WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3a4 enzyme involvement

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1...... analysis showed significant associations between 6beta-OHC/FC ratios and summation PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only....

  2. Inhibitory effect of salvianolate on human cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro involving a noncompetitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), which is purified from Danshen, is a popular herb extract. Sal B has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic, anti-arteriosclerotic and anti-apoptotic properties. This substance can also ameliorate brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The listed drug Salvianolate, which contains a substantial amount of Sal B, has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Our present work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of salvianolate on seven cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP450), namely, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant enzymes through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Salvianolate have a potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 1.438 (HLMs) and 3.582 (recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4) mg/L, respectively. Salvianolate strongly dose, but not time-dependently decreased CYP3A4 activity in HLMs. The typical Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that Salvianolate inhibited CYP3A4 activity noncompetitively, with a Ki value of 2.27 mg/L in HLMs. Other CYP450 isoforms are not markedly affected by Salvianolate. These findings indicate that salvianolate may be involved in potential drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP3A4 substrates.

  3. 肝药酶CYP3A4与抗癫(癎)药物的代谢研究进展%Progress on the metabolism of antiepileptic drugs by human hepatic CYP3A4 enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君梅

    2011-01-01

    癫(癎)是危害人类健康的常见神经系统疾病,临床常用抗癫(癎)药多通过细胞色素P450等肝药酶代谢.CYP3A4是P450酶系中最重要的代谢酶,参与40%~60%的药物代谢,与临床常用抗癫(癎)药的代谢也有非常紧密的关系.该文对CYP3A4的一般特性及其与抗癫(癎)药物的代谢研究进展作一概述.%Epilepsy is a common disease in nervous system.Most antiepileptic drugs are metabolized by liver enzymes.such as cytochrome P450 enzyme.CYP3A4 iS the most important enzyme in P450 family.involved in the metabolism of about 40%~60% of the drugs use for clinic.It also has a close relationship with the metabolism of antiepileptie drugs.This review summarizes the general characteristic of CYP3A4 and itsrelationship with the metabolism of antiepileptic drugs.

  4. Genetic analysis of drug metabolizing phase-I enzymes CYP3A4 in Tibetan populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIJUN LIU; YU CHANG; SHULI DU; XUGANG SHI; HUA YANG; LONGLI KANG; TIANBO JIN; DONGYA YUAN; YONGJUN HE

    2017-06-01

    The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 results in broad interindividual variability in response to certain pharmacotherapies. The present study aimed to screen Tibetan volunteers for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms. Previous research has focussed on Han Chinese patients, while little is known about the genetic variation of CYP3A4 in the Tibetan populations. Here, we adopted DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A4 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Tibetan individuals.We identified 20 different CYP3A4 polymorphisms in the Tibetan population, including two novel variants (21824 A>G and 15580 G>C). In addition, we also determined the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1Aand CYP3A4*1H were 82.29% and 28.13%, respectively. CYP3A4*1P and *1G were relatively rare with frequencies of only 1.04% and 0.52%, respectively. Our results provide information on CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Tibetan individuals which may help to optimize pharmacotherapy effectiveness by providing personalized medicine to this ethnic group.

  5. Different enzyme kinetics of midazolam in recombinant CYP3A4 microsomes from human and insect sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hege; Mathiesen, Liv; Postvoll, Lillian W; Winther, Bjørn; Molden, Espen

    2009-01-01

    In vitro drug metabolism techniques with human CYP c-DNA expressed systems are frequently used to predict human drug metabolism in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare midazolam enzyme kinetics in recombinant expressed CYP3A4 microsomes from human and insect cells. The amounts of 1'- hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam formed in CYP3A4 microsomes from transfected human liver epithelial cells (T5-3A4 microsomes) and baculovirus-infected insect cells (with and without coexpressed cytochrome b(5)) were analysed by LC-MS. Enzyme kinetic parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. Mean K(m) for the formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam was 3- and 4-fold higher in T5-3A4 microsomes than in insect microsomes (pmicrosomes was reflected by significantly lower Cl(int) compared to insect microsomes (pmicrosomes displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while insect microsomes showed substrate inhibition kinetics. The different enzyme kinetics of midazolam observed in recombinant CYP3A4 microsomes from human and insect sources, especially the substantially higher K(m) obtained in human microsomes compared to insect microsomes, should be further evaluated since it may have implications for correlations to in vivo situation.

  6. Interaction between four herb compounds and a western drug by CYP3A4 enzyme metabolism in vitro%3种中药成分对大鼠CYP3A4酶代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国林; 梁爱华; 赵雍; 曹春雨; 刘婷; 李春英; Odd Georg Nilsen

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨3种中药成分(延胡索乙素、甲基莲心碱、三七总皂苷)对CYP3A4酶代谢活性的影响,以了解中药与CYP3A4酶底物联合用药时可能产生的相互作用.方法:采用超高速离心法制备大鼠肝脏微粒体,建立体外肝脏微粒体混合酶代谢体系.以睾丸酮作为底物探针,用HPLC建立检测CYP3A4酶代谢活性的方法,分别考察体外代谢体系的最适宜底物浓度、代谢时间、pH、孵育温度以及磷酸盐浓度.在确定的条件下,将3种中药成分稀释成不同浓度,分别与睾丸酮共同孵育于肝微粒体代谢体系中,测定在有或无中药成分存在下代谢产物6β-羟基睾丸酮的产生量,以评估中药成分对CYP3A4酶代谢的影响.结果:在肝微粒体孵育体系中,睾丸酮代谢为6β-羟基睾丸酮最适宜的体外代谢条件为底物浓度200μmol·L~(-1),代谢时间3.5 h,pH 7.0,孵育温度37℃,磷酸盐终浓度0.1 mol·L~(-1).延胡索乙素和三七总皂苷均对CYP3A4酶的抑制作用较弱,IC_(50)>100μmol·L~(-1),甲基莲心碱有一定的抑制作用,IC_(50)为(47.5±2.3)μmol·L~(-1).结论:延胡索乙素和三七总皂苷对CYP3A4酶代谢无明显影响,提示这2种中药成分与CYP3A4酶底物之间的相互作用较低,甲基莲心碱有可能会产生微弱的药物相互作用.%Objective: To explore the interaction between herbal medicines and western drugs based on CYP3A4 enzyme metabolism by using testotesrone as a probe in liver microsome metabolism system in vitro. Method: The mixed liver microsome enzymatic system consisting of rat liver microsomes by ultra-high-speed centrifuge was established. The substrate testosterone was added into the system and enzyme CYP3A4 metabolic activity was expressed by the output of 6β-hydroxy-testosterone which was measured by HPLC method. The proper conditions for testotesrone metabolism in liver microsome system included substrate concentration, incubation time,pH and incubation

  7. Systemic uptake of miconazole during vaginal suppository use and effect on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 associated enzyme activities in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nielsen, Flemming; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if the ordinary use of a vaginal suppository containing miconazole results in systemic absorption that is sufficient to affect the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, which are major drug- and steroid-metabolising enzymes.......To investigate if the ordinary use of a vaginal suppository containing miconazole results in systemic absorption that is sufficient to affect the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, which are major drug- and steroid-metabolising enzymes....

  8. Systemic uptake of miconazole during vaginal suppository use and effect on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 associated enzyme activities in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nielsen, Flemming; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if the ordinary use of a vaginal suppository containing miconazole results in systemic absorption that is sufficient to affect the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, which are major drug- and steroid-metabolising enzymes....

  9. Characterization of midazolam metabolism in locusts: The role of CYP3A4-like enzyme in the formation of 1'-OH and 4-OH midazolam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line Rørbæk; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew

    2016-01-01

    1. The metabolism of midazolam was investigated in vivo in locusts in order to evaluate the presence of an enzyme with functionality similar to human CYP3A4/5. 2. Hydroxylated metabolites of midazolam identical to human metabolites were detected in locusts and the apparent affinities (Km values...... one in each case) of the imidazole ring. 5. Distribution of midazolam and the glucose conjugates were successfully measured using desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging revealing time-dependent changes in distribution over time. 6. In conclusion, it appears that an enzyme with functionality...... similar to human CYP3A4/5 is present in locusts. However, it appears that conjugation with glucose is the main detoxification pathway of midazolam in locusts....

  10. Characterization of midazolam metabolism in locusts: the role of a CYP3A4-like enzyme in the formation of 1'-OH and 4-OH midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Line Rørbæk; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Janfelt, Christian; Badolo, Lassina; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-01-01

    1. The metabolism of midazolam was investigated in vivo in locusts in order to evaluate the presence of an enzyme with functionality similar to human CYP3A4/5. 2. Hydroxylated metabolites of midazolam identical to human metabolites were detected in locusts and the apparent affinities (Km values) were in the same range as reported in humans (in locusts: 7-23 and 33-85 µM for the formation of the 1'-OH and 4-OH metabolites, respectively). 3. The formation of hydroxylated metabolites could successfully be inhibited by co-administration of ketoconazole, a known CYP3A4/5 inhibitor. 4. Besides phase I metabolites, a number of conjugated metabolites were detected using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most abundant metabolites detected were structurally identified by (1)H NMR as two N-glucosides. NMR analysis strongly suggested that the glycosylation occurred at the two nitrogens (either one in each case) of the imidazole ring. 5. Distribution of midazolam and the glucose conjugates were successfully measured using desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging revealing time-dependent changes in distribution over time. 6. In conclusion, it appears that an enzyme with functionality similar to human CYP3A4/5 is present in locusts. However, it appears that conjugation with glucose is the main detoxification pathway of midazolam in locusts.

  11. The effect of organic solvents on enzyme kinetic parameters of human CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokitta, Dennis; Pfeiffer, Kay; Streich, Christina; Gerwin, Henrik; Fuhr, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Enzyme kinetic parameters provide essential quantitative information about characterization of individual steps in drug metabolism. Such enzymes are located in a (partially) aqueous environment. For in vitro measurements potential lipophilic substrates regularly require organic solvents to achieve concentrations sufficient for access of the drug to the binding site of the enzyme. However, solvents may interact with the enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide (1% to 4%) on the assessment of km, Vmax and Clint for the metabolism of midazolam via CYP3A4 to 1-hydroxymidazolam and the metabolism of caffeine to paraxanthine via CYP1A2 using expressed enzymes in vitro. The presence of acetonitrile proved the highest apparent Vmax value for paraxanthine formation but the lowest values for 1-hydroxymidazolam formation. The km value for midazolam showed no systematic effects of organic solvents, while for caffeine km was up to 8-fold lower for solvent free samples compared to solvent containing samples. The present example suggests that effects of solvents may considerably influence enzyme kinetic parameters beyond a mere change in apparent activity. These effects illustrate a difference for individual enzyme--substrate pairs, solvents, and solvent concentrations. What remains is the determination to which extent these effects compromise in vitro-in vivo extrapolations, and which solvents are most appropriate.

  12. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2014-08-01

    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation.

  13. Interaction profile of armodafinil with medications metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2, 3A4 and 2C19 in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward T

    2008-01-01

    Armodafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent, is the pure R-enantiomer of racemic modafinil. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of three clinical drug-interaction studies assessing the potential for drug interactions of armodafinil with agents metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 1A2, 3A4 and 2C19. Study 1 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to induce the activity of CYP1A2 using oral caffeine as the probe substrate. Study 2 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to induce gastrointestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 activity using intravenous and oral midazolam as the probe substrate. Study 3 evaluated the potential for armodafinil to inhibit the activity of CYP2C19 using oral omeprazole as the probe substrate. Healthy men and nonpregnant women aged 18-45 years with a body mass index of

  14. Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein in first-pass intestinal extraction of omeprazole in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-ming FANG; Jian-ming XU; Qiao MEI; Lei DIAO; Mo-li CHEN; Juan JIN; Xin-hua XU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To quantitatively evaluate in vivo first-pass intestinal extraction of omeprazole and to investigate the possible involvement of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in this process in rabbits.Methods: Pharmacokinetic parameters were examined after intraduodenal (id), intraportal venous (ipv), and intravenous (iv) administration of omeprazole at various doses to intestinal and vascular access-ported rabbits. Extraction ratios in the liver and intestinal tract were determined from the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). In addition, omeprazole was administered by id or iv to rabbits alone or 30 min after the id administration of CYP3A4 or P-gp inhibitors (ketoconazole or verapamil, respectively). Results: Pharmacokinetic parameters of omeprazole were dose-dependent after id, ipv, and iv administration at various doses. After id administration of 3 mg/kg omeprazole, the hepatic and intestinal extraction ratio was 57.18%±2.73% and 54.94%±1.85%, while the value was 59.29%±3.14% and 54.20%±1.53% after given 6 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the control group, the presence of ketoconazole (60 mg/kg) or verapamil (9 mg/kg) significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (C_(max)) of id-administered omeprazole, while it had no significant effect on omeprazole administered by iv. Conclusion: Oral omeprazole undergoes marked extraction in the small intestine, and increased bioavailability of the drug after id administration of ketoconazole and verapamil suggests that this increase results from inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp function in the intestine rather than the liver.

  15. Enzymes involved in triglyceride hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M R; Kuusi, T

    1987-08-01

    The lipolytic enzymes LPL and HL play important roles in the metabolism of lipoproteins and participate in lipoprotein interconversions. LPL was originally recognized to be the key enzyme in the hydrolysis of chylomicrons and triglyceride, but it also turned out to be one determinant of HDL concentration in plasma. When LPL activity is high, chylomicrons and VLDL are rapidly removed from circulation and a concomitant rise of the HDL2 occurs. In contrast, low LPL activity impedes the removal of triglyceride-rich particles, resulting in the elevation of serum triglycerides and a decrease of HDL (HDL2). Concordant changes of this kind in LPL and HDL2 are induced by many physiological and pathological perturbations. Finally, the operation of LPL is also essential for the conversion of VLDL to LDL. This apparently clear-cut role of LPL in lipoprotein interconversions is contrasted with the enigmatic actions of HL. The enzyme was originally thought to participate in the catalyses of chylomicron and VLDL remnants generated in the LPL reaction. However, substantial in vitro and in vivo data indicate that HL is a key enzyme in the degradation of plasma HDL (HDL2) in a manner which opposes LPL. A scheme is presented for the complementary actions of the two enzymes in plasma HDL metabolism. In addition, recent studies have attributed a role to HL in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, particularly those containing apo E. However, this function becomes clinically important only under conditions where the capacity of the LPL-mediated removal system is exceeded. Such a situation may arise when the input of triglyceride-rich particles (chylomicrons and/or VLDL) is excessive or LPL activity is decreased or absent.

  16. involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    semesiae sp. nov. to evaluate whether the enzyme systems involved were constitutive or inductive. ... methyl transfer reaction in DMS conversion proceeds in a manner similar to methyltransferases ..... influence the rate of methanogenesis.

  17. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of cytochrome 3A4 in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Lies; Colin, Pieter; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan

    2012-09-15

    Little is known about the influence of hepatic pathologies on cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated drug metabolism in children. The determination of the abundance of the different isoforms in pediatric microsomes may provide valuable information on the mechanisms of possible changes in activity. Until now, western blotting was mostly used for abundance measurements, but this technique only provides semi-quantitative data. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate an indirect ELISA for the quantification of the most important CYP isoform, CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes, using commercially available reagents. Samples, calibrators and validation samples were diluted to a final concentration of 10 μg microsomal protein/ml. A polyclonal antibody raised against the full length human protein was used as primary antibody; horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies for detection. The assay was validated for sensitivity, working range and calibration, accuracy and precision. Amounts of CYP3A4 between 2 and 300 pmol/mg microsomal protein could be quantified with a 5-parameter logistics function with 1/x weighting factor. Coefficients of variation of intra and inter assay variability were between 9.54 and 13.98% (16.34% at LLOQ), and between 10.51 and 14.55% (19.44% at LLOQ), respectively. The relative error (%RE) varied between -5.96 and 6.68% (11.53% at LLOQ), and the total error between 11.93 and 21.23% (30.97% at LLOQ). The cross-reactivity of the method with human CYP2E1 showed to have no significant effect on the accuracy of the results. Successful analysis of five samples from an ongoing study demonstrated the usefulness of the method.

  18. In vitro modulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. Triterpenoids are mainly responsible for cardiovascular properties. Alcoholic and aqueous bark extracts of T. arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin were evaluated for their potential to inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes in human liver microsomes. We have demonstrated that alcoholic and aqueous bark extract of T. arjuna showed potent inhibition of all three enzymes in human liver microsomes with IC50 values less than 50 μg/mL. Arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin did not show significant inhibition of CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes. Enzyme kinetics studies suggested that the extracts of arjuna showed reversible non-competitive inhibition of all the three enzymes in human liver microsomes. Our findings suggest strongly that arjuna extracts significantly inhibit the activity of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which is likely to cause clinically significant drug–drug interactions mediated via inhibition of the major CYP isozymes.

  19. Pyrethroid insecticides: isoform-dependent hydrolysis, induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and evidence on the involvement of the pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Wang, Xiliang; Chen, Yi-Tzai; Deng, Ruitang; Yan, Bingfang

    2009-05-15

    Pyrethroids account for more than one-third of the insecticides currently marketed in the world. In mammals, these insecticides undergo extensive metabolism by carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In addition, some pyrethroids are found to induce the expression of CYPs. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyrethroids induce carboxylesterases and CYP3A4, and whether the induction is correlated inversely with their hydrolysis. Human liver microsomes were pooled and tested for the hydrolysis of 11 pyrethroids. All pyrethroids were hydrolyzed by the pooled microsomes, but the hydrolytic rates varied by as many as 14 fold. Some pyrethroids such as bioresmethrin were preferably hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase HCE1, whereas others such as bifenthrin preferably by HCE2. In primary human hepatocytes, all pyrethroids except tetramethrin significantly induced CYP3A4. In contrast, insignificant changes were detected on the expression of carboxylesterases. The induction of CYP3A4 was confirmed in multiple cell lines including HepG2, Hop92 and LS180. Overall, the magnitude of the induction was correlated inversely with the rates of hydrolysis, but positively with the activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Transfection of a carboxylesterase markedly decreased the activation of PXR, and the decrease was in agreement with carboxylesterase-based preference for hydrolysis. In addition, human PXR variants as well as rat PXR differed from human PXR (wild-type) in responding to certain pyrethroids (e.g., lambda-cyhalothrin), suggesting that induction of PXR target genes by these pyrethroids varies depending on polymorphic variants and the PXR species identity.

  20. CYP3A4*1G gene Polymorphism on Javanese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Em Sutrisna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbtractMost of drugs are metabolized by cytochrome P 450 (CYP enzyme. Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the cytochrome that is involved in metabolizing more than 60% of all medicine used in human. The variation of this CYP3A4 gene will affect the catalytic activity of this enzyme. Recently, CYP3A4*1G in intron 10 was found in Chinese and Japanese population. There is a substitution of G to A at position 82266 in intron 10. The purpose of this research was to investigate the frequency of allele and genotype CYP3A4*1G. Samples were taken from bloods of the subjects of the research. The examination of CYP3A4*1G was conducted by RTLP-PCR method.As the results of this research, the frequency of CYP3A4*1G in Javanese people is CYP3A4*1/*1 0.25, CYP3A4*1/*1G 0.55 and CYP3A4*1G/*1G 0.20. Frequency of allele G: 0.53, allele A: 0.47. The Fisher’s exact- test shows that the allele and genotype frequencyis p. 1.000. The allele and genotype frequency of Javanese people isstill in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Keywords : CYP3A4*1G gene, polymorphism, Javanese people

  1. Artificial concurrent catalytic processes involving enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Valentin; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-11

    The concurrent operation of multiple catalysts can lead to enhanced reaction features including (i) simultaneous linear multi-step transformations in a single reaction flask (ii) the control of intermediate equilibria (iii) stereoconvergent transformations (iv) rapid processing of labile reaction products. Enzymes occupy a prominent position for the development of such processes, due to their high potential compatibility with other biocatalysts. Genes for different enzymes can be co-expressed to reconstruct natural or construct artificial pathways and applied in the form of engineered whole cell biocatalysts to carry out complex transformations or, alternatively, the enzymes can be combined in vitro after isolation. Moreover, enzyme variants provide a wider substrate scope for a given reaction and often display altered selectivities and specificities. Man-made transition metal catalysts and engineered or artificial metalloenzymes also widen the range of reactivities and catalysed reactions that are potentially employable. Cascades for simultaneous cofactor or co-substrate regeneration or co-product removal are now firmly established. Many applications of more ambitious concurrent cascade catalysis are only just beginning to appear in the literature. The current review presents some of the most recent examples, with an emphasis on the combination of transition metal with enzymatic catalysis and aims to encourage researchers to contribute to this emerging field.

  2. The structural biology of enzymes involved in natural product glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2012-10-01

    The glycosylation of microbial natural products often dramatically influences the biological and/or pharmacological activities of the parental metabolite. Over the past decade, crystal structures of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of novel sugars found appended to natural products have emerged. In many cases, these studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the corresponding enzyme mechanism of action and have served as a starting point for engineering variant enzymes to facilitate to production of differentially-glycosylated natural products. This review specifically summarizes the structural studies of bacterial enzymes involved in biosynthesis of novel sugar nucleotides.

  3. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Ingrid Drögemöller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available TThe CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of approximately 600 bp of the 5’-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4*12, CYP3A4*15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4*1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations.

  4. Enzymes involved in organellar DNA replication in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMoriyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plastids and mitochondria possess their own genomes. Although the replication mechanisms of these organellar genomes remain unclear in photosynthetic eukaryotes, several organelle-localized enzymes related to genome replication, including DNA polymerase, DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA topoisomerase, single-stranded DNA maintenance protein, DNA ligase, primer removal enzyme, and several DNA recombination-related enzymes, have been identified. In the reference Eudicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the replication-related enzymes of plastids and mitochondria are similar because many of them are dual targeted to both organelles, whereas in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, plastids and mitochondria contain different replication machinery components. The enzymes involved in organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae were derived from different origins, including proteobacterial, cyanobacterial, and eukaryotic lineages. In the present review, we summarize the available data for enzymes related to organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae. In addition, based on the type and distribution of replication enzymes in photosynthetic eukaryotes, we discuss the transitional history of replication enzymes in the organelles of plants.

  5. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new cardioprotective agent KR-33028.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Kim, Hyunmi; Kang, Suil; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-10-10

    KR-33028 (N-[4-cyano-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl]guanidine) is a new cardioprotective agent for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study was performed to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of KR-33028. Hydroxylation (5-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy-KR-33028) is major pathways for the metabolism of KR-33028 in human liver microsomes. Among the nine c-DNA expressed CYP isoforms tested, KR-33028 was 5-hydroxylated by CYP3A4 and 7-hydroxylated by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19. These findings were supported by the combination of chemical inhibition studies in human liver microsomes and correlation analysis. Furafylline and ketoconazole potently inhibited hydroxylation of KR-33028 in human liver microsomes. Correlation analysis between the known CYP enzyme activities and the rates of the formation of 5-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 in the 16 human liver microsomes has showed significant correlations with CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation, respectively. A 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 formation is also weakly correlated with CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. The kinetics of the major biotransformation of KR-33028 were studied: CYP3A4 mediated the formation of 5-hydroxy-KR-33028 from KR-33028 with Cl(int)=0.22microl/min/pmol CYP. The intrinsic clearance for 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 formation by CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 were 0.26, 0.19, and 0.03microl/min/pmol CYP, respectively. Taken together, these results provide evidence that CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are the major isoforms responsible for the hydroxy metabolites formation from KR-33028.

  6. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-11

    dihydroxyacetone reductase involved in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis [111]. Therefore, altered glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with reduced...in Mammals Increases with Muscle n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content. PLoS ONE, 2006. 1: p. e65. 143. Cole, G.M., Lim, G.P., Yang, F., Teter, B...2007 Title of Dissertation: "Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation" APPROVAL SHEET Ernest Maynard, P .D. Department of

  7. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G. (UIUC)

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  8. Modelling atypical CYP3A4 kinetics: principles and pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2005-01-15

    The Michaelis-Menten model, and the existence of a single active site for the interaction of substrate with drug metabolizing enzyme, adequately describes a substantial number of in vitro metabolite kinetic data sets for both clearance and inhibition determination. However, in an increasing number of cases (involving most notably, but not exclusively, CYP3A4), atypical kinetic features are observed, e.g., auto- and heteroactivation; partial, cooperative, and substrate inhibition; concentration-dependent effector responses (activation/inhibition); limited substrate substitution and inhibitory reciprocity necessitating sub-group classification. The phenomena listed above cannot be readily interpreted using single active site models and the literature indicates that three types of approaches have been adopted. First the 'nai ve' approach of using the Michaelis-Menten model regardless of the kinetic behaviour, second the 'empirical' approach (e.g., employing the Hill or uncompetitive inhibition equations to model homotropic phenomena of sigmoidicity and substrate inhibition, respectively) and finally, the 'mechanistic' approach. The later includes multisite kinetic models derived using the same rapid equilibrium/steady-state assumptions as the single-site model. These models indicate that 2 or 3 binding sites exist for a given CYP3A4 substrate and/or effector. Multisite kinetic models share common features, depending on the substrate kinetics and the nature of the effector response observed in vitro, which allow a generic model to be proposed. Thus although more complex than the other two approaches, they show more utility and can be comprehensively applied in relatively simple versions that can be readily generated from generic model. Multisite kinetic features, observed in isolated hepatocytes as well as in microsomes from hepatic tissue and heterologous expression systems, may be evident in substrate depletion-time profiles as well as in metabolite formation rates

  9. Pharmacogenomics of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4: recent progress towards the missing heritability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKlein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CYP3A4 is the most important drug metabolizing enzyme in adult humans because of its prominent expression in liver and gut and because of its broad substrate specificity, which includes drugs from most therapeutic categories and many endogenous substances. Expression and function of CYP3A4 vary extensively both intra- and interindividually thus contributing to unpredictable drug response and toxicity. A multitude of environmental, genetic and physiological factors are known to influence CYP3A4 expression and activity. Among the best predictable sources of variation are drug-drug interactions, which are either caused by PXR-, CAR-mediated gene induction, or by inhibition through coadministered drugs or other chemicals, including also plant and food ingredients. Among physiological and pathophysiological factors are hormonal status, age, and gender, the latter of which was shown to result in higher levels in females compared to males, as well as inflammatory processes that downregulate CYP3A4 transcription. Despite the influence of these nongenetic factors, the genetic influence on CYP3A4 activity was estimated in previous twin studies and using information on repeated drug administration to account for 66% up to 88% of the interindividual variation. Although many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the CYP3A locus have been identified, genetic association studies have so far failed to explain a major part of the phenotypic variability. The term missing heritability has been used to denominate the gap between expected and known genetic contribution, e.g. for complex diseases, and is also used here in analogy. In this review we summarize CYP3A4 pharmacogenetics/genomics from the early inheritance estimations up to the most recent genetic and clinical studies, including new findings about SNPs in CYP3A4 (*22 and other genes (POR, PPARA with possible contribution to CYP3A4 variable expression.

  10. Lupine protein hydrolysates inhibit enzymes involved in the inflammatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Yust, María del Mar; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2014-05-15

    Lupine protein hydrolysates (LPHs) were obtained from a lupine protein isolate (LPI) by enzymatic hydrolysis using two proteases, Izyme AL and Alcalase 2.4 L, and their potential anti-inflammatory capacities were studied by determining their in vitro inhibition of the following enzymes that are involved in the inflammatory process: phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), thrombin, and transglutaminase (TG). The strongest inhibitory activities toward PLA2 and TG were found in the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with Izyme and subsequently with Alcalase, with more than 70% inhibition obtained in some cases. All of the hydrolysates tested inhibited more than 60% of the COX-2 activity. In no case did the percentage of thrombin activity inhibition exceed 40%. The best inhibitory activities were found in the LPH obtained after 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase and in the LPH obtained after 60 min of hydrolysis with Izyme followed by 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase. Enzyme kinetic analyses were conducted to determine the Km and Vmax parameters of these two hydrolysates using the Lineweaver-Burk equation. Both hydrolysates competitively inhibited the thrombin and PLA2 activities. In the case of COX-2 and TG, the inhibition appeared to be the mixed type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding g

  12. Dual roles of nuclear receptor liver X receptor α (LXRα) in the CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes as a positive and negative regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keisuke; Sakurai, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Yuri; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-01

    CYP3A4 is a major drug-metabolizing enzyme in humans, whose expression levels show large inter-individual variations and are associated with several factors such as genetic polymorphism, physiological and disease status, diet and xenobiotic exposure. Nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key transcription factor for the xenobiotic-mediated transcription of CYP3A4. In this study, we have investigated a possible involvement of liver X receptor α (LXRα), a critical regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, in the hepatic CYP3A4 expression since several recent reports suggest the involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the cholesterol metabolism in humans and mice. Reporter assays using wild-type and mutated CYP3A4 luciferase reporter plasmids and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that LXRα up-regulated CYP3A4 through the known DNA elements critical for the PXR-dependent CYP3A4 transcription, suggesting LXRα as a positive regulator for the CYP3A4 expression and a crosstalk between PXR and LXRα in the expression. In fact, reporter assays showed that LXRα activation attenuated the PXR-dependent CYP3A4 transcription. Moreover, a PXR agonist treatment-dependent increase in CYP3A4 mRNA levels was suppressed by co-treatment with an LXRα agonist in human primary hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. The suppression was not observed when LXRα expression was knocked-down in HepaRG cells. In conclusion, the present results suggest that sterol-sensitive LXRα positively regulates the basal expression of CYP3A4 but suppresses the xenobiotic/PXR-dependent CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Therefore, nutritional, physiological and disease conditions affecting LXRα might be one of the determinants for the basal and xenobiotic-responsive expression of CYP3A4 in human livers.

  13. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yuki

    2013-11-01

    Drug-drug interactions associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely known. A major interaction by SSRIs is the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated hepatic drug metabolism. The SSRI, sertraline, is also reported to increase the blood concentration of co-administered drugs. The potency of sertraline directly to inhibit hepatic drug metabolism is relatively weak compared with the other SSRIs, implying that additional mechanisms are involved in the interactions. The study examined whether sertraline produces time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 and/or other P450 enzymes. Incubation of human liver microsomes with sertraline in the presence of NADPH resulted in marked decreases in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activities, indicating that sertraline metabolism leads to CYP3A4 inactivation. This inactivation required NADPH and was not protected by glutathione. No significant inactivation was observed for other P450 enzymes. Spectroscopic evaluation revealed that microsomes with and without sertraline in the presence of NADPH gave a Soret peak at 455 nm, suggesting the formation of metabolic intermediate (MI) complexes of sertraline metabolite(s) with the reduced form of P450. This is the first report indicating that sertraline produced time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4, which may be associated with MI complex formation.

  14. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Capture by Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gareth K; Ritchie, Caroline M; Shock, Lisa S; Lyons, Charles E; Hackett, John C

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the dominant P450 enzyme involved in human drug metabolism, and its inhibition may result in adverse interactions or, conversely, favorably reduce the systemic elimination rates of poorly bioavailable drugs. Herein we describe a spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of CYP3A4 with N-methylritonavir, an analog of ritonavir, widely used as a pharmacoenhancer. In contrast to ritonavir, the binding affinity of N-methylritonavir for CYP3A4 is pH-dependent. At pH UV-visible spectroscopy binding studies with molecular fragments narrows the source of this pH dependence to its N-methylthiazolium fragment. The C2 proton of this group is acidic, and variable-pH resonance Raman spectroscopy tentatively assigns it a pKa of 7.4. Hence, this fragment of N-methylritonavir is expected to be readily deprotonated under physiologic conditions to yield a thiazol-2-ylidene, which is an N-heterocyclic carbene that has high-affinity for and is presumed to be subsequently captured by the heme iron. This mechanism is supported by time-dependent density functional theory with an active site model that accurately reproduces distinguishing features of the experimental UV-visible spectra of N-methylritonavir bound to CYP3A4. Finally, density functional theory calculations support that this novel interaction is as strong as the tightest-binding azaheterocycles found in P450 inhibitors and could offer new avenues for inhibitor development. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Functions of genes and enzymes involved in phenalinolactone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Martina; Schnell, Hans-Jörg; Herrmann, Simone; Günther, Andreas; Murillo, Renato; Müller, Rolf; Bisel, Philippe; Müller, Michael; Bechthold, Andreas

    2010-07-05

    Phenalinolactones are novel terpene glycoside antibiotics produced by Streptomyces sp. Tü6071. Inactivation of three oxygenase genes (plaO2, plaO3 and plaO5), two dehydrogenase genes (plaU, plaZ) and one putative acetyltransferase gene (plaV) led to the production of novel phenalinolactone derivatives (PL HS6, PL HS7, PL HS2 and PL X1). Furthermore, the exact biosynthetic functions of two enzymes were determined, and their in vitro activities were demonstrated. PlaO1, an Fe(II)/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, is responsible for the key step in gamma-butyrolactone formation, whereas PlaO5, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, catalyses the 1-C-hydroxylation of phenalinolactone D. In addition, stable isotope feeding experiments with biosynthetic precursors shed light on the origin of the carbons in the gamma-butyrolactone moiety.

  16. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Limón, M Carmen; Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β-carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lackof CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  17. A RALDH-like enzyme involved in Fusarium verticillioides development

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta

    2015-12-11

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β–carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro. Thereby, we identified an aldehyde dehydrogenase, termed CarY, as a retinoic acid-forming enzyme, an activity that was also exerted by purified CarY. Targeted mutation of the carY gene in F. verticillioides resulted in alterations of mycelia development and conidia morphology in agar cultures, and reduced capacity to produce perithecia as a female in sexual crosses. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type carY allele demonstrated that these alterations are caused by the lack of CarY. However, retinoic acid could not be detected by LC-MS analysis either in the wild type or the complemented carY strain in vivo, making elusive the connection between CarY enzymatic activity and retinoic acid formation in the fungus.

  18. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cyamemazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbus, Christophe; Benyamina, Amine; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Baylé, Franck; Bromet, Norbert; Massiere, Frédéric; Garay, Ricardo P; Hameg, Ahcène

    2007-12-01

    Recombinant human liver microsomal enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1) were used to determine the metabolic fate of the antipsychotic anxiolytic agent cyamemazine. An LC/MS-MS tandem methodology was developed specifically for identifying the presence of cyamemazine and its metabolites in reaction media. All P450 enzymes investigated, with the exception of CYP2A6 and CYP2E1, degraded cyamemazine, albeit to a different extent, with CYP1A2, CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 being the most efficient (>80%). However, in microsomes prepared from native human hepatocytes, only relatively specific competitors (inhibitors and/or substrates) of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 reduced notably the degradation cyamemazine. The main routes of cyamemazine biotransformation are N-mono-demethylation (CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2C8) and mono-oxidation (either S-oxidized or hydroxylated derivatives which could not be discriminated because characterized by the same mass value) by CYP1A2 and CYP2C9. Secondary metabolic routes yields N,N-di-demethylated and N-demethylated mono-oxidized products. Thus, under in vitro conditions, cyamemazine is extensively degraded by at least four distinct P450 enzymes, into two primary hydrophilic metabolites. These results suggest that cyamemazine detoxification process is unlikely to be significantly impaired by co-administration of therapeutic agents that are substrates of the CYP metabolic system.

  19. Generation and validation of rapid computational filters for cyp2d6 and cyp3a4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Berbaum, Jennifer; Harrison, Richard K

    2003-09-01

    CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 represent two particularly important members of the cytochrome p450 enzyme family due to their involvement in the metabolism of many commercially available drugs. Avoiding potent inhibitory interactions with both of these enzymes is highly desirable in early drug discovery, long before entering clinical trials. Computational prediction of this liability as early as possible is desired. Using a commercially available data set of over 1750 molecules to train computer models that were generated with commercially available software enabled predictions of inhibition for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, which were compared with empirical data. The results suggest that using a recursive partitioning (tree) technique with augmented atom descriptors enables a statistically significant rank ordering of test-set molecules (Spearman's rho of 0.61 and 0.48 for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively), which represents an increased rate of identifying the best compounds when compared with the random rate. This approach represents a valuable computational filter in early drug discovery to identify compounds that may have p450 inhibition liabilities prior to molecule synthesis. Such computational filters offer a new approach in which lead optimization in silico can occur with virtual molecules simultaneously tested against multiple enzymes implicated in drug-drug interactions, with a resultant cost savings from a decreased level of molecule synthesis and in vitro screening.

  20. Microsomal cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) nanobiosensor for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol-An endocrine disruptor compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Nicolette R.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Arotiba, Omotayo; Jahed, Nazeem; Baker, Priscilla G.L. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of Western Cape, Moderddam Road, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel I. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of Western Cape, Moderddam Road, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)], E-mail: eiwuoha@uwc.ac.za

    2009-02-28

    Cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) is a monooxygenase enzyme that plays a major role in the detoxification of bioactive compounds and hydrophobic xenobiotics (e.g. medicines, drugs, environmental pollutants, food supplements and steroids). Physiologically the monooxygenation reactions of this class II, microsomal, b-type heme enzyme, usually requires cytochrome P450 reductase, NADPH. A novel CYP3A4 biosensor system that essentially simplified the enzymatic redox processes by allowing electron transfer between the electrode and the enzyme redox centre to occur, without any need for the physiological redox partners, was developed for the detection of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a priority environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor. The biosensor, GC/Naf-Co(Sep){sup 3+}/CYP3A4/Naf, was constructed by encapsulating CYP3A4 in a Nafion-cobalt (III) sepulchrate (Naf-Co(Sep){sup 3+}) composite film on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The responses of the biosensor to 2,4-dichlorophenol, erythromycin (CYP3A4 native substrate) and ketoconazole (CYP 3A4 natural inhibitor) were studied by cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques. The detection limit (DL) of the biosensor for 2,4-dichlorophenol was 0.043 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is by an order of magnitude lower than the EU limit (0.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for any pesticide compound in ground water. The biosensor's DL is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) value for 2,4-DCP, which is 2 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  1. A clinical drug–drug interaction study to evaluate the effect of a proton-pump inhibitor, a combined P-glycoprotein/cytochrome 450 enzyme (CYP)3A4 inhibitor, and a CYP2C9 inhibitor on the pharmacokinetics of vismodegib

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, Vikram; Colburn, Dawn; Williams, Sarah J.; Hop, Cornelis E. C. A.; Dresser, Mark J.; Chandra, Priya; Graham, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib exhibits pH-dependent solubility, and in vitro studies have shown that vismodegib is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and 3A4. The objective of this four-arm parallel study in healthy subjects was to evaluate the effect of the proton-pump inhibitor rabeprazole, the P-gp/CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole, and the CYP2C9 and 3A4 inhibitor fluconazole on vismodegib steady-state pharmacokinetics. Met...

  2. [Effects of isorhamnetin on CYP3A4 and herb-drug interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li-li; Zhang, Jing-jing; Dou, Wei

    2012-08-01

    The study is to report the investigation of the effects of isorhamnetin on CYP3A4 and herb-drug interaction. A reporter gene assay is used to test pregnane X receptor transactivation action, qRT-PCR and a luminescence-based assay were applied to determine mRNA induction and enzyme activity of CYP3A4 after isorhamnetin treatment. The interaction of irinotecan and isorhamnetin was assessed by inhibition assay of cell proliferation. Isorhamnetin at 1, 10 and 25 micromol x L(-1) transactivated the CYP3A4 reporter construct and upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA as well in a dose-dependent manner. However, isorhamnetin had no effect on enzyme activity of CYP3A4 and irinotecan HepG2 cytotoxicity. In conclusion, activation of PXR by isorhamnetin played a role in the upregulation of CYP3A4 mRNA. Moreover, joint action of isorhamnetin with other drugs may not be associated with the herb-drug interaction.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Vegetable Juices on CYP3A4 Activity in Recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Tomoe; Kozakai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Saori; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that eating habits induces individual variation in intestinal absorption and metabolism of drugs. The objective of this research was to clarify the influence of vegetables juices on CYP3A4 activity, which is an important enzyme in intestine. Five vegetables juices (VJ-o, Kagome Original(®); VJ-g, Kagome 30 kinds of vegetables and fruits(®); VJ-p, Kagome Purple vegetables(®); VJ-r, Kagome Sweet Tomato(®); and VJ-y, Kagome Fruity Salada(®); KAGOME Co., Ltd., Aichi, Japan) were centrifuged (1630×g, 10 min) and filtered using filter paper and 0.45-µm membrane filters. In this study, recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells were used for the evaluation of CYP3A4 activity. The metabolisms to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by recombinant CYP3A4 were significantly inhibited by VJ-o, VJ-g, and VJ-y in a preincubation time-dependent manner, and CYP3A4 activity in LS180 cells were significantly inhibited by VJ-o and VJ-y. These results show that the difference in ingestion volume of vegetable juices and vegetables might partially induce individual difference in intestinal drug metabolism.

  4. Identification of a functional homolog of the mammalian CYP3A4 in locusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line Rørbæk; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Peter Aadal;

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a new tool in early drug development. It was recently demonstrated that locusts have an efflux transporter localized in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is functionally similar to the mammalian P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. Two insect BBB models have been put...... is specific to the cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, we have detected metabolites identical to human metabolites of terfenadine. The formation of human metabolites in locusts was inhibited by ketoconazole, a mammalian...... CYP3A4 inhibitor, suggesting that the enzyme responsible for the human metabolite formation in locusts is functionally similar to human CYP3A4. Besides the human metabolites of terfenadine, additional metabolites were formed in locusts. These were tentatively identified as phosphate and glucose...

  5. Structure and function of enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of L-threonine to propionate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhirendra K Simanshu; Sagar Chittori; H S Savithri; M R N Murthy

    2007-09-01

    In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, L-threonine is cleaved non-oxidatively to propionate via 2-ketobutyrate by biodegradative threonine deaminase, 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase (or pyruvate formate-lyase), phosphotransacetylase and propionate kinase. In the anaerobic condition, L-threonine is converted to the energy-rich keto acid and this is subsequently catabolised to produce ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, providing a source of energy to the cells. Most of the enzymes involved in the degradation of L-threonine to propionate are encoded by the anaerobically regulated tdc operon. In the recent past, extensive structural and biochemical studies have been carried out on these enzymes by various groups. Besides detailed structural and functional insights, these studies have also shown the similarities and differences between the other related enzymes present in the metabolic network. In this paper, we review the structural and biochemical studies carried out on these enzymes.

  6. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  7. Characterization of the promoter region of biosynthetic enzyme genes involved in berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Yamada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs, a plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4’OMT and CYP719A1 were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4’OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed.

  8. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  9. A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the GAPDH Trypanosoma cruzi enzyme involving iodoacetate inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Agnaldo Silva; Lameira, Jerônimo; Alves, Cláudio Nahum

    2011-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is an important biological target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas disease. In this Letter, the inhibition mechanism of GAPDH involving iodoacetate (IAA) inhibitor was studied using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic simulations. Analysis of the potential energy surface and potential of mean force show that the covalent attachment of IAA inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme occurs as a concerted process. In addition, the energy terms decomposition shows that NAD+ plays an important role in stabilization of the reagents and transition state.

  10. Cysteine 98 in CYP3A4 Contributes to Conformational Integrity Required for P450 Interaction with CYP Reductase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Lampe, Jed N.; Roberts, Arthur G.; Atkins, William M.; Rodrigues, A. David; Nelson, Sidney D.

    2007-01-01

    Previously human cytochrome P450 3A4 was efficiently and specifically photolabeled by the photoaffinity ligand lapachenole. One of the modification sites was identified as cysteine 98 in the B-C loop region of the protein. Loss of CO binding capacity and subsequent decrease of catalytic activity were observed in the labeled CYP3A4, which suggested that aromatic substitution on residue 98 triggered a critical conformational change and subsequent loss of enzyme activity. To test this hypothesis, C98A, C98S, C98F and C98W mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed functionally as oligohistidine-tagged proteins. Unlike the mono-adduction observed in the wild-type protein, simultaneous multiple adductions occurred when C98F and C98W were photolabeled under the same conditions as the wild-type enzyme, indicating a substantial conformational change in these two mutants compared with the wild-type protein. Kinetic analysis revealed that the C98W mutant had a drastic 16-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for 1′-OH midazolam formation, and about an 8-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for 4-OH midazolam formation, while the C98A and C98S mutants retained the same enzyme activity as the wild-type enzyme. Photolabeling of C98A and C98S with lapachenole resulted in monoadduction of only Cys-468, in contrast to the labeling of Cys-98 in wild-type CYP3A4, demonstrating the marked selectivity of this photoaffinity ligand for cysteine residues. The slight increases in the midazolam binding constants (Ks) in these mutants suggested negligible perturbation of the heme environment. Further activity studies using different P450:reductase ratios suggested that the affinity of P450 to reductase was significantly decreased in the C98W mutant, but not in the C98A and C98S mutants. In addition, the C98W mutant exhibited a 41% decrease in the maximum electron flow rate between P450 and reductase as measured by reduced nicotinamide adenine

  11. An in vitro system for measuring genotoxicity mediated by human CYP3A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasullo, Michael; Freedland, Julian; St John, Nicholas; Cera, Cinzia; Egner, Patricia; Hartog, Matthew; Ding, Xinxin

    2017-05-01

    P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). Yeast microsomes containing human CYP3A4, but not those that do not contain CYP3A4, were active in hydroxylation of diclofenac, a known CYP3A4 substrate drug, a result confirming CYP3A4 activity in the recombinant yeast strain. In cells exposed to AFB1 , the expression of CYP3A4 supported DNA adduct formation, chromosome rearrangements, cell death, and expression of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, Rnr3, a marker of DNA damage. Expression of CYP3A4 also conferred sensitivity in rad4 rad51 mutants exposed to colon carcinogen, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). These data confirm the ability of human CYP3A4 to mediate the genotoxicity of AFB1 , and illustrate the usefulness of the CYP3A4-expressing, DNA-repair mutant yeast strain for screening other chemical compounds that are CYP3A4 substrates, for potential genotoxicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:217-227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Global (Q)SAR models on substrates for human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Wedebye, Eva Bay;

    The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes which catalyze the metabolism of a wide range of endobiotics and xenobiotics. The latter category comprises drugs and about 75% of marketed drugs are metabolised by CYP enzymes. Besides drugs, CYP enzymes detoxify environmental compounds...... domain. Domain coverage of EINECS chemicals and number of predicted substrates are discussed. Reference: C.W. Yap and Y.Z. Chen, Prediction of cytochrome p450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9 inhibitors and substrates by using support vector machines, J. Chem. Inf. Model. 45 (2005), pp. 982–992....... but paradoxically they also have the ability to form reactive intermediates which can damage DNA, lipids and proteins. It is therefore important to gain knowledge on which substrates that can potentially be metabolised by CYP. The CYP 3A4 isoenzyme plays a dominant role by the metabolic elimination of up to 35...

  13. Pharmacogenomics of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Recent Progress Toward the "Missing Heritability" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2013-01-01

    CYP3A4 is the most important drug metabolizing enzyme in adult humans because of its prominent expression in liver and gut and because of its broad substrate specificity, which includes drugs from most therapeutic categories and many endogenous substances. Expression and function of CYP3A4 vary extensively both intra- and interindividually thus contributing to unpredictable drug response and toxicity. A multitude of environmental, genetic, and physiological factors are known to influence CYP3A4 expression and activity. Among the best predictable sources of variation are drug-drug interactions, which are either caused by pregnane X-receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) mediated gene induction, or by inhibition through coadministered drugs or other chemicals, including also plant and food ingredients. Among physiological and pathophysiological factors are hormonal status, age, and gender, the latter of which was shown to result in higher levels in females compared to males, as well as inflammatory processes that downregulate CYP3A4 transcription. Despite the influence of these non-genetic factors, the genetic influence on CYP3A4 activity was estimated in previous twin studies and using information on repeated drug administration to account for 66% up to 88% of the interindividual variation. Although many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CYP3A locus have been identified, genetic association studies have so far failed to explain a major part of the phenotypic variability. The term "missing heritability" has been used to denominate the gap between expected and known genetic contribution, e.g., for complex diseases, and is also used here in analogy. In this review we summarize CYP3A4 pharmacogenetics/genomics from the early inheritance estimations up to the most recent genetic and clinical studies, including new findings about SNPs in CYP3A4 (*22) and other genes (P450 oxidoreductase (POR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

  14. novPTMenzy: a database for enzymes involved in novel post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Shradha; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2015-01-01

    With the recent discoveries of novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) which play important roles in signaling and biosynthetic pathways, identification of such PTM catalyzing enzymes by genome mining has been an area of major interest. Unlike well-known PTMs like phosphorylation, glycosylation, SUMOylation, no bioinformatics resources are available for enzymes associated with novel and unusual PTMs. Therefore, we have developed the novPTMenzy database which catalogs information on the sequence, structure, active site and genomic neighborhood of experimentally characterized enzymes involved in five novel PTMs, namely AMPylation, Eliminylation, Sulfation, Hydroxylation and Deamidation. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structural features of these known PTM catalyzing enzymes, we have created Hidden Markov Model profiles for the identification of similar PTM catalyzing enzymatic domains in genomic sequences. We have also created predictive rules for grouping them into functional subfamilies and deciphering their mechanistic details by structure-based analysis of their active site pockets. These analytical modules have been made available as user friendly search interfaces of novPTMenzy database. It also has a specialized analysis interface for some PTMs like AMPylation and Eliminylation. The novPTMenzy database is a unique resource that can aid in discovery of unusual PTM catalyzing enzymes in newly sequenced genomes. Database URL: http://www.nii.ac.in/novptmenzy.html

  15. Flavonoids and polymer derivatives as CYP3A4 inhibitors for improved oral drug bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius; Choonara, Yahya E; Khan, Riaz A; Du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Pillay, Viness

    2013-02-01

    Molecular modeling computations were utilized to generate pharmaceutical grade CYP3A4-enzyme inhibitors. In vitro metabolism of felodipine in human intestinal and liver microsomes (HLM and HIM) was optimized yielding a Michaelis-Menten plot from where the K(m) and V(max) values were estimated by nonlinear regression. The flavonoids, naringin, naringenin, and quercetin, were subsequently incubated with felodipine at the determined K(m) value in HLM. Comparing results obtained from a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, verapamil, the flavonoids inhibited felodipine metabolism. In-depth computational analysis of these flavonoids in terms of CYP3A4 binding, sequencing, and affinity, computational biomimetism was employed to validate the potential CYP3A4 inhibitors. The modeled compounds were comparatively evaluated by incubation with felodipine in both HLM and HIM. Results showed that the polymers 8-arm-PEG, o-(2-aminoethyl)-o-methyl-PEG, 4-arm-PEG (molecular weight = 10,000 g/mol and 20,000 g/mol, respectively), and poly(l-lysine) were able to inhibit the felodipine metabolism with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 7.22 to 30.0 μM (HLM) and 5.78 to 41.03 μM (HIM). Molecular docking confirmed drug-enzyme interactions by computing the free energies of binding (ΔE) and inhibition constants (K(i)) of the docked compounds utilizing a Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm. Comparative correlations between the computed and experimental K(i) values were obtained. Computational modeling of CYP3A4 inhibitors provided a suitable strategy to screen pharmaceutical grade compounds that may potentially inhibit presystemic CYP3A4-dependent drug metabolism with the prospect of improving oral drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates : 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4,

  17. The effect of complementary and alternative medicines on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of three different substrates : 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin, midazolam and docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooiman, Kim D; Maas-Bakker, Roel F; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Bank, Paul C D; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4,

  18. Comparison of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall- is a plant medicine and a functional food ingredient with wide application for more than 2000 years. It can be coadministrated with many other drugs, composed of traditional Chinese medicine compound such as shaoyao-gancao decoction. In order to explore the efficacy and safety of peony, effects of paeoniflorin and albiflorin (the principal components of peony on cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 and CYP2D6 were analyzed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and evaluated from the level of recombinant CYP enzymes in vitro. The findings indicated that albiflorin possessed stronger regulation on the mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 than paeoniflorin. For the protein level of CYP3A4, albiflorin showed significant induction or inhibition with the concentration increasing from 10−7 M to 10−5 M, but no remarkable variation was observed in paeoniflorin-treated group. Enzyme activity assay implied that both paeoniflorin and albiflorin could regulate CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with varying degrees. The results showed that albiflorin should be given more attention because it may play a vital role on the overall efficacy of peony. The whole behavior of both paeoniflorin and albiflorin should be focused on ensuring the rationality and effectiveness of clinical application.

  19. In Vitro Optimization of Enzymes Involved in Precorrin-2 Synthesis Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huan; Dong, Huina; Cai, Tao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Haixing; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    In order to maximize the production of biologically-derived chemicals, kinetic analyses are first necessary for predicting the role of enzyme components and coordinating enzymes in the same reaction system. Precorrin-2 is a key precursor of cobalamin and siroheme synthesis. In this study, we sought to optimize the concentrations of several molecules involved in precorrin-2 synthesis in vitro: porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS), and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent urogen III methyltransferase (SUMT). Response surface methodology was applied to develop a kinetic model designed to maximize precorrin-2 productivity. The optimal molar ratios of PBGS, PBGD, UROS, and SUMT were found to be approximately 1:7:7:34, respectively. Maximum precorrin-2 production was achieved at 0.1966 ± 0.0028 μM/min, agreeing with the kinetic model's predicted value of 0.1950 μM/min. The optimal concentrations of the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and substrate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were also determined to be 200 μM and 5 mM, respectively, in a tandem-enzyme assay. By optimizing the relative concentrations of these enzymes, we were able to minimize the effects of substrate inhibition and feedback inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine on SUMT and thereby increase the production of precorrin-2 by approximately five-fold. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of kinetic modeling via response surface methodology for maximizing the production of biologically-derived chemicals.

