision below the Clamp dilakukan dengan cara menempatkan clamp frenulum pada posisi yang berdekatan dan sejajar dengan bibir, tindakan insisi dilakukan di bawah clamp, disusul dengan penjahitan pada area mucolabial fold. Selama operasi dilakukan terlihat luka tidak melebar, tidak banyak darah yang keluar, pasien dan dokter merasa nyaman. Kesimpulan. Insision below the Clamp merupakan modifikasi teknik insisi pada frenektomi yang bisa dilakukan oleh para praktisi untuk meminimalisir perdarahan yang terjadi selama proses pengambilan frenulum dengan menggunakan pisau bedah.   Background. Attachment of high frenulum has negative impact on periodontal tissues as well as an aesthetic function. High attachment of frenulum that occurs in labialis superior, causing gingivitis and central diastema that are indications to do Frenectomy. Conventional techniques of Frenectomy performed with insisions above and below the clamp resulted in wide injury due to muscle contraction, which affects a lot of bleeding. Objective. To evaluate modification insision technique which hopefully can minimize the bleeding. Case and Treatment. This

  6. Novel Low Loss Active Voltage Clamp Circuit for Series Connection of RCGCT thyristors (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Iwata, Akihiko

    This paper describes novel low loss active voltage clamp circuits for the series connection of RCGCT thyristors. For high voltage converters the series connection of power semiconductor devices is an essential technique for direct switching of high voltages. Several protection circuits have been applied to the series connection of RCGCT thyristors such as CRD snubber circuits which suppress over-voltages across RCGCT thyristors, and voltage balancing resistors to equalize voltage sharing in steady states. However, significant losses in these protection circuits lower the converter’s efficiency. We propose novel low-loss protection circuits, which have active voltage clamp snubber circuits and static voltage balancing circuits. The clamp capacitor voltage of the active voltage clamp snubber circuits are designed to be higher than the equally divided DC-Link voltage. This method can reduce the loss of the clamp circuit to no more than 1/10 of that of the conventional CRD snubber. Also the static voltage balancing circuits compensate for the voltage imbalance generated by the difference in the leakage current between the series connection RCGCT thyristors.

  7. Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S W harun; N Md Samsuri; H Ahmad


    Two designs of long-wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) for gain clamping in double-pass systems are demonstrated and compared. The first design is based on ring laser technique where a backward amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from the second stage is routed into the feedback loop to create an oscillating laser for gain clamping. The gain is clamped at 18.6 dB from -40 to -8 dBm with a gain variation of less than ± 0.1 dB and a noise figure of less than 6 dB. Another scheme is based on partial reflection of ASE into the EDFA, which is demonstrated using a narrowband fiber Bragg grating. This scheme achieves a good gain clamping characteristic up to -12 dBm of input signal power with a gain variation of less than ± 0.3 dB from a clamped gain of 22 dB. The noise figure of a 1580 nm signal is maintained below 5 dB in this amplifier since this scheme is not based on lasing mechanism. The latter scheme is also expected to be free from the relaxation oscillation problem.

  8. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes. (United States)

    McDonald, Susan J; Middleton, Philippa; Dowswell, Therese; Morris, Peter S


    Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord more than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased. The benefits and potential harms of each policy are debated. To determine the effects of early cord clamping compared with late cord clamping after birth on maternal and neonatal outcomes We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (13 February 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing early and late cord clamping. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. We included 15 trials involving a total of 3911 women and infant pairs. We judged the trials to have an overall moderate risk of bias. Maternal outcomes: No studies in this review reported on maternal death or on severe maternal morbidity. There were no significant differences between early versus late cord clamping groups for the primary outcome of severe postpartum haemorrhage (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.65; five trials with data for 2066 women with a late clamping event rate (LCER) of ~3.5%, I(2) 0%) or for postpartum haemorrhage of 500 mL or more (RR 1.17 95% CI 0.94 to 1.44; five trials, 2260 women with a LCER of ~12%, I(2) 0%). There were no significant differences between subgroups depending on the use of uterotonic drugs. Mean blood loss was reported in only two trials with data for 1345 women, with no significant differences seen between groups; or for maternal haemoglobin values (mean difference (MD) -0.12 g/dL; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.06, I(2) 0%) at 24 to 72 hours after the birth in three trials. Neonatal outcomes: There were no significant differences between early and late clamping for the primary outcome of neonatal mortality (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.41, two trials, 381 infants with a LCER of ~1%), or for most other

  9. Delayed Umbilical Cord Blood Clamping: First Line of Defense Against Neonatal and Age-Related Disorders. (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Divers, Ryan; Mehindru, Anuj; Mehindru, Ankur; Borlongan, Cesar V


    The aging body is unable to maintain homeostasis in cell genesis and function. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine may reverse aging and treat age-related disorders. This perspective article discusses the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation on neonatal diseases, which may have long-lasting benefits affecting even the aging process. In particular, the article highlights the potential of the earliest transfer of stem cells between a mother and fetus via the umbilical cord during child birth and how this process may modify the clinical practice of umbilical cord clamping. While such umbilical cord clamping is routinely performed in an expeditious manner after birth for stem cell banking, the present article advances the concept that a delay in clamping the umbilical cord may actually allow more stem cells to be delivered from the mother to the fetus. The authors' overarching hypothesis is that early umbilical cord clamping results in an artificial loss of stem cells at birth and increases the infant's susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases, while delaying umbilical cord clamping is perhaps the most effective and non-invasive way to transplant stem cells in order to treat these diseases.

  10. Trail without Catheter after Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Clamp It or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Talreja


    Full Text Available Background. There has been argument between clinical practitioners about clamping catheter or not prior to its removal after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP. We conducted a clinical trial to assess whether clamping has any role in early bladder tone recovery particularly in patients who undergo TURP. Methods. Randomized clinical trial was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi from January 2014 to July 2015. Eighty-six study participants who underwent TURP were randomly allocated into two groups of 43 participants each. In Group I, patient’s Foley catheter was not clamped prior to its removal and in Group II Foley catheter was clamped. Data of all subjects were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. There was no significant difference in age and weight of resected tissues between two groups. Among 4 patients in Group I who required recatheterization, 1 patient was discharged with catheter as compared to Group II in which 2 patients were discharged with catheter (P=0.99. Only 1 patient (2.3% in Group II had bleeding which required recatheterization. Length of stay was significantly affected by early and free removal of Foley catheter (P<0.001. Conclusion. The results of current study identified that clamping whether done or not had no significant impact on urinary retention.

  11. Functional dissection of synaptic circuits: in vivo patch-clamp recording in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can eTao


    Full Text Available Neuronal activity is dominated by synaptic inputs from excitatory or inhibitory neural circuits. With the development of in vivo patch-clamp recording, especially in vivo voltage-clamp recording, researchers can not only directly measure neuronal activity, such as spiking responses or membrane potential dynamics, but also quantify synaptic inputs from excitatory and inhibitory circuits in living animals. This approach enables researchers to directly unravel different synaptic components and to understand their underlying roles in particular brain functions. Combining in vivo patch-clamp recording with other techniques, such as two-photon imaging or optogenetics, can provide even clearer functional dissection of the synaptic contributions of different neurons or nuclei. Here, we summarized current applications and recent research progress using the in vivo patch-clamp recording method and focused on its role in the functional dissection of different synaptic inputs. The key factors of a successful in vivo patch-clamp experiment and possible solutions based on references and our experiences were also discussed.

  12. The Effect of an Added Mass on the Frequency Shifts of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam for Bio-Mass Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.


    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes.

  13. Timing of Events in the Central Engine and Jets of the Radio Galaxies 3c 111 and 3c 120 (core Program) (United States)

    The investigators request continuation of their long-term monitoring of the X-ray flux of the radio galaxies 3C 111 (FR 2) and 3C 120 (FR 1) 2 and 4 times per week, respectively, throughout Cycle 12, as well as a 90 days of daily monitoring of 3C 111. In both objects, dips in X-ray flux precede the appearance of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. The long-term multiwaveband light curves and sequences of 7 mm VLBA images will record the changing pattern of multiwaveband emission in these two AGN. 3C 111 is a probable EGRET source; if the ID is correct, GLAST will measure its flux daily, allowing relative timing of gamma-ray variations with X-ray and optical events from the central engine plus radio events in the jet.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of branched and conformationally restricted analogs of the anticancer compounds 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Andersen, Nicolai K; Jepsen, Jan S;


    The synthesis of branched and conformationally restricted analogs of the anticancer nucleosides 3'-C-ethynyluridine (EUrd) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd) is presented. Molecular modeling and (1)H NMR coupling constant analysis revealed that the furanose rings of all analogs except the LNA analog...... are conformationally biased towards South conformation, and are thus mimicking the structure of ECyd. All target nucleosides were devoid of anti-HIV or anticancer activity....

  15. Significance of Shrinkage Induced Clamping Pressure in Fiber-Matrix Bonding in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik


    The present paper accesses the significance of shrinkage inducedclamping pressure in fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms incementitious composite materials. The paper contains a description of an experimental setup whichallows mbox{measurement} of the clamping pressure which develops on anelastic...... acting on any elastic inhomogeneityembedded in the same cementitious matrix material. Fiber-shaped inhomogeneities are of special interest in cementitious composite material systems andresults are presented for the development of clamping pressure on three typical fiber types in two typical cementpastes...... used in high performance cementitious composite materials.Assuming a Coulomb type of friction on the fiber/matrix interface andusing typical values for the frictional coefficient it is shownthat the shrinkage induced clamping pressure could be one of the mostimportant factors determining the frictional...

  16. Development of planar patch clamp technology and its application in the analysis of cellular electrophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peihua Chen; Wei Zhang; Jun Zhou; Ping Wang; Lidan Xiao; Mo Yang


    A patch clamp chip, as a novel cell-based chip for electrophysiological recordings, has many prominent advantages such as high res-olution, accuracy, high throughput and automation. It can be used to perform multivariate and real-time measurements of cell networks in situ. Therefore, this technology will dramatically promote the research on ionic channels, neuronal networks and the application of this technology in drug screening. This paper reviews the development of planar patch clamp technology and its applications in detail. The latest progress in the research of taste cells electrophysiology and taste transduction is also presented. Finally, this paper analyzes the methodology of neural chips. Based on the current research of our laboratory, the prospective applications of a patch clamp chip in the research of taste sensation and transduction mechanisms at molecular and cellular levels are discussed.

  17. Flange joint system for SRF cavities utilizing high force spring clamps for low particle generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A flange joint system for SRF cavities. The flange joint system includes a set of high force spring clamps that produce high force on the simple flanges of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities to squeeze conventional metallic seals. The system establishes the required vacuum and RF-tight seal with minimum particle contamination to the inside of the cavity assembly. The spring clamps are designed to stay within their elastic range while being forced open enough to mount over the flange pair. Upon release, the clamps have enough force to plastically deform metallic seal surfaces and continue to a new equilibrium sprung dimension where the flanges remain held against one another with enough preload such that normal handling will not break the seal.

  18. Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newbornvia delayed umbilical cord clamping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Lawton; Sandra Acosta; Nate Watson; Chiara Gonzales-Portillo; hTeo Diamandis; Naoki Tajiri; Yuji Kaneko; Paul R. Sanberg; Cesar V. Borlongan


    There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal beneifts including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deifciency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood con-tains signiifcant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it en-hances blood lfow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant’s susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

  19. [Focus on placental transfusion for preterm neonates: Delayed cord clamping and/or milking? (United States)

    Sorin, G; Tosello, B


    Anemia of prematurity remains a common complication despite recent advances in perinatal and neonatal medicine. The delayed cord clamping (at least 30seconds as recommended) has several benefits: increased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at birth, improved initial hemodynamic, decreased incidence of transfusions and intraventricular hemorrhages. When the birth transition is difficult, wait 30seconds before clamping can be impossible. So as not to interfere with the neonatal resuscitation, the "milking" has been proposed as an alternative method to the delayed cord clamping. This is a safe and easy method, which can be done either by an obstetrician or pediatrician with comparable results for the child on his hemodynamic, hematological and neurological status. It still lacks technical information on this method and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newborn via delayed umbilical cord clamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lawton


    Full Text Available There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal benefits including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deficiency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood contains significant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it enhances blood flow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant′s susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

  1. Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newborn via delayed umbilical cord clamping. (United States)

    Lawton, Christopher; Acosta, Sandra; Watson, Nate; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Tajiri, Naoki; Kaneko, Yuji; Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V


    There is currently no consensus among clinicians and scientists over the appropriate or optimal timing for umbilical cord clamping. However, many clinical studies have suggested that delayed cord clamping is associated with various neonatal benefits including increased blood volume, reduced need for blood transfusion, increased cerebral oxygenation in pre-term infants, and decreased frequency of iron deficiency anemia in term infants. Human umbilical cord blood contains significant amounts of stem and progenitor cells and is currently used in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases. We propose that delayed cord clamping be encouraged as it enhances blood flow from the placenta to the neonate, which is accompanied by an increase supply of valuable stem and progenitor cells, as well as may improve blood oxygenation and increase blood volume, altogether reducing the infant's susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases.

  2. Sequential dissection of multiple ionic currents in single cardiac myocytes under action potential-clamp. (United States)

    Banyasz, Tamas; Horvath, Balazs; Jian, Zhong; Izu, Leighton T; Chen-Izu, Ye


    The cardiac action potential (AP) is shaped by myriad ionic currents. In this study, we develop an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to enable the recording of multiple ionic currents in the single cell under AP-clamp. This new technique presents a significant step beyond the traditional way of recording only one current in any one cell. The ability to measure many currents in a single cell has revealed two hitherto unknown characteristics of the ionic currents in cardiac cells: coordination of currents within a cell and large variation of currents between cells. Hence, the AP-clamp Sequential Dissection method provides a unique and powerful tool for studying individual cell electrophysiology.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yu-da; QIU Jia-jun; TA Na


    Vibration problems of a segment of winding between two clamping plates are studied when the clamping plates, which are used to fix stator end winding, are loose. First,magnetic induction expressions of the winding while the generator was running were given by using separation of variables method. Also, the expressions of the winding electromagnetic force and dry friction force between loosing clamping plates were gotten. Secondly, a mechanical model, which was used to study nonlinear vibration problem of the winding, was set up. Fundamental resonance was analyzed by using multiple scales method, and a resonance equation of amplitude and frequency in steady state was given. Then stability,bifurcation and singularity of the steady solution were studied. Criterions of stability and transition set of the bifurcation equation were obtained. At last, through numerical calculations, resonance curves were obtained. The results are helpful for analysis and protection of generator accidents.

  4. Minimum Normal Force Principle Based Quantitive Optimizationof Clamping Forces for Thin Walled Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fa-ping; SUN Hou-fang; SHAHID I.Butt


    Based on the stability criteria of workpiece-fixture system, quantitative optimization of clamping forces during precise machining process for thin walled part is studied considering the contact condition between wokpiece and locator, the contact mechanical model is achieved ,which is further been used to calculate the entire passive forces acting on the statically undetermined workpiece by means of the force screw theory as well as minimum norm force principle. Furthermore, a new methodology to optimize clamping forces is put forward, on the criteria of keeping the stability of workpiece during cutting process. By this way, the intensity of clamping forces is decreased dramatically, which will be most beneficial for improving the machining quality of thin-walled parts. Finally, a case study is used to support and validate the proposed model.