  20. In Vitro Optimization of Enzymes Involved in Precorrin-2 Synthesis Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Fang

    Full Text Available In order to maximize the production of biologically-derived chemicals, kinetic analyses are first necessary for predicting the role of enzyme components and coordinating enzymes in the same reaction system. Precorrin-2 is a key precursor of cobalamin and siroheme synthesis. In this study, we sought to optimize the concentrations of several molecules involved in precorrin-2 synthesis in vitro: porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS, porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD, uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent urogen III methyltransferase (SUMT. Response surface methodology was applied to develop a kinetic model designed to maximize precorrin-2 productivity. The optimal molar ratios of PBGS, PBGD, UROS, and SUMT were found to be approximately 1:7:7:34, respectively. Maximum precorrin-2 production was achieved at 0.1966 ± 0.0028 μM/min, agreeing with the kinetic model's predicted value of 0.1950 μM/min. The optimal concentrations of the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM and substrate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA were also determined to be 200 μM and 5 mM, respectively, in a tandem-enzyme assay. By optimizing the relative concentrations of these enzymes, we were able to minimize the effects of substrate inhibition and feedback inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine on SUMT and thereby increase the production of precorrin-2 by approximately five-fold. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of kinetic modeling via response surface methodology for maximizing the production of biologically-derived chemicals.

  1. Energetics of Heterotropic Cooperativity between α-Naphthoflavone and Testosterone Binding to CYP3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Arthur G.; Atkins, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is involved in the metabolism of a majority of drugs. Heterotropic cooperativity of drug binding to CYP3A4 was examined with the flavanoid, α-naphthoflavone (ANF) and the steroid, testosterone (TST). UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy of CYP3A4 show that ANF binding to CYP3A4 occurs with apparent negative cooperativity and that there are at least two binding sites: 1) a relatively tight spin-state insensitive binding site (CYP●ANF) and 2) a relatively low affinity spin-state sensitive binding site (CYP●ANF●ANF). Since binding to the spin-state insensitive binding site is considerably tighter for ANF than TST, the spin-state insensitive binding site could be occupied by ANF, while titrating TST at the other site(s). The spin-state insensitive binding site of ANF appears to compete with the spin-state insensitive binding site of TST. The formation of the spin-state insensitive CYP●ANF complex is strongly temperature dependent, when compared to the formation of the CYP●TST complex, suggesting that the formation of the CYP3A4●ANF complex leads to long-range conformational changes within the protein. When the CYP●ANF complex is titrated with TST, the formation of CYP●ANF●TST is favored by 3:1 over the formation of CYP●TST●TST, suggesting that there is an allosteric interaction between ANF and TST. A model of heterotropic cooperativity of CYP3A4 is presented, where the spin-state insensitive binding of ANF occurs at the same peripheral binding site of CYP3A4 as TST. PMID:17459328

  2. Docking studies of piperine - iron conjugate with human CYP450 3A4

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Piperine, a major constituent of Piper nigrum (Black pepper), is one of the well known components in many Ayurvedic formulations. Piperine is most studied bioenhancer because it inhibits drug metabolizing enzymes in rodents and increases plasma concentrations of several drugs, including P-glycoprotein substrates. However, there areno evidences on piperine-iron conjugate to inhibit human CYP450 3A4. We therefore investigated the influence of piperine-Fe conjugate to study the metabolism of iro...

  3. A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450 are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate.

  4. Metabolism of cryptic peptides derived from neuropeptide FF precursors: the involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Niedziolka, Magdalena; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-09-22

    The term "cryptome" refers to the subset of cryptic peptides with bioactivities that are often unpredictable and very different from the parent protein. These cryptic peptides are generated by proteolytic cleavage of proteases, whose identification in vivo can be very challenging. In this work, we show that insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is able to degrade specific amino acid sequences present in the neuropeptide pro-NPFFA (NPFF precursor), generating some cryptic peptides that are also observed after incubation with rat brain cortex homogenate. The reported experimental findings support the increasingly accredited hypothesis, according to which, due to its wide substrate selectivity, IDE is involved in a wide variety of physiopathological processes.

  5. Isolation and characterizacion of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with phytotherapeutic interest

    OpenAIRE

    Trapero Mozos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with phytotherapeutic interest. Las plantas medicinales han sido utilizadas como primer recurso sanitario desde la antigüedad. En los últimos años el interés de la industria farmacéutica por los productos naturales o metabolitos secundarios provenientes de plantas medicinales, se ha incrementado considerablemente, entre las que se incluyen el azafrán. Se conoce como especia azafrán a los estigma...

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing of Gynostemma pentaphyllum to Identify Genes and Enzymes Involved in Triterpenoid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available G. pentaphyllum (Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a creeping herbaceous perennial with many important medicinal properties, is widely distributed in Asia. Gypenosides (triterpenoid saponins, the main effective components of G. pentaphyllum, are well studied. FPS (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, SS (squalene synthase, and SE (squalene epoxidase are the main enzymes involved in the synthesis of triterpenoid saponins. Considering the important medicinal functions of G. pentaphyllum, it is necessary to investigate the transcriptomic information of G. pentaphyllum to facilitate future studies of transcriptional regulation. After sequencing G. pentaphyllum, we obtained 50,654,708 unigenes. Next, we used RPKM (reads per kilobases per million reads to calculate expression of the unigenes and we performed comparison of our data to that contained in five common databases to annotate different aspects of the unigenes. Finally, we noticed that FPS, SS, and SE showed differential expression of enzymes in DESeq. Leaves showed the highest expression of FPS, SS, and SE relative to the other two tissues. Our research provides transcriptomic information of G. pentaphyllum in its natural environment and we found consistency in unigene expression, enzymes expression (FPS, SS, and SE, and the distribution of gypenosides content in G. pentaphyllum. Our results will enable future related studies of G. pentaphyllum.

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing of Gynostemma pentaphyllum to Identify Genes and Enzymes Involved in Triterpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qicong; Ma, Chengtong; Qian, Jieying; Lan, Xiuwan; Chao, Naixia; Sun, Jian; Wu, Yaosheng

    2016-01-01

    G. pentaphyllum (Gynostemma pentaphyllum), a creeping herbaceous perennial with many important medicinal properties, is widely distributed in Asia. Gypenosides (triterpenoid saponins), the main effective components of G. pentaphyllum, are well studied. FPS (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase), SS (squalene synthase), and SE (squalene epoxidase) are the main enzymes involved in the synthesis of triterpenoid saponins. Considering the important medicinal functions of G. pentaphyllum, it is necessary to investigate the transcriptomic information of G. pentaphyllum to facilitate future studies of transcriptional regulation. After sequencing G. pentaphyllum, we obtained 50,654,708 unigenes. Next, we used RPKM (reads per kilobases per million reads) to calculate expression of the unigenes and we performed comparison of our data to that contained in five common databases to annotate different aspects of the unigenes. Finally, we noticed that FPS, SS, and SE showed differential expression of enzymes in DESeq. Leaves showed the highest expression of FPS, SS, and SE relative to the other two tissues. Our research provides transcriptomic information of G. pentaphyllum in its natural environment and we found consistency in unigene expression, enzymes expression (FPS, SS, and SE), and the distribution of gypenosides content in G. pentaphyllum. Our results will enable future related studies of G. pentaphyllum.

  8. Enzymes involved in DNA ligation and end-healing in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelev Igor V

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes involved in DNA metabolic events of the highly radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans are currently examined to understand the mechanisms that protect and repair the Deinococcus radiodurans genome after extremely high doses of γ-irradiation. Although several Deinococcus radiodurans DNA repair enzymes have been characterised, no biochemical data is available for DNA ligation and DNA endhealing enzymes of Deinococcus radiodurans so far. DNA ligases are necessary to seal broken DNA backbones during replication, repair and recombination. In addition, ionizing radiation frequently leaves DNA strand-breaks that are not feasible for ligation and thus require end-healing by a 5'-polynucleotide kinase or a 3'-phosphatase. We expect that DNA ligases and end-processing enzymes play an important role in Deinococcus radiodurans DNA strand-break repair. Results In this report, we describe the cloning and expression of a Deinococcus radiodurans DNA ligase in Escherichia coli. This enzyme efficiently catalyses DNA ligation in the presence of Mn(II and NAD+ as cofactors and lysine 128 was found to be essential for its activity. We have also analysed a predicted second DNA ligase from Deinococcus radiodurans that is part of a putative DNA repair operon and shows sequence similarity to known ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We show that this enzyme possesses an adenylyltransferase activity using ATP, but is not functional as a DNA ligase by itself. Furthermore, we identified a 5'-polynucleotide kinase similar to human polynucleotide kinase that probably prepares DNA termini for subsequent ligation. Conclusion Deinococcus radiodurans contains a standard bacterial DNA ligase that uses NAD+ as a cofactor. Its enzymatic properties are similar to E. coli DNA ligase except for its preference for Mn(II as a metal cofactor. The function of a putative second DNA ligase remains unclear, but its adenylyltransferase activity classifies it as a

  9. Sinecatechins: Effects on HPV-Induced Enzymes Involved in Inflammatory Mediator Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-01-01

    Based on published studies, the biological properties of green tea catechins are antiviral, antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, antiangiogenic, and immunostimulatory. The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved a topical ointment formulation of sinecatechins, derived from green tea catechins and other tea components, for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. The exact mechanism of action of sinecatechins in eradication of human papillomavirus-induced external genital and perianal warts is unknown, but may be due to one or more of the mechanisms mentioned. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sinecatechins on proteases, inflammatory enzymes, and kinases contributing to human papillomavirus expression and growth. Using commercially available in-vitro biochemical assays, sinecatechins were tested for their activity against matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9); enzymes involved in oxidative stress (lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases [COX-1, COX-2]); several growth factors (epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β); and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. The ability of sinecatechins to inhibit ligand binding of growth factors was also studied. Sinecatechins showed specific inhibition against a variety of enzymes at concentrations in the micromolar range. With the exception of matrix metalloproteinase-1, all proteases tested were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Pronounced inhibition of certain lipoxygenases was observed. Cyclooxygenases were also inhibited, with slight selectivity of greater inhibition against cyclooxygenases-2, the inducible form of cyclooxygenases. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (involved in human papillomavirus tumor cell growth) were also inhibited by sinecatechins at high concentrations, while epidermal growth factor receptor was inhibited at surprisingly low concentrations. In contrast, no inhibition of binding

  10. The genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin and thiamin diphosphate in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Ewa; Kozik, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is an essential molecule for all living organisms. Its major biologically active derivative is thiamin diphosphate, which serves as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Important new functions for thiamin and its phosphate esters have recently been suggested, e.g. in gene expression regulation by influencing mRNA structure, in DNA repair after UV illumination, and in the protection of some organelles against reactive oxygen species. Unlike higher animals, which rely on nutritional thiamin intake, yeasts can synthesize thiamin de novo. The biosynthesis pathways include the separate synthesis of two precursors, 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine diphosphate and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole phosphate, which are then condensed into thiamin monophosphate. Additionally, yeasts evolved salvage mechanisms to utilize thiamin and its dephosphorylated late precursors, 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole, from the environment. The current state of knowledge on the discrete steps of thiamin biosynthesis in yeasts is far from satisfactory; many intermediates are postulated only by analogy to the much better understood biosynthesis process in bacteria. On the other hand, the genetic mechanisms regulating thiamin biosynthesis in yeasts are currently under extensive exploration. Only recently, the structures of some of the yeast enzymes involved in thiamin biosynthesis, such as thiamin diphosphokinase and thiazole synthase, were determined at the atomic resolution, and mechanistic proposals for the catalysis of particular biosynthetic steps started to emerge.

  11. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2014-03-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs. Esterase and alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in crude cell extract from Pseudomonas fluorescens PMC 2123 after vinyl acetate induction. All examined enzymes exhibit their highest activity at 30-35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Esterase preferably hydrolyzed ester bonds with short fatty chains without plain differences for C2 or C4. Comparison of Km values for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases for acetaldehyde suggested that this metabolite was preferentially oxidized than reduced. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol suggested that one mechanism of defense against the elevated concentration of toxic acetaldehyde could be its temporary reduction to ethanol. Esterase activity was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, while β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no inhibitor effect. From among metal ions, only Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) stimulated the cleavage of ester bond.

  12. A Mechanism-Based Model for the Prediction of the Metabolic Sites of Steroids Mediated by Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ru Dai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of xenobiotic metabolism is essential for drug discovery and development. As the most important human drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A4 has a large active cavity and metabolizes a broad spectrum of substrates. The poor substrate specificity of CYP3A4 makes it a huge challenge to predict the metabolic site(s on its substrates. This study aimed to develop a mechanism-based prediction model based on two key parameters, including the binding conformation and the reaction activity of ligands, which could reveal the process of real metabolic reaction(s and the site(s of modification. The newly established model was applied to predict the metabolic site(s of steroids; a class of CYP3A4-preferred substrates. 38 steroids and 12 non-steroids were randomly divided into training and test sets. Two major metabolic reactions, including aliphatic hydroxylation and N-dealkylation, were involved in this study. At least one of the top three predicted metabolic sites was validated by the experimental data. The overall accuracy for the training and test were 82.14% and 86.36%, respectively. In summary, a mechanism-based prediction model was established for the first time, which could be used to predict the metabolic site(s of CYP3A4 on steroids with high predictive accuracy.

  13. Sesamin: A Naturally Occurring Lignan Inhibits CYP3A4 by Antagonizing the Pregnane X Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yun-Ping; Ma, Chia-Yun; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Jih-Jung; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Huang, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    Inconsistent expression and regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are common causes of adverse drug effects in some drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (TI). An important cytochrome, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), is predominantly regulated by a nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR). Sesamin, a major lignan constituent in sesame seeds and oil, exhibits a variety of biological functions; however, the effect of sesamin on the modulation of CYP3A4 is not well understood. In this study, the effects of sesamin on the PXR-CYP3A4 pathway were characterized, as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects. Sesamin potently attenuated CYP3A4 induction in a dose-dependent manner by blocking the activation of PXR. The PXR inducer-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 was further evidenced by the ability of sesamin to attenuate the effects of several PXR ligands in the CYP3A4 reporter assay. Further mechanistic studies showed that sesamin inhibited PXR by interrupting the interacting with coregulators. These results may lead to the development of new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of inducer-drug interaction. Sesamin was established as a novel inhibitor of PXR and may be useful for modulating DMEs expression and drug efficacies. Modification of CYP3A4 expression and activity by consumption of sesamin may have important implications for drug safety.

  14. Sesamin: A Naturally Occurring Lignan Inhibits CYP3A4 by Antagonizing the Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ping Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistent expression and regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs are common causes of adverse drug effects in some drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (TI. An important cytochrome, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, is predominantly regulated by a nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR. Sesamin, a major lignan constituent in sesame seeds and oil, exhibits a variety of biological functions; however, the effect of sesamin on the modulation of CYP3A4 is not well understood. In this study, the effects of sesamin on the PXR-CYP3A4 pathway were characterized, as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects. Sesamin potently attenuated CYP3A4 induction in a dose-dependent manner by blocking the activation of PXR. The PXR inducer-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 was further evidenced by the ability of sesamin to attenuate the effects of several PXR ligands in the CYP3A4 reporter assay. Further mechanistic studies showed that sesamin inhibited PXR by interrupting the interacting with coregulators. These results may lead to the development of new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of inducer-drug interaction. Sesamin was established as a novel inhibitor of PXR and may be useful for modulating DMEs expression and drug efficacies. Modification of CYP3A4 expression and activity by consumption of sesamin may have important implications for drug safety.

  15. Exploration of soil metagenome diversity for prospection of enzymes involved in lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, T.M.; Squina, F.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Paixao, D.A.A.; Franco Cairo, J.P.L.; Buchli, F.; Ruller, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Prade, R. [Oklahoma State University, Sillwater, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Metagenomics allows access to genetic information encoded in DNA of microorganisms recalcitrant to cultivation. They represent a reservoir of novel biocatalyst with potential application in environmental friendly techniques aiming to overcome the dependence on fossil fuels and also to diminish air and water pollution. The focus of our work is the generation of a tool kit of lignocellulolytic enzymes from soil metagenome, which could be used for second generation ethanol production. Environmental samples were collected at a sugarcane field after harvesting, where it is expected that the microbial population involved on lignocellulose degradation was enriched due to the presence of straws covering the soil. Sugarcane Bagasse-Degrading-Soil (SBDS) metagenome was massively-parallel-454-Roche-sequenced. We identified a full repertoire of genes with significant match to glycosyl hydrolases catalytic domain and carbohydrate-binding modules. Soil metagenomics libraries cloned into pUC19 were screened through functional assays. CMC-agar screening resulted in positive clones, revealing new cellulases coding genes. Through a CMC-zymogram it was possible to observe that one of these genes, nominated as E-1, corresponds to an enzyme that is secreted to the extracellular medium, suggesting that the cloned gene carried the original signal peptide. Enzymatic assays and analysis through capillary electrophoresis showed that E-1 was able to cleave internal glycosidic bonds of cellulose. New rounds of functional screenings through chromogenic substrates are being conducted aiming the generation of a library of lignocellulolytic enzymes derived from soil metagenome, which may become key component for development of second generation biofuels. (author)

  16. Changes in the activities of enzymes involved in the degradation of butylbenzyl phthalate by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soon-Seok; Kim, Hyoun-Young; Ka, Jong-Ok; Song, Hong-Gyu

    2012-02-01

    Degradation of butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and the activities of some degrading enzymes were examined in two different media containing 100 mg/l of the compound. P. ostreatus pregrown for 7 days in complex YMG medium was able to completely degrade BBP within an additional 24 h but degraded only 35 mg/l of BBP in 5 days of incubation in minimal medium. Fungal cell mass in the culture in YMG medium was higher in the presence than in the absence of BBP. The esterase activity of the fungal culture in YMG medium was higher than that in minimal medium and increased with the addition of BBP. On the contrary, laccase activity was higher in minimal medium and it did not increase upon the addition of BBP. General peroxidase activity increased for a few days after the addition of BBP to both media. The degradation of BBP and its metabolites by P. ostreatus thus may be attributed mostly to esterase rather than lignin-degrading laccase. In addition, the activities of the enzymes involved in BBP degradation and their changes varied significantly in the different media and culture conditions.

  17. Metabolism of Cryptic Peptides Derived from Neuropeptide FF Precursors: The Involvement of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

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    Giuseppe Grasso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “cryptome” refers to the subset of cryptic peptides with bioactivities that are often unpredictable and very different from the parent protein. These cryptic peptides are generated by proteolytic cleavage of proteases, whose identification in vivo can be very challenging. In this work, we show that insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is able to degrade specific amino acid sequences present in the neuropeptide pro-NPFFA (NPFF precursor, generating some cryptic peptides that are also observed after incubation with rat brain cortex homogenate. The reported experimental findings support the increasingly accredited hypothesis, according to which, due to its wide substrate selectivity, IDE is involved in a wide variety of physiopathological processes.

  18. Identification of metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of tolperisone by human microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmadi, Balázs; Leibinger, János; Szeberényi, Szabolcs; Borbás, Tímea; Farkas, Sándor; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Tihanyi, Károly

    2003-05-01

    The in vitro metabolism of tolperisone, 1-(4-methyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-(1-piperidino)-1-propanone-hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, was examined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements revealed methyl-hydroxylation (metabolite at m/z 261; M1) as the main metabolic route in HLM, however, metabolites of two mass units greater than the parent compound and the hydroxy-metabolite were also detected (m/z 247 and m/z 263, respectively). The latter was identified as carbonyl-reduced M1, the former was assumed to be the carbonyl-reduced parent compound. Isoform-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitors, inhibitory antibodies, and experiments with recombinant P450s pointed to CYP2D6 as the prominent enzyme in tolperisone metabolism. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, and CYP1A2 are also involved to a smaller extent. Hydroxymethyl-tolperisone formation was mediated by CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, but not by CYP2B6. Tolperisone competitively inhibited dextromethorphan O-demethylation and bufuralol hydroxylation (K(i) = 17 and 30 microM, respectively). Tolperisone inhibited methyl p-tolyl sulfide oxidation (K(i) = 1200 microM) in recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and resulted in a 3-fold (p tolperisone undergoes P450-dependent and P450-independent microsomal biotransformations to the same extent. On the basis of metabolites formed and indirect evidences of inhibition studies, a considerable involvement of a microsomal reductase is assumed.

  19. Involvement of a lipoxygenase-like enzyme in abscisic Acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Bell, E; Mullet, J E

    1992-07-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that abscisic acid (ABA) is derived from 9'-cis-neoxanthin or 9'-cis-violaxanthin with xanthoxin as an intermediate. (18)O-labeling experiments show incorporation primarily into the side chain carboxyl group of ABA, suggesting that oxidative cleavage occurs at the 11, 12 (11', 12') double bond of xanthophylls. Carbon monoxide, a strong inhibitor of heme-containing P-450 monooxygenases, did not inhibit ABA accumulation, suggesting that the oxygenase catalyzing the carotenoid cleavage step did not contain heme. This observation, plus the ability of lipoxygenase to make xanthoxin from violaxanthin, suggested that a lipoxygenase-like enzyme is involved in ABA biosynthesis. To test this idea, the ability of several soybean (Glycine max L.) lipoxygenase inhibitors (5,8,11-eicosatriynoic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and naproxen) to inhibit stress-induced ABA accumulation in soybean cell culture and soybean seedlings was determined. All lipoxygenase inhibitors significantly inhibited ABA accumulation in response to stress. These results suggest that the in vivo oxidative cleavage reaction involved in ABA biosynthesis requires activity of a nonheme oxygenase having lipoxygenase-like properties.

  20. Inhibition Studies on Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis: Focus on Two Potential Drug Targets: DXR and IDI-2 Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyck, Jérôme; Wouters, Johan; Poulter, C Dale

    2011-07-01

    Isoprenoid compounds constitute an immensely diverse group of acyclic, monocyclic and polycyclic compounds that play important roles in all living organisms. Despite the diversity of their structures, this plethora of natural products arises from only two 5-carbon precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This review will discuss the enzymes in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways leading to IPP and DMAPP with a particular focus on MEP synthase (DXR) and IPP isomerase (IDI), which are potential targets for the development of antibiotic compounds. DXR is the second enzyme in the MEP pathway and the only one for which inhibitors with antimicrobial activity at pharmaceutically relevant concentrations are known. All of the published DXR inhibitors are fosmidomycin analogues, except for a few bisphosphonates with moderate inhibitory activity. These far, there are no other candidates that target DXR. IDI was first identified and characterised over 40 years ago (IDI-1) and a second convergently evolved isoform (IDI-2) was discovered in 2001. IDI-1 is a metalloprotein found in Eukarya and many species of Bacteria. Its mechanism has been extensively studied. In contrast, IDI-2 requires reduced flavin mononucleotide as a cofactor. The mechanism of action for IDI-2 is less well defined. This review will describe how lead inhibitors are being improved by structure-based drug design and enzymatic assays against DXR to lead to new drug families and how mechanistic probes are being used to address questions about the mechanisms of the isomerases.

  1. Rickettsia typhi possesses phospholipase A2 enzymes that are involved in infection of host cells.

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    M Sayeedur Rahman

    Full Text Available The long-standing proposal that phospholipase A2 (PLA2 enzymes are involved in rickettsial infection of host cells has been given support by the recent characterization of a patatin phospholipase (Pat2 with PLA2 activity from the pathogens Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi. However, pat2 is not encoded in all Rickettsia genomes; yet another uncharacterized patatin (Pat1 is indeed ubiquitous. Here, evolutionary analysis of both patatins across 46 Rickettsia genomes revealed 1 pat1 and pat2 loci are syntenic across all genomes, 2 both Pat1 and Pat2 do not contain predicted Sec-dependent signal sequences, 3 pat2 has been pseudogenized multiple times in rickettsial evolution, and 4 ubiquitous pat1 forms two divergent groups (pat1A and pat1B with strong evidence for recombination between pat1B and plasmid-encoded homologs. In light of these findings, we extended the characterization of R. typhi Pat1 and Pat2 proteins and determined their role in the infection process. As previously demonstrated for Pat2, we determined that 1 Pat1 is expressed and secreted into the host cytoplasm during R. typhi infection, 2 expression of recombinant Pat1 is cytotoxic to yeast cells, 3 recombinant Pat1 possesses PLA2 activity that requires a host cofactor, and 4 both Pat1 cytotoxicity and PLA2 activity were reduced by PLA2 inhibitors and abolished by site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic Ser/Asp residues. To ascertain the role of Pat1 and Pat2 in R. typhi infection, antibodies to both proteins were used to pretreat rickettsiae. Subsequent invasion and plaque assays both indicated a significant decrease in R. typhi infection compared to that by pre-immune IgG. Furthermore, antibody-pretreatment of R. typhi blocked/delayed phagosomal escapes. Together, these data suggest both enzymes are involved early in the infection process. Collectively, our study suggests that R. typhi utilizes two evolutionary divergent patatin phospholipases to support its intracellular life

  2. Partial purification and characterization of an enzyme involved in the formation of beta-aspartyl dipeptides in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Hirai, M; Nakajima, T

    1978-11-01

    The formation of beta-aspartyl-glycine from asparagine and glycine was demonstrated in the supernatant of rat kidney. The enzyme involved in this process was partially purified. Based on the properties of the enzyme reaction and the coincidence of purification rates of this activity and asparaginase, it can be speculated that the enzyme is a kind of asparaginase. Examination of the preference for beta-aspartyl donors and acceptors showed that asparagine and glycine were the preferred donor and acceptor, respectively. beta-Aspartyl dipeptides also transferred their aspartyl residues to amino acids. Amino acids other than glycine also accepted the aspartyl moiety from the donors.

  3. CYP3A4*1B polymorphism and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Ping; Yao, Fan; Luan, Hong; Wang, Yin-Ling; Dong, Xi-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Wen; Wang, Qi-Hui

    2013-04-01

    CYP450 3A4 (CYP3A4), encoded by the CYP3A4 gene, is a major enzyme catalyzing the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous agents that may play a role in the etiology of carcinogenesis. Several potentially functional polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene have been implicated in cancer risk, but individually published studies have shown inconclusive results. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574 A > G) polymorphism and cancer risk. Eleven studies were included with a total of 3,810 cancer patients and 3,173 healthy controls. We found that the G allele and GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism were associated with increased risk of cancers using the fixed effects model (allele model: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95 %CI: 1.09-1.42, P = 0.001; recessive model: OR = 1.77, 95 %CI: 1.30-2.41, P cancer type showed that the G allele and G carrier (AG + GG) of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism had significant associations with increased risk of prostate cancer, but not with breast cancer, leukemia, or other cancers. With further subgroup analysis based on different ethnicities, the results indicated that the GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism might increase the risk of cancer among African populations. However, similar associations were not observed among Caucasian and Asian populations. Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that the G allele and GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism might be associated with increased cancer risk, especially for prostate cancer among African populations.

  4. A simultaneous assessment of CYP3A4 metabolism and induction in the DPX-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Olga; Marks, Bryan; Zielinski, Thomas; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Raucy, Judy

    2005-03-04

    The DPX-2 cell line, a derivative of HepG2 cells, harbors human PXR and a luciferase-linked CYP3A4 promoter. These cells were used in a panel of cell-based assays for a parallel assessment of CYP3A4 induction, metabolism, and inhibition at the cellular level. CYP3A4 induction in the DPX-2 cell line by various agents was monitored in 96-well plates by a luciferase-based transcriptional activation assay. Of the prototypical CYP3A4 inducers examined, all exhibited elevated luciferase activity in DPX-2 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme activity in noninduced and rifampicin-induced DPX-2 cells was also assessed using Vivid fluorogenic substrates. Significantly elevated CYP3A4 activity levels (2.8-fold +/- 0.2-fold above DMSO-treated cells) were found in DPX-2 cells after 48 hours of exposure to rifampicin, but were undetectable in parental HepG2 cells. Rifampicin-induced activity levels were found to be suitable for assessing the inhibitory potential of new chemical entities in downstream CYP3A4 inhibition assays. The elevated CYP3A4 activity was inhibited 85% by 10 microM ketoconazole. In addition, a cytotoxicity assay to correct for possible toxic effects of compounds at the cellular level was applied. The comparative data obtained with a combination of the above assays suggests that the application of several independent in vitro technologies used in DPX-2 cells is the best possible strategy for the assessment of the complex phenomena of CYP3A4 induction and inhibition.

  5. DUBbing cancer: Deubiquitylating enzymes involved in epigenetics, DNA damage and the cell cycle as therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt M Kessler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Controlling cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of cancer. A number of critical checkpoints ascertain progression through the different stages of the cell cycle, which can be aborted when perturbed, for instance by errors in DNA replication and repair. These molecular checkpoints are regulated by a number of proteins that need to be present at the right time and quantity. The ubiquitin system has emerged as a central player controlling the fate and function of such molecules such as cyclins, oncogenes and components of the DNA repair machinery. In particular, proteases that cleave ubiquitin chains, referred to as deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs, have attracted recent attention due to their accessibility to modulation by small molecules. In this review, we describe recent evidence of the critical role of DUBs in aspects of cell cycle checkpoint control, associated DNA repair mechanisms and regulation of transcription, representing pathways altered in cancer. Therefore, DUBs involved in these processes emerge as potentially critical targets for the treatment of not only hematological, but potentially also solid tumors.

  6. DUBbing Cancer: Deubiquitylating Enzymes Involved in Epigenetics, DNA Damage and the Cell Cycle As Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Fernandez, Adan; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2016-01-01

    Controlling cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of cancer. A number of critical checkpoints ascertain progression through the different stages of the cell cycle, which can be aborted when perturbed, for instance by errors in DNA replication and repair. These molecular checkpoints are regulated by a number of proteins that need to be present at the right time and quantity. The ubiquitin system has emerged as a central player controlling the fate and function of such molecules such as cyclins, oncogenes and components of the DNA repair machinery. In particular, proteases that cleave ubiquitin chains, referred to as deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), have attracted recent attention due to their accessibility to modulation by small molecules. In this review, we describe recent evidence of the critical role of DUBs in aspects of cell cycle checkpoint control, associated DNA repair mechanisms and regulation of transcription, representing pathways altered in cancer. Therefore, DUBs involved in these processes emerge as potentially critical targets for the treatment of not only hematological, but potentially also solid tumors.

  7. The involvement of several enzymes in methanol detoxification in Drosophila melanogaster adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Hu, Xing-Xing; Meng, Qing-Wei; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Li, Fei; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-09-01

    Methanol is among the most common short-chain alcohols in fermenting fruits, the natural food and oviposition sites of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Our previous results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) were associated with methanol detoxification in the larvae. Catalases, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), esterases (ESTs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were specifically inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT), 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethylmeleate (DEM), respectively. CYPs were inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT). In the present paper, the involvements of these enzymes in methanol metabolism were investigated in female and male adults by determining the combination indices of methanol and their corresponding inhibitors. When PBO, 1-ABT, 3-AT, 4-MP and TPP were individually mixed with methanol, they exhibited significant synergism to the mortality of the adults after 72h of dietary exposure. In contrast, the DEM and methanol mixture showed additive effects. Moreover, methanol exposure dramatically increased CYP activity and up-regulated mRNA expression levels of several Cyp genes. Bioassays using different strains revealed that the variation in ADH activity and RNAi-mediated knockdown of α-Est7 significantly changed LC50 values for methanol. These results suggest that CYPs, catalases, ADHs and ESTs are partially responsible for methanol elimination in adults. It seems that there are some differences in methanol metabolism between larvae and adults, but not between female and male adults.

  8. Analysis of the transcriptome of Isodon rubescens and key enzymes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis

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    Xiuhong Su

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Isodon rubescens is an important medicinal plant in China that has been shown to reduce tumour growth due to the presence of the compound oridonin. In an effort to facilitate molecular research on oridonin biosynthesis, we reported the use of next generation massively parallel sequencing technologies and de novo transcriptome assembly to gain a comprehensive overview of I. rubescens transcriptome. In our study, a total of 50,934,276 clean reads, 101,640 transcripts and 44,626 unigenes were generated through de novo transcriptome assembly. A number of unigenes – 23,987, 10,263, 7359, 18,245, 17,683, 19,485, 9361 – were annotated in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr, NCBI nucleotide sequences (Nt, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG Orthology (KO, Swiss-Prot, protein family (Pfam, gene ontology (GO, eukaryotic ortholog groups (KOG databases, respectively. Furthermore, the annotated unigenes were functionally classified according to the GO, KOG and KEGG. Based on these results, candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoids backbone biosynthesis were detected. Our data provided the most comprehensive sequence resource available for the study on I. rubescens, as well as demonstrated the effective use of Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly on a species lacking genomic information.

  9. Use of the steroid derivative RPR 106541 in combination with site-directed mutagenesis for enhanced cytochrome P-450 3A4 structure/function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J C; Domanski, T L; Harlow, G R; White, R B; Orton, E; Halpert, J R

    1999-08-01

    RPR 106541 (20R-16alpha,17alpha-[butylidenebis(oxy)]-6al pha, 9alpha-difluoro-11beta-hydroxy-17beta-(methylthio)androst a-4-en-3-one) is an airway-selective steroid developed for the treatment of asthma. Two metabolites produced by human liver microsomes were identified as R- and S-sulfoxide diastereomers based on liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and cochromatography with standards. Sulfoxide formation was determined to be cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4-dependent by correlation with CYP3A4-marker nifedipine oxidase activity, inhibition by cyclosporin A and troleandomycin, and inhibition of R- (70%) and S- (64%) sulfoxide formation by anti-3A antibody. Expressed CYP2C forms catalyzed RPR 106541 sulfoxidation; however, other phenotyping approaches failed to confirm the involvement of CYP2C forms in these reactions in human liver microsomes. Expressed CYP3A4 catalyzed the formation of the sulfoxide diastereomers in a 1:1 ratio, whereas CYP3A5 displayed stereoselectivity for formation of the S-diastereomer. The high rate of sulfoxidation by CYP3A4 and the blockage of oxidative metabolism at the electronically favored 6beta-position provided advantages for RPR 106541 over other substrates as an active site probe of CYP3A4. Therefore, oxidation of RPR 106541 by various CYP3A4 substrate recognition site (SRS) mutants was assessed. In SRS-4, A305V and F304A showed dramatically reduced rates of R-diastereomer formation (83 and 64% decreases, respectively), but S-diastereomer formation was affected to a lesser extent. A370V (SRS-5) showed decreased formation of the R-sulfoxide (52%) but increased formation of the S-diastereomer. In the SRS-2 region, the most dramatic change in sulfoxide ratios was observed for L210A. In conclusion, the structure of RPR 106541 imposes specific constraints on enzyme binding and activity and thus represents an improved CYP3A4 probe substrate.

  10. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of B-oxid

  11. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of

  12. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of B-oxid

  13. CYP3A4/5 polymorphisms affect the blood level of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-ying; Teng, Rui-chen; Zhu, Huai-jun; Fang, Yun

    2013-06-01

    Both cyclosporine and tacrolimus display a narrow therapeutic index as well as high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. We approached the effect of the CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and haplotypes on the whole blood cyclosporine or tacrolimus concentration in Chinese renal transplant patients during the first month after transplantation. A total of 83 recipients receiving tacrolimus or cyclosporine was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The whole blood concentration was measured by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. Both CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms affected the tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentration (C0/D). The tacrolimus C0/D was higher in carriers of haplotype GG compared with the non-carriers. The cyclosporine dose-adjusted 2-hour post-dose concentrations (C2/D), dose-adjusted C0 + C2 ((C0 + C2)/D) and C2/C0 during Days 15 - 21 displayed significant difference among the three genotypes. Statistical difference was observed between CYP3A4*1/*1 and CYP3A4*18B/*18B groups and between CYP3A4*1/*18B and CYP3A4*18B/*18B groups, but no difference was detected between CYP3A4*1/*1 and CYP3A4*1/*18B groups. No difference was found in C0/D among the three genotypes of CYP3A4*18B polymorphism, and neither CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms nor CYP3A haplotype-derived genotypes affected the cyclosporine dose-adjusted concentration. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*18B may be partly responsible in large interindividual variability of cyclosporine and tacrolimus blood levels in Chinese renal transplant patients during the first month after transplantation. A patient carried combined genotype of CYP3A4*1/*1-CYP3A5* 3/*3 might require lower tacrolimus doses to achieve target concentration levels. Genotyping of CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 before transplantation is of benefit in determining a suitable initial dose for each patient.

  14. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, O; Nagatsuka, S; Nakazawa, T

    1983-04-01

    The effect of radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  15. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, O.; Nagatsuka, S.; Nakazawa, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  16. In Vitro and in Vivo Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid in Mice and Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Li Lv

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA has been used clinically in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. This study evaluated the effect of GA on the activity of five P450(CYP450 cytochrome enzymes: CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzyme systems using a HPLC-MS/MS CYP-specific probe substrate assay. With midazolam as the probe substrate, GA greatly decreased CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 8.195 μM in HLMs and 7.498 μM in the recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 enzyme system, respectively. It significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. Results from Lineweaver–Burk plots showed that GA could inhibit CYP3A4 activity competitively, with a Ki value of 1.57 μM in HLMs. Moreover, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 could also be inhibited significantly by GA with IC50 of 42.89 and 40.26 μM in HLMs, respectively. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by GA. The inhibition was also confirmed by an in vivo study of mice. In addition, it was observed that mRNA expressions of the Cyps2c and 3a family decreased significantly in the livers of mice treated with GA. In conclusion, this study indicates that GA may exert herb-drug interactions by competitively inhibiting CYP3A4.

  17. A mass spectrometric method to determine activities of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Kaori [Department of Molecular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kami-kitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Samejima, Keijiro, E-mail: samejima-kj@igakuken.or.jp [Department of Molecular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kami-kitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Takao, Koichi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295 (Japan); Kohda, Kohfuku [Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kyoko; Kawakita, Masao [Department of Molecular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kami-kitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)

    2012-10-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds in polyamine catabolic pathway were determined by a column-free ESI-TOF MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup 1}- and N{sup 8}-acetylspermidine were determined by a column-free ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was applied to determine activities of APAO, SMO, and SSAT in the pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay method contained stable isotope-labeled natural substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is applicable to biological samples containing natural substrate and product. - Abstract: An analytical method for the determination of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and five acetylpolyamines [N{sup 1}-acetylspermidine (N{sup 1}AcSpd), N{sup 8}-acetylspermidine (N{sup 8}AcSpd), N{sup 1}-acetylspermine, N{sup 1},N{sup 8}-diacetylspermidine, and N{sup 1},N{sup 12}-diacetylspermine] involved in the polyamine catabolic pathway has been developed using a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. Heptafluorobutyryl (HFB) derivatives of these compounds and respective internal standards labeled with stable isotopes were analyzed simultaneously by TOF MS, based on peak areas appearing at appropriate m/z values. The isomers, N{sup 1}AcSpd and N{sup 8}AcSpd were determined from their fragment ions, the acetylamidopropyl and acetylamidobutyl groups, respectively, using MS/MS with {sup 13}C{sub 2}-N{sup 1}AcSpd and {sup 13}C{sub 2}-N{sup 8}AcSpd which have the {sup 13}C{sub 2}-acetyl group as an internal standard. The TOF MS method was successfully applied to measure the activity of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolic pathways, namely N{sup 1}-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), spermine oxidase (SMO), and spermidine/spermine N{sup 1}-acetyltransferase (SSAT). The following natural substrates and products labeled with stable isotopes considering the application to biological samples were identified; for APAO, [4,9,12-{sup 15}N{sub 3}]-N{sup 1}-acetylspermine and [1,4,8-{sup 15}N{sub 3

  18. The 3-ureidopropionase of Caenorhabditis elegans, an enzyme involved in pyrimidine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Tim; Ajonina, Irene; Perbandt, Markus; Woltersdorf, Christian; Hertel, Patrick; Liebau, Eva; Gigengack, Ulrike

    2010-10-01

    Pyrimidines are important metabolites in all cells. Levels of cellular pyrimidines are controlled by multiple mechanisms, with one of these comprising the reductive degradation pathway. In the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans, two of the three enzymes of reductive pyrimidine degradation have previously been characterized. The enzyme catalysing the final step of pyrimidine breakdown, 3-ureidopropionase (β-alanine synthase), had only been identified based on homology. We therefore cloned and functionally expressed the 3-ureidopropionase of C. elegans as hexahistidine fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme readily converted the two pyrimidine degradation products: 3-ureidopropionate and 2-methyl-3-ureidopropionate. The enzyme showed a broad pH optimum between pH 7.0 and 8.0. Activity was highest at approximately 40 °C, although the half-life of activity was only 65 s at that temperature. The enzyme showed clear Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K(m) of 147 ± 26 μM and a V(max) of 1.1 ± 0.1 U·mg protein(-1). The quaternary structure of the recombinant enzyme was shown to correspond to a dodecamer by 'blue native' gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The organ specific and subcellular localization of the enzyme was determined using a translational fusion to green fluorescent protein and high expression was observed in striated muscle cells. With the characterization of the 3-ureidopropionase, the reductive pyrimidine degradation pathway in C. elegans has been functionally characterized.

  19. Developmental changes in enzymes involved in the conversion of hexose phosphate and its subsequent metabolites during early tuberization of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.J.G.; Bruijn, de S.M.; Koot-Gronsveld, E.A.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Plas, van der L.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    A highly synchronized in vitro tuberization system, based on single-node cuttings containing an axillary bud, was used to investigate the activity patterns of enzymes involved in the conversion of hexose phosphates and related products during stolon-to-tuber transition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L

  20. Cerebrovascular effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition involve large artery dilatation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postiglione, A; Bobkiewicz, T; Vinholdt-Pedersen, E

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to selectively examine the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on the large brain arteries by using concomitant inhibition of carbonic anhydrase to cause severe dilatation of mainly parenchymal resistance vessels....

  1. Disruption of androgen metabolism, regulation and effects : involvement of steroidogenic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Fürstenberger, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Communication between organs and tissues is predominately controlled by hormones. Hormones regulate a vast variety of physiological and behavioural activities, including metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, sleep and mood. Steroid hormones are characterized by their sterane backbone and are regulated by distinct enzymes which control the balance between their active and their inactive forms. The present studies of this thesis focus on the enzymes which selectively...

  2. Relevance of in vitro and clinical data for predicting CYP3A4-mediated herb-drug interactions in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Mooiman, Kim D; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2013-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) by cancer patients is increasing. Concomitant use of CAM and anticancer drugs could lead to serious safety issues in patients. CAM have the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions with anticancer drugs, leading to either increased or decreased plasma levels of anticancer drugs. This could result in unexpected toxicities or a reduced efficacy. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions have already been shown between St. John's Wort (SJW) and the anticancer drugs imatinib and irinotecan. Most pharmacokinetic CAM-drug interactions, involve drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular CYP3A4. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4 activity and expression can be assessed in vitro. However, no data have been reported yet regarding the relevance of these in vitro data for the prediction of CAM-anticancer drug interactions in clinical practice. To address this issue, a literature research was performed to evaluate the relevance of in vitro data to predict clinical effects of CAM frequently used by cancer patients: SJW, milk thistle, garlic and Panax ginseng (P. ginseng). Furthermore, in clinical studies the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate probe midazolam is often used to determine pharmacokinetic interactions. Results of these clinical studies with midazolam are used to predict pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, this review also explored whether clinical trials with midazolam are useful to predict clinical pharmacokinetic CAM-anticancer drug interactions. In vitro data of SJW have shown CYP3A4 inhibition after short-term exposure and induction after long-term exposure. In clinical studies using midazolam or anticancer drugs (irinotecan and imatinib) as known CYP3A4 substrates in combination with SJW, decreased plasma levels of these drugs were observed, which was expected as a consequence of CYP3A4 induction. For garlic, no effect on CYP3A4 has been shown in vitro

  3. Effects of isorhamnetin on CYP3A4 and herb-drug interaction%异鼠李素对CYP3A4的调节及药物相互作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽; 张晶晶; 窦薇

    2012-01-01

    观察异鼠李素对CYP3A4的转录激活、mRNA诱导及酶活性的影响,并对其在联合用药中的药物相互作用进行评价.在HepG2细胞中,采用瞬时共转染报告基因实验检测异鼠李素对PXR介导的CYP3A4的转录激活作用;荧光定量RT-PCR方法检测其对CYP3A4 mRNA的诱导作用;底物化学发光法检测其对细胞CYP3A4酶活性的影响;细胞增殖实验检测其对化疗药物伊立替康肝癌细胞毒性的影响.结果表明,异鼠李素(1、10及25 μmol·L 1)可以剂量依赖性通过激活PXR而诱导CYP3A4的转录,同时可剂量依赖性上调CYP3A4mRNA表达,但对CYP3A4酶活性无影响,对化疗药物伊立替康肝癌细胞毒作用也无影响.提示异鼠李素对CYP3A4 mRNA的诱导可能与PXR途径有关,并且可能不会干扰与其联用的其他药物的代谢.本研究可以为异鼠李素临床合理用药提供参考.%The study is to report the investigation of the effects of isorhamnetin on CYP3 A4 and herb-drug interaction. A reporter gene assay is used to test pregnane X receptor transactivation action, qRT-PCR and a luminescence-based assay were applied to determine mRNA induction and enzyme activity of CYP3A4 after isorhamnetin treatment. The interaction of irinotecan and isorhamnetin was assessed by inhibition assay of cell proliferation. Isorhamnetin at 1, 10 and 25 umol·L-1 transactivated the CYP3A4 reporter construct and upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA as well in a dose-dependent manner. However, isorhamnetin had no effect on enzyme activity of CYP3A4 and irinotecan HepG2 cytotoxicity. In conclusion, activation of PXR by isorhamnetin played a role in the upregulation of CYP3A4 mRNA. Moreover, joint action of isorhamnetin with other drugs may not be associated with the herb-drug interaction.

  4. High inorganic triphosphatase activities in bacteria and mammalian cells: identification of the enzymes involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Kohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPP(i is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPP(i but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPP(i in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPP(i, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca(2+, thereby interfering with Ca(2+ signaling.

  5. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    %), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was essentially fully soluble in detergent. In radioactively labeled, mucosal explants, the newly synthesized brush border enzymes began to associate with detergent-insoluble complexes while still in their transient, high mannose-glycosylated form...

  6. N-terminal modifications of cellular proteins: The enzymes involved, their substrate specificities and biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varland, Sylvia; Osberg, Camilla; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of eukaryotic proteins are N-terminally modified by one or more processing enzymes. Enzymes acting on the very first amino acid of a polypeptide include different peptidases, transferases, and ligases. Methionine aminopeptidases excise the initiator methionine leaving the nascent polypeptide with a newly exposed amino acid that may be further modified. N-terminal acetyl-, methyl-, myristoyl-, and palmitoyltransferases may attach an acetyl, methyl, myristoyl, or palmitoyl group, respectively, to the α-amino group of the target protein N-terminus. With the action of ubiquitin ligases, one or several ubiquitin molecules are transferred, and hence, constitute the N-terminal modification. Modifications at protein N-termini represent an important contribution to proteomic diversity and complexity, and are essential for protein regulation and cellular signaling. Consequently, dysregulation of the N-terminal modifying enzymes is implicated in human diseases. We here review the different protein N-terminal modifications occurring co- or post-translationally with emphasis on the responsible enzymes and their substrate specificities. PMID:25914051

  7. Human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 ubiquitination: molecular recognition by UBC7-gp78 autocrine motility factor receptor and UbcH5a-CHIP-Hsc70-Hsp40 E2-E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Trnka, Michael J; Liu, Yi; Burlingame, A L; Correia, Maria Almira

    2015-02-06

    CYP3A4 is an abundant and catalytically dominant human liver endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics, including >50% of clinically relevant drugs. Alterations of CYP3A4 protein turnover can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism and bioavailability and drug-drug interactions. This CYP3A4 turnover involves endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26 S proteasomal system that relies on two highly complementary E2 Ub-conjugating-E3 Ub-ligase (UBC7-gp78 and UbcH5a-C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-Hsc70-Hsp40) complexes, as well as protein kinases (PK) A and C. We have documented that CYP3A4 Ser/Thr phosphorylation (Ser(P)/Thr(P)) by PKA and/or PKC accelerates/enhances its Lys ubiquitination by either of these E2-E3 systems. Intriguingly, CYP3A4 Ser(P)/Thr(P) and ubiquitinated Lys residues reside within the cytosol-accessible surface loop and/or conformationally assembled acidic Asp/Glu clusters, leading us to propose that such post-translational Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation primes CYP3A4 for ubiquitination. Herein, this possibility was examined through various complementary approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, chemical cross-linking, peptide mapping, and LC-MS/MS analyses. Our findings reveal that such CYP3A4 Asp/Glu/Ser(P)/Thr(P) surface clusters are indeed important for its intermolecular electrostatic interactions with each of these E2-E3 subcomponents. By imparting additional negative charge to these Asp/Glu clusters, such Ser/Thr phosphorylation would generate P450 phosphodegrons for molecular recognition by the E2-E3 complexes, thereby controlling the timing of CYP3A4 ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Although the importance of phosphodegrons in the CHIP targeting of its substrates is known, to our knowledge this is the first example of phosphodegron involvement in gp78-substrate

  8. Gene expression of regulatory enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism of sheep subjected to feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, S; Brito, R; Almeida, A M; Scanlon, T; Kilminster, T; Milton, J; Greeff, J; Oldham, C; Cardoso, L A

    2013-03-01

    The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups.

  9. Salt-induced hydrogen peroxide is involved in modulation of antioxidant enzymes in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Xiangqian Li; Jinyao Li; Qian Bao; Fuchun Zhang; Gulinuer Tulaxi; Zhicai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Salt severely restricts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growth and production. The present study was undertaken to study the effect of salt-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on antioxidant enzymes in cotton. NaCl treatment or exogenous H2O2 was used to investigate the relationship between H2O2 content and levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), as well as the transcriptional levels of corresponding genes. H2O2 content increased within 24 h following 200 mmol L–1 NaCl treatment. Both NaCl-induced and exogenous H2O2 increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes including APX and SOD and upregulated the transcriptional levels of GhcAPX1, GhFeSOD, and GhchlCSD. These increased activities and upregulated transcriptional levels were inhibited when the salt-induced H2O2 was scavenged by NAC. These results indicate that salt-induced H2O2 as a second signaling messenger modulates APX and SOD activities by regulating the transcription levels of corresponding genes, alleviating oxidative stress, and increasing salt tolerance in cotton.

  10. Fermented wheat aleurone induces enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and in antioxidative defence in human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katrin; Borowicki, Anke; Scharlau, Daniel; Glei, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dietary fibre is fermented by the human gut flora resulting mainly in the formation of SCFA, for example, acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA, in particular butyrate, may be important for secondary cancer prevention by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth of cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the promotion and/or progression of cancer. Furthermore, SCFA could also act on primary cancer prevention by activation of detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes. We investigated the effects of fermented wheat aleurone on the expression of genes involved in stress response and toxicity, activity of drug-metabolising enzymes and anti-genotoxic potential. Aleurone was digested and fermented in vitro to obtain samples that reflect the content of the colon. HT29 cells and colon epithelial stripes were incubated with the resulting fermentation supernatant fractions (fs) and effects on mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 and enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Fermented aleurone was also used to study the protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. The fs of aleurone significantly induced the mRNA expression of CAT, GSTP1 and SULT2B1 (HT29) and GSTP1 (epithelial stripes), respectively. The enzyme activities of GST (HT29) and CAT (HT29, epithelial stripes) were also unambiguously increased (1.4- to 3.7-fold) by the fs of aleurone. DNA damage induced by H2O2 was significantly reduced by the fs of aleurone after 48 h, whereupon no difference was observed compared with the faeces control. In conclusion, fermented aleurone is able to act on primary prevention by inducing mRNA expression and the activity of enzymes involved in detoxification of carcinogens and antioxidative defence.

  11. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wenqin Liu,1,2,* Jian Shi,1,2,* Lijun Zhu,2 Lingna Dong,1 Feifei Luo,2 Min Zhao,2 Ying Wang,2 Ming Hu,2,3 Linlin Lu,2 Zhongqiu Liu1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Oxymatrine (OMT is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT, and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs and the cytochrome P450 (CYP isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT

  12. Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent W. Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases. In mammalian cells, the formation of pyroglutamate is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclases. Using the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we identified two genes (qc-1 and qc-2 that encode proteins homologous to mammalian glutaminyl cyclases. We show that qc-1 and qc-2 are essential for catalyzing the formation of an N-terminal pyroglutamate on CBH-1 and GH5-1. CBH-1 and GH5-1 produced in a Δqc-1 Δqc-2 mutant, and thus lacking the N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, showed greater sensitivity to thermal denaturation, and for GH5-1, susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. QC-1 and QC-2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER-localized proteins. The pyroglutamate modification is predicted to occur in a number of additional fungal proteins that have diverse functions. The identification of glutaminyl cyclases in fungi may have implications for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, heterologous expression, and biotechnological applications revolving around protein stability.

  13. Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent W.; Dana, Craig M.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases. In mammalian cells, the formation of pyroglutamate is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclases. Using the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we identified two genes (qc-1 and qc-2) that encode proteins homologous to mammalian glutaminyl cyclases. We show that qc-1 and qc-2 are essential for catalyzing the formation of an N-terminal pyroglutamate on CBH-1 and GH5-1. CBH-1 and GH5-1 produced in a Δqc-1 Δqc-2 mutant, and thus lacking the N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, showed greater sensitivity to thermal denaturation, and for GH5-1, susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. QC-1 and QC-2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized proteins. The pyroglutamate modification is predicted to occur in a number of additional fungal proteins that have diverse functions. The identification of glutaminyl cyclases in fungi may have implications for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, heterologous expression, and biotechnological applications revolving around protein stability. PMID:28096492

  14. Regulation of CYP3A4 by pregnane X receptor: The role of nuclear receptors competing for response element binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istrate, Monica A., E-mail: monicai@scripps.edu [Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, and University of Tuebingen, Auerbachstr. 112, D-70376 Stuttgart (Germany); Nussler, Andreas K., E-mail: nuessler@uchir.me.tum.de [Department of Traumatology, Technical University Munich, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Eichelbaum, Michel, E-mail: michel.eichelbaum@ikp-stuttgart.de [Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, and University of Tuebingen, Auerbachstr. 112, D-70376 Stuttgart (Germany); Burk, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.burk@ikp-stuttgart.de [Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, and University of Tuebingen, Auerbachstr. 112, D-70376 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-03-19

    Induction of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 by xenobiotics contributes to the pronounced interindividual variability of its expression and often results in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. It is mainly mediated by PXR, which regulates CYP3A4 expression by binding to several specific elements in the 5' upstream regulatory region of the gene. Induction itself shows a marked interindividual variability, whose underlying determinants are only partly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements in CYP3A4, as a potential non-genetic mechanism contributing to interindividual variability of induction. By in vitro DNA binding experiments, we showed that several nuclear receptors bind efficiently to the proximal promoter ER6 and distal xenobiotic-responsive enhancer module DR3 motifs. TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII further demonstrated dose-dependent repression of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 enhancer/promoter reporter activity in transient transfection in the presence and absence of the PXR inducer rifampin, while VDR showed this effect only in the absence of treatment. By combining functional in vitro characterization with hepatic expression analysis, we predict that TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII show a strong potential for the repression of PXR-mediated activation of CYP3A4 in vivo. In summary, our results demonstrate that nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements interferes with PXR-mediated expression and induction of CYP3A4 and thereby contributes to the interindividual variability of induction.

  15. Involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of Reaumuria soongorica to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuBing Liu; Bo Cao; MeiLing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a short woody shrub widely found in semi-arid areas of China. It can survive severe environ-mental stress including high salinity in its natural habitat. Thus, we investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of R. soongorica to saline environments. R. soon-gorica was treated with 0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl solutions for 14 days. Soil salt content increased significantly by watering with high content of NaCl solution, and no variation between 8 and 14 days during treatment. The levels of pe-roxidation of lipid membranes (measured by malondialdehyde content) and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) increased under salt stress. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content decreased with increasing salt content. The ratio of Chl a/Chl b and carotenoid/Chl exhibited sig-nificant increase under 400 mM NaCl. However, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and key enzyme activities in the flavonoid pathway including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and Chalcone isomerase (CHI) decreased under salt stress. These findings possibly suggest that R. soongorica has an adaptation protection mechanism against salt-induced oxidative damage by inducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and maintaining a steady level of carotenoid/Chl.

  16. Evolutionary History of the Enzymes Involved in the Calvin-Benson Cycle in Euglenids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markunas, Chelsea M; Triemer, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Euglenids are an ancient lineage that may have existed as early as 2 billion years ago. A mere 65 years ago, Melvin Calvin and Andrew A. Benson performed experiments on Euglena gracilis and elucidated the series of reactions by which carbon was fixed and reduced during photosynthesis. However, the evolutionary history of this pathway (Calvin-Benson cycle) in euglenids was more complex than Calvin and Benson could have imagined. The chloroplast present today in euglenophytes arose from a secondary endosymbiosis between a phagotrophic euglenid and a prasinophyte green alga. A long period of evolutionary time existed before this secondary endosymbiotic event took place, which allowed for other endosymbiotic events or gene transfers to occur prior to the establishment of the green chloroplast. This research revealed the evolutionary history of the major enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle throughout the euglenid lineage and showed that the majority of genes for Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes shared an ancestry with red algae and/or chromophytes suggesting they may have been transferred to the nucleus prior to the acquisition of the green chloroplast.

  17. Characterization of Two Late-Stage Enzymes Involved in Fosfomycin Biosynthesis in Pseudomonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Philip; Ulrich, Emily C.; Chekan, Jonathan R.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2017-01-01

    The broad-spectrum phosphonate antibiotic fosfomycin is currently in use for clinical treatment of infections caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative uropathogens. The antibiotic is biosynthesized by various streptomycetes, as well as by pseudomonads. Notably, the biosynthetic strategies used by the two genera share only two steps: the first step in which the primary metabolite phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy), and the terminal step in which 2-hydroxypropylphosphonate (2-HPP) is converted to fosfomycin. Otherwise, distinct enzymatic paths are employed. Here, we biochemically confirm the last two steps in the fosfomycin biosynthetic pathway of Pseudomonas syringae PB-5123, showing that Psf3 carries out the reduction of 2-oxopropylphosphonate (2-OPP) to (S)-2-HPP, followed by the Psf4-catalyzed epoxidation of (S)-2-HPP to fosfomycin. Psf4 can also accept (R)-2-HPP as a substrate, but instead performs an oxidation to make 2-OPP. We show that the combined activities of Psf3 and Psf4 can be used to convert racemic 2-HPP to fosfomycin in an enantioconvergent process. X-ray structures of each enzyme with bound substrates provide insights into the stereospecificity of each conversion. These studies shed light into the reaction mechanisms of the terminal two enzymes in a distinct pathway employed by pseudomonads for the production of a potent antimicrobial agent. PMID:27977135

  18. Characterization of Two Late-Stage Enzymes Involved in Fosfomycin Biosynthesis in Pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Philip; Ulrich, Emily C; Chekan, Jonathan R; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Nair, Satish K

    2017-02-17

    The broad-spectrum phosphonate antibiotic fosfomycin is currently in use for clinical treatment of infections caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative uropathogens. The antibiotic is biosynthesized by various streptomycetes, as well as by pseudomonads. Notably, the biosynthetic strategies used by the two genera share only two steps: the first step in which primary metabolite phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) and the terminal step in which 2-hydroxypropylphosphonate (2-HPP) is converted to fosfomycin. Otherwise, distinct enzymatic paths are employed. Here, we biochemically confirm the last two steps in the fosfomycin biosynthetic pathway of Pseudomonas syringae PB-5123, showing that Psf3 performs the reduction of 2-oxopropylphosphonate (2-OPP) to (S)-2-HPP, followed by the Psf4-catalyzed epoxidation of (S)-2-HPP to fosfomycin. Psf4 can also accept (R)-2-HPP as a substrate but instead performs an oxidation to make 2-OPP. We show that the combined activities of Psf3 and Psf4 can be used to convert racemic 2-HPP to fosfomycin in an enantioconvergent process. X-ray structures of each enzyme with bound substrates provide insights into the stereospecificity of each conversion. These studies shed light on the reaction mechanisms of the two terminal enzymes in a distinct pathway employed by pseudomonads for the production of a potent antimicrobial agent.

  19. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenqin; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Lijun; Dong, Lingna; Luo, Feifei; Zhao, Min; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT), and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT. PMID:26586934

  20. Eucalyptus ESTs involved in the production of 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, a regulatory enzyme of abscisic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraê A. Guerrini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA regulates stress responses in plants, and genomic tools can help us to understand the mechanisms involved in that process. FAPESP, a Brazilian research foundation, in association with four private forestry companies, has established the FORESTs database (https://forests.esalq.usp.br. A search was carried out in the Eucalyptus expressed sequence tag database to find ESTs involved with 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, the regulatory enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, using the basic local BLAST alignment tool. We found four clusters (EGEZLV2206B11.g, EGJMWD2252H08.g, EGBFRT3107F10.g, and EGEQFB1200H10.g, which represent similar sequences of the gene that produces NCED. Data showed that the EGBFRT3107F10.g cluster was similar to the maize (Zea mays NCED enzyme, while EGEZLV2206B11.g and EGJMWD2252H08.g clusters were similar to the avocado (Persea americana NCED enzyme. All Eucalyptus clusters were expressed in several tissues, especially in flower buds, where ABA has a special participation during the floral development process.

  1. Rifampicin-activated human pregnane X receptor and CYP3A4 induction enhance acetaminophen-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao; Krausz, Kristopher W; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2009-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is safe at therapeutic levels but causes hepatotoxicity via N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-induced oxidative stress upon overdose. To determine the effect of human (h) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation and CYP3A4 induction on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, mice humanized for PXR and CYP3A4 (TgCYP3A4/hPXR) were treated with APAP and rifampicin. Human PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction enhanced APAP-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities elevated in serum, and hepatic necrosis after coadministration of rifampicin and APAP, compared with APAP administration alone. In contrast, hPXR mice, wild-type mice, and Pxr-null mice exhibited significantly lower ALT/AST levels compared with TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice after APAP administration. Toxicity was coincident with depletion of hepatic glutathione and increased production of hydrogen peroxide, suggesting increased oxidative stress upon hPXR activation. Moreover, mRNA analysis demonstrated that CYP3A4 and other PXR target genes were significantly induced by rifampicin treatment. Urinary metabolomic analysis indicated that cysteine-APAP and its metabolite S-(5-acetylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)mercaptopyruvic acid were the major contributors to the toxic phenotype. Quantification of plasma APAP metabolites indicated that the APAP dimer formed coincident with increased oxidative stress. In addition, serum metabolomics revealed reduction of lysophosphatidylcholine in the APAP-treated groups. These findings demonstrated that human PXR is involved in regulation of APAP-induced toxicity through CYP3A4-mediated hepatic metabolism of APAP in the presence of PXR ligands.

  2. Investigation of Orlistat effects on PXR activation and CYP3A4 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal LS174T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Aneta; Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim; Maurel, Patrick; Pavek, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2010-10-09

    Drugs for weight loss have been in use for nearly hundred years. Orlistat (Xenical) is a non-centrally acting anti-obesity drug that inactivates gastric and intestinal lipases, thus, preventing absorption of dietary triglycerides. There are reports indicating that Orlistat reduces bioavailability of Cyclosporin to a clinically relevant degree. Since Cyclosporin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP3A4, we examined whether interaction between Orlistat and Cyclosporin involves induction of CYP3A4. Human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells LS174T and primary cultures of human hepatocytes were used, as in vitro models of intestinal and hepatic cells, respectively. Treatment of LS174T cells for 24h with Orlistat (1-100mg/L) did not cause induction of CYP3A4 mRNA levels as compared to control cells while Orlistat (100mg/L) slightly induced CYP3A4 mRNA in human hepatocytes. Rifampicin, a model CYP3A4 inducer, significantly induced CYP3A4 mRNA in both types of cells. The level of CYP3A4 protein in human hepatocytes was increased by Orlistat after 48h, while rifampicin strongly induced CYP3A4 protein level. In addition, Orlistat moderately dose-independently activated pregnane X receptor (PXR) in LS174T cells transiently transfected with p3A4-luc reporter construct containing the basal promoter (-362/+53) with proximal PXR response element and the distal xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (-7836/-7208) of the CYP3A4 gene 5'-flanking region. In conclusion, we report here that Orlistat is weak PXR activator and CYP3A4 inducer in human hepatocytes, but it has no effect on CYP3A4 in intestinal cells, implying no role of CYP3A4 induction in the interaction between Orlistat and Cyclosporin in absorption process.

  3. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2006-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multiple drug resistance associated proteins (MRPs), and cytochrome P450 3A4 together constitute a highly efficient barrier for many orally absorbed drugs. Multidrug regimens and corresponding drug-drug interactions are known to cause many adverse drug reactions and treatment failures. Available literature, clinical reports, and in vitro studies from our laboratory indicate that many drugs are substrates for both P-gp and CYP3A4. Our primary hypothesis is that transport and metabolism of protease inhibitors (PIs) and NNRTIs will be altered when administered in combination with azole antifungals, macrolide, fluroquinolone antibiotics, statins, cardiovascular agents, immune modulators, and recreational drugs [benzodiazepines, cocaine, lysergic acid dithylamide (LSD), marijuana, amphetamine (Meth), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and opiates] due to efflux, and/or metabolism at cellular targets. Therefore, such drug combinations could be a reason for the unexpected and unexplainable therapeutic outcomes. A number of clinical reports on drug interaction between PIs and other classes (macrolide antibiotics, azole antifungals, cholesterol lowering statins, cardiovascular medicines, and immunomodulators) are discussed in this article. MDCKII-MDR1 was employed as an in vitro model to evaluate the effects of antiretrovirals, azole antifungals, macrolide, and fluroquinolone antibiotics on efflux transporters. Ketoconazole (50 muM) enhanced the intracellular concentration of (3)H ritonavir. The inhibitory effects of ketoconazole and MK 571 on the efflux of (3)H ritonavir were comparable. An additive effect was observed with simultaneous incorporation of ketoconazole and MK 571. Results of (3)H ritonavir uptake studies were confirmed with transcellular transport studies. Several fluroquinolones were also evaluated on P-gp-mediated efflux of (3)H cyclosporin and 14C erythromycin. These in vitro studies indicate that grepafloxacin, levofloxacin

  4. Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Ota, Sarda; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used very widely in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it is a popular flavor ingredient of drinks, sweets and candies. Its medicinal uses include treating bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, liver disorders and diabetes. Glycyrrhizin is normally considered to be its biologically active marker, so a rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizin in the extract. The effect of the standardized extract and its marker on drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated through CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition assays to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. The inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes was analysed by the fluorescent product formation method. In the CYP450-CO assay, the interaction potential of the standardized extract and pooled microsomes (percentage inhibition 23.23 ± 1.84%), was found to be less than the standard inhibitor. In the fluorimetric assay, G. glabra extracts showed higher IC(50) values than their positive inhibitors, ketoconazole and quinidine for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction potential of the plant extract was greater than the pure compound. The results demonstrate that G. glabra and its principle bioactive compound, glycyrrhizin, when co-administered with conventional medicines showed only a weak interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes.

  5. CYP3A4 expression in breast cancer and its association with risk factors in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriano-Sanchez, Esau; Rodriguez, Noemi Cardenas; Bandala, Cindy; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Lopez-Cruz, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, breast cancer (BCa) is the leading type of cancer in women. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a superfamily of major oxidative enzymes that metabolize carcinogens and many antineoplastic drugs. In addition, these enzymes have influence on tumor development and tumor response to therapy. In this report, we analyzed the protein expression in patients with BCa and in healthy women. Links with some clinic-pathological characteristic were also assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on 48 sets of human breast tumors and normal breast tissues enrolled in Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatologia and Hospital Central Militar, respectively, during the time period from 2010 to 2011. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 or Fisher exact tests to estimate associations and the Mann Whitney U test for comparison of group means. We found a significant CYP3A4 overexpression in BCa stroma and gland regions in comparison with healthy tissue. A significant association between protein expression with smoking, alcoholism and hormonal contraceptives use was also observed. Additionally, we observed estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive association in BCa. We suggest that CYP3A4 expression promotes BCa development and can be used in the prediction of tumor response to different treatments. One therapeutic approach may thus be to block CYP3A4 function.

  6. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR.

  7. The localization within plant cells of enzymes involved in arginine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargool, P D; Steeves, T; Weaver, M; Russell, M

    1978-04-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the distribution of the following: (1) carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (EC 2.7.2.9), (2) ornithine carbamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.3), (3) argininosuccinate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.5), and (4) argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1) in soybean cells grown in suspension culture. Protoplasts were produced from the soybean cells by treatment with cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4) and pectinase (EC 3.2.1.15); the protoplasts were then ruptured by osmotic shock with distilled water. This treatment was followed by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation to isolate various organelle fractions including mitochondria and plastids. Examination of these fractions using specific enzyme assays showed that carbamoylphosphate synthetase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase were localized in a fraction found to be composed primarily of plastids. Argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase appeared to be associated with either the cytosol or a membrane fraction in close association with the cytosol such as the endoplasmic reticulum or protoplast membrane.

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome Suggests Novel Enzymes Involved in Quinone Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Thiele, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinone and menaquinone are membrane lipid-soluble carriers of electrons that are essential for cellular respiration. Eukaryotic cells can synthesize ubiquinone but not menaquinone, whereas prokaryotes can synthesize both quinones. So far, most of the human gut microbiome (HGM) studies have been based on metagenomic analysis. Here, we applied an analysis of individual HGM genomes to the identification of ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthetic pathways. In our opinion, the shift from metagenomics to analysis of individual genomes is a pivotal milestone in investigation of bacterial communities, including the HGM. The key results of this study are as follows. (i) The distribution of the canonical pathways in the HGM genomes was consistent with previous reports and with the distribution of the quinone-dependent reductases for electron acceptors. (ii) The comparative genomics analysis identified four alternative forms of the previously known enzymes for quinone biosynthesis. (iii) Genes for the previously unknown part of the futalosine pathway were identified, and the corresponding biochemical reactions were proposed. We discuss the remaining gaps in the menaquinone and ubiquinone pathways in some of the microbes, which indicate the existence of further alternate genes or routes. Together, these findings provide further insight into the biosynthesis of quinones in bacteria and the physiology of the HGM. PMID:26904004

  9. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata extract and tyrosol, a major bioactive phenolic compound present in Rhodiola, change the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzyme response (AER) and energy pathways linked to proline-mediated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during adipogenesis. Treatment with Rhodiola extracts inhibited the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inhibition of PDH and G6PDH activities by Rhodiola likely prevented proline oxidation required for critical ATP generation that is coupled to AER via the PPP, leading to inhibition of adipogenesis. Rhodiola extracts dose-dependently increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, resulting in a reduced ROS level during adipogenesis. Moreover, the effects of tyrosol, a major bioactive compound in Rhodiola species, were directly correlated with all observed effects by Rhodiola extracts. These results indicate that the antiadipogenic effects of Rhodiola extracts can be attributed to a phenolic tyrosol that may potentially disrupt proline-mediated energy generation and AER via PPP, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This further provides a biochemical rationale to identify the roles of phenolics that modulate the cellular redox environment and therefore have relevance for obesity management.

  10. Investigation of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Interactions of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in Human Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-05-01

    Withania somnifera is commonly used as a rejuvenator, whereas Centella asiatica is well known for its anxiolytic and nootropic effects. The present study aims at investigating the effect of crude extracts and principal phytoconstituents of both the medicinal plants with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes (HLM). Phytoconstituents were quantified in the crude extracts of both the medicinal plants using reverse phase HPLC. Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in HLM. Of the crude extracts of C. asiatica screened in vitro, methanolic extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP3A4 enzyme (Ki-64.36 ± 1.82 µg/mL), whereas ethanol solution extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP2D6 enzyme (Ki-36.3 ± 0.44 µg/mL). The flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 100 μM) inhibition of CYP3A4 activity, whereas quercetin alone showed potent inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in HLM. Because methanolic extract of C. asiatica showed a relatively high percentage content of quercetin and kaempferol than ethanol solution extract, the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract on CYP3A4 enzyme activity could be attributed to the flavonoids. Thus, co-administration of the alcoholic extracts of C. asiatica with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes may lead to undesirable herb-drug interactions in humans.

  11. Involvement of Steroid Receptor Coactivators/Ubiquitin Pathway Enzymes in Mammary Gland Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiuhua Gao, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX 77030 REPORT DATE: June 2005 TYPE OF REPORT...Summary 13 May 2002 - 12 May 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Involvement of Steroid Receptor Coactivators/Ubiquitin Pathway 5b...Usell tc localization of MUcle ~s. Eý a, Eý Ca exaressiorn Crofile; E-p groffle; W1~’, API staining for nUcleUs. E6-AP DAMP -HI +E Figure 2: Effect of

  12. Gomisin A is a Novel Isoform-Specific Probe for the Selective Sensing of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Liver Microsomes and Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Ge, Guang-Bo; He, Yu-Qi; Wang, Ping; Dai, Zi-Ru; Ning, Jing; Hu, Liang-Hai; Yang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of prescription medicines are metabolized by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. CYP3A4 and 3A5 are two major isoforms of human CYP3A and share most of the substrate spectrum. A very limited previous study distinguished the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, identifying the challenge in predicting CYP3A-mediated drug clearance and drug-drug interaction. In the present study, we introduced gomisin A (GA) with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton as a novel selective probe of CYP3A4. The major metabolite of GA was fully characterized as 8-hydroxylated GA by LC-MS and NMR. CYP3A4 was assigned as the predominant isozyme involved in GA 8-hydroxylation by reaction phenotyping assays, chemical inhibition assays, and correlation studies. GA 8-hydroxylation in both recombinant human CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The intrinsic clearance values indicated that CYP3A4 contributed 12.8-fold more than CYP3A5 to GA 8-hydroxylation. Molecular docking studies indicated different hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, which might result in the different catalytic activity for GA 8-hydroxylation. Furthermore, GA exhibited a stronger inhibitory activity towards CYP3A4 than CYP3A5, which further suggested a preferred selectivity of CYP3A4 for the transformation of GA. More importantly, GA has been successfully applied to selectively monitor the modulation of CYP3A4 activities by the inducer rifampin in hepG2 cells, which is consistent with the level change of CYP3A4 mRNA expression. In summary, our results suggested that GA could be used as a novel probe for the selective sensing of CYP3A4 in tissue and cell preparations.

  13. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana pinoresinol reductase, a new type of enzyme involved in lignan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Suzuki, Shiro; Hattori, Takefumi; Umezawa, Toshiaki

    2008-06-01

    A lignan, lariciresinol, was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana, the most widely used model plant in plant bioscience sectors, for the first time. In the A. thaliana genome database, there are two genes (At1g32100 and At4g13660) that are annotated as pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase (PLR). The recombinant AtPLRs showed strict substrate preference toward pinoresinol but only weak or no activity toward lariciresinol, which is in sharp contrast to conventional PLRs of other plants that can reduce both pinoresinol and lariciresinol efficiently to lariciresinol and secoisolariciresinol, respectively. Therefore, we renamed AtPLRs as A. thaliana pinoresinol reductases (AtPrRs). The recombinant AtPrR2 encoded by At4g13660 reduced only (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol and not (+)-pinoresinol in the presence of NADPH. This enantiomeric selectivity accords with that of other PLRs of other plants so far reported, which can reduce one of the enantiomers selectively, whatever the preferential enantiomer. In sharp contrast, AtPrR1 encoded by At1g32100 reduced both (+)- and (-)-pinoresinols to (+)- and (-)-lariciresinols efficiently with comparative k(cat)/K(m) values. Analysis of lignans and spatiotemporal expression of AtPrR1 and AtPrR2 in their functionally deficient A. thaliana mutants and wild type indicated that both genes are involved in lariciresinol biosynthesis. In addition, the analysis of the enantiomeric compositions of lariciresinol isolated from the mutants and wild type showed that PrRs together with a dirigent protein(s) are involved in the enantiomeric control in lignan biosynthesis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated conclusively for the first time that differential expression of PrR isoforms that have distinct selectivities of substrate enantiomers can determine enantiomeric compositions of the product, lariciresinol.

  14. Functional characterization of enzymes involved in cysteine biosynthesis and H(2)S production in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Daniela; Santana, Marianela; Nowicki, Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is expected to synthetize de novo cysteine by different routes, among which the two-step pathway involving serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase (CS) is comprised. Also, cystathionine β synthase (CBS) might contribute to the de novo generation of cysteine in addition to catalyze the first step of the reverse transsulfuration route producing cystathionine. However, neither the functionality of CS nor that of cystathionine γ lyase (CGL) has been assessed. Our results show that T. cruzi CS could participate notably more actively than CBS in the de novo synthesis of cysteine. Interestingly, at the protein level T. cruzi CS is more abundant in amastigotes than in epimastigotes. Unlike the mammalian homologues, T. cruzi CGL specifically cleaves cystathionine into cysteine and is unable to produce H(2)S. The expression pattern of T. cruzi CGL parallels that of CBS, which unexpectedly suggests that in addition to the de novo synthesis of cysteine, the reverse transsulfuration pathway could be operative in the mammalian and insect stages. Besides, T. cruzi CBS produces H(2)S by decomposing cysteine or via condensation of cysteine with homocysteine. The latter reaction leads to cystathionine production, and is catalyzed remarkably more efficiently than the breakdown of cysteine. In T. cruzi like in other organisms, H(2)S could exert regulatory effects on varied metabolic processes. Notably, T. cruzi seems to count on stage-specific routes involved in cysteine production, the multiple cysteine-processing alternatives could presumably reflect this parasite's high needs of reducing power for detoxification of reactive oxygen species.

  15. Spatial organisation of four enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are involved in steviol glycoside synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tania V; Richman, Alex S; Menassa, Rima; Brandle, Jim E

    2006-05-01

    The sweet steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. are derived from the diterpene steviol which is produced from a branch of the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic pathway. An understanding of the spatial organisation of the two pathways including subcellular compartmentation provides important insight for the metabolic engineering of steviol glycosides as well as other secondary metabolites in plants. The final step of GA biosynthesis, before the branch point for steviol production, is the formation of (-)-kaurenoic acid from (-)-kaurene, catalysed by kaurene oxidase (KO). Downstream of this, the first committed step in steviol glycoside synthesis is the hydroxylation of kaurenoic acid to form steviol which is then sequentially glucosylated by a series of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) to produce the variety of steviol glycosides. The subcellular location of KO and three of the UGTs involved in steviol glycoside biosynthesis was investigated by expression of GFP fusions and cell fractionation which revealed KO to be associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and the UGTs in the cytoplasm. It has also been shown by expressing the Stevia UGTs in Arabidopsis that the pathway can be partially reconstituted by recruitment of a native Arabidopsis glucosyltransferase.

  16. In situ analysis of enzymes involved in sucrose to hexose-phosphate conversion during stolon-to-tuber transition of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.J.G.; Sergeeva, L.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ study of enzymes involved in sucrose to hexose-phosphate conversion during in vitro stolon-to-tuber transition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) was employed to follow developmental changes in spatial patterns. In situ activity of the respective enzymes was visualized by specifi

  17. The stress response of human proximal tubule cells to cadmium involves up-regulation of haemoxygenase 1 and metallothionein but not cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Satarug, Soisungwan; Morais, Christudas; Gobe, Glenda C; Johnson, David W; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Vesey, David A

    2016-05-13

    Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) super-family are implicated in cadmium (Cd) -induced nephrotoxicity, however, direct evidence is lacking. This study investigated the endogenous expression of various CYP proteins together with the stress-response proteins, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and metallothionein (MT) in human kidney sections and in cadmium-exposed primary cultures of human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTC). By immunohistochemistry, the CYP members 2B6, 4A11 and 4F2 were prominently expressed in the cortical proximal tubular cells and to a lesser extent in distal tubular cells. Low levels of CYPs 2E1 and 3A4 were also detected. In PTC, in the absence of Cd, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP4F2 and MT were expressed, but HO-1, CYP2B6 and CYP4A11 were not detected. A range of cadmium concentrations (0-100μM) were utilized to induce stress conditions. MT protein was further induced by as little as 0.5μM cadmium, reaching a 6-fold induction at 20μM, whereas for HO-1, a 5μM cadmium concentration was required for initial induction and at 20μM cadmium reached a 15-fold induction. The expression of CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4F2 were not altered by any cadmium concentrations tested at 48h. Cadmium caused a reduction in cell viability at concentrations above 10μM. In conclusion although cultured PTC, do express CYP proteins, (CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4F2), Cd-induced cell stress as indicted by induction of HO-1 and MT does not alter expression of these CYP proteins at 48h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Size and surface modification of amorphous silica particles determine their effects on the activity of human CYP3A4 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shunji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Uji, Miyuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Because of their useful chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are widely used around the world - for example, as additives in food and medicines - and such uses are expected to become more prevalent in the future. Therefore, collecting information about the effects of nanomaterials on metabolic enzymes is important. Here, we examined the effects of amorphous silica particles with various sizes and surface modifications on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity by means of two different in vitro assays. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm (nSP30 and nSP70, respectively) tended to inhibit CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), but the inhibitory activity of both types of nanoparticles was decreased by carboxyl modification. In contrast, amine-modified nSP70 activated CYP3A4 activity. In HepG2 cells, nSP30 inhibited CYP3A4 activity more strongly than the larger silica particles did. Taken together, these results suggest that the size and surface characteristics of the silica particles determined their effects on CYP3A4 activity and that it may be possible to develop silica particles that do not have undesirable effects on metabolic enzymes by altering their size and surface characteristics.

  19. Applying Stable Isotope Labeled Amino Acids in Micropatterned Hepatocyte Co-Culture to Directly Determine the Degradation Rate Constant for CYP3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryan H; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin; Wong, Susan; Chang, Jae H

    2017-03-13

    The rate of enzyme degradation (kdeg) is an important input parameter for the prediction of clinical drug-drug-interactions (DDI) that result from mechanism-based inactivation or induction of cytochrome P450s. Currently, a large range of reported estimates for CYP3A4 enzyme degradation exists, and consequently, large uncertainty exists in steady-state predictions for DDI. In the current investigations, stable isotope labeled amino acids in culture (SILAC) was applied to a long-lived primary human hepatocyte culture, HepatoPac, to directly monitor the degradation of CYP3A4. This approach allowed selective isotope labeling of a population of de novo synthesized CYP3A4, and specific quantification of proteins with mass spectrometry to determine the CYP3A4 degradation within the hepatocytes. The kdeg estimate was 0.026 ± 0.005 h- 1. This value was reproduced by cultures derived across four individual donors. For these cultures, data indicated that CYP3A4 mRNA and total protein expression (i.e. labeled and not labeled P450s), and activity were stable over the period where degradation had been determined. This kdeg value for CYP3A4 was in good agreement with recently reported values that used alternate analytical approaches, but also employed micropatterned primary human hepatocytes as the in vitro model.

  20. C-terminal methylation of truncated neuropeptides: an enzyme-assisted extraction artifact involving methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Barton, Elizabeth E; Esonu, Onyinyechi K; Polasky, Daniel A; Onderko, Laura L; Bergeron, Audrey B; Christie, Andrew E; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2013-08-01

    Neuropeptides are the largest class of signaling molecules used by nervous systems. Today, neuropeptide discovery commonly involves chemical extraction from a tissue source followed by mass spectrometric characterization. Ideally, the extraction procedure accurately preserves the sequence and any inherent modifications of the native peptides. Here, we present data showing that this is not always true. Specifically, we present evidence showing that, in the lobster Homarus americanus, the orcokinin family members, NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe and SSEDMDRLGFG-OMe, are non-native peptides generated from full-length orcokinin precursors as the result of a highly selective peptide modification (peptide truncation with C-terminal methylation) that occurs during extraction. These peptides were observed by MALDI-FTMS and LC-Q-TOFMS analyses when eyestalk ganglia were extracted in a methanolic solvent, but not when tissues were dissected, co-crystallized with matrix, and analyzed directly with methanol excluded from the sample preparation. The identity of NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe was established using MALDI-FTMS/SORI-CID, LC-Q-TOFMS/MS, and comparison with a peptide standard. Extraction substituting deuterated methanol for methanol confirmed that the latter is the source of the C-terminal methyl group, and MS/MS confirmed the C-terminal localization of the added CD3. Surprisingly, NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe is not produced via a chemical acid-catalyzed esterification. Instead, the methylated peptide appears to result from proteolytic truncation in the presence of methanol, as evidenced by a reduction in conversion with the addition of a protease-inhibitor cocktail; heat effectively eliminated the conversion. This unusual and highly specific extraction-derived peptide conversion exemplifies the need to consider both chemical and biochemical processes that may modify the structure of endogenous neuropeptides.

  1. Expressed and Purified Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 3A4%重组细胞色素酶P450 3A4表达和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳艾姣; 石磊; 方方; 赵树进

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 is an important enzyme for metabolism of endogenous substances and exogenous substances, and plays a decisive role in drug treatment, drug development and understanding the metabolism of potential toxic substances and carcinogenic substances. In order to construct the expression vector of cytochrome P450 3A4,expressed and purified CYP3A4 protein in Escherichia coli,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to obtain CYP3A4 Cdna from human liver total RNA,and then inserted directly into the Pmd (R) 20-T Vector. The correct sequencing was modified with N-terminal and C-terminal that have been conducive to the expression. After double digestion the CYP3A4 gene was inserted into the expression vector Pet-28a-c ( + ) vectors and transformed into E. coli BL21 ( DE3 ) to express. CYP3A4 mutation subtype of CYP3A4 * 19 was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. Four factors and two levels of orthogonal experiment designed by SPSS13. 0 to optimize four factors of a-ALA (0.5 mmol/L and 1 mmol/L) ,IPTG (0.5 mmol/L and 1 mmol/L) .kanamycin (50 μg/Ml and 100 μg/Ml) concentration and bacteria inoculation density (inoculation 1% and inoculated with 2%) for portent expression. The results were analyzed using SPSS13. 0 to select a good combination of large-scale induced expression. CYP3A4 protein was induced by IPTG,and verified by Western blot. Membrane protein concentration is around 65 μg/Ml. The level of a-ALA, antibiotics ( kanamycin) , IPTG, inoculation density on the level of expression of membrane proteins was not statistically significant. Expression of membrane proteins was verified by Western blot for recombinant CYP3A4 protein. The cloning of cytochrome P450 3A4 protein was obtained that laid the foundation for drug interaction experiments in vitro.%细胞色素酶P450是代谢内源性物质和外源性物质的重要的酶,在药物治疗和药物开发领域以及了解潜在的毒性物质和致癌性物质的代谢机制起决定

  2. CYP3A4 mediated in vitro metabolism of vinflunine in human liver microsomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping ZHAO; Jiao ZHONG; Xiao-quan LIU; Guang-ji WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the metabolism of vinflunine and the effects of selective cyto-chrome P-450 (CYP450) inhibitors on the metabolism of vinflunine in human liver microsomes. Methods: Individual selective CYP450 inhibitors were used to inves-tigate their effects on the metabolism of vinflunine and the principal CYP450 isoform involved in the formation of metabolites M1 and M2 in human liver microsomes.Results: Vinflunine was rapidly metabolized to 2 metabolites: M1 and M2 in human liver microsomes. M1 and M2 were tentatively presumed to be the N-oxide metabo-lite or hydroxylated metabolite and epoxide metabolite of vinflunine, respectively. Ketoconazole uncompetitively inhibited the formation of M1, and competitively inhibited the formation of M2, while α-naphthoflavone, sulfaphenazole, diethyl dithiocarbamate, tranylcypromine and quinidine had little or no inhibitory effect on the formation of M1 and M2. Conclusion: Vinflunine is rapidly metabolized in human liver microsomes, and CYP3A4 is the major human CYP450 involved in the metabolism of vinflunine.

  3. In vitro CYP3A4 metabolism: inhibition by Echinacea purpurea and choice of substrate for the evaluation of herbal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torstein Schrøder; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2008-11-01

    The in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition profiles of Echinacea purpurea, St. John's wort and ketoconazole were evaluated by three different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC), 7-benzyloxyquinoline (BQ) and testosterone. St. John's wort and ketoconazole produced similar inhibition profiles regardless of substrate. For E. purpurea, testosterone metabolism showed a much lower CYP3A4 inhibition (IC(50) 5394 microg/ml) compared to the fluorescent substrates BFC and BQ (IC(50) 354 and 452 mg/ml, respectively). It is suggested that the substrate/assay-dependent effects may arise from a complex nature of E. purpurea constituents, involving different CYP3A4 substrate binding sites. The choice of substrate might thus be essential for evaluation of the inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism for some herbs. A weak inhibition potential of E. purpurea towards CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in vitro was confirmed by the use of three different substrates.

  4. Expression, cellular localization, and involvement of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in the regulation of ram sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, C; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Casao, A; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2016-08-01

    Spermatozoa require substantially more ATP than other cells, not only for sustaining sperm motility but also for regulating protein phosphorylation during capacitation. In this study, we have reported for the first time the presence of the two key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in ovine spermatozoa by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blotting, in-gel activity, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that the activity of both enzymes significantly increased after in vitro capacitation in the presence of high-cAMP levels, with a concomitant increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation and in the proportion of sperm-capacitated pattern assessed by the chlortetracycline staining. These results suggest that PPP is related with the progress of capacitation and that a relationship between calcium compartmentalization, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and PPP seems to exist. This is the first report that shows a connection between the PPP, cAMP/PKA signaling pathways and sperm capacitation. These findings can be of high-biological importance to improve our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms involved in the acquisition of mammalian sperm functional competence and, ultimately, fertility.

  5. Purification and characterization of the enzymes involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide degradation by Penicillium brevicompactum NRC 829.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Thanaa Hamed; El-Ghonemy, Dina Helmy

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a new pathway for the degradation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by Penicillium brevicompactum NRC 829 extracts. Enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of NAD, i.e. alkaline phosphatase, aminohydrolase and glycohydrolase were determined. Alkaline phosphatase was found to catalyse the sequential hydrolysis of two phosphate moieties of NAD molecule to nicotinamide riboside plus adenosine. Adenosine was then deaminated by aminohydrolase to inosine and ammonia. While glycohydrolase catalyzed the hydrolysis of the nicotinamide-ribosidic bond of NAD+ to produce nicotinamide and ADP-ribose in equimolar amounts, enzyme purification through a 3-step purification procedure revealed the existence of two peaks of alkaline phosphatases, and one peak contained deaminase and glycohydrolase activities. NAD deaminase was purified to homogeneity as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular mass of 91 kDa. Characterization and determination of some of NAD aminohydrolase kinetic properties were conducted due to its biological role in the regulation of cellular NAD level. The results also revealed that NAD did not exert its feedback control on nicotinamide amidase produced by P. brevicompactum.

  6. A reporter gene assay to assess the molecular mechanisms of xenobiotic-dependent induction of the human CYP3A4 gene in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, M S; Williams, J M; Tarbit, M; Goldfarb, P S; Gray, T J; Gibson, G G

    1999-03-01

    1. A plasmid containing 1 kb of the CYP3A4 regulatory (promoter) region coupled to a reporter gene for secretary placental alkaline phosphatase (SPAP) was transfected into HepG2 cells. Transfected cells were dosed with several known inducers of CYP3A4 and the levels of SPAP were measured. The effect of co-transfecting a plasmid encoding the human glucocorticoid receptor on reporter gene activity was also examined. 2. Dexamethasone induced CYP3A4-dependent reporter gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner and induction was approximately doubled in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor. Dexamethasone-dependent induction was blocked by RU-486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist), in the presence of the co-transfected glucocorticoid receptor. 3. Induction of CYP3A4-dependent reporter gene expression and enhancement of the induction by the glucocorticoid receptor was also observed with pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), rifampicin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenylbutazone and phenobarbitone, all known in vivo inducers of CYP3A4 in man. 4. Metyrapone and sulfinpyrazone induced CYP3A4-dependent reporter gene expression, but induction was not enhanced by the glucocorticoid receptor. 5. Clotrimazole, erythromycin and triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) did not induce CYP3A4-dependent reporter gene expression, consistent with the observation that these inducers act through post-transcriptional mechanisms. 6. These results highlight differences in the molecular mechanisms of induction of CYP3A4 by the xenobiotics studied and indicate that the glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the induction of the CYP3A4 gene by some, but not all, CYP3A4 inducers. 7. We propose that the approach described here provides a useful in vitro approach for the identification of transcriptional regulators of the CYP3A4 gene.

  7. Advancements in the maintenance of skin barrier/skin lipid composition and the involvement of metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Le; Jia, Yan; Cheng, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Gao-Lei; Li, Jing-Yi; He, Cong-Fen

    2016-12-01

    The human skin barrier has an important role in protection and defense, reflected not only in the ability to resist entry of harmful substances into the human body, but also in the ability to prevent loss of water and nutrients. Once the skin barrier is damaged, the skin may become dry, scaly, and wrinkled, and a series of skin problems may occur. In this article, we review the composition of lipids, such as ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, in the skin and examine the expression of enzymes related to lipid metabolism, such as kallikreins, elongase of elongation of very long-chain fatty acids, hydrolases, and lipid synthases. Additionally, we discuss the involvement of these proteins in skin barrier function and structure. The information presented in this review is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the development of skin care products facilitating the maintenance and repair of skin barrier function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A new enzyme involved in the control of the stereochemistry in the decalin formation during equisetin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoki; Nogawa, Toshihiko; Hirota, Hiroshi; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Takahashi, Shunji; Ahn, Jong Seog; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Tetramic acid containing a decalin ring such as equisetin and phomasetin is one of the characteristic scaffolds found in fungal bioactive secondary metabolites. Polyketide (PKS)-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) hybrid enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of the polyketide scaffold conjugated with an amino acid. PKS-NRPS hybrid complex programs to create structural diversity in the polyketide backbone have begun to be investigated, yet mechanism of control of the stereochemistry in a decalin formation via a Diels-Alder cycloaddition remains uncertain. Here, we demonstrate that fsa2, which showed no homology to genes encoding proteins of known function, in the fsa cluster responsible for equisetin and fusarisetin A biosynthesis in Fusarium sp. FN080326, is involved in the control of stereochemistry in decalin formation via a Diels-Alder reaction in the equisetin biosynthetic pathway.

  9. Vitamin D Receptor-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 by Quercetin in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Yoon, In-Soo; Noh, Chi-Kyoung; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Park, Yohan; Ji, Eunhee; Seo, Min-Duk; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether quercetin interacts with vitamin D receptor, we investigated the effects of quercetin on vitamin D receptor activity in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The effects of quercetin on the expression of the vitamin D receptor target genes, vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 3A4, multidrug resistance protein 1, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6 were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The vitamin D receptor siRNA was used to assess the involvement of the vitamin D receptor. Vitamin D receptor activation using a vitamin D responsive element-mediated cytochrome P450 3A4 reporter gene assay was investigated in Caco-2 cells transfected with human vitamin D receptor. We also studied the magnitude of the vitamin D receptor activation and/or synergism between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and quercetin-like flavonoids. Slight but significant increases in the mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 3A4, vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, multidrug resistance protein 1, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6 were observed after 3 days of continual quercetin treatment. The silencing effect of vitamin D receptor by vitamin D receptor siRNA in Caco-2 cells significantly attenuated the induction of the vitamin D receptor target genes. Moreover, quercetin significantly enhanced cytochrome P450 3A4 reporter activity in Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression of exogenous vitamin D receptor further stimulated the vitamin D receptor activity. Quercetin-like flavonoids such as kaempferol stimulated the vitamin D receptor activity in a manner similar to that seen with quercetin. Taken together, the data indicates that quercetin upregulates cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 expression in Caco-2 cells likely via a vitamin D receptor-dependent pathway.

  10. A comparative study of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindian and Mestizo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Sosa-Macias, Martha; Vega, Libia; Albores, Arnulfo; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B, *2, *4, *5, and *18 alleles amongst both Tepehuan Amerindians, a native group that has inhabited northern Mexico for thousands of years, and Mestizo Mexicans, and to compare the data with those of other populations. Genotyping experiments revealed that 8.8 and 8.0% of the Mestizo and Tepehuano subjects, respectively, carried the CYP3A4*1B allele. Only one Mestizo subject was heterozygous for the CYP3A4*2 variant, while CYP3A4*4, *5 and *18 allelic variants were not detected in either group. On the other hand, the frequencies of the CYP3A4*1B variant in Mestizos and Tepehuanos were similar to those reported for Caucasians, but different from those observed for African and Asian populations.

  11. Bufalin inhibits CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yun LI; Wen XU; Xi ZHANG; Wei-dong ZHANG; Li-wei HU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the inhibitory interactions of bufalin and CYP3A4.Methods: Recombinant human CYP3A4 was incubated with bufalin in vitro. Bufalin was administered ig and iv to Wistar rats to further estimate its impact on CYP3A4, and midazolam was given to index the activity of CYP3A4. Results: The IC50 of bufalin was 14.52 μmol/L. Bufalin affected CYP3A4 activity with increases in AUC0-t and t1/2f and decreases in CL and the formation of 1-hydroxy-midazolam after ig or iv administration of midazolam (P<0.05). An increase in Cmax after ig bufalin administration (P<0.05) was observed.Conclusion: Bufalin showed a modest but significant inhibition of CYP3A4 both in vitro and in vivo. The likelihood of an interaction between bufalin and the CYP3A4-metabolized drugs in human might not be negated.

  12. Potential inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by propofol in human primary hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Qun Yang; Wei-Feng Yu; Yun-Fei Cao; Bin Gong; Qing Chang; Guang-Shun Yang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes constitute a superfamily of hemoproteins that play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and in the detoxification of xenobiotic molecules. P450 3A4 is one of the most important forms in human being, and mediates the metabolism of around 70% of therapeutic drugs and endogenous compounds. Propofol, a widely used intravenous anesthetic drug, is known to inhibit cytochrome P450activities in isolated rat hepatocytes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of propofol on P4503A4 in a dose-dependent manner to understand its drugdrug interaction.METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from liver specimens from hepatic angioma patients undergone hepatic surgery.Primary incubated hepatocytes were treated with 0, 0.01,0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM propofol for 24 hours. P450 3A4activity was measured with Nash′s colorimetry. The protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of propofol was observed in cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. A minimal dosage of propofol (0.01 mM) induced a significant inhibition of P450 3A4 activity, although its regular dosages (0.01-0.1mM) showed no inhibitory effect on the cellular protein expression of P450 3A4.CONCLUSION: Propofol may be a potential CYP3A4 inhibitor as this anesthetic can inhibit isoenzyme activity significantly and reduce the metabolic rate of CYP3A4 substrates. This inhibition occurs at post-expression level, and concentration of propofol used clinically does not affect CYP3A4 protein expression. propofol may thus induce drug interaction of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity at the dosage used clinically.

  13. Characterization of a dual-active enzyme, DcpA, involved in cyclic diguanosine monophosphate turnover in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indra Mani; Prakash, Sunita; Dhanaraman, Thillaivillalan; Chatterji, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    We have reported previously that the long-term survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis is facilitated by a dual-active enzyme MSDGC-1 (renamed DcpA), which controls the cellular turnover of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Most mycobacterial species possess at least a single copy of a DcpA orthologue that is highly conserved in terms of sequence similarity and domain architecture. Here, we show that DcpA exists in monomeric and dimeric forms. The dimerization of DcpA is due to non-covalent interactions between two protomers that are arranged in a parallel orientation. The dimer shows both synthesis and hydrolysis activities, whereas the monomer shows only hydrolysis activity. In addition, we have shown that DcpA is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane and exhibits heterogeneous cellular localization with a predominance at the cell poles. Finally, we have also shown that DcpA is involved in the change in cell length and colony morphology of M. smegmatis. Taken together, our study provides additional evidence about the role of the bifunctional protein involved in c-di-GMP signalling in M. smegmatis.

  14. Prediction of novel families of enzymes involved in oxidative and other complex modifications of bases in nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Tahiliani, Mamta; Rao, Anjana; Aravind, L

    2009-06-01

    Modified bases in nucleic acids present a layer of information that directs biological function over and beyond the coding capacity of the conventional bases. While a large number of modified bases have been identified, many of the enzymes generating them still remain to be discovered. Recently, members of the 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase super-family, which modify diverse substrates from small molecules to biopolymers, were predicted and subsequently confirmed to catalyze oxidative modification of bases in nucleic acids. Of these, two distinct families, namely the AlkB and the kinetoplastid base J binding proteins (JBP) catalyze in situ hydroxylation of bases in nucleic acids. Using sensitive computational analysis of sequences, structures and contextual information from genomic structure and protein domain architectures, we report five distinct families of 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase that we predict to be involved in nucleic acid modifications. Among the DNA-modifying families, we show that the dioxygenase domains of the kinetoplastid base J-binding proteins belong to a larger family that includes the Tet proteins, prototyped by the human oncogene Tet1, and proteins from basidiomycete fungi, chlorophyte algae, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates and bacteriophages. We present evidence that some of these proteins are likely to be involved in oxidative modification of the 5-methyl group of cytosine leading to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. The Tet/JBP homologs from basidiomycete fungi such as Laccaria and Coprinopsis show large lineage-specific expansions and a tight linkage with genes encoding a novel and distinct family of predicted transposases, and a member of the Maelstrom-like HMG family. We propose that these fungal members are part of a mobile transposon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eukaryotic transposable element that encodes its own DNA-modification enzyme with a

  15. Combined application of plasma mutagenesis and gene engineering leads to 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 as main components from Streptomyces bingchenggensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yue-Jing; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Chong-Xi; He, Hai-Rong; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Milbemycin oxime has been commercialized as effective anthelmintics in the fields of animal health, agriculture, and human infections. Currently, milbemycin oxime is synthesized by a two-step chemical reaction, which involves the ketonization of milbemycins A3/A4 to yield the intermediates 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 using CrO3 as catalyst. Due to the low efficiency and environmental unfriendliness of the ketonization of milbemycins A3/A4, it is imperative to develop alternative strategies to produce 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4. In this study, the atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation system was first employed to treat milbemycin-producing strain Streptomyces bingchenggensis, and a mutant strain BC-120-4 producing milbemycins A3, A4, B2, and B3 as main components was obtained, which favors the construction of genetically engineered strains producing 5-oxomilbemycins. Importantly, the milbemycins A3/A4 yield of BC-120-4 reached 3,890 ± 52 g/l, which was approximately two times higher than that of the initial strain BC-109-6 (1,326 ± 37 g/l). The subsequent interruption of the gene milF encoding a C5-ketoreductase responsible for the ketonization of milbemycins led to strain BCJ60 (∆milF) with the production of 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 and the elimination of milbemycins A3, A4, B2, and B3. The high 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 yield (3,470 ± 147 g/l) and genetic stability of BCJ60 implied the potential use in industry to prepare 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 for the semisynthesis of milbemycins oxime.

  16. Concurrent cooperativity and substrate inhibition in the epoxidation of carbamazepine by cytochrome P450 3A4 active site mutants inspired by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian S; Knehans, Tim; Davydov, Dmitri R; Bounds, Patricia L; von Mandach, Ursula; Halpert, James R; Caflisch, Amedeo; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-01-27

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major human P450 responsible for the metabolism of carbamazepine (CBZ). To explore the mechanisms of interactions of CYP3A4 with this anticonvulsive drug, we carried out multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, starting with the complex of CYP3A4 manually docked with CBZ. On the basis of these simulations, we engineered CYP3A4 mutants I369F, I369L, A370V, and A370L, in which the productive binding orientation was expected to be stabilized, thus leading to increased turnover of CBZ to the 10,11-epoxide product. In addition, we generated CYP3A4 mutant S119A as a control construct with putative destabilization of the productive binding pose. Evaluation of the kinetics profiles of CBZ epoxidation demonstrate that CYP3A4-containing bacterial membranes (bactosomes) as well as purified CYP3A4 (wild-type and mutants I369L/F) exhibit substrate inhibition in reconstituted systems. In contrast, mutants S119A and A370V/L exhibit S-shaped profiles that are indicative of homotropic cooperativity. MD simulations with two to four CBZ molecules provide evidence that the substrate-binding pocket of CYP3A4 can accommodate more than one molecule of CBZ. Analysis of the kinetics profiles of CBZ metabolism with a model that combines the formalism of the Hill equation with an allowance for substrate inhibition demonstrates that the mechanism of interactions of CBZ with CYP3A4 involves multiple substrate-binding events (most likely three). Despite the retention of the multisite binding mechanism in the mutants, functional manifestations reveal an exquisite sensitivity to even minor structural changes in the binding pocket that are introduced by conservative substitutions such as I369F, I369L, and A370V.