  5. Comparison of herniorrhaphy versus clamping of umbilical hernias in horses: a retrospective study of 93 cases (1982-1994).



    Many uncomplicated umbilical hernias have been managed successfully in foals by the application of a hernia clamp. Isolated reports of complications following clamp application have led some authors to suggest that it is an unsuitable method of treatment. Little information has been published comparing the complication rates associated with the use of hernia clamps and herniorrhaphy in the treatment of umbilical hernias. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the characteristic...

  6. [Delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants born before 37 weeks of gestation: A prospective observational study]. (United States)

    Dicky, O; Ehlinger, V; Guyard-Boileau, B; Assouline, C; Arnaud, C; Casper, C


    Many international studies have demonstrated that delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces neonatal morbidity. However, in France, delayed umbilical cord clamping is still not performed in many neonatal units. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of developing a protocol of delayed umbilical cord clamping in the maternity ward of the Toulouse university hospital and to evaluate the impact of this new protocol on neonatal mortality. We conducted a prospective observational study including 123 preterm infants born before 37 weeks of gestation between June 2012 and June 2013 and hospitalized at birth. Delayed cord clamping was performed for at least 30s after birth; otherwise, it was evaluated as early cord clamping. We excluded twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, congenital abnormalities, alloimmunization, and perinatal asphyxia. We analyzed the reasons why delayed umbilical cord clamping was not performed and then neonatal morbidity in our population. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was performed on 79 infants and 44 infants had early umbilical cord clamping. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. Preterm infants in the delayed cord-clamping group had a higher level of hemoglobin during the first 24h of life (17.9g/dL versus 16.6g/dL, P=0.005), fewer of them required transfusion (14% versus 35%, P=0.03), and fewer presented late-onset sepsis (8% versus 26%, P=0.02) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (9% versus 26%, P=0.03). There was no statistically significant increase of hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy. Implanting a new protocol of delayed umbilical cord clamping in our maternity ward proved to be possible without difficulty. The advantages of delayed umbilical cord clamping were observed in this prospective study. Today, delayed cord clamping has become a common practice in our maternity unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Modified Blalock clamp: a single-hand autostatic device for pulmonary vessel occlusion during lung cancer resection


    Petrella, Francesco; Solli, Piergiorgio; Borri, Alessandro; Spaggiari, Lorenzo


    Vascular clamping during lung cancer resection may be difficult in patients with short vessels or large neoplasms preventing adequate and safe exposure. In addition, the physiological vicinity of some vessels to rigid structures like the bronchi may interfere with ideal clamp positioning even in ordinary procedures. We have modified the original Blalock clamp to facilitate the control of pulmonary vessels and physiologically compress the vessel walls, thereby allowing optimal vascular resecti...

  8. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells. (United States)

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu


    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3C(pro)s) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3C(pro) plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3C(pro) are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3C(pro) can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3C(pro) and these essential factors, 3C(pro) is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3C(pro) are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3C(pro) may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3C(pro) is summarized.

  9. Can robots patch-clamp as well as humans? Characterization of a novel sodium channel mutation. (United States)

    Estacion, M; Choi, J S; Eastman, E M; Lin, Z; Li, Y; Tyrrell, L; Yang, Y; Dib-Hajj, S D; Waxman, S G


    Ion channel missense mutations cause disorders of excitability by changing channel biophysical properties. As an increasing number of new naturally occurring mutations have been identified, and the number of other mutations produced by molecular approaches such as in situ mutagenesis has increased, the need for functional analysis by patch-clamp has become rate limiting. Here we compare a patch-clamp robot using planar-chip technology with human patch-clamp in a functional assessment of a previously undescribed Nav1.7 sodium channel mutation, S211P, which causes erythromelalgia. This robotic patch-clamp device can increase throughput (the number of cells analysed per day) by 3- to 10-fold. Both modes of analysis show that the mutation hyperpolarizes activation voltage dependence (8 mV by manual profiling, 11 mV by robotic profiling), alters steady-state fast inactivation so that it requires an additional Boltzmann function for a second fraction of total current (approximately 20% manual, approximately 40% robotic), and enhances slow inactivation (hyperpolarizing shift--15 mV by human,--13 mV robotic). Manual patch-clamping demonstrated slower deactivation and enhanced (approximately 2-fold) ramp response for the mutant channel while robotic recording did not, possibly due to increased temperature and reduced signal-to-noise ratio on the robotic platform. If robotic profiling is used to screen ion channel mutations, we recommend that each measurement or protocol be validated by initial comparison to manual recording. With this caveat, we suggest that, if results are interpreted cautiously, robotic patch-clamp can be used with supervision and subsequent confirmation from human physiologists to facilitate the initial profiling of a variety of electrophysiological parameters of ion channel mutations.

  10. Umbilical blood flow patterns directly after birth before delayed cord clamping. (United States)

    Boere, I; Roest, A A W; Wallace, E; Ten Harkel, A D J; Haak, M C; Morley, C J; Hooper, S B; te Pas, A B


    Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) affects the cardiopulmonary transition and blood volume in neonates immediately after birth. However, little is known of blood flow in the umbilical vessels immediately after birth during DCC. The objective is to describe the duration and patterns of blood flow through the umbilical vessels during DCC. Arterial and venous umbilical blood flow was measured during DCC using Doppler ultrasound in uncomplicated term vaginal deliveries. Immediately after birth, the probe was placed in the middle of the umbilical cord, pattern and duration of flow in vein and arteries were evaluated until cord clamping. Thirty infants were studied. Venous flow: In 10% no flow was present, in 57% flow stopped at 4:34 (3:03-7:31) (median (IQR) min:sec) after birth, before the cord was clamped. In 33%, flow continued until cord clamping at 5:13 (2:56-9:15) min:sec. Initially, venous flow was intermittent, increasing markedly during large breaths or stopping and reversing during crying, but then became continuous. Arterial flow: In 17% no flow was present, in 40% flow stopped at 4:22 (2:29-7:17) min:sec, while cord pulsations were still palpable. In 43% flow continued until the cord was clamped at 5:16 (3:32-10:10) min:sec. Arterial flow was pulsatile, unidirectional towards placenta or bidirectional to/from placenta. In 40% flow became continuous towards placenta later on. During delayed umbilical cord clamping, venous and arterial umbilical flow occurs for longer than previously described. Net placental transfusion is probably the result of several factors of which breathing could play a major role. Umbilical flow is unrelated to cessation of pulsations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Alternative positions for the baby at birth before clamping the umbilical cord. (United States)

    Airey, Rebecca J; Farrar, Diane; Duley, Lelia


    The third stage of labour is from birth of the baby until delivery of the placenta. Clamping the umbilical cord is one component of active management of the third stage. Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between the baby and the placenta to continue; net transfer to the baby is called placental transfusion. If the cord is clamped immediately placental transfusion is restricted. Gravity is one of several factors that may influence the volume and duration of placental transfusion at both vaginal and caesarean births. Hence raising or lowering the baby whilst the cord is intact may influence placental transfusion, which in turn may affect outcome for the baby and the woman. To compare the effects of alternative positions for the baby between birth and cord clamping on outcome for the baby, outcome for the mother and on use of health service resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (July 2010). Randomised trials comparing alternative positions for the baby at vaginal and caesarean birth, before clamping of the umbilical cord. We independently assessed trial eligibility and quality. When necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. Thirty-seven studies (7559 mother-infant pairs) were excluded: 33 (7296) because they did not compare alternative positions for the baby before clamping the umbilical cord and four (263) due to quasi-random allocation. No studies met the inclusion criteria. One additional trial is ongoing. No randomised trials have assessed the influence of gravity on placental transfusion. Large, well-designed randomised trials are needed to assess whether gravity influences placental transfusion at vaginal and caesarean births and, if so, whether this affects short-term and long-term outcome for the baby and for the mother.

  12. Design and fabrication of a planar patch-clamp substrate using a silicon-on-insulator wafer (United States)

    Zhenlong, Zhang; Xiangyang, Liu; Yanli, Mao


    The planar patch-clamp technique has been applied to high throughput screening in drug discovery. The key feature of this technique is the fabrication of a planar patch-clamp substrate using appropriate materials. In this study, a planar patch-clamp substrate was designed and fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The access resistance and capacitance of SOI-based planar patch-clamp substrates are smaller than those of bulk silicon-based planar substrates, which will reduce the distributed RC noise.

  13. Clamping drainage is unnecessary after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty in patients with tranexamic acid (United States)

    Wu, Yuangang; Yang, Timin; Zeng, Yi; Li, Canfeng; Shen, Bin; Pei, Fuxing


    Abstract Background: Drainage and tranexamic acid (TXA) have been widely used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to clamp the drain after minimally invasive TKA (MIS-TKA) when TXA is used. We therefore conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of clamping versus not clamping drainage following MIS-TKA in patients in whom TXA was used. Methods: From January 2015 to December 2015, 121 patients undergoing unilateral primary MIS-TKA were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the clamping group (N = 60), drainage was clamped for the 1st 4 postoperative hours. In the nonclamping group (N = 61), drainage was not clamped. All patients underwent a minimidvastus approach and received 10 mg/kg TXA intravenously before tourniquet deflation. We recorded the total blood loss, drainage volume, and transfusion requirements in the postoperative period. We also measured the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5. Other factors, including range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS), and occurrence of wound-related complications, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) were recorded at the time of discharge and 1 and 6 months postoperatively. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to age, gender, weight, BMI, preoperative Hb and Hct levels, preoperative ROM, VAS, duration of surgery, anesthesia method, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. Results: The clamping group experienced better drainage volume results than the nonclamping group (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in TBL and transfusion requirements (P = 0.105 and 0.276, respectively); Hb and Hct levels on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5 were similar between the 2 groups. No significant differences were found for ROM, VAS, DVT, PE, wound-related complications, and hospital

  14. In vivo patch clamp recording technique in the study of neurophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Wei CUI; Yu-Rong LI


    The patch clamp recording technique in vivois a blind patch clamp recording methods to record the current of the spinal or cereral neurons of anaesthesia ( or awake) animals. This technique can be used to study the synaptic function and plasticity in central nervous system in vivoin order to understand the physiological properties of the ion channels from an integrated point of view. The advantage of this technique have already presented itself in the study of the synaptic transmission and nervous network. Nowadays, in vivo patch whole-cell recording technique in combination with other techniques is becoming a common method in the research fields.

  15. Cerebral oxygenation and processed EEG response to clamping and shunting during carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia. (United States)

    Perez, William; Dukatz, Christopher; El-Dalati, Sami; Duncan, James; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Springer, Andrew; Go, Michael R; Dzwonczyk, Roger


    Clamping and shunting during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery causes changes in cerebral blood flow. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare, side by side, the cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) and processed electroencephalogram (EEG) response bilaterally to carotid artery clamping and shunting in patients undergoing CEA under general anesthesia. With institutional approval and written informed consent, patients undergoing CEA under general anesthesia and routine carotid artery shunting were recorded bilaterally, simultaneously and continuously with an rSO2 and processed EEG monitor. The response of the monitors during carotid artery clamping and shunting were assessed and compared between monitors and bilaterally within each monitor. Sixty-nine patients were included in the study. At clamping the surgical-side and contralateral-side rSO2 dropped significantly below the baseline incision value (-17.6 and -9.4% respectively). After shunting, the contralateral-side rSO2 returned to baseline while the surgical-side rSO2 remained significantly below baseline (-9.0%) until the shunt was removed following surgery. At clamping the surgical-side and contralateral-side processed EEG also dropped below baseline (-19.9 and -20.6% respectively). However, following shunt activation, the processed EEG returned bilaterally to baseline. During the course of this research, we found the rSO2 monitor to be clinically more robust (4.4% failure rate) than the processed EEG monitor (20.0% failure rate). There was no correlation between the rSO2 or processed EEG changes that occurred immediately after clamping and the degree of surgical side stenosis measured pre-operatively. Both rSO2 and processed EEG respond to clamping and shunting during CEA. Cerebral oximetry discriminates between the surgical and contralateral side during surgery. The rSO2 monitor is more reliable in the real-world clinical setting. Future studies should focus on developing algorithms based on these

  16. Discussion on compact mechanism of air-stream and synchro-formed clamp plate impact molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenling WANG


    Full Text Available Applying the air impact molding method to mold the complicated pattern with wider opening surface and deeper concave, there always exist vaulted phenomenon and lower compactibility of sand mold over the entrance and the concave regions. Using the air-stream and synchro-formed clamp plate impact molding, however, this problem will be preferably solved. In this paper, the compact mechanism of the new molding method and the effect of some configuration factors, such as the area flowed by compressed air and the highness of the protruding block displacement around the diffluent clamp plate, on the compactibility of sand mold were discussed.

  17. Experience of application of clamp-on cross-correlation flow meter in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Y. [Daystar Technology Inc., Ontario (Canada); Ton, V.; Kotenyov, S.; Zhao, C. [Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada); Sharp, B.; Lopez, A. [Advanced Measurements and Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada)


    The cross-correlation clamp-on flow meter, CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by AMAG, has been used over the world for over 15 years for flow measurements in various systems in nuclear and fossil power plants. Prior that, OPG has used similar technology in Canadian nuclear power plants since 1980-ies. Two recent examples of the application of the clamp-on cross-correlation technology are presented in this paper. In first example OPG meter was used to verify accuracy of ASME nozzles installed in condensate flow lines. In second example AMAG meter was used to measure Diesel Cooling Water (DCW). (author)

  18. Powders with superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}C particles studied with Moessbauer spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, B; Schneeweiss, O [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Ziz' kova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Dumitrache, F; Fleaca, C; Alexandrescu, R; Morjan, I [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)


    Two nanopowders with superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}C particles were synthesised by the method of laser-induced pyrolysis of gaseous precursors. Both were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectrometry and standard magnetic measurements. The mean crystallite size of Fe{sub 3}C was 3 nm for the first sample and 10 nm for the second sample (Scherrer formula), i.e. it was lower than in our previously studied ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}C-based sample. Fe{sub 3}C phase in both present samples exhibited by {approx}20 K reduced Curie temperature which is interpreted as a nanosize effect. After annealing of the samples at 1073 K for 30 minutes the Curie temperature of the Fe{sub 3}C phase in both samples matched its standard bulk value. Beside Fe{sub 3}C phase also Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and carbon black were present in the synthesised samples.

  19. Powders with superparamagnetic Fe3C particles studied with Mössbauer spectrometry (United States)

    David, B.; Schneeweiss, O.; Dumitrache, F.; Fleaca, C.; Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.