  17. NO is involved in spermidine-induced drought tolerance in white clover via activation of antioxidant enzymes and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dandan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Yan; Li, Yaping; He, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xinquan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Yan, Yanhong

    2016-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule, can be induced by polyamines (PAs), which play an important role in improving drought tolerance in plants. This study was to further investigate the role of NO in spermidine (Spd)-induced drought tolerance associated with antioxidant defense in leaves of white clover (Trifolium repens) under drought stress induced by -0.3 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solution. A hydroponic growth method was used for cultivating plants in a controlled growth chamber for 30-33 days until the second leaves were fully expanded. Two relative independent experiments were carried out in our study. One is that exogenous application of Spd or an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) significantly improved drought tolerance in whole plants, as demonstrated by better phenotypic appearance, increased relative water content (RWC), and decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves as compared to untreated plants. For another detached leaf experiment, PEG induced an increase in the generation of NO in cells and significantly improved activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). These responses could be blocked by pre-treatment with a Spd biosynthetic inhibitor, dicyclohexyl amine (DCHA), and then reversed by application of exogenous Spd. Meanwhile, PEG induced up-regulation of activities and gene transcript levels of corresponding antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) to varying degrees, while these effects were partially blocked by pre-treatment with DCHA, the scavenger of NO, the inhibitors of NR or NOS. In addition, Spd-induced antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression also could be effectively inhibited by an NO scavenger as well as inhibitors of NR and NOS. These findings suggest that both Spd and NO can enhance drought tolerance. Spd was involved in drought stress-activated NR and NOS

  18. Effects of naturally occurring dihydroflavonols from Inula viscosa on inflammation and enzymes involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Victoriano; Recio, M Carmen; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Ríos, José-Luis

    2007-07-19

    The anti-inflammatory properties of three flavanones isolated from Inula viscosa, sakuranetin, 7-O-methylaromadendrin, and 3-acetyl-7-O-methylaromadendrin, have been tested both in vitro and in vivo. Acute inflammation in vivo was induced by means of topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to mouse ears or by subcutaneous injection of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) into mouse paws. The test compounds were evaluated in vitro for their effect on both the metabolism of arachidonic acid and on the release and/or activity of enzymes involved in the inflammatory response such as elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and protein kinase C (PKC). The most active compounds in vivo against PLA(2)-induced paw oedema were 7-O-methylaromadendrin (ED(50)=8 mg/kg) and sakuranetin (ED(50)=18 mg/kg). In contrast, the most potent compound against TPA-induced ear oedema was 3-acetyl-7-O-methylaromadendrin (ED(50)=185 microg/ear), followed by sakuranetin (ED(50)=205 microg/ear). In vitro, the latter compound was the most potent inhibitor of leukotriene (LT) B(4) production by peritoneal rat neutrophils (IC(50)=9 microM) and it was also the only compound that directly inhibited the activity of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). 3-Acetyl-7-O-methylaromadendrin also inhibited LTB(4) production (IC(50)=15 microM), but had no effect on 5-LOX activity. The only flavanone that inhibited the secretory PLA(2) activity in vitro was 7-O-methylaromadendrin. This finding may partly explain the anti-inflammatory effect observed in vivo, although other mechanisms such as the inhibition of histamine release by mast cells may also be implicated. Sakuranetin at 100 microM was found to inhibit elastase release, although this result is partly due to direct inhibition of the enzyme itself. At the same concentration, 7-O-methylaromadendrin only affected the enzyme release. Finally, none of the flavanones exhibited any effect on MPO or PKC activities. Taken together, these findings indicate that

  19. H2O2-Activated Up-Regulation of Glutathione in Arabidopsis Involves Induction of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Cysteine Synthesis in the Chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillaume Queval; Dorothée Thominet; Hélène Vanacker; Myroslawa Miginiac-Maslow; Bertrand Gakière; Graham Noctor

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione is a key player in cellular redox homeostasis and, therefore, in the response to H2O2, but the factors regulating oxidation-activated glutathione synthesis are still unclear. We investigated H2O2-induced glutathione synthesis in a conditional Arabidopsis catalase-deficient mutant (cat2). Plants were grown from seed at elevated CO2 for 5 weeks, then transferred to air in either short-day or long-day conditions. Compared to cat2 at elevated CO2 or wild-type plants in any condition, transfer of cat2 to air in both photoperiods caused measurable oxidation of the leaf glutathione pool within hours. Oxidation continued on subsequent days and was accompanied by accumulation of glutathione. This effect was stronger in cat2 transferred to air in short days, and was not linked to appreciable increases in the extractable activities of or transcripts encoding enzymes involved in the committed pathway of glutathione synthesis. In contrast, it was accompanied by increases in serine, O-acetylserine, and cysteine. These changes in metabolites were accompanied by induction of genes encoding adenosine phosphosulfate reductase (APR), particularly APR3, as well as a specific serine acetyltransferase gene (SAT2.1) encoding a chloroplastic SAT. Marked induction of these genes was only observed in cat2 transferred to air in short-day conditions, where cysteine and glutathione accumulation was most dramatic. Unlike other SAT genes, which showed negligible induction in cat2, the relative abundance of APR and SAT2.1 transcripts was closely correlated with marker transcripts for H2O2 signaling. Together, the data underline the importance of cysteine synthesis in oxidant-induced up-regulation of glutathione synthesis and suggest that the chloroplast makes an important contribution to cysteine production under these circumstances.

  20. Selective and sensitive quantification of the cytochrome P450 3A4 protein in human liver homogenates through multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Anna; Kelly, Isabelle; Trottier, Jocelyn; Verreault, Mélanie; Wunsch, Ewa; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Poirier, Guy; Droit, Arnaud; Barbier, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at establishing a sensitive multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) method for the quantification of the drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 enzyme in human liver homogenates. Liver samples were subjected to trypsin digestion. MRM-MS analyses were performed using three transitions optimized on one purified synthetic peptide unique to CYP3A4 and the standardizing protein, calnexin. Coefficient of variations for the precision and reproducibility of the MRM-MS measurement were also determined. The method was applied to liver samples from ten non-cholestatic donors and 34 cholestatic patients with primary biliary cholangitis (n = 12; PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 10; PSC) or alcoholic liver disease (n = 12; ALD). The established method presented high sensitivity with limit of detection lower than 5 fmol, and was successfully applied for the absolute and relative quantification of CYP3A4 in both whole liver homogenate and microsomal fractions. When all groups were analyzed together, a significant correlation was observed for the MRM-based CYP3A4 protein quantification in homogenates and microsomes (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was detected between CYP3A4 levels in PSC, PBC, ALD and control samples. Finally, the MRM-MS quantification of CYP3A4 in homogenates also correlated (r = 0.44; p < 0.05) with the level of enzyme activity in the same samples, as determined by measuring the chenodeoxycholic to hyocholic acid conversion. The established method provides a sensitive tool to evaluate the CYP3A4 protein in human liver homogenates from patients with normal or chronic/severe hepatic injury.

  1. Aluminum-induced decrease in CO{sub 2} assimilation in citrus seedlings is accompanied by decreased activities of key enzymes involved in CO{sub 2} assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L-S.; Liu, X-H. [Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, College of Horticulture, Fuzhou (China); Qi, Y-P. [Fujian Provincial Institute of Medical Sciences, Fuzhou (China); Smith, B. R. [Cornell University, Dept. of Horticulture, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Many previous studies provided evidence that heavy metals affect the carbon dioxide assimilation of plants by inhibiting different enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle. Other studies have shown little or no change in the activities of Calvion cycle enzymes accompanying a heavy metal-induced decline in carbon dioxide assimilation. This study reexamined aluminium toxicity in leaf carbohydrate metabolism by determining responses in citrus leaves to aluminium, specifically in terms of carbon dioxide assimilation, key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, starch and sucrose syntheses, non-structural carbohydrates, and photosynthetic intermediates. Based on results in each of these areas, it was concluded that aluminium decreases carbon dioxide assimilation, but in so doing either increases or has no effect on the activities of enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle. The decrease in carbon dioxide assimilation induced by aluminium is suspected to be the result of increased photorespiration. 41 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takayama, Kazuo [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Keihanshin Consortium for Fostering the Next Generation of Global Leaders in Research (K-CONNEX), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nagamoto, Yasuhito [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Sakurai, Fuminori [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Regulatory Sciences for Oligonucleotide Therapeutics, Clinical Drug Development Project, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tachibana, Masashi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: mizuguch@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  3. Effects of the activities of key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis on the fine structure of amylopectin in developing rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic changes of the activities of enzymes involving in starch biosynthesis, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthases (SSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE) and starch debranching enzymes (DBE) were studied, and changes of fine structure of amy- lopectin were characterized by isoamylase treatment during rice grain development, using trans anti-waxy gene rice plants. The relationships between the activities of those key enzymes were also analyzed. The amylose synthesis was significantly inhibited in transgenic Wanjing 9522, but the total starch content and final grain weight were less affected as compared with those of non-transgenic Wanjing 9522 rice cultivar. Analyses on the changes of activities of enzymes involving in starch bio- synthesis showed that different enzyme activities were expressed differently during rice endosperm development. Soluble starch synthase is relatively highly expressed in earlier stage of endosperm de- velopment, whilst maximal expression of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) occurred in mid-stage of endosperm development. No obvious differences in changes of the activities of AGPase and SBE between two rice cultivars investigated, except the DBEs. Distribution patterns of branches of amy- lopectin changed continually during the development of rice grains and varied between two rice culti- vars. It was suggested that amylopectin synthesis be prior to the synthesis of amylose and different enzymes have different roles in controlling syntheses of branches of amylopectin.

  4. Effects of the activities of key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis on the fine structure of amylopectin in developing rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Bing; Guo, ZhiGang; Liang, JianSheng

    2008-10-01

    The dynamic changes of the activities of enzymes involving in starch biosynthesis, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthases (SSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE) and starch debranching enzymes (DBE) were studied, and changes of fine structure of amylopectin were characterized by isoamylase treatment during rice grain development, using trans anti-waxy gene rice plants. The relationships between the activities of those key enzymes were also analyzed. The amylose synthesis was significantly inhibited in transgenic Wanjing 9522, but the total starch content and final grain weight were less affected as compared with those of non-transgenic Wanjing 9522 rice cultivar. Analyses on the changes of activities of enzymes involving in starch biosynthesis showed that different enzyme activities were expressed differently during rice endosperm development. Soluble starch synthase is relatively highly expressed in earlier stage of endosperm development, whilst maximal expression of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) occurred in mid-stage of endosperm development. No obvious differences in changes of the activities of AGPase and SBE between two rice cultivars investigated, except the DBEs. Distribution patterns of branches of amylopectin changed continually during the development of rice grains and varied between two rice cultivars. It was suggested that amylopectin synthesis be prior to the synthesis of amylose and different enzymes have different roles in controlling syntheses of branches of amylopectin.

  5. Effects of the activities of key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis on the fine structure of amylopectin in developing rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Bing; GUO ZhiGang; LIANG JianSheng

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic changes of the activities of enzymes involving in starch biosynthesis, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthases (SSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE) and starch debranching enzymes (DBE) were studied, and changes of fine structure of amy-Iopectin were characterized by isoamylase treatment during rice grain development, using trans anti-waxy gene rice plants. The relationships between the activities of those key enzymes were also analyzed. The amylose synthesis was significantly inhibited in transgenic Wanjing 9522, but the total starch content and final grain weight were less affected as compared with those of non-transgenic Wanjing 9522 rice cultivar. Analyses on the changes of activities of enzymes involving in starch bio-synthesis showed that different enzyme activities were expressed differently during rice endosperm development. Soluble starch synthase is relatively highly expressed in earlier stage of endosperm de-velopment, whilst maximal expression of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) occurred in mid-stage of endosperm development. No obvious differences in changes of the activities of AGPase and SBE between two rice cultivars investigated, except the DBEs. Distribution patterns of branches of amy-Iopectin changed continually during the development of rice grains and varied between two rice culti-vars. It was suggested that amylopectin synthesis be prior to the synthesis of amylose and different enzymes have different roles in controlling syntheses of branches of amylopectin.

  6. Molecular modeling and simulation of FabG, an enzyme involved in the fatty acid pathway of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafreen, Rajamohmed Beema; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (SP) is the major cause of pharyngitis accompanied by strep throat infections in humans. 3-keto acyl reductase (FabG), an important enzyme involved in the elongation cycle of the fatty acid pathway of S. pyogenes, is essential for synthesis of the cell-membrane, virulence factors and quorum sensing-related mechanisms. Targeting SPFabG may provide an important aid for the development of drugs against S. pyogenes. However, the absence of a crystal structure for FabG of S. pyogenes limits the development of structure-based drug designs. Hence, in the present study, a homology model of FabG was generated using the X-ray crystallographic structure of Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 2PNF). The modeled structure was refined using energy minimization. Furthermore, active sites were predicted, and a large dataset of compounds was screened against SPFabG. The ligands were docked using the LigandFit module that is available from Discovery Studio version 2.5. From this list, 13 best hit ligands were chosen based on the docking score and binding energy. All of the 13 ligands were screened for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) properties. From this, the two best descriptors, along with one descriptor that lay outside the ADMET plot, were selected for molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. In vitro testing of the ligands using biological assays further substantiated the efficacy of the ligands that were screened based on the in silico methods.

  7. AepA of Pectobacterium is not involved in the regulation of extracellular plant cell wall degrading enzymes production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõiv, Viia; Andresen, Liis; Mäe, Andres

    2010-06-01

    Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) are the major virulence determinants in phytopathogenic Pectobacterium, and their production is controlled by many regulatory factors. In this study, we focus on the role of the AepA protein, which was previously described to be a global regulator of PCWDE production in Pectobacterium carotovorum (Murata et al. in Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4:239-246, 1991). Our results show that neither inactivation nor overexpression of aepA affects PCWDE production in either Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 or Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum SCC3193. The previously published observation based on the overexpression of aepA could be explained by the presence of the adjacent regulatory rsmB gene in the constructs used. Our database searches indicated that AepA belongs to the YtcJ subfamily of amidohydrolases. YtcJ-like amidohydrolases are present in bacteria, archaea, plants and some fungi. Although AepA has 28% identity with the formamide deformylase NfdA in Arthrobacter pascens F164, AepA was unable to catalyze the degradation of NdfA-specific N-substituted formamides. We conclude that AepA is a putative aminohydrolase not involved in regulation of PCWDE production.

  8. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI-Mediated Amelioration in Renal Fibrosis Involves Suppression of Mast Cell Degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The mechanism by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs attenuate renal fibrosis has not been fully uncovered. Methods: Renal fibrosis in rats was triggered by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and treated with Enalapril. Results: Enalapril attenuated renal fibrosis, as evidenced by the fibrosis scores (1.07±0.73 versus 2.18±0.75 for 200 mg/ml Enalapril versus control, pwsh/wsh mice developing renal fibrosis. We detected lower levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, a fibroblast activation marker in the kidney tissue of Enalapril-treated UUO rats relative to the control UUO rats. Enalapril-treated UUO rats exhibited far fewer mast cells infiltrating per area in the kidney tissue than the control UUO rats (8.00±0.65 versus 29.00±0.57, pin vivo. Conclusion: Enalapril attenuated renal fibrosis in UUO rats, possibly by a mechanism involving the suppression of mast cell degranulation.

  9. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.; Naoumova, Rossitza P.; Jones, Bethan; Gau, Brian; Seed, Mary; Betteridge,D. John; Galton, David J.; Rubin, Edward M.; Scott, James; Shoulders,Carol C.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2002-09-15

    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage data producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.

  10. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis for characterization of the enantioselective CYP3A4 catalyzed N-demethylation of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Kwan, Hiu; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Execution of an enzymatic reaction performed in a capillary with subsequent electrophoretic analysis of the formed products is referred to as electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). An EMMA method was developed to investigate the stereoselectivity of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of ketamine. Ketamine was incubated in a 50 μm id bare fused-silica capillary together with human CYP3A4 Supersomes using a 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37°C. A plug containing racemic ketamine and the NADPH regenerating system including all required cofactors for the enzymatic reaction was injected, followed by a plug of the metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 (500 nM). These two plugs were bracketed by plugs of incubation buffer to ensure proper conditions for the enzymatic reaction. The rest of the capillary was filled with a pH 2.5 running buffer comprising 50 mM Tris, phosphoric acid, and 2% w/v of highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin. Mixing of reaction plugs was enhanced via application of -10 kV for 10 s. After an incubation of 8 min at 37°C without power application (zero-potential amplification), the capillary was cooled to 25°C within 3 min followed by application of -10 kV for the separation and detection of the formed enantiomers of norketamine. Norketamine formation rates were fitted to the Michaelis-Menten model and the elucidated values for V(max) and K(m) were found to be comparable to those obtained from the off-line assay of a previous study.

  11. Pi-pi Stacking Mediated Cooperative Mechanism for Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Fa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily with responsibility for metabolizing ~50% of clinical drugs. Experimental evidence showed that CYP3A4 can adopt multiple substrates in its active site to form a cooperative binding model, accelerating substrate metabolism efficiency. In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.

  12. Allosteric Effects on Substrate Dissociation from Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Nanodiscs Observed by Ensemble and Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhinav; Koo, Peter K.; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Atkins, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 is a major human drug-metabolizing enzyme, and displays pharmacologically-relevant allosteric kinetics caused by multiple substrate and/or effector binding. Here, in the first single-molecule fluorescence studies of CYPs, we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to measure residence times of the fluorescent dye Nile Red in CYP3A4 incorporated in surface-immobilized lipid Nanodiscs, with and without the effector α-naphthoflavone. We find direct evidence that CYP3A4 effectors can decrease substrate off-rates, providing a possible mechanism for effector-mediated enhancement of substrate metabolism. These interesting results highlight the potential of SM methods in studies of CYP allosteric mechanisms. PMID:18980315

  13. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. Objective: The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods: The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Results: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. SUMMARY In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis

  14. Echinococcus multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI): a glycolytic enzyme involved in metacestode growth and parasite-host cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Scholl, Sabrina; Müller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    In Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes, the surface-associated and highly glycosylated laminated layer, and molecules associated with this structure, is believed to be involved in modulating the host-parasite interface. We report on the molecular and functional characterisation of E. multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI), which is a component of this laminated layer. The EmPGI amino acid sequence is virtually identical to that of its homologue in Echinococcus granulosus, and shares 64% identity and 86% similarity with human PGI. Mammalian PGI is a multi-functional protein which, besides its glycolytic function, can also act as a cytokine, growth factor and inducer of angiogenesis, and plays a role in tumour growth, development and metastasis formation. Recombinant EmPGI (recEmPGI) is also functionally active as a glycolytic enzyme and was found to be present, besides the laminated layer, in vesicle fluid and in germinal layer cell extracts. EmPGI is released from metacestodes and induces a humoral immune response in experimentally infected mice, and vaccination of mice with recEmPGI renders these mice more resistant towards secondary challenge infection, indicating that EmPGI plays an important role in parasite development and/or in modulating the host-parasite relationship. We show that recEmPGI stimulates the growth of isolated E. multilocularis germinal layer cells in vitro and selectively stimulates the proliferation of bovine adrenal cortex endothelial cells but not of human fibroblasts and rat hepatocytes. Thus, besides its role in glycolysis, EmPGI could also act as a factor that stimulates parasite growth and potentially induces the formation of novel blood vessels around the developing metacestode in vivo.

  15. Characterization of a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the formation of kaempferol and quercetin sophorosides in Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    UGT707B1 is a new glucosyltransferase isolated from saffron (Crocus sativus) that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of stigma and tepal cells. UGT707B1 transcripts were detected in the stigma tissue of all the Crocus species analyzed, but expression analysis of UGT707B1 in tepals revealed its absence in certain species. The analysis of the glucosylated flavonoids present in Crocus tepals reveals the presence of two major flavonoid compounds in saffron: kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-β-D-glucopyranoside, both of which were absent from the tepals of those Crocus species that did not express UGT707B1. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants constitutively expressing UGT707B1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter have been constructed and their phenotype analyzed. The transgenic lines displayed a number of changes that resembled those described previously in lines where flavonoid levels had been altered. The plants showed hyponastic leaves, a reduced number of trichomes, thicker stems, and flowering delay. Levels of flavonoids measured in extracts of the transgenic plants showed changes in the composition of flavonols when compared with wild-type plants. The major differences were observed in the extracts from stems and flowers, with an increase in 3-sophoroside flavonol glucosides. Furthermore, a new compound not detected in ecotype Columbia wild-type plants was detected in all the tissues and identified as kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside. These data reveal the involvement of UGT707B1 in the biosynthesis of flavonol-3-O-sophorosides and how significant changes in flavonoid homeostasis can be caused by the overproduction of a flavonoid-conjugating enzyme.

  16. HIV Aspartic Peptidase Inhibitors Modulate Surface Molecules and Enzyme Activities Involved with Physiopathological Events in Fonsecaea pedrosoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanila F. Palmeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have shown anti-F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi conidial cells, including surface molecules and secreted enzymes, both of which are directly involved in the disease development. In all the experiments, conidia were treated with indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir (100 μM for 24 h, and then fungal cells were used to evaluate the effects of HIV-PIs on different virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi. In comparison to untreated controls, exposure of F. pedrosoi cells to HIV-PIs caused (i reduction on the conidial granularity; (ii irreversible surface ultrastructural alterations, such as shedding of electron dense and amorphous material from the cell wall, undulations/invaginations of the plasma membrane with and withdrawal of this membrane from the cell wall; (iii a decrease in both mannose-rich glycoconjugates and melanin molecules and an increase in glucosylceramides on the conidial surface; (iv inhibition of ergosterol and lanosterol production; (v reduction in the secretion of aspartic peptidase, esterase and phospholipase; (vi significant reduction in the viability of non-pigmented conidia compared to pigmented ones. In summary, HIV-PIs are efficient drugs with an ability to block crucial biological processes of F. pedrosoi and can be seriously considered as potential compounds for the development of new chromoblastomycosis chemotherapeutics.

  17. Effect of Curcuma longa on CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-03-01

    Effect of Curcuma longa rhizome powder and its ethanolic extract on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes and clinically in healthy human subjects. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as common probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was evaluated through in vitro study; where microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of Curcuma extract. In clinical study phase-I, six healthy human subjects received a single dose (30 mg) of DEX syrup, and in phase-II DEX syrup was administered with Curcuma powder. The enzyme CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated O- and N-demethylation of dextromethorphan into dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Curcuma extract significantly inhibited the formation of DOR and 3-MM, in a dose-dependent and linear fashion. The 100 μg/ml dose of curcuma extract produced highest inhibition, which was about 70 % for DOR and 80 % for 3-MM. Curcuma significantly increases the urine metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR but the change in DEX/3-MM ratio was statistically insignificant. Present findings suggested that curcuma significantly inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 in in vitro as well as in vivo; which indicates that curcuma has potential to interact with CYP2D6 substrates.

  18. Biochemical characterization and bioinformatic analysis of two large multi-domain enzymes from Microbacterium aurum B8.A involved in native starch degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Microbacterium aurum B8.A is a unique bacterium with the ability to degrade starch granules through pore formation. In this study two enzymes (MaAmyA and MaAmyB) which are involved in granular starch degradation and were specific for the M. aurum B8.A strain, have been characterized in detail. Both

  19. Characterization of the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of 25I-NBOMe and 25I-NBOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Marie; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    intoxication cases have been reported in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) involved in the metabolism of 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) and 2-[[2-(4-iodo-2,5dimethoxyphenyl...

  20. Identification of the human P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of the synthetic steroidal hormones Org 4060 and Org 30659

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, CHJ; Van Munster, TTM; Groothuis, GMM; Vos, RME; Rietjens, IMCM

    2002-01-01

    1. The type of human P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of Org 4060 and Org 30659, two synthetic steroidal hormones currently under clinical development by NV Organon for use in oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy, was investigated. 2. Both steroids were mainly hydroxyla

  1. Fast solubilization of recalcitrant cellulosic biomass by the basidiomycete fungus Laetisaria arvalis involves successive secretion of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navarro, David; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Haon, Mireille; Olivé, Caroline; Bonnin, Estelle; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Chevret, Didier; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2014-01-01

    .... Filamentous fungi are the predominant natural source of enzymes acting on lignocellulose. We describe the extraordinary cellulose-deconstructing capacity of the basidiomycete Laetisaria arvalis, a soil-inhabiting fungus. The L...

  2. Increased inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 with the tablet formulation of posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitcollin, A; Crochette, R; Tron, C; Verdier, M-C; Boglione-Kerrien, C; Vigneau, C; Bellissant, E; Lemaitre, F

    2016-10-01

    Being a substrate of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) isoenzyme, sirolimus metabolism is decreased when posaconazole is administered concomitantly. However, because of the poor bioavailability of the oral suspension of posaconazole with which low plasma concentrations are obtained, CYP3A4 inhibition is weak and a 50-75% dose reduction of sirolimus is sufficient to avoid sirolimus overdosage. The new tablet formulation allows reaching posaconazole concentrations 3-4 fold higher than those obtained with the oral suspension. Based on a case of sirolimus overdosage following posaconazole tablets administration, we modelled the inhibition of sirolimus clearance by posaconazole, and then simulated several dosage regimens of sirolimus taken together with posaconazole tablets. We were able to describe well the interaction, and found a value of IC50 of posaconazole towards sirolimus clearance of 0.68 μg/mL. The simulations showed that even a 80% decrease of the daily dose of sirolimus is unsuitable in many cases with trough concentrations of posaconazole of 2 μg/mL. A decrease of 40% of the dose with spacing administrations of 3 days may be considered. The clinicians and pharmacologists must be warned that the use of posaconazole tablets may result in an inhibition of CYP3A4 of greater magnitude than with the oral suspension.

  3. Involvement of extracellular and intracellular enzymes of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 for biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Ho-Yong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Soo-Min; Choi, In-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelation between the biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 and its fungal enzyme systems. The degradation rates of Aroclor 1254 and 1260 were 29.01% on day 5 and 36.80% on day 10, respectively. MnP (Manganese dependent peroxidase) and laccase activities showed the greatest increases in the samples containing Aroclors, indicating that extracellular enzymes of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 were affected by the addition of Aroclors. However, the relationship between the biodegradation rate and extracellular enzymes might be obscured by the complexity of the biodegradation process. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase was inhibited and the biodegradation rate of the Aroclor decreased by adding the inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that intracellular enzymes play a significant role in the biodegradation of Aroclor. Complex extracellular and intracellular enzyme systems in Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 play an important role in degrading PCBs. Physiological changes of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 caused by PCBs appeared to affect biodegradation of PCBs. However, it is necessary to further study the unidentified enzymes related to the biodegradation of Aroclor.

  4. Molecular Docking of 3-Methylindole-containing Drugs Binding into CYP3A4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xuan-yu; LI Zhuo; NIU Rui-juan; ZHANG Hong-xing; ZHENG Qing-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Drugs SPD-304(6,7-dimethyl-3- { [methyl-(2-{methyl-[ 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)- 1H-indol-3-ylmethyl]-amino}-ethyl)-amino]-methyl}-chromen-4-one) and zafirlukast contain a common structural element of 3-substituted indole moiety which closely relates to a dehydrogenated reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450s(CYPs).It was reported that the dehydrogenation can produce a reactive electrophilic intermediate which cause toxicities and inactivate CYPs. Drug L-745,870(3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-l-yl]-methyl}-1H-pyrrolo-2,3-β-pyridine) might have similar effect since it contains the same structural element.We used molecular docking approach combined with molecular dynamics(MD) simulation to model three-dimensional(3D) complex structures of SPD-304,zafirlukast and L-745,870 into CYP3A4,respectively.The results show that these three drugs can stably bind into the active site and the 3-methylene carbons of the drugs keep a reasonable reactive distance from the heme iron.The complex structure of SPD-304-CYP3A4 is in agreement with experimental data.For zafirlukast,the calculation results indicate that 3-methylene carbon might be the dehydrogenation reaction site.Docking model of L-745,870-CYP3A4 shows a potential possibility of L-745,870 dehydrogenated by CYP3A4 at 3-methylene carbon which is in agreement with experiment in vivo.In addition,residues in the phenylalanine cluster as well as S119 and R212 play a critical role in the ligands binding based on our calculations.The docking models could provide some clues to understand the metabolic mechanism of the drugs by CYP3A4.

  5. The distribution of genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and ABCB1 in patients subjected to renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Vavić Neven; Rančić Nemanja; Cikota-Aleksić Bojana; Magić Zvonko; Cimeša Jelena; Obrenčević Katarina; Radojević Milorad; Mikov Momir; Dragojević-Simić Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Polymorphisms of genes which encode transporter P-glycoprotein and most important enzymes for tacrolimus pharmacokinetics can have significant influence reflecting on blood concentrations of this drug. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of polymorphisms of CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes in patients subjected to renal transplantation, for the first time in our transplantation center. Methods. The research was designed as a prospective cross-sectional study wh...

  6. Identification and characterization of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors in Schisandra fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Hiratsuka, Akira; Watabe, Tadashi

    2004-12-01

    Schisandra fruit, a Schisandraceae family herb, is used as a component in Kampo medicines (developed from Chinese medicines, but established in Japan). It can act as a sedative and antitussive, improve hepatic function, and give a general tonic effect. An extract of Schisandra fruit has been shown with a potent inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity mediated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify Schisandra fruit components having inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 by surveying the effect on human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity. Known components of Schisandra fruit, gomisins B, C, G, and N and gamma-shizandrin, showed inhibitory effects on N-demethylation activity. Among these components, gomisin C displayed the most potent and competitive inhibitory effect, with a Ki value of 0.049 microM. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of gomisin C was stronger than that of ketoconazole (Ki = 0.070 microM), a known potent CYP3A4 inhibitor. Gomisin C, however, inhibited CYP1A2-, CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, and CYP2D6-dependent activities only to a limited extent (IC50 values >10 microM). Moreover, gomisin C inactivated human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The inactivation kinetic parameters k(inact) and K(I) were 0.092 min(-1) and 0.399 microM, respectively. The human liver microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity inactivated by gomisin C did not recover on dialysis of the microsomes. Spectral scanning of CYP3A4 with gomisin C yielded an absorbance at 455 nm, suggesting that gomisin C inactivated the cytochrome P450 via the formation of a metabolite intermediate complex. This pattern is consistent with the metabolism of the methylenedioxy substituent in gomisin C. These results indicate that gomisin C is a mechanism-based inhibitor that not only competitively inhibits but irreversibly inactivates CYP3A4.

  7. Engineering of cytochrome P450 3A4 for enhanced peroxide-mediated substrate oxidation using directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Liu, Hong; Halpert, James R

    2006-12-01

    CYP3A4 has been subjected to random and site-directed mutagenesis to enhance peroxide-supported metabolism of several substrates. Initially, a high-throughput screening method using whole cell suspensions was developed for H2O2-supported oxidation of 7-benzyloxyquinoline. Random mutagenesis by error-prone polymerase chain reaction and activity screening yielded several CYP3A4 mutants with enhanced activity. L216W and F228I showed a 3-fold decrease in Km, HOOH and a 2.5-fold increase in kcat/Km, HOOH compared with CYP3A4. Subsequently, T309V and T309A were created based on the observation that T309V in CYP2D6 has enhanced cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH)-supported activity. T309V and T309A showed a > 6- and 5-fold higher kcat/Km, CuOOH than CYP3A4, respectively. Interestingly, L216W and F228I also exhibited, respectively, a > 4- and a > 3-fold higher kcat/Km, CuOOH than CYP3A4. Therefore, several multiple mutants were constructed from rationally designed and randomly isolated mutants; among them, F228I/T309A showed an 11-fold higher kcat/Km, CuOOH than CYP3A4. Addition of cytochrome b5, which is known to stimulate peroxide-supported activity, enhanced the kcat/Km, CuOOH of CYP3A4 by 4- to 7-fold. When the mutants were tested with other substrates, T309V and T433S showed enhanced kcat/Km, CuOOH with 7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin and testosterone, respectively, compared with CYP3A4. In addition, in the presence of cytochrome b5, T433S has the potential to produce milligram quantities of 6beta-hydroxytestosterone through peroxide-supported oxidation. In conclusion, a combination of random and site-directed mutagenesis approaches yielded CYP3A4 enzymes with enhanced peroxide-supported metabolism of several substrates.

  8. Homology modeling of mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in pyrethroid metabolism: insights into differences in substrate selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongnoparut Pornpimol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s have been implicated in insecticide resistance. Anopheles minumus mosquito P450 isoforms CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 are capable of metabolizing pyrethroid insecticides, however CYP6P8 lacks activity against this class of compounds. Findings Homology models of the three An. minimus P450 enzymes were constructed using the multiple template alignment method. The predicted enzyme model structures were compared and used for molecular docking with insecticides and compared with results of in vitro enzymatic assays. The three model structures comprise common P450 folds but differences in geometry of their active-site cavities and substrate access channels are prominent. The CYP6AA3 model has a large active site allowing it to accommodate multiple conformations of pyrethroids. The predicted CYP6P7 active site is more constrained and less accessible to binding of pyrethroids. Moreover the predicted hydrophobic interface in the active-site cavities of CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 may contribute to their substrate selectivity. The absence of CYP6P8 activity toward pyrethroids appears to be due to its small substrate access channel and the presence of R114 and R216 that may prevent access of pyrethroids to the enzyme heme center. Conclusions Differences in active site topologies among CYPAA3, CYP6P7, and CYP6P8 enzymes may impact substrate binding and selectivity. Information obtained using homology models has the potential to enhance the understanding of pyrethroid metabolism and detoxification mediated by P450 enzymes.

  9. [Effect of aconiti laterlis radix compatibility of glycyrrhizae radix on CYP3A4 in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Zhu, Lijun; Zhou, Juan; Tang, Lan; Liu, Zhongqiu; Ye, Zuguang

    2012-08-01

    The primary objective was to develope a UPLC method for determine the concentration of buspirone hydroxychloride in plasma and to evaluate the effects of Aconiti Laterlis Radix and Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix on CYP3A4 in vivo. ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 10 mm, 1.7 microm) was used for the gradient elution with a 2.0 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 7.4, A)-acetonitrile (B) solution, 0-2.2 min, 10% - 60% B, 2.2-2.5 min, 60% B, 2.5-3.0 min, 60%-75% B, 3.0-3.5 min, 75% B, 3.5-4.0 min, 75%-10% B, at the flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1) at room temperature. The UV wavelenght was detected at 243 nm. The linear calibration curve ranged between 0.078 125-20.0 microg (r = 0.9975). The average recovery (n = 6) of buspirone hydroxychloride was 85.62% (RSD 6.8%). The results showed that this method has good specificity and repeatability, and which can be used for the determination of buspirone hydrochlorid in serum. In animial studies, single dose Aconiti Laterlis Radix extract treatment (0.5 g x kg(-1)) decreased buspirone hydroxychloride AUC(0-2 h) (52.8%, P = 0.020), increased CL/F (122%, P = 0.045). Compared to the saline treatment group, Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract treatment has no effect on CYP3A4 in rat. The results indicated that Aconiti Laterlis Radix extract induced CYP3A4 while Aconiti Laterlis Radix compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract had no effect on CYP3A4 in vivo. Aconiti Laterlis Radix had been detoxified when be used as compatibility of Glycyrrhizae Radix.

  10. Changes in oxidative enzyme activity during interspecific mycelial interactions involving the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Jennifer; Baldrian, Petr; Rogers, Hilary J; Boddy, Lynne

    2010-06-01

    Interspecific fungal antagonism leads to biochemical changes in competing mycelia, including up-regulation of oxidative enzymes. Laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP), manganese-repressed peroxidase (MRP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) gene expression and enzyme activity were compared during agar interactions between Trametes versicolor and five other wood decay fungi resulting in a range of interaction outcomes from deadlock to replacement of one fungus by another. Increased laccase and Mn-oxidising activities were detected at all interaction zones, but there were few changes in activity in regions away from the interaction zone in T. versicolor mycelia compared to self-pairings. Whilst no LiP activity was detected in any pairing, low level LiP gene expression was detected. MnP activity was detected but not expression of MnP genes; instead, MRP could explain the observed activity. No relationship was found between extent of enzyme activity increase and interaction outcome. Similarities between patterns of gene expression and enzyme activity are discussed.

  11. An alternative, arginase-independent pathway for arginine metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis involves guanidinobutyrase as a key enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnoli, G.; Verhoeven, M.D.; Mans, R.; Fleury Rey, Y.; Bel-Rhlid, R.; Van den Broek, M.; Maleki Seifar, R.; Ten Pierick, A.; Thompson, M.; Müller, V.; Wahl, S.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Most available knowledge on fungal arginine metabolism is derived from studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which arginine catabolism is initiated by releasing urea via the arginase reaction. Orthologues of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the first three enzymes in the arginase pathway were clon

  12. Altered expression and activities of enzymes involved in thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under oxidative and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Ewa; Kujda, Marta; Wolak, Natalia; Kozik, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) serves as a cofactor for enzymes engaged in pivotal carbohydrate metabolic pathways, which are known to be modulated under stress conditions to ensure the cell survival. Recent reports have proven a protective role of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) in the response of plants to abiotic stress. This work aimed at verifying a hypothesis that also baker's yeast, which can synthesize thiamine de novo similarly to plants and bacteria, adjust thiamine metabolism to adverse environmental conditions. Our analyses on the gene expression and enzymatic activity levels generally showed an increased production of thiamine biosynthesis enzymes (THI4 and THI6/THI6), a TDP synthesizing enzyme (THI80/THI80) and a TDP-requiring enzyme, transketolase (TKL1/TKL) by yeast subjected to oxidative (1 mM hydrogen peroxide) and osmotic (1 M sorbitol) stress. However, these effects differed in magnitude, depending on yeast growth phase and presence of thiamine in growth medium. A mutant thi4Δ with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress exhibited enhanced TDP biosynthesis as compared with the wild-type strain. Similar tendencies were observed in mutants yap1Δ and hog1Δ defective in the signaling pathways of the defense against oxidative and osmotic stress, respectively, suggesting that thiamine metabolism can partly compensate damages of yeast general defense systems.

  13. Inhibitory effect of salvianolate on human cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro involving a noncompetitive manner

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Zhao-qian

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), which is purified from Danshen, is a popular herb extract. Sal B has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic, anti-arteriosclerotic and anti-apoptotic properties. This substance can also ameliorate brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The listed drug Salvianolate, which contains a substantial amount of Sal B, has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Our present work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of salvianolate on seven cy...

  14. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: II. Molecular Docking, Spectral Data-Activity Relationship, and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Potent and Weak Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Isozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Demchuk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR, and structure-activity relationship (SAR models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2–3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D 13C-NMR and 1D 15N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors

  15. Potential implications of CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR-1 genetic variants on the efficacy of Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r monotherapy in HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Berno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in biotransformation enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5 or transporter proteins (multidrug resistance MDR1 gene product, P-gp are involved in PI metabolism so that PI pharmacokinetics is characterized by a large inter-individual variability. The aim of this study was: (i to develop an in-house PCR/direct sequencing, based on DNA purification of full-length CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes (SNPs and MDR1 C3435T variant; (ii to investigate association of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 reported or unreported genetic polymorphisms and MDR1-C3435T (CC homozygote, CT heterozygote, TT homozygote with clinical outcome of HIV-1 infected subjects treated with PI. Methods: Overall, 39 HIV-1 infected patients receiving boosted Lopinavir (LPV/r monotherapy after virological suppression were genotyped and analyzed through PCR and direct sequencing of full-length CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 gene sequences (1 and MDR1 gene (C3435T. CD4+T-cell counts and plasma viral load were analyzed before and after LPV/r initiation; LPV/r therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM was determined at 12-hours. Results: LPV/r TDM (ng/ml did not show significant differences among CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 SNPs, although a mean lower level of LPV/r was associated with detection of several SNPs: CYP3A5*3 rs776746; CYP3A5 rs28365088, CYP3A5 rs15524, CYP3A4 rs2687116, and a not already described polymorphism CYP3A4 nt20338. In follow-up analysis, <90% adherence was the main factor associated with virological failure of LPV/r monotherapy (83.3% of failure vs 34.4%, p<0.001 at log-rank test. Adjusting for adherence, the detection of a single CYP3A5*3 rs776746 and CYP3A5 rs15524 SNPs was associated with higher probability of LPV/r monotherapy failure (p<0.01, and in general, detection of any CYP3A5 SNP was associated with failure (26.2% vs 58.3%, p=0.067. No-association with detection of any CYP3A4 SNPs was found. MDR1 TT variants showed significant lower frequency of treatment

  16. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: II. Molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship, and structure-activity relationship models for potent and weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Yunfeng; McPhail, Brooks; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Fowler, Bruce A; Beger, Richard D; Demchuk, Eugene

    2012-03-15

    Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2-3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D ¹³C-NMR and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak

  17. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    1.This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. 2.Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. 3. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. 4.Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb-drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation.

  18. Sterols and triterpenoids as potential anti-inflammatories: Molecular docking studies for binding to some enzymes involved in inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Mejía, Marco A; Salazar, Juan Rodrigo

    2015-11-01

    Triterpenes and sterols are good candidates for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs and use in chemoprevention or chemotherapy of cancer via the interaction with therapeutic targets related to inflammation, such as COX-1 and -2; LOX-5; MPO, PLA2 and i-NOS. In this study, we use molecular docking to evaluate the potential binding of a database of selected sterol and triterpenoid compounds with several skeletons against enzymes related to inflammation to propose structural requirements beneficial for anti-inflammatory activity that can be used for the design of more potent and selective anti-inflammatory and antitumor drugs. Our results suggest that the substitution pattern is important and that there is an important relationship between the class of sterol or triterpenoid skeleton and enzyme binding.

  19. Functional characterization of three (GH13) branching enzymes involved in cyanobacterial starch biosynthesis from Cyanobacterium sp. NBRC 102756.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Koide, Keiichi; Hayashi, Mari; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sawada, Takayuki; Ohdan, Takashi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko; Suzuki, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    Starch and glycogen are widespread storage polysaccharides in bacteria, plants, and animals. Recently, some cyanobacteria were found to accumulate water-insoluble α-glucan similar to amylopectin rather than glycogen, the latter of which is more commonly produced in these organisms. The amylopectin-producing species including Cyanobacterium sp. NBRC 102756 invariably have three branching enzyme (BE) homologs, BE1, BE2, and BE3, all belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 13. Multiple BE isoforms in prokaryotes have not been previously studied. In the present work, we carried out functional characterization of these enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were all active, although the specific activity of BE3 was much lower than those of BE1 and BE2. After the incubation of the enzymes with amylopectin or amylose, the reaction products were analyzed by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate capillary electrophoresis method. BE1 and BE2 showed similar chain-length preference to BEIIb isoform of rice (Oryza sativa L.), while the catalytic specificity of BE3 was similar to that of rice BEI. These results indicate that starch-producing cyanobacteria have both type-I BE (BE3) and type-II BEs (BE1 and BE2) in terms of chain-length preferences, as is the case of plants. All BE isoforms were active against phosphorylase limit dextrin, in which outer branches had been uniformly diminished to 4 glucose residues. Based on its catalytic properties, BE3 was assumed to have a role to transfer the glucan chain bearing branch(es) to give rise to a newly growing unit, or cluster as observed in amylopectin molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. X-Ray Solution Scattering Study of Four Escherichia coli Enzymes Involved in Stationary-Phase Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadinova, Liubov A; Shtykova, Eleonora V; Konarev, Petr V; Rodina, Elena V; Snalina, Natalia E; Vorobyeva, Natalia N; Kurilova, Svetlana A; Nazarova, Tatyana I; Jeffries, Cy M; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2016-01-01

    The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i) class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB); (ii) inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase); (iii) 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI); and (iv) glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies. In agreement with previously reported crystal structures, PPase forms hexamers in solution that are similar to the previously reported X-ray crystal structure. Both KduI and GadA that are responsible for carbohydrate (pectin) metabolism and acid stress responses, respectively, form polydisperse mixtures consisting of different oligomeric states. Overall the SAXS experiments yield additional insights into shape and organization of these metabolic enzymes and further demonstrate the utility of hybrid methods, i.e., solution SAXS combined with X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics and predictive 3D-structural modeling, as tools to enrich structural studies. The results highlight the structural complexity that the protein components of metabolic networks may adopt which cannot be fully captured using individual structural biology techniques.

  1. X-Ray Solution Scattering Study of Four Escherichia coli Enzymes Involved in Stationary-Phase Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov A Dadinova

    Full Text Available The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB; (ii inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase; (iii 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI; and (iv glutamate decarboxylase (GadA. The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies. In agreement with previously reported crystal structures, PPase forms hexamers in solution that are similar to the previously reported X-ray crystal structure. Both KduI and GadA that are responsible for carbohydrate (pectin metabolism and acid stress responses, respectively, form polydisperse mixtures consisting of different oligomeric states. Overall the SAXS experiments yield additional insights into shape and organization of these metabolic enzymes and further demonstrate the utility of hybrid methods, i.e., solution SAXS combined with X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics and predictive 3D-structural modeling, as tools to enrich structural studies. The results highlight the structural complexity that the protein components of metabolic networks may adopt which cannot be fully captured using individual structural biology techniques.

  2. Distribution of cytochrome P450 2C, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5 in human colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the alimentary tract is part of the body's first line of defense against orally ingested xenobiotica, little is known about the distribution and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human colon. Therefore, expression and protein levels of four...... representative CYPs (CYP2C(8), CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) were determined in human colon mucosa biopsies obtained from ascending, descending and sigmoid colon. METHODS: Expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 mRNA in colon mucosa was determined by RT-PCR. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined...... to the descending colon. CONCLUSION: The current data suggest that the expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 varies in different parts of the colon....

  3. Enzymes involved in the anaerobic oxidation of n-alkanes: from methane to long-chain paraffins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V. Callaghan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microorganisms play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of methane and non-methane alkanes. To date, there appear to be at least three proposed mechanisms of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM. The first pathway is mediated by consortia of archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria via ‘reverse methanogenesis’ and is catalyzed by a homologue of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The second pathway is also mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria, wherein the archaeal members catalyze both methane oxidation and sulfate reduction and zero-valent sulfur is a key intermediate. The third AOM mechanism is a nitrite-dependent, intra-aerobic pathway described for the denitrifying bacterium, ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera.’ It is hypothesized that AOM proceeds via reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, followed by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen and molecular oxygen. The latter can be used to functionalize the methane via a particulate methane monooxygenase. With respect to non-methane alkanes, there also appears to be novel mechanisms of activation. The most well-described pathway is the addition of non-methane alkanes across the double bond of fumarate to form alkyl-substituted succinates via the putative glycyl radical enzyme, alkylsuccinate synthase (also known as methylalkylsuccinate synthase. Other proposed mechanisms include anaerobic hydroxylation via ethylbenzene dehydrogenase-like enzymes and an ‘intra-aerobic’ denitrification pathway similar to that described for ‘M. oxyfera.’

  4. Substrate-Tuned Catalysis of the Radical S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Enzyme NosL Involved in Nosiheptide Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-27

    NosL is a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme that converts L-Trp to 3-methyl-2-indolic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of a thiopeptide antibiotic nosiheptide. In this work we investigated NosL catalysis by using a series of Trp analogues as the molecular probes. Using a benzofuran substrate 2-amino-3-(benzofuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (ABPA), we clearly demonstrated that the 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction in NosL catalysis is not from the indole nitrogen but likely from the amino group of L-Trp. Unexpectedly, the major product of ABPA is a decarboxylated compound, indicating that NosL was transformed to a novel decarboxylase by an unnatural substrate. Furthermore, we showed that, for the first time to our knowledge, the dAdo radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction can occur from an alcohol hydroxy group. Our study demonstrates the intriguing promiscuity of NosL catalysis and highlights the potential of engineering radical SAM enzymes for novel activities.

  5. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris.

  6. Involvement of Renin-Angiotensin System in Damage of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Captopril on Bone of Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Xin; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on bone metabolism and histology, and the action of captopril on the components of the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor in normal male mice. The mice were orally administered captopril (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks with vehicle-treated mice as normal control. The histology of trabecular bone at the distal femoral end was determined by hematoxylin & eosin, Safranin O and Masson-Trichrome staining. The captopril-treated mice showed a decreased level of testosterone (pCaptopril has detrimental effects on trabecular bone as demonstrated by the loss of cancellous bone mass and network connections as well as changes to the chondrocytes zone. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (pcaptopril treatment. Thus, the potential underlying mechanism of the damage of captopril on bone can be attributed the increased activity of local bone RAS and the activation of bradykinin receptor.

  7. Omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and cell lines via glucocorticoid receptor and pregnane X receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole drugs lansoprazole and omeprazole are used for treatment of various gastrointestinal pathologies. Both compounds cause drug-drug interactions because they activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induce CYP1A genes. In the current paper, we examined the effects of lansoprazole and omeprazole enantiomers on the expression of key drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and human cancer cell lines. Lansoprazole enantiomers, but not omeprazole, were equipotent inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA in HepG2 cells. All forms (S-, R-, rac-) of lansoprazole and omeprazole induced CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in human hepatocytes. The quantitative profiles of CYP3A4 induction by individual forms of lansoprazole and omeprazole exerted enantiospecific patterns. Lansoprazole dose-dependently activated pregnane X receptor PXR in gene reporter assays, and slightly modulated rifampicin-inducible PXR activity, with similar potency for each enantiomer. Omeprazole dose-dependently activated PXR and inhibited rifampicin-inducible PXR activity. The effects of S-omeprazole were much stronger as compared to those of R-omeprazole. All forms of lansoprazole, but not omeprazole, slightly activated glucocorticoid receptor and augmented dexamethasone-induced GR transcriptional activity. Omeprazole and lansoprazole influenced basal and ligand inducible expression of tyrosine aminotransferase, a GR-target gene, in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. Overall, we demonstrate here that omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. The induction comprises differential interactions of omeprazole and lansoprazole with transcriptional regulators PXR and GR, and some of the effects were enantiospecific. The data presented here might be of toxicological and clinical importance, since the effects occurred in therapeutically relevant concentrations.

  8. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Schuetz, Erin G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Chen, Taosheng, E-mail: taosheng.chen@stjude.org [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  9. In vitro herb-drug interaction mediated by CYP3A4 and its potential application in the treatment of AIDS%艾滋病中药和化学药通过CYP3A4的代谢性相互作用的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉昌; 王军; 孙易; 侴桂新; 胡卓汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CYP3A4-mediated interaction of herb medicines with HIV protease inhibitors, and to explore the potential efficacy enhancement by herb-drug metabolic interaction in the treatment of AIDS. The 24 traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) for AIDS treatment and the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir were studied. Methods: Totally 65 extracts from 24 TCM isolated by a standardized method were pre-incubated with pooled human liver microsomes for 15 min, and then incubated with p-NADPH and testosterone as CYP3A4 probe substrate for 30 min. The enzyme activity of CYP3A4 was measured by LC-MS/MS and the IC50 of six extracts were calculated. Results: The extracts from Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati and Radix Scutellariae showed stronger inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 with IC50 3.25 -8. 19 and 10.0 -29.0 μg·mL-1 , respectively, a-mong the 24 test herbs. The extracts from Radix Et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae, Radix Sophorae flavescentis, Cortex Moutan, Rhizoma Smilacis Clabrae and Radix Linderae showed different inhibitory effects. No significant inhibition on CYP3A4 was observed in the extracts from Herba Patriniae, Radix Isatidis, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Astragali and Radix Et Rhizoma Gentianae. Conclusion: The inhibitive effect of different extracts from TCM on enzyme activity of CYP3A4 was much different.%目的:评价应用于艾滋病治疗的24个中药的提取物对人肝微粒体细胞色素P450氧化代谢酶3A4( CYP3 A4)活性的抑制作用,为阐明中药和化学药在治疗艾滋病时的代谢性相互作用的增效机制提供数据.方法:用标准化方法提取24个中药的65个部位,并在生理条件下与混合人肝微粒体进行预孵15 min后,加入探针底物睾酮和辅酶β-NADPH进行孵育30 min,用LC-MS/MS对CYP3A4的活性进行定量检测,计算抑制率( IC50).结果:在24个中药中虎杖和黄芩对CYP3A4具有较强的抑制,其不同部位的IC50分别为3.25 ~8.19和10.0~29.0 μg·mL-1.其他测试的

  10. Human Deoxyhypusine Hydroxylase, an Enzyme Involved in Regulating Cell Growth, Activates O2 with a Nonheme Diiron Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, V.; Emerson, J; Martinho, M; Kim, Y; Munck, E; Park, M; Que, Jr., L

    2009-01-01

    Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of hypusine containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Recombinant human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (hDOHH) has been reported to have oxygen- and iron-dependent activity, an estimated iron/holoprotein stoichiometry of 2, and a visible band at 630 nm responsible for the blue color of the as-isolated protein. EPR, Moessbauer, and XAS spectroscopic results presented herein provide direct spectroscopic evidence that hDOHH has an antiferromagnetically coupled diiron center with histidines and carboxylates as likely ligands, as suggested by mutagenesis experiments. Resonance Raman experiments show that its blue chromophore arises from a (e-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) center that forms in the reaction of the reduced enzyme with O2, so the peroxo form of hDOHH is unusually stable. Nevertheless we demonstrate that it can carry out the hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue present in the elF5A substrate. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, hDOHH has a nonheme diiron active site that resembles both in structure and function those found in methane and toluene monooxygenases, bacterial and mammalian ribonucleotide reductases, and stearoyl acyl carrier protein ?9-desaturase from plants, suggesting that the oxygen-activating diiron motif is a solution arrived at by convergent evolution. Notably, hDOHH is the only example thus far of a human hydroxylase with such a diiron active site.