    Two nanopowders with superparamagnetic Fe3C particles were synthesised by the method of laser-induced pyrolysis of gaseous precursors. Both were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry and standard magnetic measurements. The mean crystallite size of Fe3C was 3 nm for the first sample and 10 nm for the second sample (Scherrer formula), i.e. it was lower than in our previously studied ferromagnetic Fe3C-based sample. Fe3C phase in both present samples exhibited by ~20 K reduced Curie temperature which is interpreted as a nanosize effect. After annealing of the samples at 1073 K for 30 minutes the Curie temperature of the Fe3C phase in both samples matched its standard bulk value. Beside Fe3C phase also Fe3O4 and carbon black were present in the synthesised samples.

  20. Retrieve Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated low cost gyroscope and direct rotation measurements (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe


    To reduce the background noise level, seismic sensors are often installed in downhole. During the installation, it is not possible to determine exactly what the sensors has rotated in the horizontal plane before reaching the bottom. To monitoring the seismic activity occurred in offshore areas, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are often deployed in the area to be studied. During the OBS descent phase along the seawater column the sensor can undergo to significant rotations in the horizontal plane. Therefore, both for seismic sensors installed in downhole or on ocean bottom, the absolute orientation of the horizontal components are unknown. Clearly, this serious problem can be limits data analysis and interpretation. The absolute orientation of horizontal components are critical for many modern seismic analysis techniques such as receiver functions, body- and surface-wave polarization analysis, studies of anisotropy, and surface wave dispersion curves estimations. The techniques proposed to retrieve the correct sensor horizontal components orientations use different approaches (polarization analysis, cross-correlation measurements, synthetic seismograms fitting), different data set (shots, earthquakes, seismic noise) and different portion of the seismic wave-field (P or S wave arrival times, Rayleigh waves, full waveforms), but are all based on the post-processing of the acquired data. All these methods are not error-free and not always applicable. Method based on active source are not applicable in passive OBS monitoring campaigns. The method based on synthetic waveforms are strong dependent on accuracy of the source parameters estimation and are generally computationally intensive. The method based on polarization analysis are clearly strong dependent on the quality of the data in term of number of seismic events recorded, azimuthal coverage and signal to noise ratio. The methods base on events or noise cross-correlation can be applicable only if an array of sensor

  1. Stratigraphy of a proposed wind farm site southeast of Block Island: Utilization of borehole samples, downhole logging, and seismic profiles (United States)

    Sheldon, Dane P. H.

    Seismic stratigraphy, sedimentology, lithostratigraphy, downhole geophysical logging, mineralogy, and palynology were used to study and interpret the upper 70 meters of the inner continental shelf sediments within a proposed wind farm site located approximately two to three nautical miles to the southeast of Block Island, Rhode Island. Core samples and downhole logging collected from borings drilled for geotechnical purposes at proposed wind turbine sites along with seismic surveys in the surrounding area provide the data for this study. Cretaceous coastal plain sediments that consist of non-marine to marine sand, silt, and clay are found overlying bedrock at a contact depth beyond the sampling depth of this study. The upper Cretaceous sediments sampled in borings are correlated with the Magothy/Matawan formations described regionally from New Jersey to Nantucket. An unconformity formed through sub-aerial, fluvial, marine, and glacial erosion marks the upper strata of the Cretaceous sediments separating them from the overlying deposits. The majority of Quaternary deposits overlying the unconformity represent the advance, pulsing, and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet that reached its southern terminus in the area of Block Island approximately 25,000 to 21,000 years before present. The sequence consists of a basal glacial till overlain by sediments deposited by meltwater environments ranging from deltaic to proglacial lakefloor. A late Pleistocene to early Holocene unconformity marks the top of the glacial sequence and was formed after glacial retreat through fluvial and subaerial erosion/deposition. Overlying the glacial sequence are sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene and Holocene consisting of interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Sampling of these sediments was limited and surficial reflectors in seismic profiles were masked due to a hard bottom return. However, two depositional periods are interpreted as representing fluvial and estuarine

  2. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for in-situ Downhole Detection of Gases Applied During Geological Storage of CO2 (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, C.; Group, C.


    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is regarded as a possible technology for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, comprehensive research is still needed to better understand the behaviour of CO2 during and after storage. Therefore, we developed and applied a new, innovative geochemical monitoring tool for the real time and in-situ determination of CO2 and other gases in the underground and in bore holes. The method uses a phase separating silicone membrane, permeable for gases, in order to separate gases dissolved in borehole fluids, water and brines. Argon is used as a carrier gas to conduct the collected gases through capillaries to the surface. Here, the gas phase is analyzed in real-time with a portable mass spectrometer for all permanent gases. In addition, gas samples may be collected for detailed investigations in the laboratory. Downhole extraction and on-line determination of gases dissolved in brines using this gas membrane sensor (GMS) technique was successful applied at the scientific CO2SINK test site in Ketzin, Germany (sandstone aquifer). GMSs together with temperature and pressure probes were installed in two approx. 700m deep observation holes, drilled in 50m and 100m distance from the CO2 injection well. Hydraulic pressure in the observation wells rose gradually during injection of CO2. Increasing reservoir gas concentrations of helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen as well as the arrival of the added krypton tracer were determined shortly before the injected CO2 appeared. The breakthrough of CO2 into the observation well, in 50m distance, was recorded after 531.5 tons of CO2 were injected.

  3. Construction, Calibration, and Validation of a Simple Patch-Clamp Amplifier for Physiology Education (United States)

    Rouzrokh, Ali; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmed; Mahmoudian, Massoud


    A modular patch-clamp amplifier was constructed based on the Strickholm design, which was initially published in 1995. Various parts of the amplifier such as the power supply, input circuit, headstage, feedback circuit, output and nulling circuits were redesigned to use recent software advances and fabricated using the common lithographic printed…

  4. Efficiency of frequency conversion of high power laser and KDP crystal clamping method (United States)

    Yan, Han; Du, Weifeng; Pei, Guoqing; Qin, Tinghai; Ye, Lang; Xu, Xu


    In the high power solid laser driver, the frequency conversion unit is of strict requirement to meet the drive condition of ICF. The performance of large caliber KDP crystal, which is the core of frequency conversion of laser, is a vital aspect affecting the overall technical index of the laser driver. In order to get a higher efficiency of frequency conversion, KDP crystal must keep a better surface condition, which asks for high-quality assemblage and adjustment. The current method used in engineering has insufficient knowledge and recognition on surface deformation control of the crystal. Meanwhile, the method itself is of low efficiency on clamping, and lacks of protection for the crystal. Thus, in this article an investigation of crystal clamping method with lower force was performed, factors affecting the surface of crystal were explored, through both imitation and experiment. The clamping method was redesigned and the frequency conversion efficiency was tested. Meanwhile, with the new method, clamping efficiency increases, the optical performance of crystals improves, and the crystals get better protection.

  5. Five-Level Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    Multi-level converters are getting more and more attentions because of their obvious merits such as lower voltage stress and harmonic, smaller size of output filters, and so on. In this paper, a five-level active-neutral-point-clamped (5L-ANPC) dc/dc converter is proposed for power transfer...

  6. Two-Dimensional Fiber Positioning and Clamping Device for Product-Internal Microassembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, V.A.; Sassen, W.P.; Van der Vlist, W.; Wien, W.H.A.; Tichem, M.; Sarro, P.M.


    In this paper, we present a microelectromechanical systems-based two-degrees-of-freedom positioning device combined with a clamping structure for positioning and constraining an optical fiber. The fiber position can be controlled in the two directions perpendicular to the fiber axis using two specif

  7. A bulldog clamp that was forgotten during a coronary artery bypass operation 8 years ago (United States)

    Celkan, Mehmet Adnan; Bayatli, Kivanc


    Prevention of retained foreign bodies in the pericardial cavity is critical for patient safety. We report a patient with a bulldog clamp that was forgotten during a coronary artery bypass operation 8 years ago, which was detected by chance and removed. PMID:22815324

  8. A Single-Strand Annealing Protein Clamps DNA to Detect and Secure Homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ander


    Full Text Available Repair of DNA breaks by single-strand annealing (SSA is a major mechanism for the maintenance of genomic integrity. SSA is promoted by proteins (single-strand-annealing proteins [SSAPs], such as eukaryotic RAD52 and λ phage Redβ. These proteins use a short single-stranded region to find sequence identity and initiate homologous recombination. However, it is unclear how SSAPs detect homology and catalyze annealing. Using single-molecule experiments, we provide evidence that homology is recognized by Redβ monomers that weakly hold single DNA strands together. Once annealing begins, dimerization of Redβ clamps the double-stranded region and nucleates nucleoprotein filament growth. In this manner, DNA clamping ensures and secures a successful detection for DNA sequence homology. The clamp is characterized by a structural change of Redβ and a remarkable stability against force up to 200 pN. Our findings not only present a detailed explanation for SSAP action but also identify the DNA clamp as a very stable, noncovalent, DNA-protein interaction.

  9. Critical clamp loader processing by an essential AAA+ protease in Caulobacter crescentus. (United States)

    Vass, Robert H; Chien, Peter


    Chromosome replication relies on sliding clamps that are loaded by energy-dependent complexes. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-binding clamp loader subunit DnaX exists as both long (τ) and short (γ) forms generated through programmed translational frameshifting, but the need for both forms is unclear. Here, we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, DnaX isoforms are unexpectedly generated through partial proteolysis by the AAA+ protease casein lytic proteinase (Clp) XP. We find that the normally processive ClpXP protease partially degrades DnaX to produce stable fragments upon encountering a glycine-rich region adjacent to a structured domain. Increasing the sequence complexity of this region prevents partial proteolysis and generates a τ-only form of DnaX in vivo that is unable to support viability on its own. Growth is restored when γ is provided in trans, but these strains are more sensitive to DNA damage compared with strains that can generate γ through proteolysis. Our work reveals an unexpected mode of partial processing by the ClpXP protease to generate DnaX isoforms, demonstrates that both τ and γ forms of DnaX are required for Caulobacter viability, and identifies a role for clamp loader diversity in responding to DNA damage. The conservation of distinct DnaX isoforms throughout bacteria despite fundamentally different mechanisms for producing them suggests there may be a conserved need for alternate clamp loader complexes during DNA damaging conditions.

  10. Characterization of a patch-clamp microchannel array towards neuronal networks analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Massimo; Snakenborg, Detlef; Lopacinska, Joanna M.


    for simultaneous patch clamping of cultured cells or neurons in the same network. A disposable silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) chip with a microhole array was integrated in a microfluidic system for cell handling, perfusion and electrical recording. Fluidic characterization showed that our PC mu CA can work...

  11. The Response Clamp: Functional characterization of neural systems using closed-loop control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner eWallach


    Full Text Available The voltage clamp method, pioneered by Hodgkin, Huxley and Katz, laid the foundations to neurophysiological research. Its core rationale is the use of closed-loop control as a tool for system characterization. A recently introduced method, the response clamp, extends the voltage clamp rationale to the functional, phenomenological level. The method consists of on-line estimation of a response variable of interest (e.g. the probability of response or its latency and a simple feedback control mechanism designed to tightly converge this variable towards a desired trajectory. In the present contribution I offer a perspective on this novel method and its applications in the broader context of system identification and characterization. First, I demonstrate how internal state variables are exposed using the method, and how the use of several controllers may allow for a detailed, multi-variable characterization of the system. Second, I discuss three different categories of applications of the method: (i exploration of intrinsically generated dynamics, (ii exploration of extrinsically generated dynamics and (iii generation of input-output trajectories. The relation of these categories to similar uses in the voltage clamp and other techniques is also discussed. Finally, I discuss the method’s limitations, as well as its possible synthesis with existing complementary approaches.

  12. Early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord in full term, preterm and very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.


    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term...

  13. Enhanced Buck-Boost Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K. K.; Gao, F.; Chiang Loh, Poh


    In traditional three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters, a major issue is capacitor voltage imbalance, which results in low order harmonics. The compensation of the capacitor voltages often require additional control complexity, which cannot be conveniently implemented. The "alternative ...

  14. Thermal and Efficiency Analysis of Five-Level Multilevel-Clamped Multilevel Converter Considering Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.; Rodriguez, Pedro;


    In this paper, a five-level multilevel-clamped multilevel converter (5L- MLC2) topology is analyzed based on a typical grid integration application for renewable energy system. The loss and thermal distributions of the power devices in different switching legs are investigated and illustrated und...

  15. Pulse and Trapezoidal Voltage Clamp Applied To Jurkat Cells: A T- Lymphocyte Cell Line (United States)


    clamp. (Upward deflection represents depolarization). Low frequency oscillations are clearly visible. Such oscillations have been described by Maltsev ...1952. (8) Maltsev , V. A. Oscillating and triggering properties of T cell membrane potential. Imun. Lett. 26:277-282, 1990. 13 (9) Gallin, E. K

  16. Two-Dimensional Fiber Positioning and Clamping Device for Product-Internal Microassembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, V.A.; Sassen, W.P.; Van der Vlist, W.; Wien, W.H.A.; Tichem, M.; Sarro, P.M.


    In this paper, we present a microelectromechanical systems-based two-degrees-of-freedom positioning device combined with a clamping structure for positioning and constraining an optical fiber. The fiber position can be controlled in the two directions perpendicular to the fiber axis using two specif

  17. Pulse-Width-Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Sparse Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Gao, F.


    literature. Addressing the afore-described issues, this paper focuses on the operational mode analysis of a three-level sparse matrix converter implemented using a neutral-point-clamped inversion stage, and  the design of a number of PWM and modulation ratio compensation schemes for controlling the converter...

  18. Trans-Z-source and Γ-Z-source neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Z-source neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters are earlier proposed for obtaining voltage buck-boost and three-level switching simultaneously. Their performances are, however, constrained by a trade-off between their input-to-output gain and modulation ratio. This trade-off can lead to high...

  19. Delayed cord clamping and haemoglobin levels in infancy : a randomised controlled trial in term babies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick; de Moor, Lette; Eschbach, Sanne; de Grooth, Hannah; Brabin, Bernard

    Objectives This study was carried out to assess whether delaying umbilical cord clamping is effective in improving the haematological status of term infants living in a malaria-endemic area, and whether this is associated with complications in infants and mothers. Metyhods We randomly assigned women

  20. Delayed umbilical cord clamping for reducing anaemia in low birthweight infants : implications for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Gruschke, Sebastian; Brabin, Bernard J.

    BACKGROUND: Cheap and effective interventions are needed to reduce the risk of infant anaemia in developing countries. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been shown to be a simple, safe and cost-free delivery procedure that augments red cell mass in appropriate-for-gestational-age term and preterm

  1. Delayed cord clamping in South African neonates with expected low birthweight : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, Sybrich; Heistein, Julia; Ruijne, Roos; Lopez, Gustavo; van Lobenstein, Jeroen; van Rheenen, Patrick

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and haematological effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) in infants with expected low birthweight born in a resource-poor setting. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial involving pregnant women in early labour ≥18 years with intrapartum symphysal-fundal height ≤32 cm.

  2. Early umbilical cord clamping contributes to elevated blood lead levels among infants with higher lead exposure. (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M; Fornes, Raymond; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Tena Alavez, Gilberto; Eguía-Líz Cedillo, Raúl; Dewey, Kathryn G


    To investigate whether infant iron status, modified by umbilical cord clamping time and infant feeding mode, affected infant blood lead concentration at 6 months of age. Participants were a subset of women and their infants randomized to receive early (10 seconds) or delayed (2 minutes) umbilical cord clamping and were monitored to 6 months postpartum in Mexico City. Iron and lead status was analyzed in maternal, placental, and 6-month infant blood samples. Baseline maternal lead exposure data and infant feeding data at 2, 4, and 6 months were collected. In the total sample, maternal blood lead concentration, infant ferritin, and breast-feeding practices predicted infant blood lead concentration. Among infants with higher placental blood lead concentration and breast-fed infants not receiving any iron-fortified formula or milk at 6 months, early clamping increased infant blood lead concentration, an effect mediated in part via decreased infant iron status. Early cord clamping, by decreasing infant iron status, contributes to higher blood lead concentrations at 6 months of age among infants at high risk.

  3. A New Preparation of Pancreatic Ducts for Patch-Clamp Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hug, M.J.


    parameters, monitored with the whole-cell patch-clamp method, and those in isolated perfused ducts, monitored with the conventional microelectrodes [Novak I, Greger R: Pflügers Arch 1988;411:58-68, 546-553], are comparable. Similar conclusion can be made about the calcium measurements [Hug M, et al: Pflügers...

  4. A direct proofreader-clamp interaction stabilizes the Pol III replicase in the polymerization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jergic, Slobodan; Horan, Nicholas P.; Elshenawy, Mohamed M.; Mason, Claire E.; Urathamakul, Thitima; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Robinson, Andrew; Goudsmits, Joris M. H.; Wang, Yao; Pan, Xuefeng; Beck, Jennifer L.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Huber, Thomas; Hamdan, Samir M.; Dixon, Nicholas E.


    Processive DNA synthesis by the alpha epsilon theta core of the Escherichia coli Pol III replicase requires it to be bound to the beta(2) clamp via a site in the a polymerase subunit. How the epsilon proofreading exonuclease subunit influences DNA synthesis by alpha was not previously understood. In

  5. Glucose consumption by various tissues in pregnant rats : effects of a 6-day euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Bonen, A; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Koiter, TR


    In the course of pregnancy maternal tissues become increasingly more insensitive to insulin. As 6 days of euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamping, from day 8 until 14 of gestation, ameliorates total glucose consumption, we analysed the contribution of individual tissues in this phenomenon. We measure

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of clamped joints in front motorbike suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi N.


    Full Text Available Clamped joints are shaft-hub connections used, as an instance, in front motorbike suspensions to lock the steering plates with the legs and the legs with the wheel pin, by means of one or two bolts. The preloading force, produced during the tightening process, should be evaluated accurately, since it must lock safely the shaft, without overcoming the yielding point of the hub. Firstly, friction coefficients have been evaluated on “ad-hoc designed” specimens, by applying the Design of Experiment approach: the applied tightening torque has been precisely related to the imposed preloading force. Then, the tensile state of clamps have been evaluated both via FEM and by leveraging some design formulae proposed by the Authors as function of the preloading force and of the clamp geometry. Finally, the results have been compared to those given by some strain gauges applied on the tested clamps: the discrepancies between numerical analyses, the design formulae and the experimental results remains under a threshold of 10%.

  7. A bulldog clamp that was forgotten during a coronary artery bypass operation 8 years ago. (United States)

    Celkan, Mehmet Adnan; Bayatli, Kivanc


    Prevention of retained foreign bodies in the pericardial cavity is critical for patient safety. We report a patient with a bulldog clamp that was forgotten during a coronary artery bypass operation 8 years ago, which was detected by chance and removed.

  8. Calcium Release in Frog Cut Twitch Fibers Exposed to Different Ionic Environments under Voltage Clamp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Chiu Shuen


    Calcium release was measured in highly stretched frog cut twitch fibers mounted in a double Vaseline-gap voltage clamp chamber, with the internal solution containing 20 mM EGTA plus 0.4 or 1.8 mM added calcium...

  9. Design of High Precision Downhole Storage Electronic Pressure Gauge%高精度井下存储式电子压力计的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇雪芹; 仝美娟; 刘华强; 李希孝; 王伟宣


    In order to more accurately measure and obtain stratum pressure data, the high precision downhole storage electronic pressure gauge was researched.The electronic pressure gauge was composed of the downhole equipment and ground handling The former completed the borehole pressure and temperature collection and storage with ADuC834 MUC as the core.The latter achieved downhole data playback and processing The structure and the indicators of electronic pressure gauge was described.The hardware design and software design of this system were detailed, and the performance of pressure gauge was tested.Testing and field work showed that the instrument could achieve pressure accuracy within 0.05% in the range of -40℃~150℃ to meet the requirements of underground testing%为了更准确地测取地层压力数据,研制了高精度井下存储式电子压力计.该压力计由井下仪器和地面处理2个部分组成:井下仪器以ADuC834单片机为核心,完成井内压力和温度的采集和存储;地面处理实现井下数据回放和处理.详述了该仪器结构和指标、系统硬件设计以及软件设计方案,并对压力计的性能进行测试.测试及现场工作表明,该仪表能够实现-40℃~150℃范围内的压力测量,测压精度达到0.05%,满足井下测试要求.

  10. MATLAB implementation of a dynamic clamp with bandwidth >125 KHz capable of generating INa at 37°C (United States)

    Clausen, Chris; Valiunas, Virginijus; Brink, Peter R.; Cohen, Ira S.


    We describe the construction of a dynamic clamp with bandwidth >125 KHz that utilizes a high performance, yet low cost, standard home/office PC interfaced with a high-speed (16 bit) data acquisition module. High bandwidth is achieved by exploiting recently available software advances (code-generation technology, optimized real-time kernel). Dynamic-clamp programs are constructed using Simulink, a visual programming language. Blocks for computation of membrane currents are written in the high-level matlab language; no programming in C is required. The instrument can be used in single- or dual-cell configurations, with the capability to modify programs while experiments are in progress. We describe an algorithm for computing the fast transient Na+ current (INa) in real time, and test its accuracy and stability using rate constants appropriate for 37°C. We then construct a program capable of supplying three currents to a cell preparation: INa, the hyperpolarizing-activated inward pacemaker current (If), and an inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1). The program corrects for the IR drop due to electrode current flow, and also records all voltages and currents. We tested this program on dual patch-clamped HEK293 cells where the dynamic clamp controls a current-clamp amplifier and a voltage-clamp amplifier controls membrane potential, and current-clamped HEK293 cells where the dynamic clamp produces spontaneous pacing behavior exhibiting Na+ spikes in otherwise passive cells. PMID:23224681

  11. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.


    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different hei

  12. An AFM-based stiffness clamp for dynamic control of rigidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Webster

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has become a powerful tool for measuring material properties in biology and imposing mechanical boundary conditions on samples from single molecules to cells and tissues. Constant force or constant height can be maintained in an AFM experiment through feedback control of cantilever deflection, known respectively as a 'force clamp' or 'position clamp'. However, stiffness, the third variable in the Hookean relation F = kx that describes AFM cantilever deflection, has not been dynamically controllable in the same way. Here we present and demonstrate a 'stiffness clamp' that can vary the apparent stiffness of an AFM cantilever. This method, employable on any AFM system by modifying feedback control of the cantilever, allows rapid and reversible tuning of the stiffness exposed to the sample in a way that can decouple the role of stiffness from force and deformation. We demonstrated the AFM stiffness clamp on two different samples: a contracting fibroblast cell and an expanding polyacrylamide hydrogel. We found that the fibroblast, a cell type that secretes and organizes the extracellular matrix, exhibited a rapid, sub-second change in traction rate (dF/dt and contraction velocity (dx/dt in response to step changes in stiffness between 1-100 nN/µm. This response was independent of the absolute contractile force and cell height, demonstrating that cells can react directly to changes in stiffness alone. In contrast, the hydrogel used in our experiment maintained a constant expansion velocity (dx/dt over this range of stiffness, while the traction rate (dF/dt changed with stiffness, showing that passive materials can also behave differently in different stiffness environments. The AFM stiffness clamp presented here, which is applicable to mechanical measurements on both biological and non-biological samples, may be used to investigate cellular mechanotransduction under a wide range of controlled mechanical boundary

  13. Influence of phenylephrine or ephedrine on maternal hemodynamics upon umbilical cord clamping during cesarean delivery. (United States)

    Quan, Zhefeng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Cao, Yinghao; Li, Xin; Peng, Kejun


    Vasopressors ephedrine and phenylephrine are commonly used with spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Studies on them have focused on the period before the umbilical cord is clamped, although anesthesia is continuously administered throughout and after this event. This study aimed to compare the effects of these drugs on maternal hemodynamics at and after clamping of the umbilical cord. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Parturients (n = 60) scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were randomly divided into an ephedrine group and a phenylephrine group. Each woman received an intrathecal injection of bupivacaine (7.5 mg). Patients in the ephedrine and phenylephrine groups were infused continuously with ephedrine (0.02 mg×kg-1×min-1) or phenylephrine (0.25 μg×kg-1×min-1), respectively, from immediately after the injection of bupivacaine until termination 10 minutes after the umbilical cord was clamped (the endpoint). Hemodynamic changes were recorded. After clamping the umbilical cord, the patients who were administered ephedrine experienced significant increases in heart rate (89 ± 11 beats/min to 106 ± 15 beats/min), cardiac output (6.4 ± 0.9 l/min to 7.6 ± 1.2 l/min) and cardiac index (3.5 ± 0.39 l×min-1×m-2 to 4.3 ± 0.48 l×min-1×m-2), while the systemic vascular resistance decreased (908 ± 296 dyne·s/cm5 to 711 ± 285 dyne·s/cm5). Such differences were not observed in the patients who received phenylephrine. Moreover, the heart rate of patients administered ephedrine was higher than that of patients given phenylephrine after clamping the umbilical cord. Continuous infusion of phenylephrine during cesarean delivery maintains a stable maternal hemodynamic status better than ephedrine.

  14. A physiological approach to the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth. (United States)

    Hooper, Stuart B; Polglase, Graeme R; te Pas, Arjan B


    Umbilical cord clamping at birth has a major impact on an infant's cardiovascular system that varies in significance depending upon whether the infant has commenced breathing. As umbilical venous return is a major source of preload for the left ventricle during fetal life, recent experimental evidence has shown that clamping the umbilical cord severely limits cardiac venous return in the absence of pulmonary ventilation. As a result, cardiac output greatly reduces and remains low until breathing commences. Once the infant begins breathing, aeration of the lung triggers a large increase in pulmonary blood flow, which replaces umbilical venous return as the source of preload for the left ventricle. As a result, cardiac output markedly increases, as indicated by an increase in heart rate immediately after birth. Thus, infants born apnoeic and hypoxic and have their cords immediately clamped, are likely to have a restricted cardiac output combined with hypoxia. As increased cardiac output is a major physiological defence mechanism that counteracts the effects of hypoxaemia, limiting the increase in cardiac output exposes the infant to ischaemia along with hypoxia. However, if the infant commences breathing, aerates its lungs and increases pulmonary blood flow before the umbilical cord is clamped, then pulmonary venous return can immediately take over the supply of left ventricular preload upon cord clamping. As a result, there is no intervening period of reduced preload and cardiac output and the large swings in arterial pressures and flows are reduced leading to a more stable circulatory transition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. Ventilation before Umbilical Cord Clamping Improves the Physiological Transition at Birth. (United States)

    Bhatt, Sasmira; Polglase, Graeme R; Wallace, Euan M; Te Pas, Arjan B; Hooper, Stuart B


    The transition from a fetus to a neonate at birth represents a critical phase in our life. Most infants make this transition without complications, but preterm infants usually require some form of assistance due to immature cardiopulmonary systems that predispose them to lifelong sequelae. As the incidence of preterm birth is increasing, there is now an urgent need for the development of management strategies that facilitate this transition, which will likely include improved strategies for the management of the maternal third stage of labor. For instance, recent studies on the physiological transition at birth have led to the discovery that establishing ventilation in the infant before the umbilical cord is clamped greatly stabilizes the cardiovascular transition at birth. While most benefits of delayed clamping previously have been attributed to an increase in placenta to infant blood transfusion, clearly there are other significant benefits for the infant, which are not well understood. Nevertheless, if ventilation can be established before cord clamping in a preterm infant, the large adverse changes in cardiac function that normally accompanies umbilical cord clamping can be avoided. As preterm infants have an immature cerebral vascular bed, large swings in cardiovascular function places them at high risk of cerebral vascular rupture and the associated increased risk of mortality and morbidity. In view of the impact that cord clamping has on the cardiovascular transition at birth, it is also time to re-examine some of the strategies used in the management of the third stage of labor. These include the appropriate timing of uterotonic administration in relation to delivery of the infant and placenta. As there is a lack of evidence on the effects these individual practices have on the infant, there is a necessity to improve our understanding of their impact in order to develop strategies that facilitate the transition to newborn life.

  16. An AFM-based stiffness clamp for dynamic control of rigidity. (United States)

    Webster, Kevin D; Crow, Ailey; Fletcher, Daniel A


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a powerful tool for measuring material properties in biology and imposing mechanical boundary conditions on samples from single molecules to cells and tissues. Constant force or constant height can be maintained in an AFM experiment through feedback control of cantilever deflection, known respectively as a 'force clamp' or 'position clamp'. However, stiffness, the third variable in the Hookean relation F = kx that describes AFM cantilever deflection, has not been dynamically controllable in the same way. Here we present and demonstrate a 'stiffness clamp' that can vary the apparent stiffness of an AFM cantilever. This method, employable on any AFM system by modifying feedback control of the cantilever, allows rapid and reversible tuning of the stiffness exposed to the sample in a way that can decouple the role of stiffness from force and deformation. We demonstrated the AFM stiffness clamp on two different samples: a contracting fibroblast cell and an expanding polyacrylamide hydrogel. We found that the fibroblast, a cell type that secretes and organizes the extracellular matrix, exhibited a rapid, sub-second change in traction rate (dF/dt) and contraction velocity (dx/dt) in response to step changes in stiffness between 1-100 nN/µm. This response was independent of the absolute contractile force and cell height, demonstrating that cells can react directly to changes in stiffness alone. In contrast, the hydrogel used in our experiment maintained a constant expansion velocity (dx/dt) over this range of stiffness, while the traction rate (dF/dt) changed with stiffness, showing that passive materials can also behave differently in different stiffness environments. The AFM stiffness clamp presented here, which is applicable to mechanical measurements on both biological and non-biological samples, may be used to investigate cellular mechanotransduction under a wide range of controlled mechanical boundary conditions.