  11. Dietary back-calculation using stable isotopes: can activities of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism be used to improve estimates of trophic shifts in fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the effects of dietary protein content and feeding level on trophic shifts of C and N isotopes (Delta delta(13)C(tissue-diet) and Delta delta(15)N(tissue-diet)) and (2) to test whether the measurement of the activities of two enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids could improve the accuracy of estimation of the trophic shifts of C and N isotopes. For this, 36 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were kept under controlled conditions for 8 weeks and fed at three different levels (2, 4 and 8 g kg(-0.8) d(-1)) with three diets differing in their protein content only (20, 29 and 39 %). For each fish, food to fish body trophic shifts of C and N isotopes were measured as well as the hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The feeding level affected the activities of ASAT and GDH as well as the trophic shifts of C and N isotopes significantly but the dietary protein content had no significant effect except on the specific activity of ASAT. Fish fed at the lowest level had significantly higher trophic shifts of C and N isotopes than fish fed at higher levels. The trophic shifts were significantly lower in fish with a high protein utilisation. Values of the 'goodness-of-fit' for linear regressions between enzyme activities and trophic shifts were low. Thus, activities of ASAT and GDH are not suitable for predicting estimates of trophic shifts in situations where the amount of food consumed or the dietary protein content is not known. In further studies, activities of enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids combined with measurements of the activities of other enzymes should be used to try and improve the accuracy of estimates of trophic shifts.

  12. Intestinal CYP3A4 and Midazolam Disposition in vivo Associate with VDR Polymorphisms and Show Seasonal Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumaran, Ranjit K.; Lamba, Jatinder K.; Kim, Richard B.; Urquhart, Brad L.; Gregor, Jamie C.; Chande, Nilesh; Fan, Yiping; Qi, An; Cheng, Cheng; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Hall, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D, whose levels vary seasonally with sunlight, is activated to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 that binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and transcriptionally regulates intestinal CYP3A4 expression. We genotyped VDR polymorphisms and determined their associations with intestinal CYP3A4 and with midazolam pharmacokinetics, and whether intestinal CYP3A4 levels/activity varied seasonally. The VDR BsmIG>A (rs1544410) polymorphism was significantly associated with CYP3A4 jejunal expression/activity, withCYP3A4 duodenal mRNA, and with midazolam area under the curve (AUC). Intestinal CYP3A4 expression/activity was significantly higher in biopsies with the VDR promoter polymorphisms Cdx2-3731G>A and GATA-1012A>G that increase VDR activation of target genes. Duodenal CYP3A4 mRNA was significantly higher between April and September than between October and March. Midazolam p.o. AUC and oral bioavailability trended higher October through March compared to April through September. These data suggest VDR polymorphisms are predictors of intestinal CYP3A4, and that CYP3A4 intestinal expression varies seasonally - likely related to annual changes in UV sunlight and vitamin D levels. PMID:22484315

  13. Dietary sesamin and docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids synergistically increase the gene expression of enzymes involved in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchige, Premakumara G; Takahashi, Yoko; Ide, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The interaction of sesamin, one of the most abundant lignans in sesame seed, and highly purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the form of ethyl ester in affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation was examined in rats. In the first experiment, 3 groups of rats were fed with purified experimental diets free of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester and containing 0%, 0.2%, and 0.4% sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin), and 2 groups of animals were fed with a 2% DHA ethyl ester diet containing either 0% or 0.2% sesamin. In the second trial, 4 groups of rats were fed with either a 0% or a 2% EPA ethyl ester diet containing 0% or 0.2% sesamin. After 15 days of feeding, DHA and EPA ethyl esters added to a sesamin-free diet little affected the activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased the activity levels of various hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation irrespective of the presence or absence of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester in diets. However, the diet containing sesamin and DHA or EPA ethyl ester in combination increased many of these parameters synergistically. In particular, the peroxisomal palmitoyl-coenzyme A oxidation rate and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase activity level were much higher in rats fed with sesamin and DHA or EPA in combination than in animals fed with a diet free of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester and containing sesamin. Analyses of mRNA levels revealed that a diet simultaneously containing sesamin and n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester increased the gene expression of various enzymes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in a synergistic manner. However, the combination of sesamin and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters was ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, microsomal cytochrome P-450 IV A1, and cytosolic liver-type fatty acid-binding protein. It was concluded that sesamin and DHA or EPA

  14. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: I. Spectral Data-Activity Relationship and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Inhibitors and Non-inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Beger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D 13C and 1D 15N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D 13C-NMR and 15N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  15. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: I. Spectral data-activity relationship and structure-activity relationship models for inhibitors and non-inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Brooks; Tie, Yunfeng; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Valerio, Luis G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fowler, Bruce A; Demchuk, Eugene; Beger, Richard D

    2012-03-15

    An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals--drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants--interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D ¹³C and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D ¹³C-NMR and ¹⁵N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  16. Emergence of the β-CASP ribonucleases: highly conserved and ubiquitous metallo-enzymes involved in messenger RNA maturation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominski, Zbigniew; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Clouet-d'Orval, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    The β-CASP ribonucleases, which are found in the three domains of life, have in common a core of 460 residues containing seven conserved sequence motifs involved in the tight binding of two catalytic zinc ions. A hallmark of these enzymes is their ability to catalyze both endo- and exo-ribonucleolytic degradation. Exo-ribonucleolytic degradation proceeds in the 5' to 3' direction and is sensitive to the phosphorylation state of the 5' end of a transcript. Recent phylogenomic analyses have shown that the β-CASP ribonucleases can be partitioned into two major subdivisions that correspond to orthologs of eukaryal CPSF73 and bacterial RNase J. We discuss the known functions of the CPSF73 and RNase J orthologs, their association into complexes, and their structure as it relates to mechanism of action. Eukaryal CPSF73 is part of a large multiprotein complex that is involved in the maturation of the 3' end of RNA Polymerase II transcripts and the polyadenylation of messenger RNA. RNase J1 and J2 are paralogs in Bacillus subtilis that are involved in the degradation of messenger RNA and the maturation of non-coding RNA. RNase J1 and J2 co-purify as a heteromeric complex and there is recent evidence that they interact with other enzymes to form a bacterial RNA degradosome. Finally, we speculate on the evolutionary origin of β-CASP ribonucleases and on their functions in Archaea. Orthologs of CPSF73 with endo- and exo-ribonuclease activity are strictly conserved throughout the archaea suggesting a role for these enzymes in the maturation and/or degradation of messenger RNA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA Decay mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity and mRNA Levels of Enzymes Involved in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis in Rats Fed Naringenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toru; Ide, Takashi

    2015-11-04

    We investigated the physiological activity of naringenin in affecting hepatic lipogenesis and serum and liver lipid levels in rats. Rats were fed diets containing 0, 1, or 2.5 g/kg naringenin for 15 d. Naringenin at a dietary level of 2.5 g/kg significantly decreased the activities and the mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level. The activities and the mRNA levels were also 9-22% and 12-38% lower, respectively, in rats fed a 1 g/kg naringenin diet than in the animals fed a naringenin-free diet, although the differences were not significant in many cases. Naringenin at 2.5 g/kg significantly lowered serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid and hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. This flavonoid at 1.0 g/kg also significantly lowered these parameters except for serum triacylglycerol. Naringenin levels in serum and liver dose-dependently increased, and hepatic concentrations reached levels that can affect various signaling pathways.

  18. Investigation of genetic variants in ubiquitin enzyme genes involved in the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes: a role in schizophrenia susceptibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessica L; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2014-11-24

    Despite extensive research during the last few decades, the etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear. Evidence of both genetic and environmental influences in the developmental profile of schizophrenia has grown, and due to the complexity of this disorder, a polygenic aspect has been associated with this neuropsychiatric pathology. Unfortunately, no diagnostic strategies based on biological measurement or genetic testing is currently available for schizophrenia. Gene-expression profiling and recent protein studies have shown a decrease in the expression of ubiquitin pathway proteins in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. We have examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (or SNPs) within three genes from the ubiquitin protein system: the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2D1 (UBE2D1) gene, the E3 SUMO-protein ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 2 (PIAS2) gene, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 21 (FBXL21) gene, in a Caucasian case-control population for schizophrenia. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied, no significant associations were reported for any of the tested SNPs. Additional genetic analyses will be necessary to fully explore the role of these three genes in schizophrenia. Regarding the rising interest in ubiquitin-related proteins as a therapeutic target in other pathologies such as cancer, further research into the role of ubiquitin pathways in schizophrenia seems topical and timely.

  19. Bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease at MRI: what long-term evolution can we expect under enzyme replacement therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedida, Benjamin; Touraine, Sebastien; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Stirnemann, Jerome [Universite Paris-Diderot Hopital Bichat, AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Data Processing, INSERM UMR 738, Paris (France); Geneva University Hospital, Division of General Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Belmatoug, Nadia [Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Department of Internal Medicine, Clichy (France); Petrover, David [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France)

    2015-10-15

    To study the long-term evolution of the bone marrow burden (BMB) score at MRI in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) under enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Forty patients treated for GD were retrospectively studied in a referral centre. BMB scores were assessed on spine and femur MR examinations performed between January 2003 and June 2014. The long-term evolution of the BMB scores was analyzed using a linear mixed model. A total of 121 MRI examinations were performed during the study period with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years ± 5.6, an average rate of 3.1 MR examinations ± 1.7 per patient and an interval of 2.3 years ± 1.1 between examinations. Patients had received ERT during 12 years on average ± 6.7. The trend of BMB scores with time decreased significantly by 15 % (P = 0.008) during the total study period and 39 % (P = 0.01) during the first 5 years of treatment. No changes in BMB scores were observed after five years of treatment. In Gaucher patients, the trend of MRI BMB scores with time decreased significantly under ERT the first 5 years of treatment before a long-term stabilization. (orig.)

  20. Identification of glucoselysine-6-phosphate deglycase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the fructation product glucoselysine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiame, Elsa; Lamosa, Pedro; Santos, Helena; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2005-01-01

    The metabolism of the glycation product fructose-epsilon-lysine in Escherichia coli involves its ATP-dependent phosphorylation by a specific kinase (FrlD), followed by the conversion of fructoselysine 6-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate and lysine by fructoselysine-6-phosphate deglycase (FrlB), which is distantly related to the isomerase domain of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. As shown in the present work, several bacterial operons comprise: (1) a homologue of fructoselysine-6-phosphate ...

  1. Prediction of irinotecan pharmacokinetics by use of cytochrome P450 3A4 phenotyping probes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); F.A. de Jong (Floris); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); E.R. Lepper (Erin); L.E. Friberg (Lena); T. Rietveld (Trinet); P. de Bruijn (Peter); W.J. Graveland (Wilfried); W.D. Figg (William); J. Verweij (Jaap); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Irinotecan is a topoisomerase I inhibitor that has been approved for use as a first- and second-line treatment for colorectal cancer. The response to irinotecan is variable, possibly because of interindividual variation in the expression of the enzymes that

  2. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Yablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Bulko, T V; Moskaleva, N E; Shumyantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes Р450 3А4, 3А5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes Р450 3А4 and 3А5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435  -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the presence of its substrate testosterone.

  3. Effects of monocrotophos pesticide on steroidogenesis and transcription of steroidogenic enzymes in rainbow trout RTG-2 cells involving the protein kinase A signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-02-01

    Monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide, listed as a UNEP Prior Informed Consent chemical, has been proved to exert toxic effects on the reproductive system of teleost fishes by changing the balance of sex steroid hormones. To investigate the effects of MCP on steroidogenesis in vitro, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gonadal cell line RTG-2 was exposed to different MCP concentrations for 48 h. The levels of 17 β-estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone in the medium were measured by radioimmunoassay and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11A1, CYP17, and CYP19A was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that 1.0 and 10.0 μg/L MCP pesticide induced E(2) levels and promoted steroidogenic enzyme expression. The possible mechanisms of MCP steroidogenic activity were investigated using inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C. The PKA inhibitor H-89 abrogated the 10.0 μg/L MCP-induced transcriptional up-regulation of steroidogenic enzymes, suggesting an involvement of PKA-dependent mechanism in the disruption of steroidogenesis by the MCP pesticide in rainbow trout RTG-2 cells.

  4. Quantification and enzyme targets of fatty acid amides from duckweed root exudates involved in the stimulation of denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Lu, Yufang; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid amides from plant root exudates, such as oleamide and erucamide, have the ability to participate in strong plant-microbe interactions, stimulating nitrogen metabolism in rhizospheric bacteria. However, mechanisms of secretion of such fatty acid amides, and the nature of their stimulatory activities on microbial metabolism, have not been examined. In the present study, collection, pre-treatment, and determination methods of oleamide and erucamide in duckweed root exudates are compared. The detection limits of oleamide and erucamide by gas chromatography (GC) (10.3ngmL(-1) and 16.1ngmL(-1), respectively) are shown to be much lower than those by liquid chromatography (LC) (1.7 and 5.0μgmL(-1), respectively). Quantitative GC analysis yielded five times larger amounts of oleamide and erucamide in root exudates of Spirodela polyrrhiza when using a continuous collection method (50.20±4.32 and 76.79±13.92μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)), compared to static collection (10.88±0.66 and 15.27±0.58μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)). Furthermore, fatty acid amide secretion was significantly enhanced under elevated nitrogen conditions (>300mgL(-1)), and was negatively correlated with the relative growth rate of duckweed. Mechanistic assays were conducted to show that erucamide stimulates nitrogen removal by enhancing denitrification, targeting two key denitrifying enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases, in bacteria. Our findings significantly contribute to our understanding of the regulation of nitrogen dynamics by plant root exudates in natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Right ventricular involvement in patients with Fabry's disease and the effect of enzyme replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.; Machann, W.; Koestler, H.; Hahn, D.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Breunig, F.; Weidemann, F.; Wanner, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Medizinische Klinik I

    2011-11-15

    According to echocardiography reports, Fabry cardiomyopathy not only affects the left ventricle (LV) but also the right ventricle (RV). Until now no MRI studies about the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the RV are available. We evaluated the effect of ERT on the RV. In this prospective trial 14 patients with genetically proven Fabry's disease were examined using a 1.5 T MR scanner before ERT and after 13 {+-} 1 months of ERT. All patients underwent cardiac MR imaging and the RV/LV cardiac morphology and function were analyzed. At baseline examination the values were as follows: RV mass 31 {+-} 6 g/m{sup 2}, end-diastolic volume (EDV) 88 {+-} 13 ml/m{sup 2}, end-systolic volume (ESV) 39 {+-} 9 ml/m{sup 2}, stroke volume (SV) 49 {+-} 7 ml/m{sup 2} and ejection fraction (EF) 56 {+-} 5 %. The RV mass and EDV decreased significantly after 13 {+-} 1 months on ERT (mass 27 {+-} 7 g/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05, EDV 76 {+-} 24 ml/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05), with no significant change of ESV (33 {+-} 13 ml/m{sup 2}), SV (43 {+-} 12 ml/m{sup 2}) and EF (57 {+-} 7 %). The LV mass (102 {+-} 26 g/m{sup 2} vs. 94 {+-} 27 g/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05), EDV (76 {+-} 13 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 66 {+-} 22 ml/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05) and ESV (29 {+-} 9 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 23 {+-} 9 ml/m{sup 2}, p < 0.05) decreased significantly while the EF (64 {+-} 7 % vs. 66 {+-} 5 %; p < 0.05) increased significantly. Besides the known beneficial effect on the LV, ERT improves RV mass and EDV. (orig.)

  6. Clinical Exposure Boost Predictions by Integrating Cytochrome P450 3A4-Humanized Mouse Studies With PBPK Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Heimbach, Tycho; Scheer, Nico; Barve, Avantika; Li, Wenkui; Lin, Wen; He, Handan

    2016-04-01

    NVS123 is a poorly water-soluble protease 56 inhibitor in clinical development. Data from in vitro hepatocyte studies suggested that NVS123 is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. As a consequence of limited solubility, NVS123 therapeutic plasma exposures could not be achieved even with high doses and optimized formulations. One approach to overcome NVS123 developability issues was to increase plasma exposure by coadministrating it with an inhibitor of CYP3A4 such as ritonavir. A clinical boost effect was predicted by using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. However, initial boost predictions lacked sufficient confidence because a key parameter, fraction of drug metabolized by CYP3A4 (fmCYP3A4), could not be estimated with accuracy on account of disconnects between in vitro and in vivo preclinical data. To accurately estimate fmCYP3A4 in human, an in vivo boost effect study was conducted using CYP3A4-humanized mouse model which showed a 33- to 56-fold exposure boost effect. Using a top-down approach, human fmCYP3A4 for NVS123 was estimated to be very high and included in the human PBPK modeling to support subsequent clinical study design. The combined use of the in vivo boost study in CYP3A4-humanized mouse model mice along with PBPK modeling accurately predicted the clinical outcome and identified a significant NVS123 exposure boost (∼42-fold increase) with ritonavir.

  7. Participation of stress-inducible systems and enzymes involved in BER and NER in the protection of Escherichia coli against cumene hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, L M; Medeiros, D C; Felzenszwalb, I; Leitão, A C; Asad, N R

    2000-09-15

    We studied the participation of the stress-inducible systems, as the OxyR, SoxRS and SOS regulons in the protection of Escherichia coli cells against lethal effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). Moreover, we evaluated the participation of BER and NER in the repair of the DNA damage produced by CHP. Our results suggest that the hypersensitivity observed in the oxyR mutants to the lethal effect of CHP does not appear to be due to SOS inducing DNA lesions, but rather to cell membrane damage. On the other hand, DNA damage induced by CHP appears to be repaired by enzymes involved in BER and NER pathways. In this case, Fpg protein and UvrABC complex could be involved cooperatively in the elimination of a specific DNA lesion. Finally, we have detected the requirement for the uvrA gene function in SOS induction by CHP treatment.

  8. Strictosidine-related enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis of Uncaria tomentosa root cultures grown under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Reyes, Ileana; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    The activity and gene expression of strictosidine-related enzymes in Uncaria tomentosa root cultures exposed to oxidative stress were studied. Elicitation with 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) or a combination of 0.8 mM buthionine sulfoximine and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid (BSO-JA) increased peroxidase activities by twofold at Day 8 and glutathione reductase by 1.4-fold at Day 5 in H2 O2 elicited cultures respect to the control. Production of monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA), 3α-dihydrocadambine, and dolichantoside was stimulated after H2 O2 elicitation, reaching levels of 886.4 ± 23.6, 847.7 ± 25.4, and 87.5 ± 7.2 µg/g DW, at Day 8 which were 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold higher relative to control. BSO-JA elicited cultures produced about twice alkaloids than H2 O2 -treated cultures, following a biphasic pattern with maxima at 0.5 and 8 days. Alkaloid production was preceded by increase in strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) activities. After elicitation with H2 O2 or BSO-JA, the STR activity (pKat/mg protein) increased by 1.9-fold (93.8 ± 17.8 at 24 h) or 2.5-fold (102.4 ± 2.2 at 6 h) and the SGD activity (pKat/mg protein) by 2.8-fold (245.2 ± 14.4 at 6 h) or 4.2-fold (421.2 ± 1.8 at 18 h) relative to control. STR and SGD transcripts were upregulated after elicitation. H2 O2 -treated roots showed higher levels of STR at 48-192 h and SGD at 24-48 h, while BSO-JA treatments showed STR increased at 12 h and SGD at 24 h. Also, LC/ESI-MS confirmed the biosynthesis of dolichantoside from N-ω-methyltryptamine and secologanin by U. tomentosa protein extracts. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Mutational analyses of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of hydrogen by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

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    Gerrit J Schut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally near 100°C by fermenting carbohydrates to produce hydrogen (H2 or, if elemental sulfur (S0, is present hydrogen sulfide instead. It contains two cytoplasmic hydrogenases, SHI and SHII, that use NADP(H as an electron carrier, and a membrane bound hydrogenase (MBH, that utilizes the redox protein ferredoxin. We previously constructed deletion strains lacking SHI and/or SHII and showed that they exhibited no obvious phenotype. This study has now been extended to include biochemical analyses and growth studies using the ΔSHI and ΔSHII deletion strains together with strains lacking a functional MBH (ΔMbhL. Hydrogenase activities in cytoplasmic extracts of ΔSHII and the parent strain were similar but were much lower (<10% in the ΔSHI strain, and no activity was detected in the ΔSHIΔSHII double deletion strain, indicating that SHI is responsible for most of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase activity. In contrast, the ΔmbhL strain showed no growth in the absence of S0, confirming the hypothesis that, in the absence of S0, MBH is the only enzyme that can dispose of reductant (as H2 generated during sugar oxidation. The deletion strain devoid of all three hydrogenases also grew only in the presence of S0 and did not produce any detectable H2. When grown in the presence of limiting S0, both H2S and H2 were produced by the parent and ΔSHI/ΔSHII strains. A significant amount of H2 was also produced by the ΔmbhL strain, showing that SHI can produce H2 from NADPH in vivo, although this does not enable significant growth of ΔmbhL in the absence of S0. We propose that the physiological function of SHI is to recycle H2 and provide a link between external H2 and the intracellular pool of NADPH needed for biosynthesis. This likely has a distinct energetic advantage in the environment, but it is clearly not required for growth of the organism under the usual laboratory conditions. The function of SHII, however, remains

  10. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by gallic acid in human liver microsomes and recombinant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Qiang-Hong; Shi, Liang; Yu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    1.Gallic acid is a main polyphenol in various fruits and plants. Inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 were still unclear. The objective of this work is hence to investigate inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 using testosterone as the probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP3A4 (rCYP3A4) systems. 2.Gallic acid caused concentration-dependent loss of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 615.2 μM and 669.5 μM in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively. IC50-shift experiments showed that pre-incubation with gallic acid in the absence of NADPH contributed to 12- or 14-fold reduction of IC50 in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively, supporting a time-dependent inhibition. In HLM, time-dependent inactivation variables KI and Kinact were 485.8 μM and 0.05 min(-1), respectively. 3.Compared with the presence of NADPH, pre-incubation of gallic acid in the absence of NADPH markedly increased its inhibitory effects in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems. Those results indicate that CYP3A4 inactivation by gallic acid was independent on NADPH and was mainly mediated its oxidative products. 4.In conclusion, we showed that gallic acid weakly and time-dependently inactivated CYP3A4 via its oxidative products.

  11. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

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    Xuan Chen

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  12. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  13. Effect of grazing fresh legumes or feeding silage on fatty acids and enzymes involved in the synthesis of milk fat in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, Lars; Theil, Peter K; Nielsen, Jacob H; Sørensen, Martin T

    2010-08-01

    The impact of fresh legume types or silage on the composition of milk fatty acids and transcription of enzymes involved in the synthesis of milk fat in cows was studied. Three groups of cows grazed high proportions of white clover, red clover and lucerne, respectively. A fourth group of cows was fed maize/grass silage. The cows grazing high proportions of legumes produced significantly more 18:1 trans-11, 18:2 cis9-trans11, 18:2 trans10-cis12 and 18:3 fatty acids than cows fed silage. White clover and lucerne grazing resulted in significantly lower output of 18:1 trans9 in milk than red clover grazing and maize/grass silages. Transcription of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in mammary tissue was significantly increased by grazing high proportions of legume whereas fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were not affected by type of feeding. Furthermore, average milk fat globule diameter was correlated to daily milk fat yield but was not affected by feeding. Although the fresh forage affected the transcription of SCD in mammary tissue, the largest effects were on the trans11-based fatty acids. It is concluded that type of forage, i.e. fresh or silage, had a greater impact on rumen fermentation pattern than on transcription of enzymes involved in the synthesis of milk fat.

  14. The glucosylglycerol-degrading enzyme GghA is involved in acclimation to fluctuating salinities by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Friedrich; Pade, Nadin; Klähn, Stephan; Hess, Wolfgang R; Hagemann, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The ggpS gene, which encodes the key enzyme for the synthesis of the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG), has a promoter region that overlaps with the upstream-located gene slr1670 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystissp. PCC 6803. Like ggpS, the slr1670 gene is salt-induced and encodes a putative glucosylhydrolase. A mutant strain with a slr1670 deletion was generated and found to be unable to adapt the internal GG concentrations in response to changes in external salinities. Whereas cells of the wild-type reduced the internal pool of GG when exposed to gradual and abrupt hypo-osmotic treatments, or when the compatible solute trehalose was added to the growth medium, the internal GG pool of ∆slr1670 mutant cells remained unchanged. These findings indicated that the protein Slr1670 is involved in GG breakdown. The biochemical activity of this GG-hydrolase enzyme was verified using recombinant Slr1670 protein, which split GG into glucose and glycerol. These results validate that Slr1670, which was named GghA, acts as a GG hydrolase. GghA is involved in GG turnover in fluctuating salinities, and similar proteins are found in the genomes of other GG-synthesizing cyanobacteria.

  15. FROG INTESTINAL PERFUSION TO EVALUATE DRUG PERMEABILITY: APPLICATION TO P-gp AND CYP3A4 SUBSTRATES

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    Neelima eYerasi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTo evaluate the reliability of using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique for permeability assessment of carrier transported drugs which are also substrates for CYP enzymes. Single Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP studies were performed in frogs of the species Rana tigrina using established method for rats with some modifications after inducing anesthesia. Effective permeability coefficient (Peff of losartan and midazolam was calculated in the presence and absence of inhibitors using the parallel-tube model. Peff of losartan when perfused alone was found to be 0.427 ± 0.27×10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, significant change in Peff was observed. Peff of midazolam when perfused alone was found to be 2.03 ± 0.07 × 10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, no significant change in Peff was observed. Comparison of Peff calculated in frog with that of other available models and also humans suggested that the Peff values are comparable and reflected well with human intestinal permeability. It is possible to determine the Peff value for compounds which are dual substrates of P-gp and CYP3A4 using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique. The calculated Peff values correlated well with reported Peff values of probe drugs. comparison of the Peff value of losartan obtained with that of reported human’s Peff and Caco 2 cell data, and comparison of the Peff value of midazolam with that of reported rat’s Peff, we could conclude that SPIP from model can be reliably used in preclinical studies for permeability estimation. This model may represent a valuable alternative to the low speed and high cost of conventional animal models (typically rodents for the assessment of intestinal permeability.

  16. Cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice is associated with prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Nijkamp, Frans P.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP), derived from the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to the lung. PGP formation is a multistep process involving neutrophils, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). This cascade of events is now investigated in the development of lung emphysema. A/J mice were whole body exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 wk. After 20 wk or 8 wk after smoking cessation, animals were killed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected to analyze the neutrophilic airway inflammation, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels. Lung tissue degradation was assessed by measuring the mean linear intercept. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the peptide l-arginine-threonine-arginine (RTR), which binds to PGP sequences, on the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days of smoke exposure. Neutrophilic airway inflammation was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, PE activity, and PGP levels were elevated in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. PE was highly expressed in epithelial and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in lung tissue of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. After smoking cessation, the neutrophil influx, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels were decreased or reduced to normal levels. Moreover, RTR inhibited the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days' smoke exposure. In the present murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, it is demonstrated for the first time that all relevant components (neutrophils, MMP-8, MMP-9, PE) involved in PGP formation from collagen are upregulated in the airways. Together with MMPs, PE may play an important role in the formation of PGP and thus in the pathophysiology of lung emphysema. PMID:21112944

  17. Comparative study of the metabolism of drug substrates by human cytochrome P450 3A4 expressed in bacterial, yeast and human lymphoblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Abd-Ellah, M F; Randolph, N L; Kenworthy, K E; Carlile, D J; Friedberg, T; Houston, J B

    2002-11-01

    1. The aim was to compare the metabolic activity of human CYP3A4 expressed in bacteria (E. coli), yeast (S. cerevisiae) and human lymphoblastoid cells (hBl), with the native CYP3A4 activity observed in a panel of human livers. 2. Three CYP3A4 substrates were selected for study: dextromethorphan (DEM), midazolam (MDZ) and diazepam (DZ). The substrate metabolism in each of the four systems was characterized by deriving the kinetic parameters K(m) or S(50), V(max) and intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) or maximum clearance (CL(max)) from the kinetic profiles; the latter differing by 100-fold across the three substrates. 3. The K(m) or S(50) for the formation of metabolites 3-methoxymorphinan (MEM), 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1'-OH MDZ) and 3-hydroxydiazepam (3HDZ) compared well in all systems. For CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of DEM, MDZ and DZ, the V(max) for hBl microsomes were generally 2-9-fold higher than the respective yeast and human liver microsomes and E. coli membrane preparations, resulting in greater CL(int) or CL(max). In the case of 3HDZ formation, non-linear kinetics were observed for E. coli, hBl microsomes and human liver microsomes, whereas the kinetics observed for S. cerevisiae were linear. 4. The use of native human liver microsomes for drug metabolic studies will always be preferable. However, owing to the limited availability of human tissues, we find it is reasonable to use any of the recombinant systems described herein, since all three recombinant systems gave good predictions of the native human liver enzyme activities.

  18. Analysis of mucolipidosis II/III GNPTAB missense mutations identifies domains of UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase involved in catalytic function and lysosomal enzyme recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; van Meel, Eline; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Yox, Alex; Steet, Richard; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2015-01-30

    UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase tags newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes with mannose 6-phosphate recognition markers, which are required for their targeting to the endolysosomal system. GNPTAB encodes the α and β subunits of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, and mutations in this gene cause the lysosomal storage disorders mucolipidosis II and III αβ. Prior investigation of missense mutations in GNPTAB uncovered amino acids in the N-terminal region and within the DMAP domain involved in Golgi retention of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase and its ability to specifically recognize lysosomal hydrolases, respectively. Here, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the remaining missense mutations in GNPTAB reported in mucolipidosis II and III αβ patients using cell- and zebrafish-based approaches. We show that the Stealth domain harbors the catalytic site, as some mutations in these regions greatly impaired the activity of the enzyme without affecting its Golgi localization and proteolytic processing. We also demonstrate a role for the Notch repeat 1 in lysosomal hydrolase recognition, as missense mutations in conserved cysteine residues in this domain do not affect the catalytic activity but impair mannose phosphorylation of certain lysosomal hydrolases. Rescue experiments using mRNA bearing Notch repeat 1 mutations in GNPTAB-deficient zebrafish revealed selective effects on hydrolase recognition that differ from the DMAP mutation. Finally, the mutant R587P, located in the spacer between Notch 2 and DMAP, was partially rescued by overexpression of the γ subunit, suggesting a role for this region in γ subunit binding. These studies provide new insight into the functions of the different domains of the α and β subunits.

  19. The Adenylate-Forming Enzymes AfeA and TmpB Are Involved in Aspergillus nidulans Self-Communication during Asexual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soid-Raggi, Gabriela; Sánchez, Olivia; Ramos-Balderas, Jose L.; Aguirre, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. The elimination of genes flbA-E, fluG, and tmpA results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brlA. While flbA-E encode regulatory proteins, fluG and tmpA encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals needed for normal conidiation. Here we identify afeA and tmpB as new genes encoding members the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily, whose inactivation cause different fluffy phenotypes and decreased conidiation and brlA expression. AfeA is most similar to unknown function coumarate ligase-like (4CL-Lk) enzymes and consistent with this, a K544N active site modification eliminates AfeA function. TmpB, identified previously as a larger homolog of the oxidoreductase TmpA, contains a NRPS-type adenylation domain. A high degree of synteny in the afeA-tmpA and tmpB regions in the Aspergilli suggests that these genes are part of conserved gene clusters. afeA, tmpA, and tmpB double and triple mutant analysis as well as afeA overexpression experiments indicate that TmpA and AfeA act in the same conidiation pathway, with TmpB acting in a different pathway. Fluorescent protein tagging shows that functional versions of AfeA are localized in lipid bodies and the plasma membrane, while TmpA and TmpB are localized at the plasma membrane. We propose that AfeA participates in the biosynthesis of an acylated compound, either a p-cuomaryl type or a fatty acid compound, which might be oxidized by TmpA and/or TmpB, while TmpB adenylation domain would be involved in the activation of a hydrophobic amino acid, which in turn would be oxidized by the TmpB oxidoreductase domain. Both, AfeA-TmpA and TmpB signals are involved in self-communication and reproduction in A. nidulans. PMID:27047469

  20. The Adenylate-Forming Enzymes AfeA And TmpB Are Involved In Aspergillus nidulans Self-Communication During Asexual Development

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    Jesus eAguirre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. The elimination of genes flbA-E, fluG and tmpA results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brlA. While flbA-E encode regulatory proteins, fluG and tmpA encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals needed for normal conidiation. Here we identify afeA and tmpB as new genes encoding members the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily, whose inactivation cause different fluffy phenotypes and decreased conidiation and brlA expression. AfeA is most similar to unknown function coumarate ligase-like (4CL-Lk enzymes and consistent with this, a K544N active site modification eliminates AfeA function. TmpB, identified previously as a larger homolog of the oxidoreductase TmpA, contains a NRPS-type adenylation domain. A high degree of synteny in the afeA-tmpA and tmpB regions in the Aspergilli suggests that these genes are part of conserved gene clusters. afeA, tmpA and tmpB double and triple mutant analysis as well as afeA overexpression experiments indicate that TmpA and AfeA act in the same conidiation pathway, with TmpB acting in a different pathway. Fluorescent protein tagging shows that functional versions of AfeA are localized in organelle-type lipid bodies and the plasma membrane, while TmpA and TmpB are localized at the plasma membrane. We propose that AfeA participates in the biosynthesis of an acylated compound, either a p-cuomaryl type or a fatty acid compound, which might be oxidized by TmpA and/or TmpB, while TmpB adenylation domain would be involved in the activation of a hydrophobic amino acid, which in turn would be oxidized by the TmpB oxidoreductase domain. Both, AfeA-TmpA and TmpB signals are involved in self-communication and reproduction in A

  1. The immunoglobulin M-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus suis, IdeSsuis, is involved in complement evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seele, Jana; Beineke, Andreas; Hillermann, Lena-Maria; Jaschok-Kentner, Beate; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2015-04-19

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs causing meningitis, arthritis, endocarditis and serositis. Furthermore, it is also an emerging zoonotic agent. In our previous work we identified a highly specific IgM protease in S. suis, designated Ide(Ssuis) . The objective of this study was to characterize the function of Ide(Ssuis) in the host-pathogen interaction. Edman-sequencing revealed that Ide(Ssuis) cleaves the heavy chain of the IgM molecule between constant domain 2 and 3. As the C1q binding motif is located in the C3 domain, we hypothesized that Ide(Ssuis) is involved in complement evasion. Complement-mediated hemolysis induced by porcine hyperimmune sera containing erythrocyte-specific IgM was abrogated by treatment of these sera with recombinant Ide(Ssuis) . Furthermore, expression of Ide(Ssuis) reduced IgM-triggered complement deposition on the bacterial surface. An infection experiment of prime-vaccinated growing piglets suggested attenuation in the virulence of the mutant 10Δide(Ssuis). Bactericidal assays confirmed a positive effect of Ide(Ssuis) expression on bacterial survival in porcine blood in the presence of high titers of specific IgM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Ide(Ssuis) is a novel complement evasion factor, which is important for bacterial survival in porcine blood during the early adaptive (IgM-dominated) immune response.

  2. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

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    Farah El Najjar

    Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.

  3. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between ethinyl estradiol and gestodene, administered as a transdermal fertility control patch, and two CYP3A4 inhibitors and a CYP3A4 substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Julia; Goldammer, Mark; Ludwig, Matthias; Rohde, Beate; Zurth, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) pathway and transdermally administered ethinyl estradiol (EE) and gestodene (GSD) were investigated. This paper reports the findings of three open-label, intra-individual, one-way crossover, Phase I trials. In two studies, women used a novel contraceptive patch for 3 weeks during two 4-week study periods; in the second period, the CYP3A4 inhibitors erythromycin (Study 1) or ketoconazole (Study 2) were administered concurrently. In a third study, women received single doses of the CYP3A4 model substrate midazolam, alone and after 3 weeks of concurrent patch application. In each period, the EE/GSD patch (delivering low EE and GSD doses resulting in the same systemic exposure as a combined oral contraceptive containing 0.02 mg EE and 0.06 mg GSD) was applied once weekly for 3 weeks, with one patch-free week. Erythromycin, ketoconazole, and midazolam were administered orally. Main outcome measures were area under the curves (AUCs) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) of EE, and total and unbound GSD (Studies 1 and 2). AUC and C max of midazolam (Study 3). Co-administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors did not affect EE metabolism, and had only weak effects on the PK of total and unbound GSD. The patch had no clinically relevant effect on metabolism of the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam.

  4. Biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by human liver microsomes: identification of cytochrome P450 2B6 as the major enzyme involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erratico, Claudio A; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2013-05-20

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used flame retardants that have become persistent environmental pollutants. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major PBDE detected in human tissue and environmental samples. Biotransformation of BDE-47 by pooled and individual human liver microsomes and by human recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes was assessed using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Of the nine hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 produced by human liver microsomes, seven metabolites were identified using authentic standards. A monohydroxy-tetrabrominated and a dihydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite remain unidentified. Kinetic analysis of the rates of metabolite formation revealed that the major metabolites were 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), and possibly the unidentified monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite. Among the human recombinant P450 enzymes tested, P450 2B6 was the most active enzyme in the formation of the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47. Moreover, the formation of all metabolites of BDE-47 by pooled human liver microsomes was inhibited by a P450 2B6-specific antibody and was highly correlated with P450 2B6-mediated activity in single donor liver microsomes indicating that P450 2B6 was the major P450 responsible for the biotransformation of BDE-47. Additional experiments involving the incubation of liver microsomes with individual monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolites in place of BDE-47 demonstrated that 2,4-dibromophenol was a product of BDE-47 and several primary metabolites, but the dihydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite was not formed by sequential hydroxylation of any of the monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolites tested. The present study provides a comprehensive characterization of the oxidative metabolism of BDE-47 by

  5. SPR and electrochemical analyses of interactions between CYP3A4 or 3A5 and cytochrome b5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedenko, O. V.; Yablokov, E. O.; Usanov, S. A.; Mukha, D. V.; Sergeev, G. V.; Bulko, T. V.; Kuzikov, A. V.; Moskaleva, N. E.; Shumyantseva, V. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Archakov, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    The combination of SPR biosensor with electrochemical analysis was used for the study of protein-protein interaction between cytochromes CYP3A4 or 3А5 and cytochromes b5: the microsomal, mitochondrial forms of this protein, and 2 ≪chimeric≫ proteins. Kinetic constants of CYP3A4 and CYP3А5 complex formation with cytochromes b5 were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was observed upon their interactions with mitochondrial cytochrome b5. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and cytochromes b5 immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 to -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl).

  6. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. Results: O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). “Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner”. O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. Conclusion: O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum. PMID:27757270

  7. Flavonoid inhibitors as novel antimycobacterial agents targeting Rv0636, a putative dehydratase enzyme involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alistair K; Papaemmanouil, Athina; Bhowruth, Veemal; Bhatt, Apoorva; Dover, Lynn G; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoids comprise a large group of bioactive polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. Several of these possess potent in vivo activity against Escherichia coli and Plasmodium falciparum, targeting enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, such as enoyl-ACP-reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase and beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase. Herein, we report that butein, isoliquirtigenin, 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone and fisetin inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of the mycolic-acid-producing fatty acid synthase II (FAS-II) of Mycobacterium smegmatis suggests a mode of action related to those observed in E. coli and P. falciparum. Through a bioinformatic approach, we have established the product of Rv0636 as a candidate for the unknown mycobacterial dehydratase, and its overexpression in M. bovis BCG conferred resistance to growth inhibition by butein and isoliquirtigenin, and relieved inhibition of fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis in vivo. Furthermore, after overexpression of Rv0636 in M. smegmatis, FAS-II was less sensitive to these inhibitors in vitro. Overall, the data suggest that these flavonoids are inhibitors of mycobacterial FAS-II and in particular Rv0636, which represents a strong candidate for the beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase enzyme of M. tuberculosis FAS-II.

  8. Changes in the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Starch Synthesis in the Kernel During Grain Filling in Winter Wheat Cultivars of Different Spike Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Song-jie; WANG Wen-jing; GUO Tian-cai; HAN Jin-feng

    2003-01-01

    Two winter wheat(Triticum aestivum L. ) cultivars, large-spike type Yumai66 amd small-spike type Yumai49, were used to study the activities of enzymes involved in starch synthesis in the kernel during grain filling. Starch accumulated faster in the kernel of Yumai49 than Yumai66 up to 25 d after anthesis,thereafter starch accumulated faster in the kernel of Yumai66. Starch accumulation in Yumai66 peaked at 20 -25 d after anthesis, while in Yumai49 starch accumulation peaked at 15 -20 d after anthesis and 25 -30 d after anthesis. The first peak was much higher than that of the second. Sucrose content and sucrose synthase activity peaked at 20 and 15 d after anthesis in Yumai66 and Yumai49, respectively. The sucrose content and sucrose synthase activity in Yumai66 were higher than that in Yunai49 during grain filling. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch branching enzyme activity in the kernel of Yumai66 peaked at 20 d after anthesis,while soluble starch synthase activity peaked at 10 and 20 d after anthesis. The second peak was much higher than that of the first.

  9. Aging-related correlation of insulin-degrading enzyme with gamma-secretase-generated products involving insulin and glucose levels in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae Y; Cho, Jung S; Kim, Chuel K; Shim, Sun B; Jee, Seung W; Lee, Su H; Seo, Su J; Cho, Joon Y; Lee, Seok H; Kim, Yong K

    2005-09-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a 110-kDa thiol zinc-methalloendopeptidase that can cleave small Abeta peptides and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). The aim of this study was to examine aging-related correlation of IDE with gamma-secretase-generated products involving insulin and glucose levels in transgenic brains expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human mutant presenilin-2 (hPS2m). Herein, we concluded that the levels of IDE expression in transgenic brains were decreased relative to those of control mice at 15 months of age. In parallel, inhibition in the IDE expression at this age underlies to the levels-up of Abeta-42, AICD, gamma-secretase, and glucose with a level-down of insulin. Thus, IDE expression is critical target for the therapeutic trials.

  10. The consequence of regional gradients of P-gp and CYP3A4 for drug-drug interactions by P-gp inhibitors and the P-gp/CYP3A4 interplay in the human intestine ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; de Graaf, Inge A M; van de Steeg, Evita; de Jager, Marina H; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal P-gp and CYP3A4 work coordinately to reduce the intracellular concentration of drugs, and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) based on this interplay are of clinical importance and require pre-clinical investigation. Using precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) of human jejunum, ileum and colon, we investigated the P-gp/CYP3A4 interplay and related DDIs with P-gp inhibitors at the different regions of the human intestine with quinidine (Qi), dual substrate of P-gp and CYP3A4, as probe. All the P-gp inhibitors increased the intracellular concentrations of Qi by 2.1-2.6 fold in jejunum, 2.6-3.8 fold in ileum but only 1.2-1.3 fold in colon, in line with the different P-gp expression in these intestinal regions. The selective P-gp inhibitors (CP100356 and PSC833) enhanced 3-hydroxy-quinidine (3OH-Qi) in jejunum and ileum, while dual inhibitors of P-gp and CYP3A4 (verapamil and ketoconazole) decreased the 3OH-Qi production, despite of the increased intracellular Qi concentration, due to inhibition of CYP3A4. The outcome of DDIs based on P-gp/CYP3A4 interplay, shown as remarkable changes in the intracellular concentration of both the parent drug and the metabolite, varied among the intestinal regions, probably due to the different expression of P-gp and CYP3A4, and were different from those found in rat PCIS, which may have important implications for the disposition and toxicity of drugs and their metabolites.

  11. CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 catalyze the primary oxidative metabolism of perhexiline enantiomers by human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin J; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Milne, Robert W; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2007-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated 4-monohydroxylations of the individual enantiomers of the racemic antianginal agent perhexiline (PHX) were investigated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) to identify stereoselective differences in metabolism and to determine the contribution of the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6 and other P450s to the intrinsic clearance of each enantiomer. The cis-, trans1-, and trans2-4-monohydroxylation rates of (+)- and (-)-PHX by human liver microsomes from three extensive metabolizers (EMs), two intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and two poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2D6 were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. P450 isoform-specific inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies directed against P450 isoforms, and recombinantly expressed human P450 enzymes were used to define the P450 isoform profile of PHX 4-monohydroxylations. The total in vitro intrinsic clearance values (mean +/- S.D.) of (+)- and (-)-PHX were 1376 +/- 330 and 2475 +/- 321, 230 +/- 225 and 482 +/- 437, and 63.4 +/- 1.6 and 54.6 +/- 1.2 microl/min/mg for the EM, IM, and PM HLMs, respectively. CYP2D6 catalyzes the formation of cis-OH-(+)-PHX and trans1-OH-(+)-PHX from (+)-PHX and cis-OH-(-)-PHX from (-)-PHX with high affinity. CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 each catalyze the trans1- and trans2-4-monohydroxylation of both (+)- and (-)-PHX with low affinity. Both enantiomers of PHX are subject to significant polymorphic metabolism by CYP2D6, although this enzyme exhibits distinct stereoselectivity with respect to the conformation of metabolites and the rate at which they are formed. CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are minor contributors to the intrinsic P450-mediated hepatic clearance of both enantiomers of PHX, except in CYP2D6 PMs.

  12. Involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme in insulin- and atrial natriuretic peptide-sensitive internalization of amyloid-β peptide in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Murata, Sho; Katsukura, Yuki; Suzuki, Hiroya; Funaki, Miho; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral clearance of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, involves elimination across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and we previously showed that an insulin-sensitive process is involved in the case of Aβ1-40. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism of the insulin-sensitive Aβ1-40 elimination across mouse BBB. An in vivo cerebral microinjection study demonstrated that [125I]hAβ1-40 elimination from mouse brain was inhibited by human natriuretic peptide (hANP), and [125I]hANP elimination was inhibited by hAβ1-40, suggesting that hAβ1-40 and hANP share a common elimination process. Internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 into cultured mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (TM-BBB4) was significantly inhibited by either insulin, hANP, other natriuretic peptides or insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) inhibitors, but was not inhibited by phosphoramidon or thiorphan. Although we have reported the involvement of natriuretic peptide receptor C (Npr-C) in hANP internalization, cells stably expressing Npr-C internalized [125I]hANP but not [125I]hAβ1-40, suggesting that there is no direct interaction between Npr-C and hAβ1-40. IDE was detected in plasma membrane of TM-BBB4 cells, and internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 by TM-BBB4 cells was reduced by IDE-targeted siRNAs. We conclude that elimination of hAβ1-40 from mouse brain across the BBB involves an insulin- and ANP-sensitive process, mediated by IDE expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells.

  13. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 by podophyllotoxin: Implication for clinical drug–drug interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin-Hui Song; Dong-Xue Sun; Bin Chen; Dai-Hong Ji; Jie Pu; Jie Xu; Feng-De Tian; Lin Guo

    2011-12-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives exert significant anti-cancer activities, and one derivative etoposide is often utilized to treat various cancers in the clinic. The aim of the present study is to investigate the inhibitory effects of PPT on major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in human livers. Inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 by PPT was investigated in the human liver microsomal system. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by PPT was also evaluated. The results showed that PPT strongly exhibited inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half inhibition concentration (IC50) was 1.1±0.3 and 4.6±0.3 M for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, respectively. Inhibition kinetic analysis showed that PPT exhibited competitive inhibition towards CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with Ki of 1.6 and 2.0 M, respectively. Additionally, PPT exerted time-dependent inhibition towards CYP3A4 and the kinetic parameters were 4.4±2.1 M and 0.06±0.01 min–1 for KI and kinact, respectively. Our experimental data indicate that potential drug–drug interaction (DDI) might exist when PPT is co-administered with the substrates which mainly undergo CYP3A4- or CYP2C9-mediated metabolism.

  14. Contribution of CYP3A4 to catalysis of ketamine in human hepatic microsome%人肝微粒体中CYP3A4对氯胺酮代谢的催化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芸慧; 田阿勇; 马虹; 王俊科

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究人肝脏微粒体中细胞色素P4503A4(CYP3A4)对氯胺酮代谢的催化作用.方法 用高效液相色谱法测定氯胺酮在人肝脏微粒体孵育液中的浓度变化,计算其代谢速率;分析该代谢速率与CYP3A4特异性底物硝苯地平代谢速率的相关性;并应用CYP3A4特异性抑制剂孕二烯酮检测CYP3A4对氯胺酮代谢的催化作用.结果 20例人肝脏微粒体中氯胺酮的代谢速率均值为(12.6±3.8)μmol·min-1·g-1 protein.该速率与CYP3A4活性探针硝苯地平代谢速率呈明显正相关(r=0.917,P<0.01).加入特异性抑制剂孕二烯酮组,氯胺酮的平均代谢速率明显低于正常孵育组,为(4.7±1.6)μmol·min-1·g-1 protein(P<0.01),抑制率为62.7%.结论 人肝微粒体中CYP3A4对氯胺酮代谢具有催化作用.%Aim To investigate the contribution of CYP3A4 to catalysis of ketamine in human hepatic mi-crosome. Methods The change of ketamine concentration in an incubation mixture with human hepatic microsomes was determined by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) , and then the metabolic rate of ketamine was calculated. The correlation of the rate with rates of metabolism of CYP3A4 selective substrate nifedipine, and the effect of CYP3A4 specific inhibitor gestodene on ketamine metabolism were examined. Results The metabolic rate of ketamine in the twenty ca -ses of microsomes was ( 12. 6 ± 3. 8 μmol · min-1 ·g-1 protein) on average. The average rate of ketamine metabolism showed obvious positive correlation to that of nifedipine (activity probe of CYP3A4) (r =0. 917, P < 0. 01). After addition of gestodene (the specific inhibitor of CYP3A4) , the average metabolic rate of ketamine (4.7 ±1.6 μmol· min-1 · g-1 protein) was slower than that without gestodene (P < 0. 01). The inhibition degree was 62.7%. Conclusion CYP3A4 is responsible for metabolism of ketamine in human he -patic microsome.

  15. Microbial degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Insight into the enzymes and catabolic genes involved, their regulation and biotechnological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Trefault, Nicole; Olaniran, Ademola Olufolahan

    2016-01-01

    A considerable progress has been made to understand the mechanisms of biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 2,4-D biodegradation pathway has been elucidated in many microorganisms including Cupriavidus necator JMP134 (previously known as Wautersia eutropha, Ralstonia eutropha and Alcaligenes eutrophus) and Pseudomonas strains. It generally involves the side chain removal of 2,4-D by α-ketoglutarate-dependent 2,4-D dioxygenase (tfdA) to form 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP); hydroxylation of 2,4-DCP by 2,4-DCP hydroxylase (tfdB) to form dichlorocatechol; ortho or meta cleavage of dichlorocatechol by chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (tfdC) to form 2,4-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate; conversion of 2,4-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate to 2-chlorodienelactone by chloromuconate cycloisomerase (tfdD); conversion of 2-chlorodienelactone to 2-chloromaleylacetate by chlorodienelactone hydrolase (tfdE) and, finally, conversion of 2-chloromaleylacetate to 3-oxoadepate via maleylacetate by chloromaleylacetate reductase and maleylacetate reductase (tfdF), respectively, which is funnelled to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The latest review on microbial breakdown of 2,4-D, other halogenated aromatic pesticides, and related compounds was compiled by Haggblom, however, a considerable progress has been made in this area of research since then. Thus, this review focuses on the recent advancement on 2,4-D biodegradation, the enzymes, and genes involved and their biotechlogical implications.

  16. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-04

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A.