  17. Ventilation before Umbilical Cord Clamping improves the physiological transition at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmira eBhatt


    Full Text Available The transition from a fetus to a neonate at birth represents a critical phase in our life. Most infants make this transition without complications, but preterm infants usually require some form of assistance due to immature cardiopulmonary systems that predispose them to lifelong sequelae. As the incidence of preterm birth is increasing, there is now an urgent need for the development of management strategies that facilitate this transition, which will likely include improved strategies for the management of the maternal third stage of labour. For instance, recent studies on the physiological transition at birth have led to the discovery that establishing ventilation in the infant before the umbilical cord is clamped greatly stabilizes the cardiovascular transition at birth. While most benefits of delayed clamping have previously been attributed to an increase in placenta to infant blood transfusion, clearly there are other significant benefits for the infant, which are not well understood. Nevertheless, if ventilation can be established before cord clamping in a preterm infant, the large adverse changes in cardiac function that normally accompanies umbilical cord clamping can be avoided. As preterm infants have an immature cerebral vascular bed, large swings in cardiovascular function places them at high risk of cerebral vascular rupture and the associated increased risk of mortality and morbidity. In view of the impact that cord clamping has on the cardiovascular transition at birth, it is also time to re-examine some of the strategies used in the management of the third stage of labour. These include the appropriate timing of uterotonic administration in relation to delivery of the infant and placenta. As there is a lack of evidence on the effects these individual practices have on the infant, there is a necessity to improve our understanding of their impact in order to develop strategies that facilitate the transition to newborn life.

  18. Multifrequency radio observations of 3C 28, 76. 1, 186 and 319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, J.T. (Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (UK). Cavendish Lab.)


    Multifrequency observations of 3C 28, 76.1, 186 and 319, made with the One-Mile and 5-km telescopes, enable the spectral-index distributions of each source and the polarization properties of 3C 76.1 to be studied. 3C 28 is shown to have the structure of a Fanaroff-Riley class I source, but it is 10 times more luminous than expected for this class. Although 3C 76.1 is also in Fanaroff-Riley class I, it contains a feature which has the properties of a 'hotspot'. The spectral-index distribution in 3C 76.1 is complex; the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axes of the jets, and the polarization properties are consistent with a tangled-field model. The morphology of 3C 186 remains unclear, and 3C 319 is a double source with only one 'hotspot', rather than being a tail source. It is suggested that the different properties of 3C 28 and 76.1 are due to their different environments; this explanation would be consistent with a general scheme which can account for all the observed dependences of source properties on cluster membership.

  19. The Web Consortium - W3C leading the evolution of the Web Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia


    Founded in October 1994 to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its inter- operability.Today,W3C has over 420 Members and nearly 60 full- time staff around the world who contribute to the development of W3C specifications and software.

  20. Behaviour of lab parameters and neonatal weight loss in relation to neonatal breathing movements and cord clamping time. (United States)

    Indraccolo, U; Santafata, R; Palazzetti, P L; Di Iorio, R; Indraccolo, S R


    To date, delaying cord clamping two to three minutes after birth is considered effective for newborn well-being. This time does not consider the newborn's breathing movements, which may also condition neonate well-being. To investigate the behaviour of neonatal weight loss and of some umbilical vein lab parameters, in relation to timing of newborn breathing and cord clamping. Time from birth to cord clamping and time from birth to first cry of the newborn were collected in 87 full-term healthy women. First cry is a sign of effective breathing. Birth weight loss at the first, second, and third day from birth and lab parameters were assessed in relation to: time from birth to cord clamping, time from birth to first cry, and cord clamping before or after the first cry. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) decreased if cord clamping was performed after first cry and increased if first cry occurred after cord clamping, independently from the time elapsed from birth to first cry (p = 0.012). Calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration decreased if cord clamping was performed after the first cry and increased if first cry of the baby after birth was delayed (p = 0.021). Each second of delay from birth to cord clamping resulted in an increase in Cl- concentration (p cord clamping resulted in a reduction in the percentage of weight loss at the first day (p = 0.024), at the second day (p = 0.007), and at the third day (p = 0.028) after birth. Neonate breathing after birth should induce umbilical vein flow from placenta to lungs, conditioning the reduction of birth weight loss after birth and umbilical lab parameters modifications.

  1. An observational study of umbilical cord clamping practices of maternity care providers in a tertiary care center. (United States)

    Hutton, Eileen K; Stoll, Kathrin; Taha, Natalie


    Severing the umbilical cord at birth is likely the oldest intervention, the timing of which remains fraught with controversy. Emerging evidence suggests benefit in delaying cord clamping for both term and preterm infants. The objective of this study was to investigate actual cord clamping time and circumstances at a large tertiary care center in Canada. We used a stopwatch to time the interval from the time the infant was born as far as the umbilicus until the time that the umbilical cord was clamped before cutting. We reported on timing of the umbilical cord clamping overall and by practitioner group (obstetrician, midwife, and family practitioner). A total of 98 women and their practitioners consented to be observed at the British Columbia Women's Hospital and Health Center, Vancouver, Canada. More than one-half (56.2%) of all infants had their umbilical cord clamped within 15 seconds. The median (5th, 95th percentile) clamping time in seconds for the full sample was 12 (4, 402) with practitioner subgroups as follows: obstetricians (12 [3, 107]), family physicians (19 [6, 325]), and midwives (81 [6, undefined]). The median clamping time was likely to be longer when the birth occurred spontaneously, no umbilical cord blood was collected, and no birth or neonatal complications occurred. In our sample taken in 2006 to 2007, most infants had umbilical cords clamped immediately after the birth, with more than one-half clamped within 15 seconds of birth. Since the time of our study, delayed umbilical cord clamping for the healthy term newborn has become a part of recommended management of third stage of labor and resuscitation guidelines. It would be informative to repeat a study like this one to determine compliance with the current standards of care. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The interaction between radio lobes and hot gas in the nearby radio galaxies 3C285 and 3C442A

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Worrall, D M; Croston, J H; Evans, D A; Birkinshaw, M; Murray, S S


    We present Chandra observations of two nearby radio galaxies in group environments, 3C285 and 3C442A. The host galaxies of both sources are involved in mergers with nearby massive galaxies, and the hot gas in the systems is extended along lines joining the interacting galaxies. Both sources show strong evidence for interactions between the radio lobes and the asymmetrical hot gas. We argue that the structure in the hot gas is independent of the existence of the radio lobes in these systems, and argue that hot gas shaped by an ongoing massive galaxy merger may play an important role in the dynamics of radio lobes in other objects. For 3C442A, our observations show that gas is being driven out of both members of the host interacting galaxy pair, and the implied constraints on galaxy velocities are consistent with mildly supersonic motions with respect to the group-scale hot gas. The previously known filamentary radio structure in the center of 3C442A may be a result of the interaction between hot gas expelled f...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过对LCD显示原理的分析和对嵌入式芯片S3C2410A中LCD控制器的研究,设计了STNLCD的硬件驱动电路和软件驱动程序,完成了在S3C2410A中对STN LCD驱动的设计.实验结果显示LCD上图像显示稳定清晰,达到设计要求.该设计可用于大部分嵌入式芯片对STNLCD的驱动,是嵌入式系统中实现LCD驱动的一套较好解决方案.%By analyzing the principles of LCD display and researching embedded chips S3C2410A LCD controller, the STN LCD driver in the S3C2410A is designed ,the driver included a STNLCD hardware driver and software drivers. Experimental results show stable and clear image display on the LCD, meet the design requirements. The design can be used for most of the embedded chip STNLCD drive, it become a better solution way of LCD driver in embedded systems.

  4. From galaxy-scale fueling to nuclear-scale feedback: the merger-state of radio galaxies 3C293, 3C305 & 4C12.50

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, Bjorn; Villar-Martin, Montserrat; Hodgson, Jeff; Brogt, Erik; Tadhunter, Clive; Mahony, Elizabeth; Oosterloo, Tom


    Powerful radio galaxies are often associated with gas-rich galaxy mergers. These mergers may provide the fuel to trigger starburst and active galactic nuclear (AGN) activity. In this Research Note, we study the host galaxies of three seemingly young or re-started radio sources that drive fast outflows of cool neutral hydrogen (HI) gas, namely 3C 293, 3C 305 and 4C 12.50 (PKS 1345+12). Our aim is to link the feedback processes in the central kpc-scale region with new information on the distribution of stars and gas at scales of the galaxy. For this, we use deep optical V-band imaging of the host galaxies, complemented with HI emission-line observations to study their gaseous environments. We find prominent optical tidal features in all three radio galaxies, which confirm previous claims that 3C 293, 3C 305 and 4C 12.50 have been involved in a recent galaxy merger or interaction. Our data show the complex morphology of the host galaxies, and identify the companion galaxies that are likely involved in the merger...

  5. Off-clamp robot-assisted partial nephrectomy does not benefit short-term renal function: a matched cohort analysis. (United States)

    Anderson, Barrett G; Potretzke, Aaron M; Du, Kefu; Vetter, Joel; Figenshau, R Sherburne


    In the interest of renal functional preservation, partial nephrectomy has supplanted radical nephrectomy as the preferred treatment for T1 renal masses. This procedure usually involves the induction of renal warm ischemia by clamping the hilar vessels prior to tumor excision. Performing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) "off-clamp" can theoretically prevent renal functional loss associated with warm ischemia. We describe our institutional experience and compare perioperative and renal functional outcomes using a propensity score matched cohort. We conducted a retrospective comparison from a prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent RAPN from 2009 to 2015. Of those patients, 143 underwent off-clamp RAPN. Fifty off-clamp RAPN patients were propensity score matched with fifty clamped RAPN patients based on renal function, tumor size, and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. The cohorts were compared across demographics, operative information, perioperative outcomes, and renal functional outcomes. For all off-clamp RAPN patients, mean nephrometry score was 7.1, mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 236.9 mL, perioperative complication rate was 7.7%, and mean decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 7.1% at a median follow-up of 9.2 months. In the propensity score matched cohorts, off-clamp RAPN resulted in a shorter mean operative time (172.0 versus 196.0 min, p = 0.025) and a lower mean EBL (179.7 versus 283.2 mL, p = 0.046). A lower complication rate of 6.0% in the off-clamp group compared with 20.0% in the clamped group approached significance (p = 0.071). Mean preoperative eGFR was similar in both cohorts. Importantly, there was no significant difference in decrease in eGFR between the clamped cohort (9.8%) and off-clamp cohort (11.9%) at a median follow-up of 9.0 months (p = 0.620). Off-clamp RAPN did not result in improved renal functional preservation in our experience. Surprisingly, the off-clamp cohort

  6. Induction of DNA DSB and its rejoining in clamped and non-clamped tumours after exposure to carbon ion beams in comparison to X rays. (United States)

    Hirayama, R; Uzawa, A; Matsumoto, Y; Noguchi, M; Kase, Y; Takase, N; Ito, A; Koike, S; Ando, K; Okayasu, R; Furusawa, Y


    We studied double-strand breaks (DSB) induction and rejoining in clamped and non-clamped transplanted tumours in mice leg after exposure to 80 keV µm(-1) carbon ions and X rays. The yields of DSB in the tumours were analysed by a static-field gel electrophoresis. The OER of DSB after X rays was 1.68±0.31, and this value was not changed after 1 h rejoining time (1.40±0.26). These damages in oxygenated conditions were rejoined 60-70% within 1 h in situ. No difference was found between the exposure to X rays and carbon ions for the induction and rejoining of DSB. Thus, the values of OER and rejoined fraction after exposure to carbon ions were similar to those after X rays, and the calculated relative biological effectivenesses of carbon ion were around 1 under both oxygen conditions. The yields of DSB in vivo depend on exposure doses, oxygen conditions and rejoining time, but not on the types of radiation quality.

  7. Doping and stability of 3C-SiC: from thinfilm to bulk growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokubavicius, V.; Sun, J.; Linnarsson, M. K.

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) could pave the way for development of advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices. It could be an excellent substrate for growth of nitride and epitaxial graphene layers. Boron doped 3C-SiC films could reach up to 60% efficiency and pave the way for a new solar...... cell technology. Nitrogen and boron doped 3C-SiC layers can depict a new infrared LED. Hexagonal SiC is an excellent substrate for heteropeitaxial growth of 3C-SiC due to excellent compatibility in lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient. However, the growth of 3C-SiC on such substrates...... is still being followed by a number of obstacles like polytype stabilization and high density of double positioning boundaries in the grown material. The polytype stability during epitaxial growth of doped 3C-SiC has not been explored. Consequently, the polytype stability during bulk growth of doped 3C...

  8. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang


    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  9. Antiferromagnetic resonance in the Mott insulator fcc-Cs3C60. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuta; Shibasaki, Seiji; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Kambe, Takashi


    The magnetic ground state of the fcc phase of the Mott insulator Cs3C60 was studied using a low-temperature electron spin resonance technique, and antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) below 1.57 K was directly observed at ambient pressure. The AFMR modes for the fcc phase of Cs3C60 were investigated using a conventional two-sublattice model with uniaxial anisotropy, and the spin-flop field was determined to be 4.7 kOe at 1.57 K. The static magnetic exchange interactions and anisotropy field for fcc-Cs3C60 were also estimated.

  10. CO2FieldLab project. Near-surface downhole electrical resistivity monitoring for CO2 shallow injection at the Svelvik ridge (Norway). (United States)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P.; Paris, J.; Geeraert, M.; Henry, G.; Baqué, L.; Barry, S.; Neyens, D.


    The CO2FieldLab shallow injection experiment is a collaborative effort aimed at developing, verifying, and evaluating near-surface monitoring techniques for geological sequestration of CO2. The objective is to create a downhole leakage of CO2 in order to demonstrate whether existing monitoring techniques have the ability to detect and quantify the CO2 loss. The CO2FieldLab project associates collaboration from several research groups and organizations (SINTEF, NGI, BRGM, BGS, CNRS, imaGeau and Schlumberger). For this, the field Laboratory for monitoring CO2 migration and leakage was established in Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, located in the Drammensfjord 50 km south of Oslo (Norway). It is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the last deglaciation. The depth to the bedrock is located between 300 and 400 m. The central part of the ridge is aerially exposed up to 70 m above sea level, constituting a phreatic aquifer. The characterization phase and associated modelling suggest that the site is suitable for studying both gas migration and leakage at shallow depths. The shallow aquifer (down to 50 m) consists in a relatively homogeneous sand body with a depositional dip of about 10° to the North. The shallow injection experiment took place in September of 2011 and consisted in an injection of CO2 at a depth of 20 m from a 45° inclined well. The purpose of this phase was to simulate a point source leakage, which could possibly occur due to failure of a deep well completion. A total mass of 1.67 ton of CO2 was injected over a period of 6 days. The water table was located at 60 cm depth during the experiment and a transition from fresh to salt pore water was found below 12 m depth. An integrated set of surface and downhole strategies was deployed across a 64 m2 square monitoring area: cross-hole radar, water and gas phases physico-chemical parameters (BRGM); multi-hole electrical ALERT system (BGS), CO2 concentration in soils and gas

  11. Design and experimental research of a novel inchworm type piezo-driven rotary actuator with the changeable clamping radius. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Lu; Ren, Luquan; Huang, Hu; Fan, Zunqiang; Li, Jianping; Qu, Han


    In this paper, a novel piezo-driven rotary actuator with the changeable clamping radius is developed based on the inchworm principle. This actuator mainly utilizes three piezoelectric actuators, a flexible gripper, a clamping block, and a rotor to achieve large stroke rotation with high resolution. The design process of the flexible gripper consisting of the driving unit and the clamping unit is described. Lever-type mechanisms were used to amplify the micro clamping displacements. The amplifying factor and parasitic displacement of the lever-type mechanism in the clamping unit was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. In order to investigate the rotation characteristics of the actuator, a series of experiments was carried out. Experimental results indicate that the actuator can rotate at a speed of 77,488 μrad/s with a driving frequency of 167 Hz. The rotation resolution and maximum load torque of the actuator are 0.25 μrad and 37 N mm, respectively. The gripper is movable along the z direction based on an elevating platform, and the clamping radius can change from 10.6 mm to 25 mm. Experimental results confirm that the actuator can achieve different rotation speeds by changing the clamping radius.