  17. Identification of the para-nitrophenol catabolic pathway, and characterization of three enzymes involved in the hydroquinone pathway, in pseudomonas sp. 1-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuangyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background para-Nitrophenol (PNP, a priority environmental pollutant, is hazardous to humans and animals. However, the information relating to the PNP degradation pathways and their enzymes remain limited. Results Pseudomonas sp.1-7 was isolated from methyl parathion (MP-polluted activated sludge and was shown to degrade PNP. Two different intermediates, hydroquinone (HQ and 4-nitrocatechol (4-NC were detected in the catabolism of PNP. This indicated that Pseudomonas sp.1-7 degraded PNP by two different pathways, namely the HQ pathway, and the hydroxyquinol (BT pathway (also referred to as the 4-NC pathway. A gene cluster (pdcEDGFCBA was identified in a 10.6 kb DNA fragment of a fosmid library, which cluster encoded the following enzymes involved in PNP degradation: PNP 4-monooxygenase (PdcA, p-benzoquinone (BQ reductase (PdcB, hydroxyquinol (BT 1,2-dioxygenase (PdcC, maleylacetate (MA reductase (PdcF, 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (4-HS dehydrogenase (PdcG, and hydroquinone (HQ 1,2-dioxygenase (PdcDE. Four genes (pdcDEFG were expressed in E. coli and the purified pdcDE, pdcG and pdcF gene products were shown to convert HQ to 4-HS, 4-HS to MA and MA to β-ketoadipate respectively by in vitro activity assays. Conclusions The cloning, sequencing, and characterization of these genes along with the functional PNP degradation studies identified 4-NC, HQ, 4-HS, and MA as intermediates in the degradation pathway of PNP by Pseudomonas sp.1-7. This is the first conclusive report for both 4-NC and HQ- mediated degradation of PNP by one microorganism.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of BAHD Acyltransferases and In vivo Characterization of HQT-like Enzymes Involved in Caffeoylquinic Acid Synthesis in Globe Artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Acquadro, Alberto; Eljounaidi, Kaouthar; Milani, Anna M.; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Genre, Andrea; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Comino, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades. Nine globe artichoke acyltransferases clustered in a sub-group of Clade V, with 3 belonging to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 2 to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) like proteins. We focused our attention on the former, HQT1, HQT2, and HQT3, as they are known to play a key role in CGA biosynthesis. The expression of genes coding for the three HQTs and correlation of expression with the CQA content is reported for different globe artichoke tissues. For the first time in the globe artichoke, we developed and applied the virus-induced gene silencing approach with the goal of assessing in vivo the effect of HQT1 silencing, which resulted in a marked reduction of both CGA and diCQAs. On the other hand, when the role of the three HQTs was assessed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana through their transient overexpression, significant increases in mono- and diCQAs content were observed. Using transient GFP fusion proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves we also established the sub-cellular localization of these three enzymes. PMID:27721818

  19. Natural soluble interleukin-15Ralpha is generated by cleavage that involves the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Ludwig, Andreas; Rose-John, Stefan; Saftig, Paul; Borden, Ernest C; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2004-09-24

    This study shows that the high affinity alpha-chain of the interleukin (IL)-15 receptor exists not only in membrane-anchored but also in soluble form. Soluble IL-15Ralpha (sIL-15Ralpha) can be detected in mouse sera and cell-conditioned media by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. This protein has a molecular mass of about 30 kDa because of the presence of a single N-glycosylation site, which is reduced to 26 kDa after N-glycosidase treatment. Transmembrane IL-15Ralpha is constitutively converted into its soluble form by proteolytic cleavage that involves tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE), and this process is further enhanced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation. The hydroxamate GW280264X, which is capable of blocking TACE and the closely related disintegrin-like metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10), effectively inhibited both spontaneous and PMA-inducible cleavage of IL-15Ralpha, whereas GI254023X, which preferentially blocks ADAM10, was ineffective. Overexpression of TACE but not ADAM10 in COS-7 cells enhanced the constitutive and PMA-inducible cleavage of IL-15Ralpha. Moreover, murine fibroblasts deficient in TACE but not ADAM10 expression exhibited a significant reduction in the spontaneous and inducible IL-15Ralpha shedding, whereas a reconstitution of TACE in these cells restored the release of sIL-15Ralpha, thereby suggesting that TACE-mediated proteolysis may represent a major mechanism for sIL-15Ralpha generation in mice. The existence of natural sIL-15Ralpha offers novel insights into the complex biology of IL-15 and envisages a new level for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Cloning, bioinformatics and the enzyme activity analyses of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene involved in dragon's blood biosynthesis in Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Gong, Min; Tang, Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Ou, Lingcheng; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, playing an important role in plant development and defence. We cloned a partial cDNA of PAL gene, DcPAL1, from Dracaena cambodiana seedlings using RT-PCR with degenerate primers that were designed based on a multiple sequence alignment of known PAL genes from other plant species. DcPAL1 shows highly homologous to other known PAL genes registered in GenBank, being closest to that of Musa acuminata. DcPAL1 has a relatively high GC content and most of the GC is in the third codon position. It has 768 bp in size with a maximum open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, encoding a 255 amino acid-polypeptide. The deduced PAL protein is a stable protein, having classical PAL domains and consisting of three major hydrophobic domains. Analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) shows that DcPAL1 codons are used at equal frequency. Relatively higher usage frequency appears randomly in codons ended with any of the four bases; six codons have no usage bias. There are 45 codons showing distinct usage preference between DcPAL1 and E. coli, 20 between DcPAL1 and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of DcPAL1. Upon the elicitation of Fusarium proliferatum, a potent elicitor of dragon's blood, the PAL enzyme activity in the leaves and stems of D. cambodiana and other two Dracaena spp. significantly increased, accompanying with the formation of dragon's blood, indicating the involvement of PAL in the biosynthesis of dragon's blood, a precious traditional medicine.

  1. Arabidopsis Indole Synthase,a Homolog of Tryptophan Synthase Alpha,is an Enzyme Involved in the Trp-independent Indole-containing Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Zhang; Bing Wang; Jian Ouyang; Jiayang Li; Yonghong Wang

    2008-01-01

    The plant tryptophan (Trp) biosynthetic pathway produces many secondary metabolites with diverse functions.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA),proposed as a derivative from Trp or its precursors,plays an essential role in plant growth and development.Although the Trp-dependant and Trp-independent IAA biosynthetic pathways have been proposed,the enzymes,reactions and regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown.In Arabidopsis,indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) is suggested to serve as a branchpoint component in the Trp-independent IAA biosynthesis.To address whether other enzymes in addition to Trp synthase α(TSA1) catalyze IGP cleavage,we identified and characterized an indole synthase (INS) gene,a homolog of TSA1 in Arabidopsis.INS exhibits different subcellular localization from TSA1 owing to the lack of chloroplast transit peptide (cTP).In silico data show that the expression levels of INS and TSA1 in all examined organs are quite different.Histochemical staining of INS promoter-GUS transgenic lines indicates that INS is expressed in vascular tissue of cotyledons,hypocotyls,roots and rosette leaves as well as in flowers and siliques.INS is capable of complementing the Trp auxotrophy of Escherichia coil △trpA strain,which is defective in Trp synthesis due to the deletion of TSA.This implies that INS catalyzes the conversion of IGP to indole and may be involved in the biosynthesis of Trp-independent IAA or other secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  2. Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Shan; Lu, Lin-lin; Chen, Wei-Ying; Zeng, Shan; Yan, Tong-Meng; Dong, Ling-Na; Peng, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Jian; Liu, Zhong-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA), and benzoylhypaconine (BHA), are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA. PMID:23864901

  3. Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC, benzoylmesaconine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconine (BHA, are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA.

  4. Changes in Enzyme Activities Involved in Starch Synthesis and Hormone Concentrations in Superior and Inferior Spikelets and Their Association with Grain Filling of Super Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; XU Yun-ji; CHEN Lu; YUAN Li-min; WANG Zhi-qin; YANG Jian-chang

    2013-01-01

    The changes in activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion and concentrations of hormones in superior and inferior spikelets of super rice were investigated and their association with grain filling was analyzed.Four super rice cultivars,Liangyoupeijiu,Ilyou 084,Huaidao 9 and Wujing 15,and two high-yielding and elite check cultivars,Shanyou 63 and Yangfujing 8,were used.The activities of sucrose synthase (SuSase),adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase),starch synthase (StSase) and starch branching enzyme (SBE),and the concentrations of zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z + ZR),indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in superior and inferior spikelets were determined during the grain filling period and their relationships with grain filling rate were analyzed.Maximum grain filling rate,the time reaching the maximum grain-filling rate,mean grain filling rate and brown rice weight for superior spikelets showed a slight difference between the super and check rice cultivars,but were significantly lower in the super rice than in the check rice for inferior spikelets.Changes of enzyme activities and hormone concentrations in grains exhibited single peak curves during the grain filling period.The peak values and the mean activities of SuSase,AGPase,StSase and SBE were lower in inferior spikelets than in superior ones,as well as the peak values and the mean concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA.However,the peak value and the mean concentration of ABA were significantly higher in inferior spikelets than in superior ones and greater in the super rice than in the check rice.The grain filling rate was positively and significantly correlated with the activities of SuSase,AGPase and StSase and the concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA.The results suggested that the low activities of SuSase,AGPase and StSase and the low concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA might be important physiological reasons for the slow grain filling rate and light grain weight of

  5. Evidence for the activation of organophosphate pesticides by cytochromes P450 3A4 and 2D6 in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, C; Mason, H J; Rawbone, R

    2000-08-16

    The role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in catalysing the oxidative biotransformation of the organophosphorothioate pesticides parathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon into structures that inhibit cholinesterase has been investigated in human liver microsomes using chemical inhibitors. Pesticides were incubated with human liver microsomes and production of the anticholinergic oxon metabolite was investigated by the inhibition of human serum cholinesterase. Quinidine and ketoconazole at 10 micromol/l inhibited oxidative biotransformation. Compared to control incubations (no inhibitor) where cholinesterase activity was inhibited to between 1 and 4% of control levels, incorporation of the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine into the microsomal incubation resulted in cholinesterase activity of 50% for parathion, 38% for diazinon and 30% for chlorpyrifos. Addition of the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole to microsomal incubations resulted in 66% cholinesterase activity with diazinon, 20% with parathion and 5% with chlorpyrifos. The unexpected finding that CYP2D6, as well as CYP3A4, catalysed oxidative biotransformation was confirmed for chlorpyrifos and parathion using microsomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line expressing CYP2D6. While parathion has been investigated only as a model compound, chlorpyrifos and diazinon are both very important, widely used pesticides and CYP2D6 appears to be an important enzyme in their bioactivation pathway. CYP2D6 is polymorphic and hence may influence individual susceptibility to exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon as well as other structurally similar pesticides.

  6. Dissecting the Cytochrome P450 1A2- and 3A4-Mediated Metabolism of Aflatoxin B1 in Ligand and Protein Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a chemically intriguing compound because it has several potential sites of metabolism (SOMs), although only some of them are observed experimentally. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 1A2 are the major isoforms involved in its metabolism. Here, we systematically investigate...... reactivity and accessibility of all possible SOMs in these two CYPs to elucidate AFB1 metabolism. DFT calculations were used to determine activation energies for each possible reaction. Aliphatic hydroxylation on position 9A and 3α are energetically favored, whereas position 9 is the preferred site...

  7. Pharmacokinetic variability of clarithromycin and differences in CYP3A4 activity in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, C S; Nielsen, X C; Dalhoff, K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the correlation between CYP3A4/5 activity and clarithromycin metabolism, and between CYP3A activity and CYP3A genotype. METHODS: This is an open-label, prospective pharmacokinetic study evaluating CYP3A activity using The Erythromycin Breath Test. Eight blood samples were...... collected within 12h after clarithromycin 500 mg was administered orally. The clarithromycin concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AUC, Tmax and Cmax were calculated. Selected Single Nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP3A4/5 genes were assessed by PCR and single base...... extension. RESULTS: Twenty-one chronically infected patients were included. An 8-fold variation in the CYP3A4 activity, 10-fold variation in AUC for clarithromycin (median 881 μg/mL × min), and a 16-fold variation in Cmax for clarithromycin (median 3.4 μg/mL) were found. A linear correlation between the CYP...

  8. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by schisandrol A and gomisin A isolated from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, C-K; Tse, A K; Yu, Z-L; Zhu, G-Y; Wang, H; Fong, D W F

    2010-07-01

    We studied the effects of schisandrol A (SCH) and gomisin A (GOM), two of the main bioactive components of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis, on cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) activity and cellular glutathione (GSH) level. In a cell-free system both SCH and GOM inhibited CYP3A4 activity with IC(50) values of 32.02 microM and 1.39 microM, respectively. SCH or GOM at concentrations up to 100 microM did not alter cellular GSH level in regular HepG2 cells and P-glycoprotein overexpressing HepG2-DR cells. Since SCH and GOM may reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) by impeding the activity of P-glycoprotein, a membrane xenobiotic exporter, SCH or GOM could affect cellular drug metabolism in addition to drug uptake.

  9. CYP3A4 overexpression enhances the cytotoxicity of the antitumor triazoloacridinone derivative C-1305 in CHO cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ewa AUGUSTIN; Barbara BOROWA-MAZGAJ; Agnieszka KIKULSKA; Milena KORDALEWSKA; Monika PAW(L)OWS KA

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To examine how the higher expression level of CYP3A4 isoenzyme influenced the cytotoxicity of the antitumor triazoloacridinone derivative C-1305 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.Methods:Three CHO cell lines were examined:wild-type CHO cells; CHO-HR cells with overexpression of human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR); and CHO-HR-3A4 cells with coexpression of human CYP3A4 and CPR.Cellular responses caused by C-1305 were monitored using DAPI staining,cell cycle analysis,phosphatydilserine externalization analysis and SA-β-galactosidase expression analysis.Cell viability was assessed with simultaneous FDA and PI staining.Results:Treatment with C-1305 for 72 h exhibited different levels of cytotoxicity in the 3 cell lines,and the values of IC80 in CHO,CHO-HR and CHO-HR-3A4 cells were 0.087+0.005,0.032+0.0001,and 0.064+0.0095 μmol/L,respectively.The cell cycle analysis revealed that both CHO and CHO-HR cells underwent transient G2/M arrest,whereas CHO-HR-3A4 cells did not accumulate in this phase.Prolonged exposure up to 120 h caused time-dependent increase in the sub-G1 fraction in all the 3 cell lines.Treatment with C-1305 caused cell death through apoptosis and necrosis.However,these processes were more pronounced in the transfected CHO cells than in the wild-type cells.The cells surviving after C-1305 exposure underwent senescence.Conclusion:CYP3A4 overexpression potently enhances the cellular responses (apoptosis,necrosis and senescence) caused by C-1305 in CHO cells.

  10. Cytochrome P450 3A4*22, PPAR-α, and ARNT polymorphisms and clopidogrel response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreutz RP

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rolf P Kreutz,1,2 Janelle Owens,2 Yan Jin,2 Perry Nystrom,2 Zeruesenay Desta,2 Yvonne Kreutz,2 Jeffrey A Breall,1 Lang Li,3 ChienWei Chiang,3 Richard J Kovacs,1 David A Flockhart21Krannert Institute of Cardiology, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAAbstract: Recent candidate gene studies using a human liver bank and in vivo validation in healthy volunteers identified polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 gene (CYP3A4*22, Ah-receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α genes that are associated with the CYP3A4 phenotype. We hypothesized that the variants identified in these genes may be associated with altered clopidogrel response, since generation of clopidogrel active metabolite is, partially mediated by CYP3A activity. Blood samples from 211 subjects, of mixed racial background, with established coronary artery disease, who had received clopidogrel, were analyzed. Platelet aggregation was determined using light transmittance aggregometry (LTA. Genotyping for CYP2C19*2, CYP3A4*22, PPAR-α (rs4253728, rs4823613, and ARNT (rs2134688 variant alleles was performed using Taqman® assays. CYP2C19*2 genotype was associated with increased on-treatment platelet aggregation (adenosine diphosphate 20 µM; P=0.025. No significant difference in on-treatment platelet aggregation, as measured by LTA during therapy with clopidogrel, was demonstrated among the different genotypes of CYP3A4*22, PPAR-α, and ARNT. These findings suggest that clopidogrel platelet inhibition is not influenced by the genetic variants that have previously been associated with reduced CYP3A4 activity.Keywords: clopidogrel, pharmacogenetics, CYP450, platelet aggregation

  11. Alisol B 23-acetate protects against ANIT-induced hepatotoxity and cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated regulation of transporters and enzymes involved in bile acid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qiang; Chen, Xin-li; Wang, Chang-yuan; Liu, Qi; Sun, Hui-jun; Sun, Peng-yuan; Huo, Xiao-kui; Liu, Zhi-hao; Yao, Ji-hong; Liu, Ke-xin, E-mail: kexinliu@dlmedu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Intrahepatic cholestasis is a clinical syndrome with systemic and intrahepatic accumulation of excessive toxic bile acids that ultimately cause hepatobiliary injury. Appropriate regulation of bile acids in hepatocytes is critically important for protection against liver injury. In the present study, we characterized the protective effect of alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a natural triterpenoid, on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury and intrahepatic cholestasis in mice and further elucidated the mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. AB23A treatment dose-dependently protected against liver injury induced by ANIT through reducing hepatic uptake and increasing efflux of bile acid via down-regulation of hepatic uptake transporters (Ntcp) and up-regulation of efflux transporter (Bsep, Mrp2 and Mdr2) expression. Furthermore, AB23A reduced bile acid synthesis through repressing Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, increased bile acid conjugation through inducing Bal, Baat and bile acid metabolism through an induction in gene expression of Sult2a1. We further demonstrate the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the hepatoprotective effect of AB23A. The changes in transporters and enzymes, as well as ameliorative liver histology in AB23A-treated mice were abrogated by FXR antagonist guggulsterone in vivo. In vitro evidences also directly demonstrated the effect of AB23A on FXR activation in a dose-dependent manner using luciferase reporter assay in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, AB23A produces protective effect against ANIT-induced hepatotoxity and cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated regulation of transporters and enzymes. - Highlights: • AB23A has at least three roles in protection against ANIT-induced liver injury. • AB23A decreases Ntcp, and increases Bsep, Mrp2 and Mdr2 expression. • AB23A represses Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 through inducing Shp and Fgf15 expression. • AB23A increases bile acid metabolism through inducing Sult2a1 expression. • FXR activation is involved

  12. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the in vitro analysis of 1-hydroxymidazolam in human liver microsomes: application for determining CYP3A4 inhibition in complex matrix mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooiman, K D; Maas-Bakker, R F; Rosing, H; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M; Meijerman, I

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by interacting with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. To evaluate changes in the activity of CYP3A4 in patients, levels of 1-hydroxymidazolam in plasma are often determined with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, validated LC-MS/MS methods to determine in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition in human liver microsomes are scarce and not optimized for evaluating CYP3A4 inhibition by CAM. The latter is necessary because CAM are often complex mixtures of numerous compounds that can interfere with the selective measurement of 1-hydroxymidazolam. Therefore, the aim was to validate and optimize an LC-MS/MS method for the adequate determination of CYP3A4 inhibition by CAM in human liver microsomes. After incubation of human liver microsomes with midazolam, liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was applied and dried samples were reconstituted in 50% methanol. These samples were injected onto a reversed-phase chromatography consisting of a Zorbax Extend-C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 5.0 µm particle size), connected to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization. The described LC-MS/MS method was validated over linear range of 1.0-500 nm for 1-hydroxymidazolam. The results revealed good inter-assay accuracy (≥85% and ≤115%) and within-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation ≤ 4.43%). Furthermore, the applicability of this assay for the determination of CYP3A4 inhibition in complex matrix mixtures was successfully demonstrated in an in vitro experiment in which CYP3A4 inhibition by known CAM (β-carotene, green tea, milk thistle and St. John's wort) was determined.

  13. In silico prediction of cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 inhibition using Gaussian kernel weighted k-nearest neighbor and extended connectivity fingerprints, including structural fragment analysis of inhibitors versus noninhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Berith F; Vind, Christian; Padkjaer, Søren B; Brockhoff, Per B; Refsgaard, Hanne H F

    2007-02-08

    Inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is unwanted because of the risk of severe side effects due to drug-drug interactions. We present two in silico Gaussian kernel weighted k-nearest neighbor models based on extended connectivity fingerprints that classify CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition. Data used for modeling consisted of diverse sets of 1153 and 1382 drug candidates tested for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition in human liver microsomes. For CYP2D6, 82% of the classified test set compounds were predicted to the correct class. For CYP3A4, 88% of the classified compounds were correctly classified. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibition were additionally classified for an external test set on 14 drugs, and multidimensional scaling plots showed that the drugs in the external test set were in the periphery of the training sets. Furthermore, fragment analyses were performed and structural fragments frequent in CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors and noninhibitors are presented.

  14. Geniposide protects pancreatic INS-1E β cells from hIAPP-induced cell damage: potential involvement of insulin degrading-enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonglan; Yin, Fei; Liu, Jianhui; Wang, Yanwen

    2015-04-01

    Islet amyloid deposition is increasingly seen as a pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with the deposits containing the unique amyloidogenic peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, also known as amylin). The fibril precursors of IAPP contribute to its cytotoxicity on pancreatic β cells and be important in causing β-cell dysfunction in T2DM. However, the development of effective this study, inhibitors against the toxicity of IAPP has been extremely challenging. We have found that pre-incubation with geniposide dose-dependently prevented human IAPP (hIAPP)-induced cell damage in INS-1E cells, and bacitracin, an inhibitor of IDE activity, prevented significantly the protective effects of geniposide in pancreatic INS-1E cells significantly. Geniposide induced the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a key degrading protein of hIAPP, but had no significant effect on the aggregation of hIAPP. These findings indicate that geniposide prevents hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity in INS-1E cells involving upregulation of IDE expression.

  15. Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30 μg/mL, which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7 were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE. Furthermore, several genes implicated in cell cycle progression (CDCA3, CDCA8, CABLES2, CDC25B, CNNM3, and CCNK showed decreased expression in HepG2 cells treated with EMGE. Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%, compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

  16. A comparative pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers of the effect of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine on cyp3a4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Astrid-Helene; Brøsen, Kim; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXCZ) are well-known inducers of drug metabolism via CYP3A4. Indirect interaction studies and clinical experience suggest that CBZ has a stronger potential in this regard than OXCZ. However this has never been subject to a direct comparative study. ...

  17. Overexpression of CYP3A4 in a COLO 205 Colon Cancer Stem Cell Model in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Ulrike [Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology, c/o Balderichgasse 26/13, A-1170 Vienna (Austria); Liedauer, Richard [Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna (Austria); Ausch, Christoph [Department of Surgery, Danube Hospital, A-1220 Vienna (Austria); Thalhammer, Theresia [Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna (Austria); Hamilton, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.hamilton@toc.lbg.ac.at [Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology, c/o Balderichgasse 26/13, A-1170 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-22

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) seem to constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that escape from chemotherapy and cause recurrent disease. Low proliferation rates, protection in a stem cell niche and overexpression of drug resistance proteins are considered to confer chemoresistance. We established an in vitro colon CSC-like model using the COLO 205 cell line, which revealed transiently increased expression of CD133 when transferred to serum-free stem cell culture medium. Assessment of global gene expression of COLO 205 cells under these conditions identified a set of upregulated genes including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), as confirmed by real-time qPCR. ALDH1A1 is a CSC marker for certain tumor entities and confers resistance to cyclophosphamide. CYP3A4 is expressed in liver and colon and its overexpression seems particularly relevant in colon cancer, since it inactivates irinotecan and other xenobiotics, such as taxols and vinca alkaloids. In conclusion, this COLO 205 model provides evidence for CD133 induction concomitant with overexpression of CYP3A4, which, together with ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2) and others, may have a role in chemoresistant colon CSCs and a negative impact on disease-free survival in colon cancer patients.

  18. QSAR development and profiling of 72,524 REACH substances for PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard Rosenberg, Sine; Xia, M.; Huang, R.

    2017-01-01

    binding domain, full-length human and rat PXR activation and human CYP3A4 induction, respectively. Rigorous cross- and blinded external validations demonstrated four robust and highly predictive models with balanced accuracies ranging from 75.4% to 92.7%. The models were applied to screen 72...

  19. Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Antifungal Azoles Binding to CYP3A4 with Kinetic Resolution of Multiple Binding Orientations†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Josh T.; Hill, John J.; Swank, Jennifer; Isoherranen, Nina; Kunze, Kent L.; Atkins, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The heme-containing Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a major enzymatic determinant of drug clearance and drug-drug interactions. The CYP3A4 isoform is inhibited by antifungal imidazoles or triazoles, which form low spin heme iron complexes via formation of a nitrogen-ferric iron coordinate bond. However, CYP3A4 also slowly oxidizes the antifungal itraconazole (ITZ) at a site that is ∼ 25 Å from the triazole nitrogens, suggesting that large antifungal azoles can adopt multiple orientations within the CYP3A4 active site. Here, we report a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis with kinetic resolution of two binding modes of ITZ, and the related drug ketoconazole (KTZ). SPR reveals a very slow off-rate for one binding orientation. Multiphasic binding kinetics are observed and one of the two binding components resolved by curve-fitting exhibits ‘equilibrium overshoot’. Pre-loading of CYP3A4 with the heme ligand imidazole abolishes this component of the antifungal azole binding trajectories, and it eliminates the conspicuously slow off-rate. The fractional populations of CYP3A4 complexes corresponding to different drug orientations can be manipulated by altering the duration of the pulse of drug exposure. UV-vis difference absorbance titrations yield low spin spectra and KD values that are consistent with the high affinity complex resolved by SPR. These results demonstrate that ITZ and KTZ bind in multiple orientations, including a catalytically productive mode and a slowly-dissociating inhibitory mode. Most importantly, they provide the first example of an SPR-based method for the kinetic characterization of drug binding to any human CYP, including mechanistic insight not available from other methods. PMID:16700545

  20. Dual-color fluorescence imaging to monitor CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 and HepaRG cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Tsuji

    Full Text Available Human adult hepatocytes expressing CYP3A4, a major cytochrome P450 enzyme, are required for cell-based assays to evaluate the potential risk of drug-drug interactions caused by transcriptional induction of P450 enzymes in early-phase drug discovery and development. However, CYP3A7 is preferentially expressed in premature hepatoblasts and major hepatic carcinoma cell lines. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepaRG possesses a high self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into hepatic cells similar to human adult hepatocytes in vitro. Transgenic HepaRG cells, in which the expression of fluorescent reporters is regulated by 35 kb regulatory elements of CYP3A4, have a distinct advantage over human hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion, which are unstable in culture. Thus, we created transgenic HepaRG and HepG2 cells by replacing the protein-coding regions of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and DsRed reporters, respectively, in a bacterial artificial chromosome vector that included whole regulatory elements. The intensity of DsRed fluorescence was initially high during the proliferation of transgenic HepaRG cells. However, most EGFP-positive cells were derived from those in which DsRed fluorescence was extinguished. Comparative analyses in these transgenic clones showed that changes in the total fluorescence intensity of EGFP reflected fold changes in the mRNA level of endogenous CYP3A4. Moreover, CYP3A4 induction was monitored by the increase in EGFP fluorescence. Thus, this assay provides a real-time evaluation system for quality assurance of hepatic differentiation into CYP3A4-expressing cells, unfavourable CYP3A4 induction, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-mediated enrichment of CYP3A4-expressing hepatocytes based on the total fluorescence intensities of fluorescent reporters, without the need for many time-consuming steps.

  1. Copper-induced overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant system enzymes and metallothioneins involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in the marine alga Ulva compressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Daniel; Valdés, Natalia; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A; Zúñiga, Antonio; Navarrete, Axel; Meneses, Claudio; Moenne, Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the green macroalga Ulva compressa cultivated with 10μM copper for 24h. Nucleotide sequences encoding antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (ap), dehydroascorbate reductase (dhar) and glutathione reductase (gr), enzymes involved in ascorbate (ASC) synthesis l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-gdh) and l-galactono lactone dehydrogenase (l-gldh), in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-gcl) and glutathione synthase (gs), and metal-chelating proteins metallothioneins (mt) were identified. Amino acid sequences encoded by transcripts identified in U. compressa corresponding to antioxidant system enzymes showed homology mainly to plant and green alga enzymes but those corresponding to MTs displayed homology to animal and plant MTs. Level of transcripts encoding the latter proteins were quantified in the alga cultivated with 10μM copper for 0-12 days. Transcripts encoding enzymes of the antioxidant system increased with maximal levels at day 7, 9 or 12, and for MTs at day 3, 7 or 12. In addition, the involvement of calmodulins (CaMs), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) in the increase of the level of the latter transcripts was analyzed using inhibitors. Transcript levels decreased with inhibitors of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2. Thus, copper induces overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, enzymes involved in ASC and GSH syntheses and MTs. The increase in transcript levels may involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in U. compressa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 三氯乙烯对CYP3A4基因缺陷肝细胞的毒性作用%Toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖日炎; 刘松

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect.Methods The normal human liver cells (L02 cells) and liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect were exposed to trichloroethylene at different doses (0.0,0.4,0.8,1.6,3.2,and 6.4 mmol/L).CCK8 assay and RT-qPCR were used to measure cell viability and changes in the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes.Results After being exposed to trichloroethylene at doses of 1.6,3.2,and 6.4 mmol/L,the liver cells with CYP3A 4 gene defect showed significantly higher cell viability than L02 cells (0.91±0.06/0.89±0.05/0.85±0.07 vs 0.80±0.04/0.73 ±0.06/0.67 ±0.07,P<0.05).The L02 cells in the 0.8 ~3.2 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups showed significant increases in the expression of the apoptosis genes caspase-3,caspase-8,and caspase-9 (P<0.05),as well as the oncogenes c-myc,c-fos,and k-ras (P<0.05).Compared with the L02 cells,the cells with CYP3A4 gene defect showed significant reductions in the expression of the apoptosis genes caspase-3,caspase-8,and caspase-9 and the oncogenes c-myc,c-fos,and k-ras (P<0.05).Conclusion Trichloroethylene exposure has a less effect on the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes in liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect than in normal human liver cells,suggesting that CYP3A4 gene defect reduces the inductive effect of trichloroethylene on apoptosis genes and oncogenes.%目的 探讨三氯乙烯对CYP3A4基因缺陷肝细胞的毒性作用.方法 用不同剂量(0.0、0.4、0.8、1.6、3.2、6.4 mmol/L)三氯乙烯分别染毒正常人肝细胞(L02细胞)和CYP3A4基因缺陷肝细胞,应用CCK8实验和实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(RT-qPCR)观察细胞活力及凋亡基因与癌基因的表达.结果 1.6~6.4 mmol/L三氯乙烯染毒后,CYP3A4基因缺陷肝细胞的细胞活力分别为0.91±0.06、0.89±0.05、0.85±0.07,明显高于L02细胞(0.80 ±0.04、0.73 ±0.06、0.67±0.07),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).0.8~3

  3. Molecular and enzymatic characterization of two enzymes BmPCD and BmDHPR involving in the regeneration pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin from the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian; Gong, Meixia; Shu, Rui; Li, Xin; Gao, Junshan; Meng, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthase so that BH4 plays a key role in many biological processes. BH4 deficiency is associated with numerous metabolic syndromes and neuropsychological disorders. BH4 concentration in mammals is maintained through a de novo synthesis pathway and a regeneration pathway. Previous studies showed that the de novo pathway of BH4 is similar between insects and mammals. However, knowledge about the regeneration pathway of BH4 (RPB) is very limited in insects. Several mutants in the silkworm Bombyx mori have been approved to be associated with BH4 deficiency, which are good models to research on the RPB in insects. In this study, homologous genes encoding two enzymes, pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) and dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) involving in RPB have been cloned and identified from B. mori. Enzymatic activity of DHPR was found in the fat body of wild type silkworm larvae. Together with the transcription profiles, it was indicated that BmPcd and BmDhpr might normally act in the RPB of B. mori and the expression of BmDhpr was activated in the brain and sexual glands while BmPcd was expressed in a wider special pattern when the de novo pathway of BH4 was lacked in lemon. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant BmDHPR exhibited high enzymatic activity and more suitable parameters to the coenzyme of NADH in vitro. The results in this report give new information about the RPB in B. mori and help in better understanding insect BH4 biosynthetic networks.

  4. ALDH16A1 is a novel non-catalytic enzyme that may be involved in the etiology of gout via protein–protein interactions with HPRT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliou, Vasilis; Sandoval, Monica; Backos, Donald S.; Jackson, Brian C.; Chen, Ying; Reigan, Philip; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.; Koppaka, Vindhya; Thompson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Gout, a common form of inflammatory arthritis, is strongly associated with elevated uric acid concentrations in the blood (hyperuricemia). A recent study in Icelanders identified a rare missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ALDH16A1 gene, ALDH16A1*2, to be associated with gout and serum uric acid levels. ALDH16A1 is a novel and rather unique member of the ALDH superfamily in relation to its gene and protein structures. ALDH16 genes are present in fish, amphibians, protista, bacteria but absent from archaea, fungi and plants. In most mammalian species, two ALDH16A1 spliced variants (ALDH16A1, long form and ALDH16A1_v2, short form) have been identified and both are expressed in HepG-2, HK-2 and HK-293 human cell lines. The ALDH16 proteins contain two ALDH domains (as opposed to one in the other members of the superfamily), four transmembrane and one coiled-coil domains. The active site of ALDH16 proteins from bacterial, frog and lower animals contain the catalytically important cysteine residue (Cys-302); this residue is absent from the mammalian and fish orthologs. Molecular modeling predicts that both the short and long forms of human ALDH16A1 protein would lack catalytic activity but may interact with the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT1) protein, a key enzyme involved in uric acid metabolism and gout. Interestingly, such protein-protein interactions with HPRT1 are predicted to be impaired for the long or short forms of ALDH16A1*2. These results lead to the intriguing possibility that association between ALDH16A1 and HPRT1 may be required for optimal HPRT activity with disruption of this interaction possibly contributing to the hyperuricemia seen in ALDH16A1*2 carriers. PMID:23348497

  5. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme involved in resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, through a tomato mottle virus VIGS assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Janeth Esparza-Araiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI transcript in resistant S. peruvianum compared to susceptible S. lycopersicum following infection by Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of the gene from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS vector based on the geminivirus Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV. Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, which resulted in leaf bleaching. The ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in approx. 61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. VIGS of SCEI in S. peruvianum resulted in unilateral wilting (15 dpi and subsequent death (20 dpi of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. SCEI-silenced plants also showed higher Cmm colonization with an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of WRKY transcription factors, which may lead to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  6. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 Conjugating Enzyme Involved in Resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis Subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, Through a Tomato Mottle Virus VIGS Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Araiza, Mayra J; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Lara-Ávila, José P; Goodwin, Paul H; Isordia-Jasso, María I; Castillo-Collazo, Rosalba; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Alpuche-Solís, Ángel G

    2015-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI) transcript in S. peruvianum compared to S. lycopersicum following infection with Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of SCEI from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) vector based on the geminivirus, Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV). Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, resulting in leaf bleaching. VIGS with the ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in ~61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The SCEI-silenced plants showed unilateral wilting (15 dpi) and subsequent death (20 dpi) of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas the empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. The SCEI-silenced plants showed higher Cmm colonization and an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of transcription factors, leading to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  7. 荜澄茄中具CYP3A4强抑制作用的成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Usia; T; 曹玫(摘); 王宗伟(校)

    2005-01-01

    作者从产于印尼的荜澄茄Piper cubeba L.水提取物的乙酸乙酯溶部位中分离出2个新的木脂素、2个新的倍半萜内酯及16个已知化合物,研究了它们对CYP3A4的抑制作用。

  8. The CYP3A4 inhibitor intraconazole does not affect the pharmacokinetics of a new calcium-sensitizing drug levosimendan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, S; Honkanen, T; Lehtonen, L; Neuvonen, P J

    1998-08-01

    Itraconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 isoenzyme and it can cause clinically significant interactions with some other drugs. Levosimendan is a new calcium-sensitizing drug intended for congestive heart failure. We aimed to study possible interactions of itraconazole with levosimendan in healthy volunteers. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included into a randomized, double-blind, two-phase crossover study. A wash-out period of 4 weeks was held between the phases. The subjects were given orally itraconazole 200 mg or placebo daily for 5 days. On the fifth day, they received a single oral dose of 2 mg of levosimendan. Levosimendan plasma concentrations were determined up to 12 hours and ECG, heart rate, and blood pressure followed-up to 8 hours after intake of levosimendan. Itraconazole had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetic parameters of levosimendan. Neither were there any differences in heart rate, PQ-, QTc- or QRS intervals between the placebo and itraconazole phases. The systolic blood pressure was decreased slightly more (p < 0.05) during the itraconazole phase than during the placebo phase. In conclusion, because the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole had no significant pharmacokinetic interaction with levosimendan, interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitor, and oral levosimendan are unlikely.

  9. Screening of Phenolic Compounds Reveals Inhibitory Activity of Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Against Three Enzymes Involved in the Regulation of Blood Glucose Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roškar, Irena; Štrukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    In this work we have focused on the inhibition of three different enzymes with a role in postprandial glucose management: α-amylase, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4. The assortment of 29 monomeric phenolic compounds was first screened at a single concentration. Next, the IC50 values of tested compounds were evaluated for compounds that considerably inhibited any of the enzymes. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a phenolic compound abundant in Creosote bush Larrea tridentata, possessed inhibitory activity for all tested enzymes. This in vitro mechanism of action supports traditional use of Creosote bush in diabetes treatment.

  10. Effects of the moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, fluconazole, on the pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bimal; Dickins, Maurice; Alvey, Christine; Jumadilova, Zhanna; Li, Xiaoxi; Duczynski, Gregory; Gandelman, Kuan

    2011-08-01

    Available data suggest that fesoterodine dosage should not exceed 4 mg once daily when taken concomitantly with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole. Currently, no information is available on whether dose adjustment is necessary when fesoterodine is administered with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. This study shows that adjustment of fesoterodine dose is not warranted when co-administered with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. To assess the effects of fluconazole, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety/tolerability of fesoterodine. In this open-label, randomized, two-way crossover study, 28 healthy subjects (18-55 years) received single doses of fesoterodine 8 mg alone or with fluconazole 200 mg. PK endpoints, including the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0,∞)), maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ), time to C(max) (t(max) ), and half-life (t(1/2) ), were assessed for 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT), the active moiety of fesoterodine. Concomitant administration of fesoterodine with fluconazole increased AUC(0,∞) and C(max) of 5-HMT by approximately 27% and 19%, respectively, with corresponding 90% confidence intervals of (18%, 36%) and (11%, 28%). There was no apparent effect of fluconazole on 5-HMT t(max) or t(½) . Fesoterodine was generally well tolerated regardless of fluconazole co-administration, with no reports of death, serious adverse events (AEs) or severe AEs. Following co-administration of fesoterodine with fluconazole, 13 subjects (48%) experienced a total of 40 AEs; following administration of fesoterodine alone, six subjects (22%) experienced a total of 19 AEs. The majority of AEs were of mild intensity. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory or physical examination parameters. Fesoterodine 8 mg single dose was well tolerated when administered alone or with fluconazole. Based on the observed increase in 5-HMT exposures being within the inherent

  11. Substrate-dependent modulation of CYP3A4 catalytic activity: analysis of 27 test compounds with four fluorometric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresser, D M; Blanchard, A P; Turner, S D; Erve, J C; Dandeneau, A A; Miller, V P; Crespi, C L

    2000-12-01

    Inhibition of cytochrome P450 catalytic activity is a principal mechanism for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Rapid, in vitro testing for cytochrome P450 inhibition potential is part of the current paradigm for identifying drug candidates likely to give such interactions. We have explored the extent that qualitative and quantitative inhibition parameters are dependent on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 probe substrate. Inhibition potential (e.g., IC(50) values from 8-point inhibition curves) or activation potential for most compounds varied dramatically depending on the fluorometric probe substrates for CYP3A4 [benzyloxyresorufin (BzRes), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC), 7-benzyloxyquinoline (BQ), and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF)]. For 21 compounds that were primarily inhibitors, the range of IC(50) values for the four substrates varied from 2.1- to 195-fold with an average of 29-fold. While the rank order of sensitivity among the fluorometric substrates varied among the individual inhibitors, on average, BFC dealkylation was the most sensitive to inhibition, while BQ dealkylation was least sensitive. Partial inhibition was observed with BzRes and BQ but not for BFC and DBF. BzRes was more prone to activation, whereas dramatic changes in IC(50) values were observed when the BQ concentration was below the S(50). Three different correlation analyses indicated that IC(50) values with BFC, BQ, and DBF correlated well with each other, whereas the response with BzRes correlated more weakly with the other substrates. One of these correlation analyses was extended to the percent inhibition of 10 microM inhibitor with the standard CYP3A4 probe substrates testosterone, midazolam, and nifedipine. In this analysis the responses with BQ, BFC and DBF correlated well with testosterone and midazolam but more poorly with nifedipine. In the aggregate, BFC and DBF appear more suitable as an initial screen for CYP3A4 inhibition. However, the substrate-dependent effects

  12. CYP3A4*1G基因多态性对病人芬太尼镇痛效应的影响%Effects of CYP3A4* IG genetic polymorphism on analgesia with fentanyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 常琰子; 阚全程; 张莉蓉; 路辉; 王中玉; 储勤军; 李治松

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨CYP3A4*IG基因多态性对病人芬太尼镇痛效应的影响.方法 择期全麻下子宫肌瘤剔除术或子宫全切手术病人139例,河南籍,汉族,年龄20~50岁,ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级.采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性技术,进行CYP3A4*1G多态性位点的检测,根据基因型将病人分成野生型纯合子组、突变型杂合子组和突变型纯合子组.病人清醒后行视觉模拟评分(VAS),当VAS超过3分时,则间断静脉注射芬太尼20 μg,直至VAS≤3分时开始病人自控静脉镇痛,维持VAS不超过4分,记录病人自控静脉镇痛24 h内芬太尼的用量.结果 与突变型纯合子组比较,突变型杂合子组和野生型纯合子组病人自控静脉镇痛24 h内芬太尼用量增多(P0.05).结论 CYP3A4*1G基因多态性是引起芬太尼药效学个体差异的遗传因素之一.%Objective To investigate the effects of CYP3A4* IG genetic polymorphism on analgesia with fentanyl. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients, aged 20-50 yr, Han nationality, Henan province, scheduled for elective myomectomy or abdominal total hysterectomy under general anesthesia, were enrolled in this study. The polymorphic sites of the CYP3A4* 1G allele were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The patients were assigned to one of 3 groups according to their genotypes: wild homozygote group (w/w), mutation heterozygote group (m/w) and mutation homozygote group (m/m). The patients' pain was assessed with visual analog scale (VAS) after consciousness was regained. If VAS score > 3, the patients were given fantanyl 20 μg every 5 min until VAS score ≤ 3, and PCIA with fentanyl was then started. The background infusion rate of fentanyl 1.0 mg and droperidol 5 mg in 100 ml normal saline was 0.5 ml/h. The PCIA pump was programmed to allow a 2 ml bolus of fentanyl solution with a 5 min lockout interval, 7 time successful delivery per hour and

  13. Identification of the Metabolic Enzyme Involved Morusin Metabolism and Characterization of Its Metabolites by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbao Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morusin, the important active component of a traditional Chinese medicine, Morus alba L., has been shown to exhibit many vital pharmacological activities. In this study, six recombinant CYP450 supersomes and liver microsomes were used to perform metabolic studies. Chemical inhibition studies and screening assays with recombinant human cytochrome P450s were also used to characterize the CYP450 isoforms involved in morusin metabolism. The morusin metabolites identified varied greatly among different species. Eight metabolites of morusin were detected in the liver microsomes from pigs (PLMs, rats (RLMs, and monkeys (MLMs by LC-MS/MS and six metabolites were detected in the liver microsomes from humans (HLMs, rabbits (RAMs, and dogs (DLMs. Four metabolites (M1, M2, M5, and M7 were found in all species and hydroxylation was the major metabolic transformation. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 contributed differently to the metabolism of morusin. Compared to other CYP450 isoforms, CYP3A4 played the most significant role in the metabolism of morusin in human liver microsomes. These results are significant to better understand the metabolic behaviors of morusin among various species.

  14. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in oxime production in glucosinolate biosynthesis as demonstrated by an in vitro microsomal enzyme system isolated from jasmonic acid-induced seedlings of Sinapis alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Lykkesfeldt, J; Olsen, C E; Halkier, B A

    1995-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme system for the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been established by the combined use of an improved isolation medium and jasmonic acid-induced etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. An 8-fold induction of de novo biosynthesis of the L-tyrosine-derived p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was obtained in etiolated S. alba seedlings upon treatment with jasmonic acid. Formation of inhibitory glucosinolate degradation products upon tissue homogenization was prevented by inactivation of myrosinase by addition of 100 mM ascorbic acid to the isolation buffer. The biosynthetically active microsomal enzyme system converted L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and the production of oxime was strictly dependent on NADPH. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme system were 346 microM and 538 pmol per mg of protein per h, respectively. The nature of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been subject of much speculation. In the present paper, we demonstrate the involvement of cytochrome P450 by photoreversible inhibition by carbon monoxide. The inhibitory effect of numerous cytochrome P450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P450. This provides experimental documentation of similarity between the enzymes converting amino acids into the corresponding oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8618930

  15. Identification of the heme-modified peptides from cumene hydroperoxide-inactivated cytochrome P450 3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, K; Bornheim, L M; Falick, A M; Maltby, D; Yin, H; Correia, M A

    1998-12-15

    Cumene hydroperoxide-mediated (CuOOH-mediated) inactivation of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) results in destruction of their prosthetic heme to reactive fragments that irreversibly bind to the protein. We have attempted to characterize this process structurally, using purified, 14C-heme labeled, recombinant human liver P450 3A4 as the target of CuOOH-mediated inactivation, and a battery of protein characterization approaches [chemical (CNBr) and proteolytic (lysylendopeptidase-C) digestion, HPLC-peptide mapping, microEdman sequencing, and mass spectrometric analyses]. The heme-peptide adducts isolated after CNBr/lysylendopeptidase-C digestion of the CuOOH-inactivated P450 3A4 pertain to two distinct P450 3A4 active site domains. One of the peptides isolated corresponds to the proximal helix L/Cys-region peptide 429-450 domain and the others to the K-region (peptide 359-386 domain). Although the precise residue(s) targeted remain to be identified, we have narrowed down the region of attack to within a 17 amino acid peptide (429-445) stretch of the 55-amino acid proximal helix L/Cys domain. Furthermore, although the exact structures of the heme-modifying fragments and the nature of the adduction remain to be established conclusively, the incremental masses of approximately 302 and 314 Da detected by electrospray mass spectrometric analyses of the heme-modified peptides are consistent with a dipyrrolic heme fragment comprised of either pyrrole ring A-D or B-C, a known soluble product of peroxidative heme degradation, as a modifying species.

  16. IC50-based approaches as an alternative method for assessment of time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Howard J; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2010-05-01

    The predictive utility of two in vitro methods (empirical IC(50)-based and mechanistic k(inact)/K(I)) for the assessment of time-dependent cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition has been compared. IC(50) values were determined at multiple pre-incubation time points over 30 min for five CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibitors (verapamil, diltiazem, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin). The ability of IC(50) data obtained following pre-incubation to predict k(inact)/K(I) parameters was investigated and its utility was assessed relative to the conventional k(inact)/K(I) model using 50 reported clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Models with either hepatic or hepatic with intestinal components were explored. For low/medium potency time-dependent inhibitors, 81% of the predicted k(inact)/K(I(unbound)) from IC(50) data were within an order of magnitude of the actual values, in contrast to 50% of potent inhibitors. An underprediction trend and > 50% of false-negatives were observed when IC(50) data were used in the DDI hepatic prediction model; incorporation of the intestine improved the prediction accuracy. On the contrary, 86% of the DDI studies were predicted within twofold using k(inact)/K(I) mechanistic approach and the combined hepatic and intestinal model. Use of the empirical IC(50) approach as an alternative to the mechanistic k(inact)/K(I) model for in vivo DDI prediction is limited and is best restricted to preliminary investigations.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis of maize with different endosperm type and characterization of the starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-García, Erika; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Gómez-Montiel, Noel Orlando; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2013-08-30

    The characterization of starch maize with different endosperm type and the proteomic analysis of its biosynthetic enzymes at 20 and 50 days after pollination (DAP) was carried out. There were differences between both endosperm types at 20 DAP, mainly in starch accumulation, amylose content, granule size and crystallinity percentage, whereas at 50 DAP the differences found were not relevant in the case of starch content, granule size, chain length distribution and thermal properties. SSSI, SBEIIb and GBSSI enzymes were identified; however, SBEIIb was only identified in two samples: floury endosperm at 20 DAP and vitreous at 50 DAP. Starch did not show differences in its morphological or structural characteristics in either endosperm on reaching maturity. Starch biosynthetic enzymes identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight did not show a relationship to starch structure. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Isolation and analysis of a gene encoding alpha-glucuronidase, an enzyme with a novel primary structure involved in the breakdown of xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruile, P; Winterhalter, C; Liebl, W

    1997-01-01

    This is the first report describing the analysis of a gene encoding an alpha-glucuronidase, an enzyme essential for the complete breakdown of substituted xylans. A DNA fragment that carries the gene for alpha-glucuronidase was isolated from chromosomal DNA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8. The alpha-glucuronidase gene (aguA) was identified and characterized with the aid of nucleotide sequence analysis, deletion experiments and expression studies in Escherichia coli, and the start of the coding region was defined by amino-terminal sequencing of the purified recombinant enzyme. The aguA gene encodes a 674-amino-acid, largely hydrophilic polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 78593 Da. The alpha-glucuronidase of T. maritima has a novel primary structure with no significant similarity to any other known amino acid sequence. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration analysis at low salt concentrations revealed a high apparent molecular mass (> 630 kDa) for the recombinant enzyme, but the oligomeric structure changed upon variation of the ionic strength or the pH, yielding hexameric and/or dimeric forms which were also enzymatically active. The enzyme hydrolysed 2-O-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-D-xylobiose (MeGlcAX2) to xylobiose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. The K(m) for MeGlcAX2 was 0.95 mM. The pH optimum was 6.3. Maximum activity was measured at 85 degrees C, about 25 degrees C or more above the values reported for all other alpha-glucuronidases known to date. When incubated at 55-75 degrees C, the enzyme suffered partial inactivation, but thereafter the residual activity remained nearly constant for several days.

  19. Degradation of granular starch by the bacterium Microbacterium aurum B8.A involves a novel modular α-amylase enzyme system with FNIII and CBM25 domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Vincent; Eeuwema, Wieger; Sarian, Fean D; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Microbacterium aurum strain B8.A, originally isolated from a potato plant waste water facility, is able to degrade different types of starch granules. Here we report the characterization of an unusually large, multi-domain M. aurum B8.A α-amylase enzyme (MaAmyA). MaAmyA is a 1417 amino

  20. Optimization of a novel series of N-phenylindoline-5-sulfonamide-based acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 inhibitors: Mitigation of CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition and phototoxic liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenjiro; Takahagi, Hiroki; Kubo, Osamu; Hidaka, Kousuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Nakakariya, Masanori; Amano, Nobuyuki; Adachi, Ryutaro; Maki, Toshiyuki; Take, Kazumi; Takekawa, Shiro; Kitazaki, Tomoyuki; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) has emerged as a potential peripheral target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. We previously identified a novel series of N-phenylindoline-5-sulfonamide derivatives exemplified by 2 as potent and orally bioavailable MGAT2 inhibitors. Despite its attractive potency, further assessment revealed that this compound exhibited time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). To remove the undesirable CYP3A4 TDI activity, structural modification was focused on the 2,4-difluoroaniline moiety on the basis of the assumption that this moiety would be involved in mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 via oxidative metabolism. This led to the finding that the introduction of 4-chloro-2,6-difluoroaniline significantly improved CYP3A4 TDI risk. Further optimization resulted in the discovery of N-(4-chloro-2,6-difluorophenyl)-1-{5-[1-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-7-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide (27c) with potent MGAT2 inhibitory activity (IC50=7.8 nM) and excellent ADME-Tox profiles including metabolic stability, oral bioavailability, and CYP3A4 TDI. In a mouse oral fat tolerance test, compound 27c effectively and dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration at doses of 1 and 3mg/kg. We also discuss mitigation of the phototoxic liability of biaryl derivatives on the basis of the HOMO-LUMO gap hypothesis during the course of optimization efforts.

  1. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Dun Xie

    Full Text Available Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT, and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2 of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided.

  2. Crystal Structure and Mechanism of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase, a Heme Enzyme Involved in Tryptophan Catabolism and in Quinolinate Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,Y.; Kang, S.; Mukherjee, T.; Bale, S.; Crane, B.; Begley, T.; Ealick, S.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) from Ralstonia metallidurans was determined at 2.4 {angstrom}. TDO catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of L-tryptophan to N-formyl kynurenine, which is the initial step in tryptophan catabolism. TDO is a heme-containing enzyme and is highly specific for its substrate L-tryptophan. The structure is a tetramer with a heme cofactor bound at each active site. The monomeric fold, as well as the heme binding site, is similar to that of the large domain of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction except with a broader substrate tolerance. Modeling of the putative (S)-tryptophan hydroperoxide intermediate into the active site, as well as substrate analogue and mutagenesis studies, are consistent with a Criegee mechanism for the reaction.

  3. Completely enzymic synthesis of the mucin-type sialyl Lewis x epitope, involved in the interaction between PSGL-1 and P-selectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Zeng, S.; Gutiérrez Gallego, R.; Dinter, A.; Malissard, M.; Kamerling, J.P.; Berger, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    Sialyl Lewis x (sLex) is an established selectin ligand occurring on N- and O-linked glycans. Using a completely enzymic approach starting from p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide (GalNAc(alpha1-pNp as core substrate, the sLex-oligosaccharide Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc

  4. Completely enzymic synthesis of the mucin-type sialyl Lewis x epitope, involved in the interaction between PSGL-1 and P-selectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Zeng, S.; Gutiérrez Gallego, R.; Dinter, A.; Malissard, M.; Kamerling, J.P.; Berger, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    Sialyl Lewis x (sLex) is an established selectin ligand occurring on N- and O-linked glycans. Using a completely enzymic approach starting from p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide (GalNAc(alpha1-pNp as core substrate, the sLex-oligosaccharide Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]Glc

  5. Functional analysis of the nicotinate mononucleotide:5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase (CobT) enzyme, involved in the late steps of coenzyme B12 biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claas, Kathy R; Parrish, J R; Maggio-Hall, L A; Escalante-Semerena, J C

    2010-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica, the CobT enzyme activates the lower ligand base during the assembly of the nucleotide loop of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and other cobamides. Previously, mutational analysis identified a class of alleles (class M) that failed to restore AdoCbl biosynthesis during intragenic complementation studies. To learn why class M cobT mutations were deleterious, we determined the nature of three class M cobT alleles and performed in vivo and in vitro functional analyses guided by available structural data on the wild-type CobT (CobT(WT)) enzyme. We analyzed the effects of the variants CobT(G257D), CobT(G171D), CobT(G320D), and CobT(C160A). The latter was not a class M variant but was of interest because of the potential role of a disulfide bond between residues C160 and C256 in CobT activity. Substitutions G171D, G257D, and G320D had profound negative effects on the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The C160A substitution rendered the enzyme fivefold less efficient than CobT(WT). The CobT(G320D) protein was unstable, and results of structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis suggest that either variants CobT(G257D) and CobT(G171D) have less affinity for 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) or access of DMB to the active site is restricted in these variant proteins. The reported lack of intragenic complementation among class M cobT alleles is caused in some cases by unstable proteins, and in others it may be caused by the formation of dimers between two mutant CobT proteins with residual activity that is so low that the resulting CobT dimer cannot synthesize sufficient product to keep up with even the lowest demand for AdoCbl.