  12. Conformal analysis of fundamental frequency of vibration of elastic clamped plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hongyuan; ZHU Hengjun


    To calculate the fundamental frequency of vibration of special-shaped and elastic clamped plates, the conformal mapping theory is adopted to separate the interpolating points of a complicated boundary into odd and even sequences,both of which can be mutually iterated, so that the conformal mapping function between the complicated region and the unit dish region is established. Trigonometric interpolation and convergence along the normal direction methods are provided, and the complex coefficients of the conformal mapping function are calculated. Galerkin method is used to obtain the solution of fundamental frequency in the vibrating differential function of the complicated vibrating region.Finally, taking ellipse elastic clamped plates as an example,the effects on fundamental frequency coefficient caused by eccentric ratio e and area size are analyzed.

  13. Testing and evaluation of stretching strain in clamped–clamped beams for energy harvesting (United States)

    Emad, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Mohamed A. E.; Ghoneima, Maged; Dessouky, Mohamed


    In this paper, evaluation of stretching strain capabilities to harvest energy from a piezoelectric clamped–clamped beam is theoretically modeled and experimentally tested. The utilization of stretching strain has many advantages as: elimination of any substrate material, and the simple electrode configuration. The doubly clamped structure exhibits a highly nonlinear frequency response (Hardening Duffing) that widens the bandwidth during the frequency up-ward sweep. The wide bandwidth makes it suitable for practical applications. A design of 53.5 {{mm}}3 (29.7 {{mm}}3 piezoelectric material + 23.8 {{mm}}3 proof mass) energy harvester was tested using PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) that can generate up to 15 μW from vibrations of 0.5{g} at 128 {Hz} and 2 MΩ load. The design can also generate up to 41 μ {{W}} from vibrations of 1{g} at 140 {Hz} and 2 MΩ load.

  14. Detailed Theoretical Model for Adjustable Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu


    Full Text Available The adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA uses two SOAs in a ring-cavity topology: one to amplify the signal and the other to control the gain. The device was designed to maximize the output saturated power while adjusting gain to regulate power differences between packets without loss of linearity. This type of subsystem can be used for power equalisation and linear amplification in packet-based dynamic systems such as passive optical networks (PONs. A detailed theoretical model is presented in this paper to simulate the operation of the AGC-SOA, which gives a better understanding of the underlying gain clamping mechanics. Simulations and comparisons with steady-state and dynamic gain modulation experimental performance are given which validate the model.

  15. High Efficiency Interleaved Active Clamped Dc-Dc Converter with Fuel Cell for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona P


    Full Text Available A high efficiency interleaved ZVS active clamped current fed dc-dc converter is proposed in this paper specially used for fuel cell applications. As the fuel cell output is very low we are in need of a step up dc-dc converter. Here a current fed dc-dc converter is used. Two current fed dc-dc converters are interleaved by connecting their inputs in parallel and outputs in series. With this proposed methodology input current ripples in the fuel cell stacks can be reduced and a regulated output voltage ripples can be obtained. The active clamping circuit used in this model absorbs the turn off voltage spikes hence low voltage devices with low on state resistance can be used.Voltage doubler circuits will give double the output voltage than normal with smaller transformer turns ratio and flexibility. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB for verifying the accuracy of the proposed design.

  16. Influence of non-steady state during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in hypertension. A LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K;


    We wanted to investigate whether time to steady state was reached within 2 h of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, comparing the glucose uptake index (M/IG) with Bergman's insulin sensitivity index (Sip). We performed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h isoglycemic...... hyperinsulinemic clamp in 26 young, healthy subjects and 43 elderly patients with unmedicated essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The 3-h Sip correlated strongly with the 2-h M/IG in the patients (r = 0.88, p ... narrow limits of agreement in the patients. However, during the third hour of insulin infusion, M/IG (10.0 vs 12.21(2) x kg(-1) x min(-1) x mmol(-1), p Sip (7.1 vs 9.41(2) x kg(-1) x min(-1) x mmol(-1), p

  17. Implementation and Tuning of an Optical Tweezers Force-Clamp Feedback System. (United States)

    Bugiel, Michael; Jannasch, Anita; Schäffer, Erik


    Feedback systems can be used to control the value of a system variable. In optical tweezers, active feedback is often implemented to either keep the position or tension applied to a single biomolecule constant. Here, we describe the implementation of the latter: an optical force-clamp setup that can be used to study the motion of processive molecular motors under a constant load. We describe the basics of a software-implemented proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, how to tune it, and how to determine its optimal feedback rate. Limitations, possible feed-forward applications, and extensions into two- and three-dimensional optical force clamps are discussed. The feedback is ultimately limited by thermal fluctuations and the compliance of the involved molecules. To investigate a particular mechanical process, understanding the basics and limitations of the feedback system will be helpful for choosing the proper feedback hardware, for optimizing the system parameters, and for the design of the experiment.

  18. Study of transmembrane La3+ movement in rat ventricular myocytes by the patch-clamp technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We have studied transmembrane La3+ movement in rat ventricular myocytes for the first time by using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording mode. La3+ (0.01-5.0 mmol/L) could not bring out inward currents through the L-type calcium channel in rat ventricular myocytes, while it could enter the cells by the same way carried by 1μmol/L ionomycin. When the outward Na+ concentration gradient is formed, La3+ can enter the cells via Na-Ca exchange, and the exchange currentsincrease with the increase of external La3+ concentrations. But compared with Na-Ca exchange currents in the same concentration, the former is only 14%-38% of the latter. The patch-clamp experiment indicates that La3+ normally can not enter ventricular myocytes through L-type calcium channel, but it can enter the cells via Na-Ca exchange.

  19. [Traumatic section of the thoracic aorta: its repair by direct aortic clamping]. (United States)

    Cairols, M A; Sieyro, F; Miralles, M; Blanes, I; Lozano, P


    Traumatic section of descendent aorta, severe complication of a thoracic traumatism, requires an early recognition and restoration because its high mortality rate. Between 1988 and 1990, three patients underwent surgical approach, by direct aortic clamping [correction of clamplaje], at our Service. In two cases, a heart stoppage appeared during the clamping/unclamping [correction of clampaje/desclampaje] maneuvers. One of them had previously electrocardiographic abnormalities, suggestive of heart contusion. Two patients died, one of them during surgical procedure because an irreversible heart stoppage, and the second patient died after 7 days because of a brain hemorrhage. One case presented postoperative paraplegia. Respective rates and literature about the main factors implicated in the diagnosis and treatment of such pathology are reviewed.

  20. Short Hypoxia Does not Affect Plasma Leptin in Healthy Men under Euglycemic Clamp Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Schmoller


    Full Text Available Leptin is involved in the endocrine control of energy expenditure and body weight regulation. Previous studies emphasize a relationship between hypoxic states and leptin concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute hypoxia on leptin concentrations in healthy subjects. We examined 14 healthy men. Hypoxic conditions were induced by decreasing oxygen saturation to 75% for 30 minutes. Plasma leptin concentrations were determined at baseline, after 3 hours of euglycemic clamping, during hypoxia, and repeatedly the following 2.5 hours thereafter. Our results show an increase of plasma leptin concentrations in the course of 6 hours of hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping which may reflect diurnal rhythmicity. Notwithstanding, there was no difference between levels of leptin in the hypoxic and the normoxic condition (=.2. Since we did not find any significant changes in leptin responses upon hypoxia, plasma leptin levels do not seem to be affected by short hypoxic episodes of moderate degree.

  1. [The Impact of Late Umbilical Cord Clamping on Neonatal Jaundice and Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Randomized Controlled Trail]. (United States)

    Chien, Pei-Chun; Yang, Cherng-Chia; Gau, Meei-Ling; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Tzu-Ying


    The current evidence supports the clinical benefits of late umbilical cord clamping. These benefits include increased blood volume and total body iron. Furthermore, delayed cord clamping facilitates the transplantation of stem cells, which helps the development of infant bodily systems. However, due to concerns related to postpartum hemorrhaging and neonate jaundice, most maternity units still clamp the cord immediately after a child is born. This study investigates the impact of delaying cord clamping on neonatal jaundice and postpartum hemorrhage. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. One hundred and five healthy nulliparous women at 36 weeks of pregnancy were included and allocated randomly to the experiment group (n=44) and the control group (n=61). Participants in the experiment group received delayed cord clamping (DCC) at 3 minutes after delivery. Participants in the control group received early cord clamping (ECC) at around 1 minute after delivery. Clinical measures of the outcomes were measured by the infant transcutaneous bilirubin levels (TcB) and postpartum hemorrhage at birth. A structured questionnaire and biophysical measures were used to collect data on participant demographics, obstetrical information, maternal blood loss at birth, neonate weight and TcB level at hospitalization, and whether or not the infant received phototherapy at 4-7 days postpartum. Overall, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of neonatal jaundice, maternal hemorrhage at birth, and phototherapy rates at time of hospitalization and at 4-7 days postpartum. The findings of the present study support that late umbilical cord clamping does not increase the risk of maternal postpartum hemorrhaging or neonate jaundice. Thus, we suggest that clinicians inform clients during prenatal classes of the benefits of delayed cord clamping and also use current, evidence-based knowledge to dispel client

  2. Early versus delayed cord clamping in term and preterm births: a review. (United States)

    Garofalo, Milena; Abenhaim, Haim A


    The optimal timing for cord clamping, early versus delayed, in the third stage of labour is a controversial subject. Issues surrounding the timing of cord clamping include gestational age and maternal and neonatal considerations. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been shown to increase placental transfusion, leading to an increase in neonatal blood volume at birth of approximately 30%. In the term infant, although this may result in an increase in iron stores, thereby decreasing the risk of anemia, it may adversely increase the risk of jaundice and the need for phototherapy. In the preterm infant, DCC (or even milking of the cord) decreases the need for blood transfusions for anemia, the number of such transfusions, and the risks of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis. Advantages of DCC also include a reduction in alloimmunization in Rh-negative women, although this advantage is theoretical and unproven. We searched multiple databases including PubMed Clinical Queries, Trip Database, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate, as well as published guidelines from the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. We preferentially selected systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for this literature review. Overall, the available evidence appears to suggest that DCC is likely to result in better neonatal outcomes in both term and preterm infants, even in areas where neonatal iron deficiency anemia is rare. However, there is insufficient evidence to date to support a recommendation to delay cord clamping in non-vigorous infants requiring resuscitation.

  3. MATLAB-based automated patch-clamp system for awake behaving mice


    Desai, Niraj S.; Siegel, Jennifer J.; Taylor, William; Chitwood, Raymond A.; Johnston, Daniel


    Automation has been an important part of biomedical research for decades, and the use of automated and robotic systems is now standard for such tasks as DNA sequencing, microfluidics, and high-throughput screening. Recently, Kodandaramaiah and colleagues (Nat Methods 9: 585–587, 2012) demonstrated, using anesthetized animals, the feasibility of automating blind patch-clamp recordings in vivo. Blind patch is a good target for automation because it is a complex yet highly stereotyped process th...

  4. Diode-clamped multilevel converters with integrable gate-driver power-supply circuits


    Busquets Monge, Sergio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Crébier, Jean-Christophe; Peracaula Roura, Joan


    International audience; Recent contributions in pulse width modulations (PWM) for multilevel diode-clamped converters enable the use of these converters with passive front-ends, any number of levels, and small dc-link capacitors. Highly compact converters designs based on these topologies can be envisioned. However, the design of the gate-driver power-supply for the multiple controlled semiconductor devices remains an important issue to be addressed. This paper focuses on the design of such c...

  5. New device for saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis without side-clamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappainer Ernesto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side clamping to perform saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis is a well known cause of cerebral embolization during coronary bypass surgery. Automatic and manual devices have been introduced to avoid aortic clamping and facilitate proximal anastomosis but the manual ones only allow the traditional hand-sewing running suture. Nevertheless, they are not easy to use and very expensive to buy. Methods We developed a simple object that helps to perform a manual proximal anastomosis without the need to clamp the side of the aorta. This device is a steel bar which blocks the aortic hole and simultaneously it provides a slit to receive the needle. Through the slit comes out a thin, sharp, straight, but also well directed and predictable jet of blood which could be easily controlled during the suture. Results The function of the object is quite different from other devices. Nothing is deployed in the aorta. The object is only placed on the aorta with the small appendage slipped into the hole. The main advantage of the device is that while manipulation of the aorta is avoided no foreign bodies are incorporated in the suture and – most importantly – the aortic intima is not touched at all. The main drawback of the device is the blood jet coming from the slit so that the blood pressure has to be lowered by vasodilators during the anastomosis. Moreover, the suture has to change direction and the needle has to enter the aortic wall first to slip out through the slit. Conclusion The object was named "Slit Device" and is not a routine instrument. It would be only an alternative to other anastomotic devices with the same surgical indications. In the case of ascending aortic disease and saphenous vein grafting, the Slit Device avoids aortic clamping thereby preventing atheroembolism and also avoiding the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients with unclampable aorta.

  6. A complete dc characterization of a constant-frequency, clamped-mode, series-resonant converter (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C.


    The dc behavior of a clamped-mode series-resonant converter is characterized systematically. Given a circuit operating condition, the converter's mode of operation is determined and various circuit parameters are calculated, such as average inductor current (load current), rms inductor current, peak capacitor voltage, rms switch currents, average diode currents, switch turn-on currents, and switch turn-off currents. Regions of operation are defined, and various circuit characteristics are derived to facilitate the converter design.

  7. Generation of high-performance binding proteins for peptide motifs by affinity clamping


    Koide, Shohei; Huang, Jin


    We describe concepts and methodologies for generating “Affinity Clamps”, a new class of recombinant binding proteins that achieve high affinity and high specificity toward short peptide motifs of biological importance, which is a major challenge in protein engineering. The Affinity Clamping concept exploits the potential of nonhomologous recombination of protein domains in generating large changes in protein function and the inherent binding affinity and specificity of the so-called modular i...