  6. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of the histamine 2 (H2)-receptor antagonist roxatidine acetate by human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Nakayama, M; Numazawa, S; Oguro, T; Honma, S; Iwamura, S; Tsukamoto, K; Yoshida, T

    2001-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (ROX, 2-acetoxy-N-[3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl]acetamide hydrochloride, CAS 78273-80-0), a histamine 2 (H2)-receptor antagonist, has been clinically applied for the treatment of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. There is no report on the identification of the metabolic enzyme of M-1 (2-hydroxy-N-[3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl]acetamide), the pharmacologically active metabolite, in humans. In this study, the Cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450) enzymes which participate in the metabolism of ROX were identified using human liver microsomes and S9 fractions. M-1 was converted to M-4 (3-[m-(1-piperidinyl-methyl)phenoxy]propylamine) by the enzyme reaction with the S9 but not with microsomes. M-4 was further metabolized to M-5 (3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propanol) by microsomes. The metabolism was inhibited by coumarin and anti-CYP2A1 serum. (3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-phenoxy]propionic acid) and M-3 (m-(1-piperidinylmethyl) phenol) formation from M-5 were inhibited by quinidine and anti-CYP2D6 serum. Moreover, M-5 was converted to M-2 and M-3 by cDNA-expressed CYP2D6. In conclusion, this study shows that microsomal enzymes do not participate in the clearance of the active metabolite M-1, CYP2A6 primarily catalyzes M-5 formation from M-4, and CYP2D6 primarily catalyzes M-2 and M-3 formation from M-5 in humans.

  7. Comparison of inhibitory duration of grapefruit juice on organic anion-transporting polypeptide and cytochrome P450 3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shimako; Uchida, Shinya; Miyakawa, Sachiko; Inui, Naoki; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new type of interaction has been reported in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP). In this study, we aimed to clarify the duration of OATP inhibition by grapefruit juice (GFJ), and to compare it with the duration of GFJ-induced inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. Seven healthy volunteers were enrolled in this open-label, single-sequence study. They were orally administered celiprolol (100 mg) and midazolam (15 µg/kg) with water on the control day. Three days later, they ingested GFJ (200 mL) 3 times a day for 3 d. On day 1, the same drugs were administered with GFJ. On days 3 and 7, the same drugs were administered with water. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were evaluated on each trial day. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0-8) of celiprolol significantly decreased on day 1, and the mean ratios of these values and the corresponding control-day values were 0.18 and 0.25, respectively. The Cmax and AUC0-8 returned to the control levels on days 3 and 7. In contrast, AUC0-8 of midazolam were higher on days 1 and 3 than on the control day (mean ratio, 2.12 and 1.47, respectively). The AUC0-8 returned to the control level on day 7. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that the OATP inhibition caused by GFJ dissipated faster than GFJ-mediated alterations in CYP3A4 activity, which were sustained for at least 48 h.

  8. Benzene Exposure Alters Expression of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Male C3H/He Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a well-known hematotoxic carcinogen that can cause leukemia and a variety of blood disorders. Our previous study indicated that benzene disturbs levels of metabolites in the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO pathway, which is crucial for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic and leukemic cells. The present research aims to investigate the effects of benzene on changes in the expression of key enzymes in the FAO pathway in male C3H/He mice. Results showed that benzene exposure caused reduced peripheral white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC, platelet (Pit counts, and hemoglobin (Hgb concentration. Investigation of the effects of benzene on the expression of FA transport- and β-oxidation-related enzymes showed that expression of proteins Cpt1a, Crat, Acaa2, Aldh1l2, Acadvl, Crot, Echs1, and Hadha was significantly increased. The ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased in mice exposed to benzene. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly increased in the benzene group. Our results indicate that benzene induces increased expression of FA transport and β-oxidation enzymes, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, which may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  9. Degradation of Granular Starch by the Bacterium Microbacterium aurum Strain B8.A Involves a Modular α-Amylase Enzyme System with FNIII and CBM25 Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Vincent; Eeuwema, Wieger; Sarian, Fean D; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-10-01

    The bacterium Microbacterium aurum strain B8.A, originally isolated from a potato plant wastewater facility, is able to degrade different types of starch granules. Here we report the characterization of an unusually large, multidomain M. aurum B8.A α-amylase enzyme (MaAmyA). MaAmyA is a 1,417-amino-acid (aa) protein with a predicted molecular mass of 148 kDa. Sequence analysis of MaAmyA showed that its catalytic core is a family GH13_32 α-amylase with the typical ABC domain structure, followed by a fibronectin (FNIII) domain, two carbohydrate binding modules (CBM25), and another three FNIII domains. Recombinant expression and purification yielded an enzyme with the ability to degrade wheat and potato starch granules by introducing pores. Characterization of various truncated mutants of MaAmyA revealed a direct relationship between the presence of CBM25 domains and the ability of MaAmyA to form pores in starch granules, while the FNIII domains most likely function as stable linkers. At the C terminus, MaAmyA carries a 300-aa domain which is uniquely associated with large multidomain amylases; its function remains to be elucidated. We concluded that M. aurum B8.A employs a multidomain enzyme system to initiate degradation of starch granules via pore formation.

  10. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@yahoo.com.cn; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  11. Pectic enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benen, J.A.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Visser, J.

    2003-01-01

    The pectic enzymes comprise a diverse group of enzymes. They consist of main-chain depolymerases and esterases active on methyl- and acetylesters of galacturonosyl uronic acid residues. The depolymerizing enzymes comprise hydrolases as wel as lyases

  12. Pectic enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benen, J.A.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Visser, J.

    2003-01-01

    The pectic enzymes comprise a diverse group of enzymes. They consist of main-chain depolymerases and esterases active on methyl- and acetylesters of galacturonosyl uronic acid residues. The depolymerizing enzymes comprise hydrolases as wel as lyases

  13. Enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  14. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of polymorphisms in CYP7A1, CYP7B1 AND CYP27A1 enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Vera; Ribeiro, V

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that drug disposition and response are greatly determined by the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, which are polymorphic. Some of these polymorphisms are clinically relevant and presented an ethnic-dependent pattern of distribution. The characterization of the genetic distribution of different populations allows the selection of therapeutic options in accordance with the genetic background, with the objective to avoid adverse reactions and inefficacy of the treatment. In this work, we studied selected genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes in three different ethnic groups - Portugal, Mozambique and Colombia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotyping methods were developed for drug metabolizing enzymes, namely, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) (-203A>C, -346C>T, -496C>T, N233S, G347S), sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) (R164W, A169V, D273N, V400A) and oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7B1) (-116C>G, R324H, 1774C>T) to characterize the allelic distribution of these polymorphisms among three different ethnic/geographic origins. A total of 12 CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and CYP7B1 genetic variants were genotyped in a sample of 92 Portuguese, 151 Mozambican and 91 Colombian subjects. The variants N233S in CYP7A1 and 1774C>T in CYP7B1 were not detected in any population studied. The promoter polymorphisms in CYP7A1 (-203A>C, -346C>T, -496C>T) had high frequency in the three ethnic groups. G347S (CYP7A1), R164W, A169V and V400A (CYP27A1) were present in a low frequency but with a similar distribution in the three ethnic groups. Significant differences were observed for D273N (CYP27A1), -346C>T (CYP7A1), -116C>G and R324H (CYP7B1)Our results demonstrate a high variability of drug metabolizing enzymes between the different populations analyzed, indicating that at least some of these polymorphisms are ethnic specific.

  15. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of polymorphisms in CYP7A1, CYP7B1 AND CYP27A1 enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that drug disposition and response are greatly determined by the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, which are polymorphic. Some of these polymorphisms are clinically relevant and presented an ethnic-dependent pattern of distribution. The characterization of the genetic distribution of different populations allows the selection of therapeutic options in accordance with the genetic background, with the objective to avoid adverse reactions and inefficacy of the treatment. In this work, we studied selected genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes in three different ethnic groups - Portugal, Mozambique and Colombia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP genotyping methods were developed for drug metabolizing enzymes, namely, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 (−203A>C, −346C>T, −496C>T, N233S, G347S, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 (R164W, A169V, D273N, V400A and oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7B1 (−116C>G, R324H, 1774C>T to characterize the allelic distribution of these polymorphisms among three different ethnic/geographic origins. A total of 12 CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and CYP7B1 genetic variants were genotyped in a sample of 92 Portuguese, 151 Mozambican and 91 Colombian subjects. The variants N233S in CYP7A1 and 1774C>T in CYP7B1 were not detected in any population studied. The promoter polymorphisms in CYP7A1 (−203A>C, −346C>T, −496C>T had high frequency in the three ethnic groups. G347S (CYP7A1, R164W, A169V and V400A (CYP27A1 were present in a low frequency but with a similar distribution in the three ethnic groups. Significant differences were observed for D273N (CYP27A1, −346C>T (CYP7A1, −116C>G and R324H (CYP7B1Our results demonstrate a high variability of drug metabolizing enzymes between the different populations analyzed, indicating that at least some of these polymorphisms are ethnic specific.

  16. The CYP3A4*22 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced midazolam and tacrolimus clearance in stable renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, H; Elens, L; de Loor, H; van Schaik, R H; Kuypers, D R J

    2015-04-01

    Tacrolimus, a dual substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has a narrow therapeutic index and is characterized by high between-subject variability in oral bioavailability. This study investigated the effects of the recently described CYP3A4*22 intron 6 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism on in vivo CYP3A4 activity as measured by midazolam (MDZ) clearance and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in two cohorts of renal allograft recipients, taking into account the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype and other determinants of drug disposition. In CYP3A5 non-expressers, the presence of one CYP3A4*22T-allele was associated with a 31.7-33.6% reduction in MDZ apparent oral clearance, reflecting reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity. In addition, at ⩾12 months after transplantation, steady-state clearance of tacrolimus was 36.8% decreased compared with homozygous CYP3A4*22CC-wild type patients, leading to 50% lower dose requirements. Both concurrent observations in stable renal allograft recipients are consistent with a reduced in vivo CYP3A4 activity for the CYP3A4*22T-allele.

  17. Activities of the Enzymes Involved in Starch Synthesis and Starch Accumulation in the Grains of Wheat Cultivars, GC8901 and SN1391

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xia; JIANG Chun-ming; ZHENG Ze-rong; ZHOU Zhu-nan; HE Ming-rong; WANG Zhen-lin

    2005-01-01

    Two wheat cultivars, GC8901 (hard winter wheat) and SN1391 (soft winter wheat), were used for investigating the changes of enzyme activities for sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis and the accumulation character of starch composition.The result showed that activities of sucrose (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), adenosine diphosphorate glucose pyrophrylase (AGPase) and soluble starch syntheses (SSS) of 1391, which have more starch, were significant higher than those of 8901, that with low starch content. But the changing of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) activity was consistent with the amylose content, which indicated that amylose contents in grain were determined by GBSS activity,especially the activity at later grain filling stages. Simulating with Richards equation showed that it was initiating time and accumulation rate, but not accumulation duration that determined the content of starch composition. Furthermore, changing of sucrose transport capacity was consistent with SSS and GBSS activities, starch accumulation rate was accordant to AGPase and SS/SPS ration, not SS, SPS, SSS or GBSS activities. The results suggested that there was no inevitable relation of starch accumulating rate and starch composition contents with the activity of single enzyme such as SS, SPS,SSS or GBSS, but closely related to AGPase activity and SS/SPS ratio, and it was SPS and AGPase that play a vital role in the biosynthetic pathway. Later polymerization reactions catalyzed by SSS and GBSS don't seem to control the rate of starch accumulation, but do affect starch structure.

  18. Allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphic cytochrome P450 genes (CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19) in the Jordanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Al-Motassem; Bulatova, Nailya R; Newman, William; Hakooz, Nancy; Ismail, Said; Qusa, Hisham; Zahran, Farah; Anwar Ababneh, Nidaa; Hasan, Farah; Zaloom, Imad; Khayat, Ghada; Al-Zmili, Rawan; Naffa, Randa; Al-Diab, Ola

    2012-10-01

    Drug metabolizing enzymes participate in the neutralizing of xenobiotics and biotransformation of drugs. Human cytochrome P450, particularly CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, play an important role in drug metabolism. The genes encoding the CYP enzymes are polymorphic, and extensive data have shown that certain alleles confer reduced enzymatic function. The goal of this study was to determine the frequencies of important allelic variants of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Jordanian population and compare them with the frequency in other ethnic groups. Genotyping of CYP1A1(m1 and m2), CYP2C9 (2 and 3), CYP2C19 (2 and 3), CYP3A4 5, CYP3A5 (3 and 6), was carried out on Jordanian subjects. Different variants allele were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). CYP1A1 allele frequencies in 290 subjects were 0.764 for CYP1A1 1, 0.165 for CYP1A1 2A and 0.071 for CYP1A1 2C. CYP2C9 allele frequencies in 263 subjects were 0.797 for CYP2C9 1, 0.135 for CYP2C9 2 and 0.068 for CYP2C9 3. For CYP2C19, the frequencies of the wild type (CYP2C19 1) and the nonfunctional (2 and 3) alleles were 0.877, 0.123 and 0, respectively. Five subjects (3.16 %) were homozygous for 2/2. Regarding CYP3A4 1B, only 12 subjects out of 173 subjects (6.9 %) were heterozygote with none were mutant for this polymorphism. With respect to CYP3A5, 229 were analyzed, frequencies of CYP3A5 1, 3 and 6 were 0.071, 0.925 and 0.0022, respectively. Comparing our data with that obtained in several Caucasian, African-American and Asian populations, Jordanians are most similar to Caucasians with regard to allelic frequencies of the tested variants of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.

  19. Involvement of promoter methylation in the regulation of Pregnane X receptor in colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Koki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnane X receptor (PXR is a key transcription factor that regulates drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4, and plays important roles in intestinal first-pass metabolism. Although there is a large inter-individual heterogeneity with intestinal CYP3A4 expression and activity, the mechanism driving these differences is not sufficiently explained by genetic variability of PXR or CYP3A4. We examined whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of PXR/CYP3A4 pathways in colon cancer cells. Methods mRNA levels of PXR, CYP3A4 and vitamin D receptor (VDR were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR on 6 colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT29, HCT116, SW48, LS180, and LoVo. DNA methylation status was also examined by bisulfite sequencing of the 6 cell lines and 18 colorectal cancer tissue samples. DNA methylation was reversed by the treatment of these cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC. Results The 6 colon cancer cell lines were classified into two groups (high or low expression cells based on the basal level of PXR/CYP3A4 mRNA. DNA methylation of the CpG-rich sequence of the PXR promoter was more densely detected in the low expression cells (Caco-2, HT29, HCT116, and SW48 than in the high expression cells (LS180 and LoVo. This methylation was reversed by treatment with 5-aza-dC, in association with re-expression of PXR and CYP3A4 mRNA, but not VDR mRNA. Therefore, PXR transcription was silenced by promoter methylation in the low expression cells, which most likely led to downregulation of CYP3A4 transactivation. Moreover, a lower level of PXR promoter methylation was observed in colorectal cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal mucosa, suggesting upregulation of the PXR/CYP3A4 mRNAs during carcinogenesis. Conclusions PXR promoter methylation is involved in the regulation of intestinal PXR and CYP3A4 mRNA expression and might be associated with the inter-individual variability

  20. Prednisone has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 metabolized drugs - midazolam and odanacatib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, Eugene E; Ballard, Jeanine; Gibson, Christopher R; Kassahun, Kelem; Palamanda, Jairam; Tang, Cuyue; Evers, Raymond; Liu, Chengcheng; Zajic, Stefan; Mahon, Chantal; Mostoller, Kate; Hreniuk, David; Mehta, Anish; Morris, Denise; Wagner, John A; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of prednisone on midazolam and odanacatib pharmacokinetics. In this open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy male subjects, midazolam 2 mg was administered (Day -1) followed by odanacatib 50 mg (Day 1) during Part 1. In Period 2, prednisone 10 mg once daily (qd) was administered on Days 1-28; odanacatib was co-administered on Day 14 and midazolam 2 mg was co-administered on Days 1 and 28. Subjects were administered midazolam 2 mg on Days 42 and 56. Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout the study. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was also built. There were 15 subjects enrolled; mean age was 31 years. The odanacatib AUC(0- ∞) GMR (90% CI) [odanacatib + prednisone (Day 14, Period 2)/odanacatib alone (Day 1, Period 1] was 1.06 (0.96, 1.17). AUC(0-∞) GMR (90%CI) [midazolam + prednisone (Day 28, Period 2)/midazolam alone (Day -1, Period 1] was 1.08 (0.93,1.26). There were no serious AEs or AEs leading to discontinuation. PBPK modeling showed that prednisone does not cause significant effects on the exposure of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates in vivo at therapeutic doses. Co-administration of prednisone 10 mg qd had no effect on pharmacokinetics of either odanacatib 10 mg or midazolam 2 mg.

  1. Altered CYP19A1 and CYP3A4 Activities Due to Mutations A115V, T142A, Q153R and P284L in the Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer S. Udhane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available All cytochromes P450s in the endoplasmic reticulum rely on P450 oxidoreductase (POR for their catalytic activities. Mutations in POR cause metabolic disorders of steroid hormone biosynthesis and affect certain drug metabolizing P450 activities. We studied mutations A115V, T142A, Q153R identified in the flavin mononucleotide (FMN binding domain of POR that interacts with partner proteins and P284L located in the hinge region that is required for flexibility and domain movements in POR. Human wild-type (WT and mutant POR as well as CYP3A4 and CYP19A1 proteins in recombinant form were expressed in bacteria, and purified proteins were reconstituted in liposomes for enzyme kinetic assays. Quality of POR protein was checked by cytochrome c reduction assay as well as flavin content measurements. We found that proteins carrying mutations A115V, T142A located close to the FMN binding site had reduced flavin content compared to WT POR and lost almost all activity to metabolize androstenedione via CYP19A1 and showed reduced CYP3A4 activity. The variant P284L identified from apparently normal subjects also had severe loss of both CYP19A1 and CYP3A4 activities, indicating this to be a potentially disease causing mutation. The mutation Q153R initially identified in a patient with disordered steroidogenesis showed remarkably increased activities of both CYP19A1 and CYP3A4 without any significant change in flavin content, indicating improved protein–protein interactions between POR Q153R and some P450 proteins. These results indicate that effects of mutations on activities of individual cytochromes P450 can be variable and a detailed analysis of each variant with different partner proteins is necessary to accurately determine the genotype-phenotype correlations of POR variants.

  2. Heterologous expression of the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana and the effect of N-terminal modifications of the involved cytochrome P450 enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Andersen-Ranberg, Johan;

    2015-01-01

    in the chloroplast and subsequently oxidized by a cytochrome P450, CYP720B4. RESULTS: We transiently expressed the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and enhanced its productivity by the expression of two rate-limiting steps in the pathway (providing the general precursor of diterpenes). This co...... enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to localize a diterpenoid pathway from spruce fully within the chloroplast of N. benthamiana and a few modifications of the N-terminal sequences of the CYP720B4 can facilitate the expression of plant P450s in the plastids. The coupling of terpene biosynthesis closer......BACKGROUND: Plant terpenoids are known for their diversity, stereochemical complexity, and their commercial interest as pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics. Developing biotechnology approaches for the production of these compounds in heterologous hosts can increase their market...

  3. Heterologous expression of the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana and the effect of N-terminal modifications of the involved cytochrome P450 enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Andersen-Ranberg, Johan

    2015-01-01

    in the chloroplast and subsequently oxidized by a cytochrome P450, CYP720B4. RESULTS: We transiently expressed the isopimaric acid pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and enhanced its productivity by the expression of two rate-limiting steps in the pathway (providing the general precursor of diterpenes). This co...... enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to localize a diterpenoid pathway from spruce fully within the chloroplast of N. benthamiana and a few modifications of the N-terminal sequences of the CYP720B4 can facilitate the expression of plant P450s in the plastids. The coupling of terpene biosynthesis closer......BACKGROUND: Plant terpenoids are known for their diversity, stereochemical complexity, and their commercial interest as pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics. Developing biotechnology approaches for the production of these compounds in heterologous hosts can increase their market...

  4. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  5. Effect of bifendate on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in relation to the CYP3A4*18B genotype in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong ZENG; Yi-jing HE; Fu-yuan HE; Lan FAN; Hong-hao ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the potential drug-drug interactions between bifendate and cyclosporine, a substrate of CYP3A4, in relation to different CYP3A4*18B genotype groups.Methods: Eighteen unrelated healthy subjects (six CYP3A4*1*1 six CYP3A4*1/*18B, and six CYP3A4*18/*18B) were selected for this study. After repeated oral administration of a placebo or bifendate (three times daily for 14 d), the wholeblood level of cyclosporine was measured using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). This study was carried out in a two-phase randomized crossover manner. Results: After the treatment with bifendate, the areas under the curve (AUC0-24 and AUC0-∞decreased significantly by 9.7%+-3.7% (P=0.01) and 19.2%+-16.8% (P=0.001) in CYP3A4*1/*1 subjects, 11.3%+-9.4% (P=0.03) and 10.5%+-9.6% (P=0.043) in CYP3A4*1/*18B subjects, and 40.2%+-14.7% (P=0.02) and 37.5%+-15.8% (P=0.003) in CYP3A4*18B/*18B subjects. Meanwhile, the decreases in the AUC0-24 and AUC0-∞ values in the three groups were significantly different (using one-way analysis of variance, P=0.001 and P=0.001), and the change in the CYP3A4*18B/*18B group was greater than that in the other two groups. The oral clearance of cyclosporine was altered in all the subjects, with substantial increases by 10.2%+-4.4% (P=0.004) in CYP3A4*1/*1 subjects, 14.0%+-12.0% (P=0.048) in CYP3A4*1/*18B subjects, and 32.4%+-21.7% (P=0.013) in CYP3A4*18B/*18B subjects.Conclusion: These results suggest that bifendate decreases the plasma concentration of cyclosporine in a CYP3A4 genotype- dependent manner.

  6. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase depletes tryptophan, activates general control non-derepressible 2 kinase and down-regulates key enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in primary human CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2015-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and exerts immunosuppressive effects on CD4(+) T cells. One mechanism is through the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. Another prerequisite for T-cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells is increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis. The effect of IDO on enzymes involved in FA synthesis was evaluated in primary human cells both in mixed lymphocyte reactions in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor 1-dl-methyl-tryptophan, and in stimulated CD4(+) T cells in the presence or not of the general control non-derepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase activator tryptophanol (TRP). IDO or TRP inhibited cell proliferation. By assessing the level of GCN2 kinase or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 substrates along with a kynurenine free system we showed that IDO exerts its effect mainly through activation of GCN2 kinase. IDO or TRP down-regulated ATP-citrate lyase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, key enzymes involved in FA synthesis. Also, IDO or TRP altered the expression of enzymes that control the availability of carbon atoms for FA synthesis, such as lactate dehydrogenase-A, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutaminase 1 and glutaminase 2, in a way that inhibits FA synthesis. In conclusion, IDO through GCN2 kinase activation inhibits CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and down-regulates key enzymes that directly or indirectly promote FA synthesis, a prerequisite for CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cell lineages. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association of CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with cyclosporine-related liver injury in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hua-wen; Liu, Hui-ming; Li, Yuan-qi; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Ai-rong; Wu, Xiao-chun

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism and cyclosporine-related liver injuries in Chinese renal transplant recipients. We genotyped 339 renal transplant recipients treated with a triple immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine for CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The incidence of liver injury in the study population was 36.9% (125/339). At 1 month after transplantation, the trough concentration of cyclosporine (C0) in the group with CYP3A4*1/*1(GG alleles) was significantly higher than in the group with CYP3A4*18B/*1 8B(AA alleles) (p transplantation, the C0 in the group with CYP3A4*1/*1 and group with CYP3A4*1/*18B was markedly higher than in the group with CYP3A4*18B/*18B (p cyclosporine-related liver injury than those with the AA and GA genotypes. When adjusted for sex, the risk of the CYP3A4*18B genotypes was OR = 4.969 for GG compared to AA (p = 0.030), and OR = 2.634 for GG compared to GA (p = 0.025). However, no association was observed between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms with cyclosporine-related liver injury. These results suggested that the wild type of CYP3A4*18B is a risk factor for the development of cyclosporine- related liver injuries in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  8. Different alterations of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform and its gene expression in livers of patients with chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Qun Yang; Shen-Jing Li; Yun-Fei Cao; Xiao-Bo Man; Wei-Feng Yu; Hong-Yang Wang; Meng-Chao Wu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether parenchymal cells or hepaticcytochrome P450 protein was changed in chronic liverdiseases, and to compare the difference of CYP3A4 enzymeand its gene expression between patients with hepaticcirrhosis and obstructive jaundice, and to investigate thepharmacologic significance behind this difference.METHODS: Liver samples were obtained from patientsundergoing hepatic surgery with hepatic cirrhosis (n=6) andobstructive jaundice (n=6) and hepatic angeioma (controls,n=6). CYP3A4 activity and protein were determined by Nashand western bloting using specific polychonal antibody,respectively. Total hepatic RNA was extracted andCYP3A4cDNA probe was prepared according the methodof random primer marking, and difference of cyp3a4expression was compared among those patients byNorthern blotting.RESULTS: Compared to control group, the CYP3A4 activityand protein in liver tissue among patients with cirrhosis wereevidently reduced. (P<0.01) Northern blot showed the samechange in its mRNA levels. In contrast, the isoenzyme andits gene expression were not changed among patients withobstructive jaundice.CONCLUSION: Hepatic levels of P450s and its CYP3A4isoform activity were selectively changed in different chronicliver diseases. CYP3A4 isoenzyme and its activity declinedamong patients with hepatic cirrhosis as expression of cyp3a4gene was significantly reduced. Liver's ability to eliminatemany clinical therateutic drug substrates would declineconsequently, These findings may have practical implicationsfor the use of drugs in patients with cirrhosis and emphasizethe need to understand the metabolic fate of therapeuticcompounds. Elucidation of the reasons for these differentchanges in hepatic CYP3A4 may provide insight into morefundamental aspects and mechanisms of imparied liverfunction.

  9. 植物萜类生物合成中的后修饰酶%Post-modification Enzymes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Plant Terpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军玲; 罗晓东; 赵沛基; 曾英

    2009-01-01

    萜类化合物由于其结构类型丰富多样而被称为"terpenome".除了参与植物生长发育、环境应答等生理过程,萜类化合物还应用于医药、有机化工等领域.萜类的生物合成大致可分为前体形成、骨架构建以及后修饰三部分,基本骨架通常由萜类合酶催化形成,进一步在后修饰酶的作用下产生数以万计的萜类化合物.结合我们对香茶菜二萜生物合成的初步研究结果,本文主要针对近年来植物萜类生物合成中的一些有代表性的后修饰酶包括P450单氧酶、双键还原酶、酰基转移酶和糖基转移酶,进行研究现状分析与展望.%Terpenoids are called "terpenome" for their structural diversities. Besides their important roles in plant growth, development and environmental responses, terpenoids have been widely used in medicine and organic chemicals. The biosynthesis of terpenoids in plants can be conceptually divided into three discrete processes: the formation of terpene precursors, the construction of terpene skeletons, followed by the complex post-modifications. After the skeleton construction by terpene synthases (TPS), diverse reactions catalyzed by the responsible post-modification enzymes result in tens of thousands of terpenoids. In this paper, with our preliminary studies on the biosynthesis of Isodon diterpenes, a number of representative post-modification enzymes of plant terpenoids formation reported in recent years are reviewed, which include P450 monooxidases, double-bond reductases, acylrransferases and glycosyltransferases.

  10. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  11. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and QSAR studies of new 2,3-disubstituted-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minu, Maninder; Thangadurai, Ananda; Wakode, Sharad Ramesh; Agrawal, Shyam Sundar; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2009-06-01

    Antimicrobial activity of synthesized 2,3-disubstituted-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazole derivatives indicated that 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazole (6) and 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazole (20) were the most active compounds. Further, the results of QSAR studies indicated the importance of topological parameters (2)chi and (2)chi(v) in defining the antimicrobial activity of hexahydroindazoles.

  12. Comparative genomics guided discovery of two missing archaeal enzyme families involved in the biosynthesis of the pterin moiety of tetrahydromethanopterin and tetrahydrofolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Phillips, Gabriela; Grochowski, Laura L; El Yacoubi, Basma; Jenney, Francis; Adams, Michael W W; Murzin, Alexey G; White, Robert H

    2012-11-16

    C-1 carriers are essential cofactors in all domains of life, and in Archaea, these can be derivatives of tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)-MPT) or tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate). Their synthesis requires 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin diphosphate (6-HMDP) as the precursor, but the nature of pathways that lead to its formation were unknown until the recent discovery of the GTP cyclohydrolase IB/MptA family that catalyzes the first step, the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate or 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate [El Yacoubi, B.; et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281, 37586-37593 and Grochowski, L. L.; et al. (2007) Biochemistry46, 6658-6667]. Using a combination of comparative genomics analyses, heterologous complementation tests, and in vitro assays, we show that the archaeal protein families COG2098 and COG1634 specify two of the missing 6-HMDP synthesis enzymes. Members of the COG2098 family catalyze the formation of 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin from 7,8-dihydroneopterin, while members of the COG1634 family catalyze the formation of 6-HMDP from 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin. The discovery of these missing genes solves a long-standing mystery and provides novel examples of convergent evolutions where proteins of dissimilar architectures perform the same biochemical function.

  13. Possible Involvement of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes in the Cross-Tolerance of the Germination/Growth of Wheat Seeds to Salinity and Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Bao LEI; Song-Quan SONG; Jia-Rui FU

    2005-01-01

    The germination/growth of wheat (Triticun aestivum L. cv. Zimai 1) seeds and changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), as well as in the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), in response to salt and heat stress, as well as cross-stress, were investigated in the present study. With increasing temperature and decreasing water potential caused by NaC1 solution, the germination percentage of seeds and the fresh weight of seedlings decreased markedly, SOD activity increased, activities of APX and CAT decreased distinctly, and the TBARS content increased gradually. Seeds pretreated at 33 ℃ for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent salt stress, enhanced SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and decreased TBARS content. Seeds pretreated at -0.8 MPa NaC1 for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent heat stress and marked increases in SOD, APX, and CAT activities, which were associated with decreased TBARS content. It is considered that the common component in the cross-tolerance of the germination and growth of wheat seeds to salinity and heat stress is the anti-oxidant enzyme system.

  14. Factors involved in the regulation of early enzyme synthesis and lysis of Escherichia coli B infected with bacteriophage T4D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of T4/sup +/-infected Escherichia coli cells to display handling-induced lysis may implicate the activity of a known, untested gene, or a heretofore undiscovered gene. This gene product may be involved in the normal lytic process; it may be a new phage-induced phospholipase or a late function that activates a latent E. coli phospholipase. Another possibility is that the late function is involved in membrane biosynthesis or modification. Alternatively, the required late protein(s) may have some other role that only secondarily affects the cell's permeability barrier. Whatever the case may be, this work is of practical interest since chilling and centrifugation of infected cells are very common procedures and researchers should be aware of any handling-induced damage.

  15. A High-Throughput (HTS) Assay for Enzyme Reaction Phenotyping in Human Recombinant P450 Enzymes Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Suhar, Tom; Glass, Lateca; Rajaraman, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme reaction phenotyping is employed extensively during the early stages of drug discovery to identify the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of new chemical entities (NCEs). Early identification of metabolic pathways facilitates prediction of potential drug-drug interactions associated with enzyme polymorphism, induction, or inhibition, and aids in the design of clinical trials. Incubation of NCEs with human recombinant enzymes is a popular method for such work because of the specificity, simplicity, and high-throughput nature of this approach for phenotyping studies. The availability of a relative abundance factor and calculated intersystem extrapolation factor for the expressed recombinant enzymes facilitates easy scaling of in vitro data, enabling in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. Described in this unit is a high-throughput screen for identifying enzymes involved in the metabolism of NCEs. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the human recombinant enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4, including the calculation of the intrinsic clearance for each.

  16. Cardioprotective effects of the novel Na+/H+ exchanger-1 inhibitor KR-32560 in a perfused rat heart model of global ischemia and reperfusion: Involvement of the Akt-GSK-3beta cell survival pathway and antioxidant enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Sang; Lee, Sung-Hun; Yang, Min-Kyu; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Kwon, Suk-Hyung; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective effects and mechanism of action of KR-32560 {[5-(2-methoxy-5-fluorophenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl]guanidine}, a newly synthesized NHE-1 inhibitor, we evaluated the effects of KR-32560 on cardiac function in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced heart injury as well as the role antioxidant enzymes and pro-survival proteins play these observed effects. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 25 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, KR-32560 (3 and 10 microM) significantly reversed the I/Rinduced decrease in left ventricular developed pressure and increase in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure. In rat hearts reperfused for 30 min, KR-32560 (10 microM) significantly decreased the malondialdehyde content while increasing the activities of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase, two important antioxidant enzymes. Western blotting analysis of left ventricles subjected to I/R showed that KR-32560 significantly increased phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK-3beta in a dose-dependent manner, with no effect on the phosphorylation of eNOS. These results suggest that KR-32560 exerts potent cardioprotective effects against I/Rinduced rat heart injury and that its mechanism involves antioxidant enzymes and the Akt-GSK-3beta cell survival pathway.

  17. Insights into transcriptional regulation of β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an N-glycan-processing enzyme involved in ripening-associated fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), plays an important role in the ripening-associated fruit-softening process. However, the regulation of fruit ripening-specific expression of β-Hex is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex and provided insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Our results demonstrate that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a global fruit ripening regulator, and ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING 1 (SlASR1), a poorly characterized ripening-related protein, are the transcriptional regulators of β-Hex. Both RIN and SlASR1 directly bound to the β-Hex promoter fragments containing CArG and C₂₋₃(C/G)A cis-acting elements, the binding sites for RIN and SlASR1, respectively. Moreover, β-Hex expression/promoter activity in tomato fruits was downregulated once expression of either RIN or SlASR1 was suppressed; indicating that RIN and SlASR1 positively regulate the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. Interestingly, RIN could also bind to the SlASR1 promoter, which contains several CArG cis-acting elements, and SlASR1 expression was suppressed in rin mutant fruits, indicating that RIN also acts as a positive regulator of SlASR1 expression during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that RIN, both directly and indirectly, through SlASR1, regulates the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. The fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex could be a useful tool in regulating gene expression during fruit ripening.

  18. An RNA-binding complex involved in ribosome biogenesis contains a protein with homology to tRNA CCA-adding enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of proteins and small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs to direct their modification and processing and the assembly of ribosomal proteins. Utp22 and Rrp7, two interacting proteins with no recognizable domain, are components of the 90S preribosome or the small subunit processome that conducts early processing of 18S rRNA. Here, we determine the cocrystal structure of Utp22 and Rrp7 complex at 1.97 Å resolution and the NMR structure of a C-terminal fragment of Rrp7, which is not visible in the crystal structure. The structure reveals that Utp22 surprisingly resembles a dimeric class I tRNA CCA-adding enzyme yet with degenerate active sites, raising an interesting evolutionary connection between tRNA and rRNA processing machineries. Rrp7 binds extensively to Utp22 using a deviant RNA recognition motif and an extended linker. Functional sites on the two proteins were identified by structure-based mutagenesis in yeast. We show that Rrp7 contains a flexible RNA-binding C-terminal tail that is essential for association with preribosomes. RNA-protein crosslinking shows that Rrp7 binds at the central domain of 18S rRNA and shares a neighborhood with two processing H/ACA snoRNAs snR30 and snR10. Depletion of snR30 prevents the stable assembly of Rrp7 into preribosomes. Our results provide insight into the evolutionary origin and functional context of Utp22 and Rrp7.

  19. Complete enzymic synthesis of the mucin-type sialyl Lewis x epitope, involved in the interaction between PSGL-1 and P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S; Gallego, R G; Dinter, A; Malissard, M; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Berger, E G

    1999-09-01

    Sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x)) is an established selectin ligand occurring on N- and O-linked glycans. Using a completely enzymic approach starting from p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide (GalNAc(alpha1-pNp as core substrate, the sLe(x)-oligosaccharide Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-6)[Gal(bet a1-3)]GalNAc(alpha1-pNp, representing the O-linked form, was synthesized in an overall yield of 32%. In a first step, Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-pNp was prepared in a yield of 52% using UDP-Gal and an enriched preparation of beta3-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.122) from rat liver. UDP-GlcNAc and a recombinant affinity-purified preparation of core 2 beta6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.102) fused to Protein A were used to branch the core 1 structure, affording GlcNAc(beta1-6)[Gal(beta1-3)]GalNAc(alpha1-pNp in a yield of >85%. The core 2 structure was galactosylated using UDP-Gal and purified human milk beta4-galactosyltransferase 1 (EC 2.4.1.38) (yield of >85%), then sialylated using CMP-Neu5Ac and purified recombinant alpha3-sialyltransferase 3 (EC 2.4.99.X) (yield of 87%), and finally fucosylated using GDP-Fuc and recombinant human alpha3-fucosyltransferase 6 (EC 2.4.1.152) produced in Pichia pastoris (yield of 100%). Overall 1.5 micromol of product was prepared. MALDI TOF mass spectra, and 1D and 2D TOCSY and ROESY 1H NMR analysis confirmed the obtained structure.

  20. Coexisting role of fasting or feeding and dietary lipids in the control of gene expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Sánchez González, Raúl; Sánchez García, Apolos M; Lòpez-Alarcòn, Mardia

    2012-03-15

    In the liver, maintaining lipid homeostasis is regulated by physiological and exogenous factors. These lipids are synthesized by Fasn, elongases and desaturases. Interactions in an organism among these factors are quite complex and, to date, relatively little is known about them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexisting role of physiological (insulin, fasting and feeding) and exogenous (dietary lipids) factors in the control of gene expression of Fasn, elongases and desaturases via Srebf-1c in liver from rats. Gene expression of encoding enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid composition was evaluated in liver from rats in fasting and feeding (at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding) when food intake (adequate or high-lipid diet) was synchronized to a restricted period of 7h. Fasn, Scd and Fads2 were induced during 120 min after initial feeding in both dietary groups. This induction may be activated in part by insulin via Srebf-1c. Also, we showed for the first time that Elovl7 may be regulated by insulin and dietary lipids. The failure to synthesize saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with a downregulation of Fasn and Scd, respectively, by dietary lipids. A higher content of LC-PUFAs was observed due to a high expression of Elovl2 and Elovl5, although Fads2 was suppressed by dietary lipids. Therefore, elongases may have a mechanism that is Srebf-1c-independent. This study suggests that a high-lipid diet triggers, during 120 min after initial feeding, a tight coordination among de novo lipogenesis, elongation, and desaturation and may not always be regulated by Srebf-1c. Finally, upregulation by feeding (insulin) of Fasn, Scd, Fads2 and Srebf-1c is insufficient to compensate for the inhibitory effect of dietary lipids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression analysis of enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway involved in β-cryptoxanthin accumulation in wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko

    2017-03-18

    β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry. In the present study, two wild raspberry species were studied-R. palmatus, which accumulates β-Cry in the fruit, and R. crataegifolius, which does not accumulate β-Cry. Four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes derived from these two species were analyzed-phytoene synthase (PSY), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb), β-carotene hydroxylase (HYb), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). Expression levels of their genes were also assessed to elucidate mechanism underlying β-Cry accumulation. Partial gene sequences of RubPSY, RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP, isolated from immature raspberry fruits of R. palmatus, were used as probes for Northern blot analysis. RubZEP expression ceased as the fruits matured, possibly because of reduced production of zeaxanthin. β-Cry is considered to be an intermediate compound that accumulates in the mature fruits of R. palmatus. High expression of RubPSY was detectable in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius, and the expression of RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP was detectable during all stages of fruit maturation. In contrast, β-Cry was absent in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius.

  2. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  3. Salvianolic acid B modulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-LanWang; QuocWu; Yan-Yan Tao; Cheng-Hai Liu; Hani El-Nezami

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzymes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism have been considered to exist in two groups: phase I and phase II enzymes. Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYPs) are the most important phase I enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The products of phase I metabolism are then acted upon by phase II enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Herbs that inhibit CYPs such as CYP3A4 or that induce GSTs may have the potential to protect against chemical carcinogenesis since the mutagenic effects of carcinogens are often mediated through an excess of CYP-generated reactive intermediates. This study was designed to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a pure compound extracted from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, a Chinese herb, on cell proliferation and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression in the presence or absence of rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYPs and GST protein expression in HepG2 cells. METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of Sal B. Cell proliferation was determined by SYTOX-Green nucleic acid staining. CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression was assayed by real-time PCR. GST protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Low concentrations of Sal B (0-20 μmol/L) had no significant effects on cell proliferation, while higher concentrations (100-250 μmol/L) significantly inhibited proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Tenμmol/L Sal B, but not 1 μmol/L, down-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression after 24 hours of incubation, whereas both 1 and 10 μmol/L Sal B down-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA expression after 96 hours of incubation; moreover, 1 and 10 μmol/L Sal B inhibited CYP3A4 mRNA expression induced by rifampicin. Both 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L Sal B increased GST expression. CONCLUSION: Sal B inhibits CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression and induces GST expression in HepG2 cells.

  4. OsGA2ox5, a Gibberellin Metabolism Enzyme, Is Involved in Plant Growth, the Root Gravity Response and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Shan, Chi

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidases play an important role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2b-hydroxylation. There are two classes of GA2oxs, i.e., a larger class of C19-GA2oxs and a smaller class of C20-GA2oxs. In this study, the gene encoding a GA 2-oxidase of rice, Oryza sativa GA 2-oxidase 5 (OsGA2ox5), was cloned and characterized. BLASTP analysis showed that OsGA2ox5 belongs to the C20-GA2oxs subfamily, a subfamily of GA2oxs acting on C20-GAs (GA12, GA53). Subcellular localization of OsGA2ox5-YFP in transiently transformed onion epidermal cells revealed the presence of this protein in both of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Real-time PCR analysis, along with GUS staining, revealed that OsGA2ox5 is expressed in the roots, culms, leaves, sheaths and panicles of rice. Rice plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 exhibited dominant dwarf and GAdeficient phenotypes, with shorter stems and later development of reproductive organs than the wild type. The dwarfism phenotype was partially rescued by the application of exogenous GA3 at a concentration of 10 mM. Ectopic expression of OsGA2ox5 cDNA in Arabidopsis resulted in a similar phenotype. Real-time PCR assays revealed that both GA synthesis-related genes and GA signaling genes were expressed at higher levels in transgenic rice plants than in wild-type rice; OsGA3ox1, which encodes a key enzyme in the last step of the bioactive GAs synthesis pathway, was highly expressed in transgenic rice. The roots of OsGA2ox5-ox plants exhibited increased starch granule accumulation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Furthermore, rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsGA2ox5 were more resistant to high-salinity stress than wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsGA2ox5 plays important roles in GAs homeostasis, development, gravity responses and stress tolerance in rice.

  5. Involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme in the clearance of beta-amyloid at the blood-CSF barrier: Consequences of lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanshu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ peptides in the brain extracellular matrix, resulting in pathological changes and neurobehavioral deficits. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that the choroid plexus (CP possesses the capacity to remove Aβ from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and exposure to lead (Pb compromises this function. Since metalloendopeptidase insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, has been implicated in the metabolism of Aβ, we sought to investigate whether accumulation of Aβ following Pb exposure was due to the effect of Pb on IDE. Methods Rats were injected with a single dose of Pb acetate or an equivalent concentration of Na-acetate; CP tissues were processed to detect the location of IDE by immunohistochemistry. For in vitro studies, choroidal epithelial Z310 cells were treated with Pb for 24 h in the presence or absence of a known IDE inhibitor, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM to assess IDE enzymatic activity and subsequent metabolic clearance of Aβ. Additionally, the expression of IDE mRNA and protein were determined using real time PCR and western blots respectively. Results Immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging revealed the presence of IDE towards the apical surface of the CP tissue with no visible alteration in either its intensity or location following Pb exposure. There was no significant difference in the expressions of either IDE mRNA or protein following Pb exposure compared to controls either in CP tissues or in Z310 cells. However, our findings revealed a significant decrease in the IDE activity following Pb exposure; this inhibition was similar to that seen in the cells treated with NEM alone. Interestingly, treatment with Pb or NEM alone significantly increased the levels of intracellular Aβ, and a greater accumulation of Aβ was seen when the cells were exposed to a combination of both. Conclusion These data suggest that Pb exposure inhibits IDE

  6. SUMO and SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme E2 UBC9 Are Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Tang

    Full Text Available In previous work, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was found to be up-regulated post-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection using proteomic approach. However, the role of SUMO in viral infection is still unclear. In the present work, full length cDNAs of SUMO (FcSUMO and SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 (FcUBC9 were cloned from F. chinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The open reading frame (ORF of FcSUMO encoded a 93 amino acids peptide with the predicted molecular weight (M.W of 10.55 kDa, and the UBC9 ORF encoded a 160 amino acids peptide with the predicted M.W of 18.35 kDa. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, higher mRNA transcription levels of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were detected in hemocytes and ovary of F. chinensis, and the two genes were significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, and employed as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb. Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the FcSUMO and UBC9 proteins were mainly located in the hemocytes nuclei. By western blotting, a 13.5 kDa protein and a 18.7 kDa protein in hemocytes were recognized by the PAb against SUMO or UBC9 respectively. Furthermore, gene silencing of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were performed using RNA interference, and the results showed that the number of WSSV copies and the viral gene expressions were inhibited by knockdown of either SUMO or UBC9, and the mortalities of shrimp were also reduced. These results indicated that FcSUMO and FcUBC9 played important roles in WSSV infection.

  7. 17 CFR 240.3a4-1 - Associated persons of an issuer deemed not to be brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reclassification of securities of the issuer, a merger or consolidation or a similar plan of acquisition involving... investment company (or registered separate account); an insurance company; a bank; a savings and loan association; a trust company or similar institution supervised by a state or federal banking authority; or...

  8. Impact of CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and sirolimus in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żochowska, Dorota; Wyzgał, Janusz; Pączek, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine, CsA) and mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus, SRL) - immunosuppressants used to prevent allograft rejection after renal transplantation - have a narrow therapeutic index and show considerable inter-individual pharmacokinetic differences. Differences in expression and activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 affect these pharmacokinetics; cytochrome activity differences are associated with CYP genetic polymorphisms. This study evaluated the effects of polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 on immunosuppressive drug-dose adjusted trough blood concentrations. One hundred renal transplant recipients were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 using PCR-RFLP. Blood concentrations of CsA and SRL were determined by EMIT and HPLC/UV, respectively. The allelic frequencies of CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 in the study group were 2.5% and 96.5%, respectively. The mean cyclosporine dose in CYP3A4*1/*1B subjects was 455.04±128.68 mg/day vs. 261.68±64.72 mg/day in CYP3A4*1/*1 subjects (pcyclosporine dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (ng/ml per mg/kg body weight) in CYP3A4*1/*1B subjects were lower than in the CYP3A4*1/*1 group (37.06±10.38 vs. 44.63±13.99; pcyclosporine dose in CYP3A5*1/*3 subjects was 400.65±164.97 mg/day vs. 263.52±64.39 mg/day in CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects (pcyclosporine pharmacokinetics after renal transplantation. Patients with at least 1 functional CYP3A5*1 or CYP3A4*1B allele require significantly higher doses of cyclosporine to reach target drug levels compared to patients with the CYP3A4*1 or CYP3A5*3 alleles.

  9. Cooperative binding of midazolam with testosterone and alpha-naphthoflavone within the CYP3A4 active site: a NMR T1 paramagnetic relaxation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael D; Wen, Bo; Allen, Kyle E; Roberts, Arthur G; Schuman, Jason T; Campbell, A Patricia; Kunze, Kent L; Nelson, Sidney D

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that CYP3A4 exhibits non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for numerous substrates. Both homo- and heterotropic activation have been reported, and kinetic models have suggested multiple substrates within the active site. We provide some of the first physicochemical data supporting the hypothesis of allosteric substrate binding within the CYP3A4 active site. Midazolam (MDZ) is metabolized by CYP3A4 to two hydroxylated metabolites, 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam. Incubations using purified CYP3A4 and MDZ showed that both alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) and testosterone affect the ratio of formation rates of 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam. Similar to previous reports, alpha-NF was found to promote formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam, while testosterone stimulated formation of 4-hydroxymidazolam. NMR was used to measure the closest approach of individual MDZ protons to the paramagnetic heme iron of CYP3A4 using paramagnetic T(1) relaxation measurements. Solutions of 0.2 microM CYP3A4 with 500 microM MDZ resulted in calculated distances between 7.4 and 8.3 A for all monitored MDZ protons. The distances were statistically equivalent for all protons except C3-H and were consistent with the rotation within the active site or sliding parallel to the heme plane. When 50 microM alpha-NF was added, proton-heme iron distances ranged from 7.3 to 10.0 A. Consistent with kinetics of activation, the 1' position was situated closest to the heme, while the fluorophenyl 5-H proton was the furthest. Proton-heme iron distances for MDZ with CYP3A4 and 50 microM testosterone ranged from 7.7 to 9.0 A, with the flourophenyl 5-H proton furthest from the heme iron and the C4-H closest to the heme, also consistent with kinetic observations. When titrated with CYP3A4 in the presence of MDZ, testosterone and alpha-NF resonances themselves exhibited significant broadening and enhanced relaxation rates, indicating that these effector molecules were also bound within the CYP3A4 active

  10. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries. PMID:28469625

  11. The strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) fruit-specific rhamnogalacturonate lyase 1 (FaRGLyase1) gene encodes an enzyme involved in the degradation of cell-wall middle lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Franco, Antonio R; Villatoro, Carmen; Medina-Puche, Laura; Mercado, José A; Hidalgo, Miguel A; Monfort, Amparo; Caballero, José Luis; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2013-04-01

    Pectins are essential components of primary plant cell walls and middle lamellae, and are related to the consistency of the fruit and its textural changes during ripening. In fact, strawberries become soft as the middle lamellae of cortical parenchyma cells are extensively degraded during ripening, leading to the observed short post-harvest shelf life. Using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform, a putative rhamnogalacturonate lyase gene (FaRGlyase1) was identified. Bioinformatic analysis of the FaRGlyase1 sequence allowed the identification of a conserved rhamnogalacturonate lyase domain, which was also present in other putative RGlyase sequences deposited in the databases. Expression of FaRGlyase1 occurred mainly in the receptacle, concurrently with ripening, and it was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively by auxins. FaRGLyase1 gene expression was transiently silenced by injecting live Agrobacterium cells harbouring RNA interference constructs into fruit receptacles. Light and electron microscopy analyses of these transiently silenced fruits revealed that this gene is involved in the degradation of pectins present in the middle lamella region between parenchymatic cells. In addition, genetic linkage association analyses in a strawberry-segregating population showed that FaRGLyase1 is linked to a quantitative trait loci linkage group related to fruit hardness and firmness. The results showed that FaRGlyase1 could play an important role in the fruit ripening-related softening process that reduces strawberry firmness and post-harvest life.

  12. Involvement of a new enzyme, glyoxal oxidase, in extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, P.J.; Kirk, K.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in lignin degradation has become increasingly apparent with the recent discovery of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-requiring ligninases produced by white-rot fungi. Here the authors describe a new H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-producing activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium that involves extracellular oxidases able to use simple aldehyde, ..cap alpha..-hydroxycarbonyl, or..cap alpha..-dicarbonyl compounds as substrates. The activity is expressed during secondary metabolism, when the ligninases are also expressed. Analytical isoelectric focusing of the extracellular proteins, followed by activity staining, indicated that minor proteins with broad substrate specificities are responsible for the oxidase activity. Two of the oxidase substrates, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, were also identified, as their quinoxaline derivatives, in the culture fluid as secondary metabolites. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to lignin degradation and other proposed systems for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production in P. chrysosporium.