  8. Adverse impact of intermittent portal clamping on long-term postoperative outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Hao, S; Chen, S; Yang, X; Wan, C


    Introduction To evaluate the impact of intermittent portal clamping (IPC) on long-term postoperative outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Clinical records of 355 patients underwent curative liver resection for HCC in January 2007 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. According to how portal clamping was performed, patients were grouped as: IPC, n=113; other portal clamping (OPC), n=190; and no portal clamping (NPC), n=52. Results Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was statistically significantly shorter in the IPC (39.4 months) than OPC (47.3 months, p=0.010) and NPC groups (51.4 months, p=0.008). Median overall survival (OS) was also significantly shorter with IPC (46.3 months), versus 52.9 months with OPC (p=0.022) and 56.2 months with NPC (p=0.015). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 5-year cumulative RFS was much lower in the IPC (42.5%) than OPC (50.9%, p=0.014) and NPC groups (49.6%, p=0.013). Five-year cumulative OS was also much lower in the IPC (44.9%) than OPC (58.0%, p=0.020) and NPC groups (57.7%, p=0.025). On univariate analysis, tumour grade, size and number, TNM stage, blood transfusion, vascular invasion and IPC were significantly inversely correlated with RFS and OS. On multivariate analysis, tumour size and number, blood transfusion, vascular invasion and IPC remained significant. Conclusions Our study suggests that IPC is an independent risk factor for poor long-term postoperative outcomes in patients with HCC.

  9. Microwave electromechanical resonator consisting of clamped carbon nanotubes in an abacus arrangement (United States)

    Peng, H. B.; Chang, C. W.; Aloni, S.; Yuzvinsky, T. D.; Zettl, A.


    We describe nanoscale electromechanical resonators capable of operating in ambient-pressure air at room temperature with unprecedented fundamental resonance frequency of ˜4GHz . The devices are created from suspended carbon nanotubes loaded abacus style with inertial metal clamps, yielding short effective beam lengths. We examine the energy dissipation in the system due to air damping and contact loss. Such nanoabacus resonators open windows for immediate practical microwave frequency nanoelectromechanical system applications.

  10. Designing a Signal Conditioning System with Software Calibration for Resistor-feedback Patch Clamp Amplifier. (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Zhu, Quanhui; Qu, Anlian


    In this paper, a programmable signal conditioning system based on software calibration for resistor-feedback patch clamp amplifier (PCA) has been described, this system is mainly composed of frequency correction, programmable gain and filter whose parameters are configured by software automatically to minimize the errors, A lab-designed data acquisition system (DAQ) is used to implement data collections and communications with PC. The laboratory test results show good agreement with design specifications.

  11. Exponential Attractor for the Boussinesq Equation with Strong Damping and Clamped Boundary Condition


    Fan Geng; Ruizhai Li; Xiaojun Zhang; Xiangyu Ge


    The paper studies the existence of exponential attractor for the Boussinesq equation with strong damping and clamped boundary condition utt-Δu+Δ2u-Δut-Δg(u)=f(x). The main result is concerned with nonlinearities g(u) with supercritical growth. In that case, we construct a bounded absorbing set with further regularity and obtain quasi-stability estimates. Then the exponential attractor is established in natural energy space V2×H.

  12. Prediction of numerical distortion after welding with various welding sequences and clampings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kastelic


    Full Text Available Welding simulation of a test cover for hydropower plant was made due to very large dimensions of the cover. The main aim was to predict distortion after welding in order to avoid machining the cover. Welding process was simulated with the Sysweld program to keep distortion in desired limits. Various welding sequences and clamping conditions were calculated to reduce the distortion. Calculation of microstructure constituents in virtual complex geometry of joints was also analyzed.

  13. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify the design, increase...... efficiency, reduce the product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented....

  14. Structure-activity relationships of heteroaromatic esters as human rhinovirus 3C protease inhibitors. (United States)

    Im, Isak; Lee, Eui Seung; Choi, Soo Jeong; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Chul


    Human rhinovirus 3C protease (HRV 3C(pro)) is known to be a promising target for development of therapeutic agents against the common cold because of the importance of the protease in viral replication as well as its expression in a large number of serotypes. To explore non-peptidic inhibitors of HRV 3C(pro), a series of novel heteroaromatic esters was synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against HRV 3C(pro), to determine the structure-activity relationships. The most potent inhibitor, 7, with a 5-bromopyridinyl group, had an IC(50) value of 80nM. In addition, the binding mode of a novel analog, 19, with the 4-hydroxyquinolinone moiety, was explored by molecular docking, suggesting a new interaction in the S1 pocket.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of solid face centered cubic Rb3C60 at high temperature and pressure (United States)

    Yang, W.; Sun, J. X.; Liu, H.; Yan, G. F.


    Analytic equation of state and thermodynamic quantities of solid fcc Rb3C60 are derived by using an analytic mean field potential method. For intermolecular forces, the double-exponential potential is utilized. Four potential parameters are determined by fitting experimental compression data of Rb3C60 up to 14 GPa at 296 K. Various physical quantities including isothermals, thermal expansion, isochoric heat capacity, Helmholtz free energy and internal energy are calculated and analyzed. Calculated results are consistent with available experimental data in literature. Furthermore, spinodal temperature for Rb3C60 is found to be 2,860 K. Results verify that analytic mean field potential method is a useful approach to consider the anharmonic effect at high temperatures. Numerous reasonable predictions and the change trend of the properties for Rb3C60 at high temperature and pressure have been given.

  16. Generation of a C3c specific monoclonal antibody and assessment of C3c as a putative inflammatory marker derived from complement factor C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjodt, Karsten; Brandt, Jette;


    complex (C5b-C9) and quantification of complement split products by precipitation-in-gel techniques (e.g. C3d). We have developed a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is able to detect fluid phase C3c without interference from other products generated from the complement component C3. The C3c specific m......Ab was tested in different ELISA combinations with various types of in vitro activated sera and with plasma or serum samples from factor I deficient patients. The specificity of the mAb was evaluated in immunoprecipitation techniques and by analysis of eluted fragments of C3 after immunoaffinity chromatography...

  17. 基于S3C6410的Uboot分析与移植%Uboot Analysis and Transplantation Based on S3C6410

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯林琳; 耿恒山


    This paper analyzes the structure and the starting process of the new edition Uboot, gives a detailed transplant program based on S3C6410 development board, to achieve Uboot start from NAND Flash. Through the transplant of the net card DM9000A, Uboot network communication function is implemented. The paper has certain reference value for similar platform Uboot transplant.%分析Uboot新版源代码结构和其启动流程,给出基于S3C6410芯片开发板上Uboot的详细移植方案,实现从NANDFlash中启动Uboot.通过对DM9000A网卡的移植,完成Uboot的网络通信功能.对类似平台的Uboot移植有一定的参考价值.

  18. Uboot Analysis and Transplantation Based on S3C2440%基于S3C2440的Uboot分析与移植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the structure and function of the Uboot, and the analysis of starting codes. This paper firstly proposed a transplant program based on s3c2440 high-capacity Nand Flash and Nor Flash. Then, through a multi-step migration, it improved the various functional modules. Eventually, it loaded the kernel and NFS file systems successfully, by the Uboot, given more Details of the Uboot transplantation.%首先根据对Uboot的结构功能和启动分析,提出了一种基于s3c2440大容量Nand Flash和Nor Flash的移植方案,然后通过多步的移植,完善各个功能模块.最终在Uboot下,使用NFS方式成功加载内核和文件系统,详细给出了Uboot移植方法.

  19. A capacitor-clamped inverter based torsional oscillation damping method for electromechanical drivetrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagar Viknash


    Full Text Available A typical electromechanical drivetrain consists of an electric motor, connecting shafts and gears. Premature failures of these shafts and gears have been reported which are mainly due to fatigue caused by extreme loads and torsional oscillations. Overdesign and passive damping are the common approaches taken to increase the fatigue life. Nevertheless, they increase the system cost, weight and volume. Alternatively, active damping through advanced inverter control of the motor drive has been identified as a promising solution that does not require overdesign or alterations to the existing system. Even with the active damping control, oscillations propagate into the dc side of the power converter and subsequently to the upstream power bus. Generally, a large capacitor or an additional energy storage system is placed to suppress these oscillations. This paper proposes to use the clamping capacitors of the capacitor-clamped inverter as energy storage elements and thereby eliminate the need for a large dc side capacitor or an additional energy storage system. The efficacy of the proposed method has been verified with computer simulations. Simulation results show that the clamping capacitors are capable of containing torsional oscillations within the inverter without passing them to the upstream power bus.

  20. Desktop Software for Patch-Clamp Raw Binary Data Conversion and Preprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang


    Full Text Available Since raw data recorded by patch-clamp systems are always stored in binary format, electrophysiologists may experience difficulties with patch clamp data preprocessing especially when they want to analyze by custom-designed algorithms. In this study, we present desktop software, called PCDReader, which could be an effective and convenient solution for patch clamp data preprocessing for daily laboratory use. We designed a novel class module, called clsPulseData, to directly read the raw data along with the parameters recorded from HEKA instruments without any other program support. By a graphical user interface, raw binary data files can be converted into several kinds of ASCII text files for further analysis, with several preprocessing options. And the parameters can also be viewed, modified and exported into ASCII files by a user-friendly Explorer style window. The real-time data loading technique and optimized memory management programming makes PCDReader a fast and efficient tool. The compiled software along with the source code of the clsPulseData class module is freely available to academic and nonprofit users.

  1. Low noise patch-clamp current amplification by nanoparticles plasmonic-photonic coupling (analysis and modelling). (United States)

    Haberal, E O; SalmanOgli, A; Nasseri, B


    In this article, a patch-clamp low noise current amplification based on nanoparticles plasmonic radiation is analyzed. It is well-known, a very small current is flowing from different membrane channels and so, for extra processing the current amplification is necessary. It is notable that there are some problems in traditional electronic amplifier due to its noise and bandwidth problem. Because of the important role of the patch-clamp current in cancer research and especially its small amplitude, it is vital to intensify it without adding any noises. In this study, the current amplification is performed firstly: from the excitement of nanoparticles by the patch-clamp pico-ampere current and then, the effect of nanoparticles plasmonic far-field radiation on conductor's carriers, which will cause the current amplification. This relates to the plasmonic-photonic coupling and their effect on conductor carriers as the current perturbation agent. In the steady state, the current amplification can reach to 1000 times of initial level. Furthermore, we investigated the nanoparticles morphology changing effect such as size, nanoparticles inter-distance, and nanoparticles distance from the conductor on the amplifier parameters. Finally, it should note that the original aim is to use nanoparticles plasmonic engineering and their coupling to photonics for output current manipulating.

  2. Molecular jamming—The cystine slipknot mechanical clamp in all-atom simulations (United States)

    Pepłowski, Łukasz; Sikora, Mateusz; Nowak, Wiesław; Cieplak, Marek


    A recent survey of 17 134 proteins has identified a new class of proteins which are expected to yield stretching induced force peaks in the range of 1 nN. Such high force peaks should be due to forcing of a slip-loop through a cystine ring, i.e., by generating a cystine slipknot. The survey has been performed in a simple coarse grained model. Here, we perform all-atom steered molecular dynamics simulations on 15 cystine knot proteins and determine their resistance to stretching. In agreement with previous studies within a coarse grained structure based model, the level of resistance is found to be substantially higher than in proteins in which the mechanical clamp operates through shear. The large stretching forces arise through formation of the cystine slipknot mechanical clamp and the resulting steric jamming. We elucidate the workings of such a clamp in an atomic detail. We also study the behavior of five top strength proteins with the shear-based mechanostability in which no jamming is involved. We show that in the atomic model, the jamming state is relieved by moving one amino acid at a time and there is a choice in the selection of the amino acid that advances the first. In contrast, the coarse grained model also allows for a simultaneous passage of two amino acids.

  3. FPGA in-the-loop simulations of cardiac excitation model under voltage clamp conditions (United States)

    Othman, Norliza; Adon, Nur Atiqah; Mahmud, Farhanahani


    Voltage clamp technique allows the detection of single channel currents in biological membranes in identifying variety of electrophysiological problems in the cellular level. In this paper, a simulation study of the voltage clamp technique has been presented to analyse current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of ion currents based on Luo-Rudy Phase-I (LR-I) cardiac model by using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Nowadays, cardiac models are becoming increasingly complex which can cause a vast amount of time to run the simulation. Thus, a real-time hardware implementation using FPGA could be one of the best solutions for high-performance real-time systems as it provides high configurability and performance, and able to executes in parallel mode operation. For shorter time development while retaining high confidence results, FPGA-based rapid prototyping through HDL Coder from MATLAB software has been used to construct the algorithm for the simulation system. Basically, the HDL Coder is capable to convert the designed MATLAB Simulink blocks into hardware description language (HDL) for the FPGA implementation. As a result, the voltage-clamp fixed-point design of LR-I model has been successfully conducted in MATLAB Simulink and the simulation of the I-V characteristics of the ionic currents has been verified on Xilinx FPGA Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T development board through an FPGA-in-the-loop (FIL) simulation.

  4. A quality improvement initiative for delayed umbilical cord clamping in very low-birthweight infants. (United States)

    Bolstridge, Jeff; Bell, Tracy; Dean, Barbara; Mackley, Amy; Moore, Gina; Swift, Cheryl; Viscount, Dina; Paul, David A; Pearlman, Stephen A


    Due to clinical benefits, delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended in infants born before 37 weeks gestational age. The objective was to institute a delayed cord clamping program and to evaluate clinical outcomes one year after initiation. This study occured at Christiana Care Health System, a tertiary care facility with a 52 bed level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary team created a departmental policy, a DCC protocol and educational programs to support the development of a DCC program. A year after initiation of DCC, we evaluated two cohorts of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (cord clamping protocol and a decrease in the percentage of VLBW infants requiring red blood cell transfusion from 53.7 to 35.9 % (p = 0.003). We also found a decreased need for respiratory support in the second cohort with no increases in the balancing measures of admission hypothermia and jaundice requiring phototherapy. During the Control Phase ongoing monitoring and education has led to a 93.7 % compliance rate. A multidisciplinary team including key leadership from the obstetric and pediatric departments allowed for the rapid and safe implementation of DCC.

  5. An ANN Based Capicitor Voltage Balancing Method For Neutral Point Clamped Multi-Level Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Praveen,


    Full Text Available Multi-level inverters are became popular for usage in medium voltage, low voltage power applications due to flexibility in control and better performance characteristics in terms of harmonic regulation. Neutral point clamped are popular as they require less number of sources as their input when compared with their counter parts i.e. cascaded multi-level inverters and found to be reliable when compared with flying capacitor based multi-level inverters. But when neutral clamped technologies are used for generation of three-phase voltages, the capacitors that are connected at input side experiences imbalance in their voltages, this makes neutral point clamped multi-level inverters less reliable. In the proposed work an attempt is made to study circuits that balances the capacitor voltages and a scheme is investigated for balancing the capacitor voltages. Method proposed in [1] uses PID controller for balancing the capacitor voltages. In this project PI based control scheme and artificial neural network (ANN based control scheme for the front end circuit shown in [1] are designed for achieving balance among the capacitor voltages. The proposed control scheme is simulated with the help of Simpowersystems block set and neural network toolbox of MATLAB software for different load conditions. Results obtained from ANN based controller and PI controller are presented.

  6. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric


    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  7. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance. (United States)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit; Taboryski, Rafael; Pedersen, Simon; Vestergaard, Ras K; Jacobsen, Rasmus B; Krzywkowski, Karen; Schrøder, Rikke L; Ljungstrøm, Trine; Hélix, Nathalie; Sørensen, Claus B; Bech, Morten; Willumsen, Niels J


    Planar silicon chips with 1-2-microm etched holes (average resistance: 2.04 +/- 0.02 MOmega in physiological buffer, n = 274) have been developed for patch-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from cells in suspension. An automated 16-channel parallel screening system, QPatch 16, has been developed using this technology. A single-channel prototype of the QPatch system was used for validation of the patch-clamp chip technology. We present here data on the quality of patch-clamp recordings and from actual drug screening studies of human potassium channels expressed in cultured cell lines. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), gigaseals of 4.1 +/- 0.4 GOmega (n = 146) and high-quality whole-cell current recordings were obtained from hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Success rates for gigaseal recordings varied from 40 to 95%, and 67% of the whole-cell configurations lasted for >20 min. Cells were maintained in suspension up to 4 h in a cell storage facility that is integrated in the QPatch 16. No decline in patchability was observed during this time course. A series of screens was conducted with known inhibitors of the hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Dose-response relationship characterizations of verapamil and rBeKm-1 blockage of hERG currents provided IC(50) values similar to values reported in the literature.

  8. Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter Fed Induction Motor with Dtc-Svm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranjith Kumar


    Full Text Available This project presents a three-level diode-clamped inverter feeding an asynchronous motor drive with direct torque control (DTC. The control method is based on DTC operating principles. The stator voltage vector reference is computed from the stator flux and torque errors imposed by the flux and torque controllers. This voltage reference is then generated using a diode-clamped inverter, where each phase of the inverter can be implemented using a dc source, which would be available from fuel cells, batteries, or ultra capacitors. This inverter provides nearly sinusoidal voltages with very low distortion, even without filtering, using fewer switching devices. In addition, the multilevel inverter can generate a high and fixed switching frequency output voltage with fewer switching losses, since only the small power cells of the inverter operate at a high switching rate. Therefore, a high performance and also efficient torque and flux controllers are obtained, enabling a DTC solution for multilevel-inverter-powered motor drives. The Pulse Width modulation technique for an inverter permits to obtain three phase system voltages, which can be applied to the controlled output. Space Vector Modulation (SVPWM principle differs from other PWM processes in the fact that all three drive signals for the inverter will be created simultaneously. The implementation of SVPWM process in digital systems necessitates less operation time and also less program memory. This project uses SVPWM technique for generation of pulses for three-level diode clamped inverter. Simulation is carried out on MATLAB-Simulink software.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermal sprayed nanostructured Cr3C2-Ni20Cr coatings


    Cecilio Alvares da Cunha; Nelson Batista de Lima; Jose Roberto Martinelli; Ana Helena de Almeida Bressiani; Armando Guilherme Fernando Padial; Lalgudi Venkataraman Ramanathan


    Cr3C2-Ni20Cr coatings have been used for corrosion and wear resistant applications. However, one of the shortcomings of these coatings is its low hardness, and consequent low wear resistance, for long term high temperature applications. Nanostructured coatings of many materials have exhibited higher hardness and strength compared with conventional coatings of the same material. Consequently, nanostructured coatings of other materials, including Cr3C2-Ni20Cr have been attempted to enhance over...

  10. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Kinetically Dominated Quasar 3C 270.1

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian


    Only a handful of quasars have been identified as kinetically dominated, their long term time averaged jet power, $\\overline{Q}$, exceeds the bolometric thermal emission, $L_{bol}$, associated with the accretion flow. This letter presents the first extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of a kinetically dominated quasar, 3C 270.1. The EUV continuum flux density of 3C 270.1 is very steep, $F_{\

  11. Target cell APOBEC3C can induce limited G-to-A mutation in HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Bourara


    Full Text Available The evolutionary success of primate lentiviruses reflects their high capacity to mutate and adapt to new host species, immune responses within individual hosts, and, in recent years, antiviral drugs. APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F are host cell DNA-editing enzymes that induce extensive HIV-1 mutation that severely attenuates viral replication. The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif, expressed in vivo, counteracts the antiviral activity of A3G and A3F by inducing their degradation. Other APOBECs may contribute more to viral diversity by inducing less extensive mutations allowing viral replication to persist. Here we show that in APOBEC3C (A3C-expressing cells infected with the patient-derived HIV-1 molecular clones 210WW, 210WM, 210MW, and 210MM, and the lab-adapted molecular clone LAI, viral G-to-A mutations were detected in the presence of Vif expression. Mutations occurred primarily in the GA context and were relatively infrequent, thereby allowing for spreading infection. The mutations were absent in cells lacking A3C but were induced after transient expression of A3C in the infected target cell. Inhibiting endogenous A3C by RNA interference in Magi cells prevented the viral mutations. Thus, A3C is necessary and sufficient for G-to-A mutations in some HIV-1 strains. A3C-induced mutations occur at levels that allow replication to persist and may therefore contribute to viral diversity. Developing drugs that inhibit A3C may be a novel strategy for delaying viral escape from immune or antiretroviral inhibition.

  12. Target Cell APOBEC3C Can Induce Limited G-to-A Mutation in HIV-1 (United States)

    Bourara, Khaoula; Liegler, Teri J; Grant, Robert M


    The evolutionary success of primate lentiviruses reflects their high capacity to mutate and adapt to new host species, immune responses within individual hosts, and, in recent years, antiviral drugs. APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) are host cell DNA-editing enzymes that induce extensive HIV-1 mutation that severely attenuates viral replication. The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif), expressed in vivo, counteracts the antiviral activity of A3G and A3F by inducing their degradation. Other APOBECs may contribute more to viral diversity by inducing less extensive mutations allowing viral replication to persist. Here we show that in APOBEC3C (A3C)-expressing cells infected with the patient-derived HIV-1 molecular clones 210WW, 210WM, 210MW, and 210MM, and the lab-adapted molecular clone LAI, viral G-to-A mutations were detected in the presence of Vif expression. Mutations occurred primarily in the GA context and were relatively infrequent, thereby allowing for spreading infection. The mutations were absent in cells lacking A3C but were induced after transient expression of A3C in the infected target cell. Inhibiting endogenous A3C by RNA interference in Magi cells prevented the viral mutations. Thus, A3C is necessary and sufficient for G-to-A mutations in some HIV-1 strains. A3C-induced mutations occur at levels that allow replication to persist and may therefore contribute to viral diversity. Developing drugs that inhibit A3C may be a novel strategy for delaying viral escape from immune or antiretroviral inhibition. PMID:17967058

  13. Association between variants of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3C (HTR3C) and chemotherapy-induced symptoms in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. (United States)

    Pud, Dorit; Har-Zahav, Gil; Laitman, Yael; Rubinek, Tami; Yeheskel, Adva; Ben-Ami, Sarah; Kaufman, Bella; Friedman, Eitan; Symon, Zvi; Wolf, Ido


    Administration of chemotherapy is associated with a wide array of symptoms affecting quality of life. Genetic risk factors for severity of chemotherapy-induced symptoms have not been determined. The present study aimed to explore the associations between polymorphisms in candidate genes and chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Women treated with at least two cycles of adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, with or without paclitaxel for early breast cancer (n = 105) completed the memorial symptom assessment scale and provided blood for genotyping. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and assayed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1, rs10483639, rs3783641, and rs8007267), catecholamine-o-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4818), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3C (HTR3C, rs6766410, and rs6807362). Genotyping of HTR3C revealed a significant association between the presence of rs6766410 and rs6807362 SNPs (K163 and G405 variants) and increased severity of symptoms (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.007, respectively). Multiple regressions revealed that rs6766410 and rs6807362, but not age or stage at diagnosis, predicted severity of symptoms (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively) and explained 12 % of the variance in each regression model. No association was found between the genetic variants of CGH1 or COMT and symptom score. Our study indicates, for the first time, an association between variants of HTR3C and severity of chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Analyzing these genetic variants may identify patients at increased risk for the development of chemotherapy-induced symptoms and targeting the serotonin pathway may serve as a novel treatment strategy for these patients.

  14. Design of Multimedia System Based on S3C6410%基于S3C6410的多媒体系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丰中; 刘鹏


    提出并实现了以S3C6410为核心处理器的嵌入式多媒体系统.详细介绍了多媒体系统整体设计方案、接口资源和S3C6410用于多媒体数据处理的BIT处理器.同时为方便人机交互控制,采用BC7210芯片以一种新的方式设计了红外遥控电路.实验测试表明,该系统为嵌入武多媒体系统开发提供了速度快、稳定性高的系统环境.%In this paper,the embedded multimedia system based on the processor-S3C6410 is presented and implemented. The overall design of multimedia system' s details and interfaces resources and the BIT processor used for multimedia data are given. At the same time,in order to facilitate the interactive control machine by human,a new way of using BC7210 chip to design the infrared remote control circuit is presented. Experimental tests show that the development system provide a fast,high stability system environment for embedded multimedia system development.

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Ti3C2Tx with hydrothermal process (United States)

    Wang, Libo; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Bo; Shen, Changjie; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Hu, Qianku; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Baozhong


    In this study, a simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare Ti3C2Tx from Ti3AlC2 as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. This method is environmentally friendly and has a low level of danger. The morphology and structure of the Ti3C2Tx can be controlled by hydrothermal reaction time, temperature and NH4F amounts. The prepared Ti3C2Tx was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. The results show that the prepared Ti3C2Tx is terminated by O, OH, and F groups. The electrochemical properties of the Ti3C2Tx sample exhibit specific capacitance up to 141 Fcm-3 in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, and even after 1000 cycles, no significant degradation of the volumetric capacitance was observed. These results indicate that the Ti3C2Tx material prepared by this hydrothermal method can be used in high performance supercapacitors.

  16. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.


    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  17. Downhole pulse radar (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien


    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  18. Experimental determination of optimal clamping torque for AB-PEM Fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ul Hassan


    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte Membrane (PEM fuel cell is an electrochemical device producing electricity by the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen without combustion. PEM fuel cell stack is provided with an appropriate clamping torque to prevent leakage of reactant gases and to minimize the contact resistance between gas diffusion media (GDL and bipolar plates. GDL porous structure and gas permeability is directly affected by the compaction pressure which, consequently, drastically change the fuel cell performance. Various efforts were made to determine the optimal compaction pressure and pressure distributions through simulations and experimentation. Lower compaction pressure results in increase of contact resistance and also chances of leakage. On the other hand, higher compaction pressure decreases the contact resistance but also narrows down the diffusion path for mass transfer from gas channels to the catalyst layers, consequently, lowering cell performance. The optimal cell performance is related to the gasket thickness and compression pressure on GDL. Every stack has a unique assembly pressure due to differences in fuel cell components material and stack design. Therefore, there is still need to determine the optimal torque value for getting the optimal cell performance. This study has been carried out in continuation of deve­lopment of Air breathing PEM fuel cell for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV application. Compaction pressure at minimum contact resistance was determined and clamping torque value was calcu­la­ted accordingly. Single cell performance tests were performed at five different clamping torque values i.e 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 N m, for achieving optimal cell per­formance. Clamping pressure distribution tests were also performed at these torque values to verify uniform pressure distribution at optimal torque value. Experimental and theoretical results were compared for making inferences about optimal cell perfor­man­ce. A

  19. Voltage- and space-clamp errors associated with the measurement of electrotonically remote synaptic events. (United States)

    Spruston, N; Jaffe, D B; Williams, S H; Johnston, D


    1. The voltage- and space-clamp errors associated with the use of a somatic electrode to measure current from dendritic synapses are evaluated using both equivalent-cylinder and morphologically realistic models of neuronal dendritic trees. 2. As a first step toward understanding the properties of synaptic current distortion under voltage-clamp conditions, the attenuation of step and sinusoidal voltage changes are evaluated in equivalent cylinder models. Demonstration of the frequency-dependent attenuation of voltage in the cable is then used as a framework for understanding the distortion of synaptic currents generated at sites remote from the somatic recording electrode and measured in the voltage-clamp recording configuration. 3. Increases in specific membrane resistivity (Rm) are shown to reduce steady-state voltage attenuation, while producing only minimal reduction in attenuation of transient voltage changes. Experimental manipulations that increase Rm therefore improve the accuracy of estimates of reversal potential for electrotonically remote synapses, but do not significantly reduce the attenuation of peak current. In addition, increases in Rm have the effect of slowing the kinetics of poorly clamped synaptic currents. 4. The effects of the magnitude of the synaptic conductance and its kinetics on the measured synaptic currents are also examined and discussed. The error in estimating parameters from measured synaptic currents is greatest for synapses with fast kinetics and large conductances. 5. A morphologically realistic model of a CA3 pyramidal neuron is used to demonstrate the generality of the conclusions derived from equivalent cylinder models. The realistic model is also used to fit synaptic currents generated by stimulation of mossy fiber (MF) and commissural/associational (C/A) inputs to CA3 neurons and to estimate the amount of distortion of these measured currents. 6. Anatomic data from the CA3 pyramidal neuron model are used to construct a

  20. Mutations of 3c and spike protein genes correlate with the occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis. (United States)

    Bank-Wolf, Barbara Regina; Stallkamp, Iris; Wiese, Svenja; Moritz, Andreas; Tekes, Gergely; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen


    The genes encoding accessory proteins 3a, 3b, 3c, 7a and 7b, the S2 domain of the spike (S) protein gene and the membrane (M) protein gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) samples were amplified, cloned and sequenced. For this faeces and/or ascites samples from 19 cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) as well as from 20 FECV-infected healthy cats were used. Sequence comparisons revealed that 3c genes of animals with FIP were heavily affected by nucleotide deletions and point mutations compared to animals infected with FECV; these alterations resulted either in early termination or destruction of the translation initiation codon. Two ascites-derived samples of cats with FIP which displayed no alterations of ORF3c harboured mutations in the S2 domain of the S protein gene which resulted in amino acid exchanges or deletions. Moreover, changes in 3c were often accompanied by mutations in S2. In contrast, in samples obtained from faeces of healthy cats, the ORF3c was never affected by such mutations. Similarly ORF3c from faecal samples of the cats with FIP was mostly intact and showed only in a few cases the same mutations found in the respective ascites samples. The genes encoding 3a, 3b, 7a and 7b displayed no mutations linked to the feline coronavirus (FCoV) biotype. The M protein gene was found to be conserved between FECV and FIPV samples. Our findings suggest that mutations of 3c and spike protein genes correlate with the occurrence of FIP.