  13. Genetic engineering of Streptomyces bingchenggensis to produce milbemycins A3/A4 as main components and eliminate the biosynthesis of nanchangmycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; An, Jing; Wang, Ji-Jia; Yan, Yi-Jun; He, Hai-Rong; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Milbemycins A3/A4 are important 16-membered macrolides which have been commercialized and widely used as pesticide and veterinary medicine. However, similar to other milbemycin producers, the production of milbemycins A3/A4 in Streptomyces bingchenggensis is usually accompanied with undesired by-products such as C5-O - methylmilbemycins B2/B3 (α-class) and β1/β2 (β-class) together with nanchangmycin. In order to obtain high yield milbemycins A3/A4-producing strains that produce milbemycins A3/A4 as main components, milD, a putative C5-O-methyltransferase gene of S. bingchenggensis , was biofunctionally investigated by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli . Enzymatic analysis indicated that MilD can catalyze both α-class (A3/A4) and β-class milbemycins (β11) into C5-O-methylmilbemycins B2/B3 and β1, respectively, suggesting little effect of furan ring formed between C6 and C8a on the C5-O-methylation catalyzed by MilD. Deletion of milD gene resulted in the elimination of C5-Omethylmilbemycins B2/B3 and β1/β2 together with an increased yield of milbemycins A3/A4 in disruption strain BCJ13. Further disruption of the gene nanLD encoding loading module of polyketide synthase responsible for the biosynthesis of nanchangmycin led to strain BCJ36 that abolished the production of nanchangmycin. Importantly, mutant strain BCJ36 (ΔmilDΔnanLD) produced milbemycins A3/A4 as main secondary metabolites with a yield of 2312 ± 47 μg/ml, which was approximately 74 % higher than that of the initial strain S. bingchenggensis BC-109-6 (1326 ± 37 μg/ml).

  14. The Effect of microRNAs in the Regulation of Human CYP3A4: a Systematic Study using a Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhiyun; Jiang, Songshan; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Xiaofei; Peng, Xueling; Meng, Chunjie; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Qin, Shengying; He, Lin; Shao, Fengmin; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2014-03-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations.

  15. Common variants of HMGCR, CETP, APOAI, ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP7A1 genes as predictors of lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Khullar, Madhu; Bahl, Ajay; Sehrawat, B S; Sharma, Yashpaul; Talwar, Kewal K

    2010-10-01

    There is interindividual variation in lipid-lowering response to statins. The objective of this study was to investigate whether common variation in genes involved in lipid and statin metabolism modify the effect of statins on serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We studied the association between 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes (HMGCR, CETP, APOAI, ABCB1, CYP3A4, CYP7A1) in response to atorvastatin therapy (20 mg/day) in 265 newly diagnosed CAD patients using multivariable adjusted general linear regression. Variant alleles of ABCB1 (-41A/G), HMGCR SNP29 G/T, rs5908A/G, rs12916C/T, and CYP7A1-204A/C polymorphisms were significantly associated with attenuated LDL-C reduction and variant alleles of CETP TaqI, -629C/A, and APOAI PstI polymorphisms were associated with higher increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. A three-loci interaction model consisting of CYP7A1rs892871AA/APOAIPstIP1P1/HMGCR rs12916CT was a better predictor for LDL-C lowering, when compared with single polymorphisms analysis on statin response. Variant genotypes of APOAI -2500C/T, CETP 405I/V, and ABCB1 3435C/T showed higher risk of myocardial infarction events (p < 0.05) in a 1-year follow-up of CAD patients. These results suggest that SNPs in lipid and statin pathway genes are associated with reduced LDL-C lowering by statins and identify individuals who may be resistant to maximal LDL-C lowering by statins.

  16. Immobilized enzymes in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbach, K

    1985-01-01

    The immobilization of enzymes and cells by different methods and the possible stabilization of immobilized preparations are discussed. An outlook on 'second generation enzyme technology', which involves immobilized multi-enzyme systems and coenzymes, is given with examples: the immobilization of dehydrogenases with their active sites facing one another, and systems containing NAD(H) coenzymes immobilized by coupling to dextran (in an enzyme electrode), to polyethylene glycol (in a membrane reactor), or to enzymes themselves. The use of immobilized enzymes to synthesize peptides and disaccharides is described.

  17. Effects of fumigation with metam-sodium on soil microbial biomass, respiration, nitrogen transformation, bacterial community diversity and genes encoding key enzymes involved in nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Huang, Bin; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Han, Dawei; Yan, Dongdong; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2017-11-15

    Metam-sodium (MS) is widely used as a soil pre-plant fumigant as methyl bromide is phased out of agriculture. However, the information about how fumigation with MS affects the soil microbial community is still limited. In this study, a 66-day-long experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of MS on soil substrate-induced respiration (SIR), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N concentrations, as well as the abundance of the total bacteria and fungi and the expression of genes involved in nitrogen cycling. In addition, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to investigate the effect of MS on the soil bacterial community. The half-lives of high and low doses of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) are 10.51h and 9.93h, respectively. MS caused a short-term inhibition of SIR, MBN; had an accumulation effect on NH4(+)-N concentration in the short term; reduced the abundance of the total bacteria and fungi; and suppressed the expression of the nifH, AOA-amoA, anammox bacteria, nosZ, nirS, and narG. In addition, under the influence of MS, soil bacterial diversity decreased significantly in the long term, bacterial community structure was affected, and there was a shift in the predominant population; for example, some genera, such as Paenibacillus and Luteimonas, significantly increased in number. These changes in bacterial flora may be closely related to the growth of crops. Our study provides useful information for environmental safety assessments of MS in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Effect of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 Alleles on Methadone Binding: A Molecular Docking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nur Syazana Bt Nik Mohamed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is yet to ensure 100% successful treatment as the optimum dosage has yet to be determined. Overdose leads to death while lower dose causes the opioid withdrawal effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in cytochrome P450s (CYPs, the methadone metabolizers, have been showen to be the main factor for the interindividual variability of methadone clinical effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of SNPs in three major methadone metabolizers (CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 on methadone binding affinity. Results showed that CYP2B6*11, CYP2B6*12, CYP2B6*18, and CYP3A4*12 have significantly higher binding affinity to R-methadone compared to wild type. S-methadone has higher binding affinity in CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4*11, and CYP3A4*12 compared to wild type. R-methadone was shown to be the active form of methadone; thus individuals with CYP alleles that binds better to R-methadone will have higher methadone metabolism rate. Therefore, a higher dosage of methadone is necessary to obtain the opiate effect compared to a normal individual and vice versa. These results provide an initial prediction on methadone metabolism rate for individuals with mutant type CYP which enables prescription of optimum methadone dosage for individuals with CYP alleles.

  19. Regulation of human pregnane X receptor and its target gene cytochrome P450 3A4 by Chinese herbal compounds and a molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-He; Mo, Sui-Lin; Bi, Hui-Chang; Hu, Bing-Fang; Li, Chun Guang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Huang, Ling; Huang, Min; Duan, Wei; Liu, Jun-Ping; Wei, Ming Qian; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a critical role in the regulation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) gene. In this study, we investigated the effect of an array of compounds isolated from Chinese herbal medicines on the activity of PXR using a luciferase reporter gene assay in transiently transfected HepG2 and Huh7 cells and on the expression of PXR and CYP3A4 in LS174T cells. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to investigate the binding modes of herbal compounds with PXR. Praeruptorin A and C, salvianolic acid B, sodium danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, emodin, morin, and tanshinone IIA significantly transactivated the CYP3A4 reporter gene construct in either HepG2 or Huh7 cells. The PXR mRNA expression in LS174T cells was significantly induced by physcion, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, and sodium danshensu. However, epifriedelanol, morin, praeruptorin D, mulberroside A, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA significantly down-regulated the expression of PXR mRNA in LS174T cells. All the herbal compounds tested can be readily docked into the ligand-binding cavity of PXR mainly through hydrogen bond and aromatic interactions with Ser247, Gln285, His407, and Arg401. These findings suggest that herbal medicines can significantly regulate PXR and CYP3A4 and this has important implication in herb-drug interactions.

  20. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  1. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical importance of the drug interaction between statins and CYP3A4 inhibitors: a retrospective cohort study in The Health Improvement Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Christopher G.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Munson, Jeffrey; Flory, James; Reese, Peter P.; Hennessy, Sean; Lewis, James; Mines, Daniel; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Bilker, Warren; Strom, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the relative hazard of muscle toxicity, renal dysfunction, and hepatic dysfunction associated with the drug interaction between statins and concomitant medications that inhibit the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. Background Although statins provide important clinical benefits related to mitigating the risk of cardiovascular events, this class of medications also has the potential for severe adverse reactions. The risk for adverse events may be potentiated by concomitant use of medications that interfere with statin metabolism. Methods Data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) from 1990 to 2008 were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study. Cohorts were created to evaluate each outcome (muscle toxicity, renal dysfunction, and hepatic dysfunction) independently. Each cohort included new statin initiators and compared the relative hazard of the outcome. The interaction ratio (I*R) was the primary contrast of interest. The I*R represents the relative effect of each statin type (statin 3A4 substrate vs. statin non-3A4 substrate) with a CYP3A4 inhibitor, independent of the effect of the statin type without a CYP3A4 inhibitor. We adjusted for confounding variables using the multinomial propensity score. Results The median follow-up time per cohort was 1.5 years. There were 7889 muscle toxicity events among 362 809 patients and 792 665 person-years. The adjusted muscle toxicity I*R was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90–1.66). There were 1449 renal dysfunction events among 272,099 patients and 574 584 person-years. The adjusted renal dysfunction I*R was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.58–1.44). There were 1434 hepatic dysfunction events among 367 612 patients and 815 945 person-years. The adjusted hepatic dysfunction I*R was 0.78 (95%CI = 0.45–1.31). Conclusions Overall, this study found no difference in the relative hazard of muscle toxicity, renal dysfunction, or hepatic dysfunction for patients prescribed a statin 3A4 substrate versus a statin non-3A4

  3. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-01-01

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)p

  4. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-01-01

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the

  5. Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xia, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Jin-Mei; Song, Xue-Ting; Wei, Jin-Feng; Kang, Wen-Yi

    2016-06-14

    Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides.

  6. Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Juan Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides.

  7. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Aasen, Torstein; Molden, Guri; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-11-01

    The multiherbal product Sambucus Force contains Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra as its main constituents. The aims of this study were to evaluate Sambucus Force's inhibition potential and inhibition mechanisms towards CYP3A4, and to evaluate the inhibitory co-contribution of E. purpurea and S. nigra. Metabolic studies were performed with recombinant human CYP3A4, with testosterone as substrate. Sambucus Force inhibited CYP3A4 activity with a mean (95% confidence interval) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) value of 1192 (1091-1302) µg/mL. The inhibitory potency seems exclusively to be exerted by E. purpurea, implicating an insignificant inhibition by S. nigra. The inhibition by E. purpurea as a single herb was in agreement with mechanism-based inhibition with heterotropic positive cooperative effects. Echinacea purpurea acted differently in the multiherbal product, which showed a dual inhibition profile with both an uncompetitive (substrate-dependent) inhibition and a time-dependent (substrate-independent) inhibitory mechanism. These mechanistic differences are suggested to be caused by herb-herb interactions in the multiherbal product. The CYP3A4 inhibition of Sambucus Force in vitro is considered relatively weak, but recommended high herbal dosages might enhance the potential for clinical interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Progressive decline in tacrolimus clearance after renal transplantation is partially explained by decreasing CYP3A4 activity and increasing haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Hylke; Vanhove, Thomas; de Loor, Henriëtte; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2015-09-01

    The long-term disposition of tacrolimus following kidney transplantation is characterized by a gradual decrease in dose requirements and increase in dose-corrected exposure. This phenomenon has been attributed to a progressive decline in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity, although this has never been demonstrated in vivo. Sixty-five tacrolimus- and 10 cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients underwent pharmacokinetic testing at day 7 and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 after transplantation, including 8-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tacrolimus or cyclosporine and assessment of CYP3A4 activity using oral and intravenous midazolam (MDZ) drug probes. Tacrolimus clearance decreased gradually throughout the entire first year but only in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous recipients (25.6 ± 11.1 l h(-1) at day 7; 17 ± 9.1 l h(-1) at month 12; P Cyclosporine clearance did not change over time. The maturation of tacrolimus disposition in the first year after renal transplantation observed in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous patients can partly be explained by a (steroid tapering-related) decline in CYP3A4 activity and a progressive increase in haematocrit. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. [Risk of pharmacological interactions due to the co-administration of statins and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4-metabolized drugs: multicentre, crossover study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaza, José María; Lahoz, Carlos; Morales-Olivas, Francisco; Pinto, Xavier; Tranche, Salvador; Suarez-Tembra, Manuel; Mantilla, Teresa; Rius, Joan

    2014-11-18

    Statins are safe but have a significant potential for pharmacological interactions. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of potential interactions throughout the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4) system in a large sample of statin-treated subjects and to determine which factors, from the patient and the physician, were associated with a higher risk of interactions. This is an observational, cross-over, population study that included 7,880 subjects treated with statins. Both data from patients and from the1,681 participating physicians were recorded and analyzed. Fifty-nine percent of the participants were receiving a statin metabolized by the CYP3A4, and 21.5% of all participants received a drug, different from a statin, metabolized by the CYP3A4. There were no differences in the frequency of utilization of statins metabolized or not by the CYP3A4 in relation to the simultaneous prescription of drugs metabolized by the same pathway (22 vs. 21%, respectively). Globally, 12.9% of all participants were at risk of an interaction. These patients were older, received a higher number of drugs and had more comorbidity. Sixty percent of the physicians mentioned that the possibility of an interaction greatly conditioned their selection of a particular statin. Likewise, 56% of them had software that alerted of possible interactions. These aspects, however, did not influence the number of patients at risk of interactions. The proportion of statin-treated patients at risk of interaction is elevated. Physicians do not usually pay attention to this possibility despite having available alert software and therapeutic alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. How does the reductase help to regulate the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 3A4 using the conserved water channel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelovitch, Dan; Shaik, Sason; Wolfson, Haim J; Nussinov, Ruth

    2010-05-06

    Water molecules play a major role in the P450 catalytic cycle. Here, we locate the preferred water pathways and their gating mechanisms for the human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and elucidate the role of the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) in turning on and activating these water channels. We perform explicit solvent molecular dynamic simulations of CYP3A4, unbound and bound to two substrates, and with and without the flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domain of CPR. We observe in/out passage of water molecules via a water-specific and conserved channel (aqueduct) located between the active site and the heme proximal side. We find that the aqueduct gating mechanism is mediated by R375, the conserved arginine that salt bridges with the heme 7-propionate. When R375 rotates, it opens the aqueduct and establishes a connection between a cluster of active site water molecules network and the bulk solvent. The aqueduct region overlaps with the CPR binding-site to CYP3A4. Indeed, we find that when the FMN domain of CPR binds to CYP3A4, the aqueduct fully opens up, thereby allowing a flow of water molecules. The aqueduct's opening can permit proton transfer, shuttling the protons to the active site through ordered water molecules. In addition, the expulsion of water molecules via the aqueduct contributes to substrate binding. As such, the CPR binding has a function: it triggers the aqueduct's opening and thereby enables a proton shuttle pathway, which is needed for the dioxygen activation. This mechanism could be a general paradigm in P450s.

  11. Enzymic lactose hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.J.; Brand, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Acid or enzymic hydrolysis can be used to hydrolyze lactose. Advantages of both are compared and details of enzymic hydrolysis using yeast or fungal enzymes given. The new scheme outlined involves recycling lactase. Because lactose and lactase react to ultrafiltration (UF) membranes differently separation is possible. Milk or milk products are ultrafiltered to separate a concentrate from a lactose-rich permeate which is treated with lactase in a reactor until hydrolysis reaches a required level. The lactase can be removed by UF as it does not permeate the membrane, and it is recycled back to the reactor. Permeate from the second UF stage may or may not be recombined with the concentrate from the first stage to produce a low lactose product (analysis of a typical low-lactose dried whole milk is given). Batch or continuous processes are explained and a batch process without enzyme recovery is discussed. (Refs. 4).

  12. Nifedipine induced reversal of multidrug resistance can be deteriorated by S9 mix prepared from the transgenic cell line CHL-3A4%转基因细胞系CHL-3A4可使硝苯吡啶的多药耐药逆转作用丧失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱羽力; 诸葛坚; 余应年

    2000-01-01

    目的:检测本实验室构建的表达人细胞色素P450 3A4同功酶转基因细胞系CHL-3A4的硝苯吡啶氧化酶活性.方法:利用多药耐药细胞K562r的阿霉素(ADR)耐药性可被硝苯吡啶逆转,而硝苯吡啶又可特异地被CYP3A4代谢,观察硝苯吡啶在CHL-3A4 S9混合物(S9mix)中孵育前后的生物学活性变化来判断CHL-3A4细胞的CYP3A4硝苯吡啶氧化酶活性.结果:K562r细胞在含有硝苯吡啶(NIF)(12.5μg·L-1)的培养基中培养时,对阿霉素的IC50值从不含NIF时的(6.47±0.60)mg·L-1降至(0.89±0.15)mg·L-1(P<0.01).K562r细胞在含有分别经CHL-3A4、CHL细胞的S9组分和灭活的CHL-3A4细胞的S9组分预处理的NIF(12.5μg·L-1)的培养基中培养时,阿霉素对其的IC50值分别为(6.10±0.50)mg·L-1、(0.32±0.09)mg·L-1和(0.32±0.04)mg·L-1.前者和后两者相比P<0.01.结论:实验室构建的表达人细胞色素P450 3A4同功酶转基因细胞系CHL-3A4具有硝苯吡啶氧化酶活性,从而进一步确证其表达产物为人CYP3A4同功酶.并为今后检测CYP同功酶活性提供了一种新的途径.

  13. Association between cytochrome CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a Korean study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyun Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated genetic variants of the androgen metabolism genes CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 to determine whether they play a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCa in Korean men. The study population included 240 pathologically diagnosed cases of PCa and 223 age-matched controls. Among the 789 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP database variants detected, 129 were reported in two Asian groups (Han Chinese and Japanese in the HapMap database. Only 21 polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 were selected based on linkage disequilibrium in Asians (r2 = 1, locations (SNPs in exons were preferred, and amino acid changes and were assessed. In addition, we performed haplotype analysis for the 21 SNPs in CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 genes. To determine the association between genotype and haplotype distributions of patients and controls, logistic analyses were carried out, controlling for age. Twelve sequence variants and five major haplotypes were identified in CYP17A1. Five sequence variants and two major haplotypes were identified in CYP3A4. Four sequence variants and four major haplotypes were observed in CYP3A43. CYP17A1 haplotype-2 (Ht-2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.18 was associated with PCa susceptibility. CYP3A4 Ht-2 (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.02-3.43 was associated with PCa metastatic potential according to tumor stage. rs17115149 (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.04-3.68 and CYP17A1 Ht-4 (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.07-4.11 showed a significant association with histologic aggressiveness according to Gleason score. Genetic variants of CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 may play a role in the development of PCa in Korean men.

  14. Impact of CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene (G2677T) polymorphisms on dose requirement of the cyclosporine in renal transplant Egyptian recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaki, Ola; Zeid, Montasser; Moez, Pacint; Zakaria, Nermine Hossam; Nassar, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Advances in immunosuppressive therapy allowed renal transplantation to become the treatment of choice for suitable candidates with (end stage renal disease) ESRD. The post-transplant therapeutic strategy is difficult due to narrow therapeutic indices for the currently used immunosuppressive drugs. Inter-individual differences in drug bioavailability are related to genetic and non genetic factors. The idea of targeted and personalized therapy is to achieve therapeutic success. The empirical dose has lost its value in the post-transplant therapy and an individualized dosage regimen must be established. Interindividual heterogeneity in expression of ABCB1 and CYP3A4 has been suspected to be one of the factors resulting in cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetic variation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of inter-individual CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T and MDR1 G2677T/A polymorphisms on cyclosporine dose requirements among a sample of renal transplant Egyptian recipients. Fifty adult Egyptian patients on CsA were genotyped for CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T and MDR1 G2677T/A and correlated with CsA dose requirement and dose-adjusted CsA (C0) blood levels at 3, 6, and 9 months post transplantation. CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T influenced significantly cyclosporine kinetics, the T carriers requiring higher cyclosporine dose. Daily dose requirements were also significantly higher in T allele MDR1 2677G>T GG genotype as compared to GT/TT genotypes at 3, 6, and 9 months post transplantation. Genotyping of both CYP3A4 and MDR1 SNPs may be helpful in providing pre-transplant pharmacogenetic information to individualize CsA dosing. Heterozygous CT genotype is the most frequent CYP3A4 rs4646437C>T genotype in the studied group of Egyptian population (48 %) followed by CC genotype and TT genotype. Daily dose requirements were significantly higher in T allele MDR1 2677G>T GG genotype as compared to GT/TT genotypes at 3, 6, and 9 months post transplantation.

  15. Trial of the correlation between cytochrome oxidase CYP3A4 with the susceptibility of paclitaxel-based regimen for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwei Yang; Yan Meng; Ying Su; Zeng Chen; Wei Gao; Jinyuan Lin; Jing Jia; Huamei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between susceptibility of paclitaxel-based regimen and gene polymorphisms of cytochrome oxidase CYP3A4 for advanced gastric cancer.Methods: Peripheral venous blood sample of 53 advanced gastric cancer patients were enroled to test the mutation of CYP3A4 gene by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA sequencing. The relation between the eficacy of paclitaxel-based regimen and CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms was further analyzed.Results: DHPLC indicated that among the 53 patients, 21 cases showed biomodal type (mutation) and 32 cases were of unimodal type (wild-type). Sequencing results showed that the deletion mutation was found at the 27th basic group of C in exon 10 of CYP3A4 gene. The response rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR) of wild-type group were 40.6% and 84.4%, while in mutation group they were 33.3% and 85.7%, respective-ly, with no significances between the two groups (P > 0.05). Of al 53 cases, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.5 months (95% CI: 3.576-9.424 months), and the median overal survival (OS) was 11.0 months (95% CI: 6.955-15.045 months). The median PFS and OS in wild-type group had no diferences compared with those in mutation group (7.0 months vs. 7.0 months,P > 0.05; 10.0 months vs. 14.0 months,P > 0.05). Between wild-type and mutation groups, the median PFS of patients applied with oxaliplatin containing regimen and the median OS in patients applied with/without oxaliplatin had no significant diferences (P > 0.05), while the median PFS in patients received non-oxaliplatin regime had statistical diferences (P = 0.024). The median PFS and OS in patients receiving 3-drug or 2-drug regimes had no correlation with CYP3A4 gene polymorphisms. The adverse efects in the two groups were mild, mainly in grades 1-2. The common adverse efects were anorexia, nausea/vomiting and leucopenia.Conclusion: Deletion mutation was located in the 27th

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of CYP3A4/2B6/2C9 Mediated via Nuclear Receptor PXR by Helicid and Its Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims at establishing and validating an in vitro system to screen drug inducers of CYPs mediated via hPXR, as well as studying transcriptional regulation of CYPs mediated via hPXR by helicid and its two metabolites. Methods. Cloning the nuclear receptor hPXR and the promoters of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and inserting the trans-element to the upstream of firefly luciferase reporter gene of the pGL4.17 vectors, then cotransfecting the report vectors and hPXR expression plasmid to HepG2 cell line. After 24 hours, the transfected cells were treated with helicid (0.004, 0.04, and 0.4 μmol/L and its metabolite I and metabolite II (0.0004, 0.004, and 0.04 μmol/L for 48 h, while rifampin (10 μmol/L was included as the positive control and 0.1% DMSO as the negative control group. Cells were lysized and luciferase activity was determined using a dual luciferase reporter assay kit. Results. Helicid and its metabolites did not significantly increase promoter activities of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 in HepG2 cells transfected with PXR expression plasmid (P>0.05. Conclusion. PXR-expressed CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 dual luciferase reporter gene platforms were successfully established, and helicid and its metabolites I, II do not significantly induce the transcription of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9.

  17. QSAR Modelling of CYP3A4 Inhibition as a Screening Tool in the Context of DrugDrug Interaction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Véronique; Horvath, Dragos; Gaudin, Cédric; Desrivot, Julie; Junges, Céline; Arrault, Alban; Bertrand, Marc; Vayer, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Drugdrug interaction potential (DDI), especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibition potential, is one of the most important parameters to be optimized before preclinical and clinical pharmaceutical development as regard to the number of marketed drug metabolized mainly by this CYP and potentially co-administered with the future drug. The present study aims to develop in silico models for CYP3A4 inhibition prediction to help medicinal chemists during the discovery phase and even before the synthesis of new chemical entities (NCEs), focusing on NCEs devoid of any inhibitory potential toward this CYP. In order to find a relevant relationship between CYP3A4 inhibition and chemical features of the screened compounds, we applied a genetic-algorithm-based QSAR exploratory tool SQS (Stochastic QSAR Sampler) in combination with different description approaches comprising alignment-independent Volsurf descriptors, ISIDA fragments and Topological Fuzzy Pharmacophore Triplets. The experimental data used to build models were extracted from an in-house database. We derived a model with good prediction ability that was confirmed on both newly synthesized compound and public dataset retrieved from Pubchem database. This model is a promising efficient tool for filtering out potentially problematic compounds.

  18. Development of an optimized cytotoxicity assay system for CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation via modified piggyBac transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lizhen; Zou, Shuxiang; Deng, Jifeng; Dai, Tianming; Jiang, Jingwei; Jia, Ying; Dai, Renke; Xie, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is often caused by cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of drugs into reactive metabolites. Assessment of hepatotoxicity induced by bioactive compounds is hampered by low CYP expression within in vitro cell lines. To overcome this limitation, piggyBac transposition and monoclonal expansion were used to generate a HepG2 cell line with stable and homogenously high expression of CYP3A4, a prominent CYP isoform. Our studies demonstrate the generated line's constant CYP3A4 expression and activity for over 40 cell passages; to date, it has been in subculture for more than a year without addition of Puromycin. This cell line was utilized to evaluate cytotoxicity of two bioactive (troglitazone and acetaminophen) and two non-bioactive (citrate and galactosamine) compounds by MTT assay. Cell viability significantly decreased upon treatment with bioactive drugs. Moreover, cell lines used in the present study were more sensitive to toxic effects of troglitazone than previously reported. Therefore, this HepG2 cell-based assay system may provide a suitable hepatic model for predicting CYP3A4-mediated hepatotoxicity during preclinical drug development.

  19. In silico prediction of the site of oxidation by cytochrome P450 3A4 that leads to the formation of the toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashe, Muluneh M; Juvonen, Risto O; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Pasanen, Markku; Rahnasto-Rilla, Minna

    2015-04-20

    In humans, the metabolic bioactivation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) is mediated mainly by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) via the hydroxylation of their necine bases at C3 or C8 of heliotridine- and retronecine-type PAs or at the N atom of the methyl substituent of otonecine-type PAs. However, no attempts have been made to identify which C atom is the most favorable site for hydroxylation in silico. Here, in order to determine the site of hydroxylation that eventually leads to the formation of the toxic metabolites produced from lasiocarpine, retrorsine, and senkirkin, we utilized the ligand-based electrophilic Fukui function f(-)(r) and hydrogen-bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as well as structure-based molecular docking. The ligand-based computations revealed that the C3 and C8 atoms of lasiocarpine and retrorsine and the C26 atom of senkirkin were chemically the most susceptible locations for electrophilic oxidizing reactions. Similarly, according to the predicted binding orientation in the active site of the crystal structure of human CYP3A4 (PDB code: 4I4G ), the alkaloids were positioned in such a way that the C3 atom of lasiocarpine and retrorsine and the C26 of senkirkin were closest to the catalytic heme Fe. Thus, it is concluded that the C3 atom of lasiocarpine and retrorsine and C26 of senkirkin are the most favored sites of hydroxylation that lead to the production of their toxic metabolites.

  20. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of OPRM1, ABCB1, CYP3A4/5 on postoperative fentanyl consumption in Korean gynecologic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kye-Min; Kim, Ho-Sook; Lim, Se Hun; Cheong, Soon Ho; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Hey-Ran; Jeon, Jin-Woo; Yon, Jun Heum; Oh, Minkyung; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2013-05-01

    Fentanyl, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, is a substrate of P-glycoprotein. Its metabolism is catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between postoperative fentanyl consumption and genetic polymorphisms of μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1), ABCB1 (gene encoding P-glycoprotein), CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in Korean patients. 196 female patients scheduled to undergo total abdominal hysterectomy or laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy under general anesthesia were enrolled in this study. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl was provided postoperatively. Cumulative fentanyl consumption was measured during the first 48 hours postoperatively. The severity of pain at rest was assessed with the visual analogue scale. OPRM1 118A>G, ABCB1 2677G>A/T, ABCB1 3435C>T, CYP3A4*18 and CYP3A5*3 variant alleles were genotyped. The effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on fentanyl requirements were evaluated with multiple linear regression analysis. The 24-hour cumulative fentanyl doses were significantly associated with pain core, weight and type of surgery (p pain score, type of surgery and history of PONV or motion sickness (p Korean gynecologic patients, no association was found between genetic factors and postoperative fentanyl consumption.

  1. Identification of the active components in Shenmai injection that differentially affect Cyp3a4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Caiwen; He, Fang; Xia, Chunhua; Zhang, Hong; Xiong, Yuqing

    2013-04-01

    Shenmai injection (SMI) is a popular herbal preparation that is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis. In our previous study, SMI was shown to differentially affect CYP3A4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam (MDZ). The present study was conducted to identify the active components in SMI responsible for the differential effects on MDZ metabolism, using in vitro incubation systems (rat and human liver microsomes and a recombinant CYP3A4 system) to measure 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ. First, different fractions of SMI were obtained by gradient elution on an solid phase extraction system and individually tested for their effects on MDZ metabolism. The results demonstrated that lipid-soluble constituents were likely to be the predominant active components of SMI. Second, the possible active components were gradually separated on an high-performance liquid chromatography system under different conditions and individually tested in vitro for their effects on MDZ metabolism. Third, the active component obtained in the above experiment was collected and subjected to structural analysis, and identified as panaxytriol (PXT). Finally, it was validated that PXT had significant differential effects on 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ in various in vitro systems that were similar to those of SMI. We conclude that PXT is the constituent of SMI responsible for the differential effects on CYP3A4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ.

  2. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide/carbothioamide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohamed Jawed; Khalilullah, Habibullah; Stables, James P; Govindasamy, Jeyabalan

    2013-06-01

    A series of fourteen 3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide/carbothioamide analogues were synthesized and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity according to the Antiepileptic Drug Development Programme (ADD) protocol. Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity in minimal clonic seizure model (6 Hz psychomotor seizure test). 3-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide (4c) was found to be the most active compound of the series showing 75% (3/4, 0.25-2.0 h) and 50% (2/4, 4.0 h) protection against minimal clonic seizure at 100 mg/kg without any toxicity. 3-(Pyridin-4-yl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide (4f) showed protection in maximal electroshock (MES) seizure and subcutaneous metrazol (scMET) seizure at 300 mg/kg.

  3. Oral Morphine Pharmacokinetic in Obesity: The Role of P-Glycoprotein, MRP2, MRP3, UGT2B7, and CYP3A4 Jejunal Contents and Obesity-Associated Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret-Linares, Célia; Miyauchi, Eisuke; Luo, Huilong; Labat, Laurence; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Mouly, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Bergmann, Jean-François; Declèves, Xavier

    2016-03-07

    The objective of our work was to study the association between the jejunal expression levels of P-gp, MRP2, MRP3, UGT2B7, CYP3A4, the ABCB1 c.3435C > T polymorphism, and several obesity-associated biomarkers, as well as oral morphine and glucuronides pharmacokinetics in a population of morbidly obese subjects. The pharmacokinetics of oral morphine (30 mg) and its glucuronides was performed in obese patients candidate to bariatric surgery. A fragment of jejunal mucosa was preserved during surgery. Subjects were genotyped for the ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.3435C > T. The subjects were 6 males and 23 females, with a mean body mass index of 44.8 (35.4-61.9) kg/m(2). The metabolic ratios AUC0-inf M3G/morphine and AUC0-inf M6G/morphine were highly correlated (rs = 0.8, p morphine and its glucuronides were not associated with the jejunal contents of P-gp, CYP3A4, MRP2, and MRP3. The jejunal content of UGT2B7 was positively associated with morphine AUC0-inf (rs = 0.4, p = 0.03). Adiponectin was inversely correlated with morphine Cmax (rs = -0.44, p = 0.03). None of the factors studied was associated with morphine metabolic ratios. The interindividual variability in the jejunal content of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, the ABCB1 gene polymorphism, and the low-grade inflammation did not explain the variability in morphine and glucuronide exposure. High morphine metabolic ratio argued for an increased morphine glucuronidation in morbidly obese patients.

  4. Role of positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of bone involvement in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: specific implications for succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Tomás; Timmers, Henri J L M; Kozupa, Anna; Chen, Clara C; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Reynolds, James C; Ling, Alexander; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lazúrová, Ivica; Adams, Karen T; Whatley, Millie A; Widimsky, Jirí; Pacak, Karel

    2008-03-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 71 subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (30 subjects with mutation of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B (SDHB) gene and 41 subjects without SDHB mutation). Sixty-nine percent presented with bone metastases (SDHB +/-: 77% vs 63%), 39% with liver metastases (SDHB +/-: 27% vs 47%), and 32% with lung metastases (SDHB +/-: 37% vs 29%). The most common sites of bone involvement were thoracic spine (80%; SDHB+/-: 83% vs 77%), lumbar spine (78%; SDHB +/-: 78% vs 75%), and pelvic and sacral bones (78%; SDHB +/-: 91% vs 65%, P=0.04). Subjects with SDHB mutation also showed significantly higher involvement of long bones (SDHB +/-: 78% vs 30%, P=0.007) than those without the mutation. The best overall sensitivity in detecting bone metastases demonstrated positron emission tomography (PET) with 6-[(18)F]-fluorodopamine ([(18)F]-FDA; 90%), followed by bone scintigraphy (82%), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI; 78%), 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) PET (76%), and scintigraphy with [(123/131)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (71%). In subjects with SDHB mutation, imaging modalities with best sensitivities for detecting bone metastases were CT/MRI (96%), bone scintigraphy (95%), and [(18)F]-FDG PET (92%). In subjects without SDHB mutations, the modality with the best sensitivity for bone metastases was [(18)F]-FDA PET (100%). In conclusion, bone scintigraphy should be used in the staging of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, particularly in patients with SDHB mutations. As for PET imaging, [(18)F]-FDG PET is highly recommended in SDHB mutation patients, whereas [(18)F]-FDA PET is recommended in patients without the mutation.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (VmPE-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (SH-EP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed VmPE-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of V. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated SH-EP, which degrades seed storage protein. VmPE-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NEM but not E-64. In addition, purified VmPE-1 had a potential to process the recombinant SH-EP precursor to its intermediate in vitro. cDNA clones for VmPE-1 and its homologue, named VmPE-1A, were identified and sequenced, and their expressions in the cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings and other organs were investigated. VmPE-1 mRNA and SH-EP mRNA were expressed in germinated seeds at the same stage of germination although the enzymatic activity of VmPE-1 rose prior to that of SH-EP. The level of VmPE-1A mRNA continued increasing as germination proceeded. In roots, stems and leaves of fully grown plants, and in hypocotyls, VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A were little expressed. We discuss possible functions of VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A in the cotyledons of germinated seeds.

  6. Effects of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA on the pharmacokinetics of losartan in rats by regulating the activities and expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Yujie; Yu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Yongfang

    2016-03-02

    Losartan (LST) is a common chemical drug used to treat high blood pressure and reduce the risk of stroke in certain people with heart disease. Danshen, prepared from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been widely used for prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. There are more than 35 formulations containing Danshen indexed in the 2010 Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which are often combined with LST to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the clinic. The effects of the two major components of Danshen, salvianolic acid B (SA-B) and tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite, EXP3174, in rats were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: LST, LST+SA-B and LST+Tan IIA, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated after oral administration of LST, LST+SA-B and LST+Tan IIA. It was found that there are significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three groups: Cmax, t1/2, AUC, AUMC in the LST+SA-B group was smaller than those in group LST, while larger in group LST+Tan IIA. Further, the effects of SA-B and Tan IIA on the metabolism of losartan was also investigated using rat liver microsomes in vitro. The results indicated that SA-B can induce the metabolism of LST, while Tan IIA can inhibit the metabolism of LST in rat liver microsomes in vitro by regulating activities of CYP450 enzymes. In addition, the effect of SA-B and Tan IIA on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 expression was studied in Chang liver cells by western-blotting and Real-time PCR. It was concluded that the two components of Danshen, SA-B and Tan IIA have different influences on the metabolism of LST: SA-B can obviously speed up the metabolism of LST by inducing CYP3A4/CYP2C9 activities and expression, however, Tan IIA can slow down the metabolism of LST by inhibiting CYP3A4/CYP2C

  7. Polymorphisms in CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 are not associated with cyclosporine pharmacokinetics nor with cyclosporine clinical end points after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamar, Rachida; Hesselink, Dennis A; van Schaik, Ron H N; Weimar, Willem; Macphee, Iain A M; de Fijter, Johan W; van Gelder, Teun

    2011-04-01

    The association of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetics is controversial. The authors studied the influence of these SNPs on CsA pharmacokinetics as well as on the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) and renal function after kidney transplantation. One hundred seventy-one patients participating in an international, randomized controlled trial were genotyped for CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1B and the ABCB1 1236 C>T, 2677 G>T/A, and 3435 C>T SNPs. The patients were treated with CsA, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids. CsA was dosed to reach predose concentrations (C0) or two hours postdose concentrations (C2). Pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on Days 3 and 10 and Months 1, 3, 6, and 12 after transplantation. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the creatinine clearance. The incidence of BPAR and delayed-graft function was recorded. CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 genotype were not associated with dose-adjusted CsA C0 or C2. The incidence of BPAR in this cohort was 16% and was comparable between the different ABCB1 genotype groups. No significant difference in the incidence of BPAR was found between CYP3A5 expressers (10%) and nonexpressers (18%) (P = 0.24) nor was there a difference in the incidence of BPAR between CYP3A4*1 homozygotes (5%) versus CYP3A4*1B carriers (18%) (P = 0.13). There were no differences with regard to creatinine clearance between the different CYP3A and ABCB1 genotype groups. According to the results, determination of CYP3A and ABCB1 SNPs pretransplantation is not helpful in determining the CsA starting dose and does not aid in predicting the risk of BPAR or worse renal function in an individual patient.

  8. Food Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  9. Food Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  10. Enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Dinesen, B; Deckert, M

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay for urinary albumin using commercially available reagents is described. The assay range is 2.5-120 micrograms/l. When samples are analysed in two standard dilutions, the assayable albumin concentration range is 2.5-240 mg/l, covering the clinical range from...

  11. Influence of Jinglingzi Powder with Different Compatibility on the Activity of Cytochrome P450 3A4 from Rat Liver Microsomes%金铃子散不同配比方对大鼠肝药酶CYP4503A4活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成龙; 王怡薇; 杨庆; 王岚; 王彦礼; 梁日欣; 杨伟鹏; 王伟; 胡楠; 殷小杰; 翁小刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the compatibility of Jinglingizi powder by investigating the influence of Jinglingzi powder with different compatibility on the enzymatic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4( CYP 3A4) from rat liver microsome. Method: The different compatibility of Jinglingizi powder was designed based on the orthogonal array L, ( 34 ). In vitro test, rat liver microsome incubation system was applied to detect the 50% inhibitory concentration of Jinglingzi powder with different compatibility. In vivo experiment, rats were administered orally with the different compatibility of Jinglingizi powder (dose: 9. 75 g· kg-1 ) from day 1 to day 5, then injected probe drug testosterone. The biosamples from liver tissue were obtained by microdialysis probe, then to be analysed by HPLC. The concentration of 6-/J-testosterone and testosterone were accurately determined. The ratio hepatic concentration of 6-β-testosterone to hepatic concentration of testosterone, was applied to describe the CYP 3A4 enzyme activity. Result: The half maximal inhibitory concentrations ( IC50 ) of the extract of Toosendan fruit, Rhizoma Corydalis and Jinlingzi Powder( formula. 1-9) on the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 were (2. 59 ±0. 33) , (0. 87 ±0. 30) , ( 1. 14 ±0.20),(1.00±0. 13) ,(1. 19 ±0. 10), (2. 33 ±0. 15),(1.39±0. 19) ,(1. 14 ±0. 20) ,(1. 29 ±0. 14) ,(1. 43 ±0. 32) ,(1.49 ±0. 28) mg·L-1, respectively. In vivo test, the CYP3A4 enzyme activity was inhibited by the different compatibility of Jinglingizi powder, compared with the normal control group. The inhibited intensity of Jinglingizi powde followed the order: formula 1 (formula 4) > formula 7 > formula 2 ( formula 5) > formula 8 > formula 3 > formula 9. Conclusion: The CYP3A4 enzyme activity is inhibited by the different compatibility of Jinglingizi powder, compared with the normal control group. Compatibility of Jinglingizi powder synergetically down-regulate the the CYP3A4 enzyme activity.%目的:通过比较金铃子

  12. In silico analysis of the fucosylation-associated genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni: cloning and characterization of the enzymes involved in GDP-L-fucose synthesis and Golgi import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nathan A; Anderson, Tavis K; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Yoshino, Timothy P

    2013-07-09

    Carbohydrate structures of surface-expressed and secreted/excreted glycoconjugates of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni are key determinants that mediate host-parasite interactions in both snail and mammalian hosts. Fucose is a major constituent of these immunologically important glycans, and recent studies have sought to characterize fucosylation-associated enzymes, including the Golgi-localized fucosyltransferases that catalyze the transfer of L-fucose from a GDP-L-fucose donor to an oligosaccharide acceptor. Importantly, GDP-L-fucose is the only nucleotide-sugar donor used by fucosyltransferases and its availability represents a bottleneck in fucosyl-glycotope expression. A homology-based genome-wide bioinformatics approach was used to identify and molecularly characterize the enzymes that contribute to GDP-L-fucose synthesis and Golgi import in S. mansoni. Putative functions were further investigated through molecular phylogenetic and immunocytochemical analyses. We identified homologs of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase (GMER), which constitute a de novo pathway for GDP-L-fucose synthesis, in addition to a GDP-L-fucose transporter (GFT) that putatively imports cytosolic GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi. In silico primary sequence analyses identified characteristic Rossman loop and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase motifs in GMD and GMER as well as 10 transmembrane domains in GFT. All genes are alternatively spliced, generating variants of unknown function. Observed quantitative differences in steady-state transcript levels between miracidia and primary sporocysts may contribute to differential glycotope expression in early larval development. Additionally, analyses of protein expression suggest the occurrence of cytosolic GMD and GMER in the ciliated epidermal plates and tegument of miracidia and primary sporocysts, respectively, which is consistent with previous localization of highly

  13. Integron involved drug-resistant mechanism in AmpC enzyme positive Enterobacter cloacae clinical strains%阴沟肠杆菌AmpC酶阳性菌株中整合子参与的多重耐药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪应雷; 杜艳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To screen AmpC enzyme positive Enterobacter cloacae strains, and investigate the integron involved drug-resistant mechanism in AmpC enzyme positive strains were presented. Methods the antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the K B method . Disks phenotype screening and three dimensional test were to screen the AmpC enzyme positive strains, ampC, ampD and integron CS genes were amplified by PCR. PCR mapping was applied to study the certain position of ampC and ampD in integron. Results Seventy four Enterobacter cloacae strains were multi-drug resistant strains. The positive rate of disks phenotype screening test was 35. 1% ; whereas 28.4% in three dimensional test. The positive rate of PCR amplifying ampC was 89.2%, ampD was 86. 5% and integron CS was 49%. The positive rate of PCR mapping was 33.3% with bands all smaller than 1000bp. Conclusions Apart from imipenem and amikacin, 74 Enterobacter cloacae strains showed the resistant rate above 50% against penicillins, eephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides respectively. Compared with the three dimensional test, five disks phenotype screening tests were more convenient and practical. So it was mainly used in the clinical laboratories. Although the three dimensional test was the most accurate and reliable, it was mainly applied in scientific research due to the complex and difficulty in advocating and the result revealed that the inserted drug-resistant genes may be located in the upstream of integron.%目的 筛选阴沟肠杆菌AmpC酶阳性菌株,探寻阳性菌株中整合子参与的耐药机制,指导合理用药,为临床治疗感染提供理论依据.方法 KB法药敏;纸片表型和三维试验筛选AmpC酶阳性菌株;PCR扩增ampC、ampD和整合子保守序列CS;PCRmapping研究阳性菌株中ampC和ampD在整合子中的位置.结果 74株阴沟肠杆菌对多种抗生素耐药.纸片表型筛选的阳性率为35.1%;三维试验为28.4%.PCR扩增定位的阳性率为89

  14. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N.

    2005-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  15. CYP3A4 and seasonal variation in vitamin D status in addition to CYP2D6 contribute to therapeutic endoxifen level during tamoxifen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teft, Wendy A; Gong, Inna Y; Dingle, Brian; Potvin, Kylea; Younus, Jawaid; Vandenberg, Theodore A; Brackstone, Muriel; Perera, Francisco E; Choi, Yun-Hee; Zou, Guangyong; Legan, Robin M; Tirona, Rommel G; Kim, Richard B

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen is a widely utilized adjuvant anti-estrogen agent for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, known to undergo CYP2D6-mediated bioactivation to endoxifen. However, little is known regarding additional genetic and non-genetic determinants of optimal endoxifen plasma concentration. Therefore, 196 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen were enrolled in this prospective study over a 24-month period. Blood samples were collected for pharmacogenetic and drug-level analysis of tamoxifen and metabolites. Regression analysis indicated that besides CYP2D6, the recently described CYP3A4*22 genotype, seasonal variation, and concomitant use of CYP2D6-inhibiting antidepressants were significant predictors of endoxifen concentration. Of note, genetic variation explained 33 % of the variability while non-genetic variables accounted for 13 %. Given the proposed notion of a sub-therapeutic endoxifen concentration for predicting breast cancer recurrence, we set the therapeutic threshold at 18 nM, the 20th percentile for endoxifen level among enrolled patients in this cohort. Nearly 70 % of CYP2D6 poor metabolizers as well as extensive metabolizers on potent CYP2D6-inhibiting antidepressants exhibited endoxifen levels below 18 nM, while carriers of CYP3A4*22 were twofold less likely to be in sub-therapeutic range. Unexpectedly, endoxifen levels were 20 % lower during winter months than mean levels across seasons, which was also associated with lower vitamin D levels. CYP3A4*22 genotype along with sunshine exposure and vitamin D status may be unappreciated contributors of tamoxifen efficacy. The identified covariates along with demographic variables were integrated to create an endoxifen concentration prediction algorithm to pre-emptively evaluate the likelihood of individual patients falling below the optimal endoxifen concentration.

  16. Polymorphism of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes increase the risk of neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kus T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tulay Kus,1 Gokmen Aktas,1 Mehmet Emin Kalender,1 Abdullah Tuncay Demiryurek,2 Mustafa Ulasli,1 Serdar Oztuzcu,3 Alper Sevinc,1 Seval Kul,4 Celaletdin Camci1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep Oncology Hospital, Gaziantep, Turkey; 2Department of Medical Pharmacology, 3Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey; 4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey Background: Interindividual variability of pharmacogenetics may account for unpredictable neurotoxicities of taxanes. Methods: From March 2011 to June 2015, female patients with operable breast cancer who had received docetaxel- or paclitaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. All patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel intravenously (IV 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for four cycles, or IV 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, and IV 100 mg/m2 docetaxel for four cycles as adjuvant treatment. We evaluated the relationship between neurotoxicity of taxanes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, CYP3A4, ERCC1, ERCC2, FGFR4, TP53, ERBB2, and CYP2C8 genes. Taxane-induced neurotoxicity during the treatment was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.03 prior to each cycle. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the two groups, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used for determining possible risk factors of neuropathy. Results: Pharmacogenetic analysis was performed in 219 females. ABCB1 3435 TT genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.759, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.172–6.493, P: 0.017 compared to TC and CC genotype, and also CYP3A4 392 AA and AG genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (OR: 2.259, 95% CI: 1.033–4.941, P: 0.038 compared to GG genotype. For

  17. Metabolism of novel anti-HIV agent 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-mei ZHUANG; Jing-ting DENG; Hua LI; Wei-li KONG; Jin-xiu RUAN; Lan XIE

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the metabolism of 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK (CMDCK),a novel anti-HIV agent,by human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs).Methods:CMDCK was incubated with HLMs or a panel of recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP1A2,2B6,2C8,2C9,2C19,2D6,3A4,and 3A5.LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify CMDCK metabolites.In the experiments with recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes,specific chemical inhibitors combined with CYP antibodies were used to identify the CYP isoforms involved in CMDCK metabolism.Results:CMDCK was rapidly and extensively metabolized by HLMs.Its intrinsic hepatic clearance estimated from the in vitro data was 19.4 mL.min-1·kg-1,which was comparable to the mean human hepatic blood flow rate (20.7 mL·min-1·kg-1).The major metabolic pathway of CMDCK was oxidation,and a total of 14 metabolites were detected.CYP3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the principal CYP enzymes responsible for CMDCK metabolism.Conclusion:CMDCK was metabolized rapidly and extensively in human hepatic microsomes to form a number of oxidative metabolites.CYP3A4 and 3A5 were the predominant enzymes responsible for the oxidation of CMDCK.

  18. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by natural extracts used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, María T; Jimenez, Nuria; Garrido, Gabino; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Menendez, Roberto; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, María J

    2009-02-01

    Different medicinal plants are widely used in Cuba and Mexico to treat several disorders. This paper reports in vitro inhibitory effects on the P450 system of herbal products commonly used by people in Cuba and Mexico in traditional medicine for decades. Experiments were conducted in human liver microsomes. The catalytic activities of CYP1A1/2, 2D6, and 3A4 were measured using specific probe substrates. The Heliopsis longipes extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the three enzymes, and similar effects were produced by affinin (an alkamide isolated from the H. longipes extract) and two catalytically reduced alkamides. Mangifera indica L. and Thalassia testudinum extracts, two natural polyphenol-rich extracts, diminished CYP1A1/2 and 3A4 activities, but not the CYP2D6 activity. These results suggest that these herbs inhibit the major human P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and could induce potential herbal-drug interactions.

  19. Function of heterologous Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA, a type 2 fatty acid synthase enzyme involved in extending C20 fatty acids to C60-to-C90 mycolic acids, during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Aner; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J

    2008-08-01

    We describe the physiological function of heterologously expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria. InhA, representing 2-trans-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and the target for the front-line antituberculous drug isoniazid, is involved in the activity of dissociative type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII) that extends associative type 1 fatty acid synthase (FASI)-derived C(20) fatty acids to form C(60)-to-C(90) mycolic acids. Mycolic acids are major constituents of the protective layer around the pathogen that contribute to virulence and resistance to certain antimicrobials. Unlike FASI, FASII is thought to be incapable of de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. Here, the genes for InhA (Rv1484) and four similar proteins (Rv0927c, Rv3485c, Rv3530c, and Rv3559c) were expressed in S. cerevisiae etr1Delta cells lacking mitochondrial 2-trans-enoyl-thioester reductase activity. The phenotype of the yeast mutants includes the inability to produce sufficient levels of lipoic acid, form mitochondrial cytochromes, respire, or grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. Yeast etr1Delta cells expressing mitochondrial InhA were able to respire, grow on glycerol, and produce lipoic acid. Commensurate with a role in mitochondrial de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, InhA could accept in vivo much shorter acyl-thioesters (C(4) to C(8)) than was previously thought (>C(12)). Moreover, InhA functioned in the absence of AcpM or protein-protein interactions with its native FASII partners KasA, KasB, FabD, and FabH. None of the four proteins similar to InhA complemented the yeast mutant phenotype. We discuss the implications of our findings with reference to lipoic acid synthesis in M. tuberculosis and the potential use of yeast FASII mutants for investigating the physiological function of drug-targeted pathogen enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis.

  20. Itraconazole, a P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitor, markedly raises the plasma concentrations and enhances the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapaninen, Tuija; Backman, Janne T; Kurkinen, Kaisa J; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2011-03-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 11 healthy volunteers took 100 mg (first dose 200 mg) of the antifungal drug itraconazole, a P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitor, or placebo twice daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension. Itraconazole raised the peak plasma aliskiren concentration 5.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 24.3-fold; P plasma aliskiren concentration-time curve 6.5-fold (range, 2.6- to 20.5-fold; P Plasma renin activity 24 hours after aliskiren intake was 68% lower during the itraconazole phase than during the placebo phase (P = .011). In conclusion, itraconazole markedly raises the plasma concentrations and enhances the renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren. The interaction is probably mainly explained by inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of aliskiren in the small intestine, with a minor contribution from inhibition of CYP3A4. Concomitant use of aliskiren and itraconazole is best avoided.

  1. Influencia de polimorfismos genéticos de CYP3A4/5 en la farmacocinética de levonorgestrel: estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Moreno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El levonorgestrel, un progestágeno sintético usado para endometriosis, dismenorrea y anticoncepción de emergencia, es rápida y completamente absorbido en el tubo digestivo. Su metabolismo es principalmente hepático, mediante las enzimas CYP3A4 y CYP3A5. Objetivo. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la asociación entre la farmacocinética de levonorgestrel y las variantes alélicas de CYP3A4*1B y CYP3A5*3. Materiales y métodos. En un grupo de 17 mujeres adultas sanas, que firmaron un consentimiento informado, se practicó genotipificación para CYP3A4*1B y CYP3A5*3 mediante PCR. Posteriormente, las voluntarias fueron sometidas a un estudio farmacocinético donde, luego de 12 horas de ayuno, recibieron una dosis de 0,75 mg de levonorgestrel. Se extrajeron muestras sanguíneas seriadas (0 a 24 horas y se determinaron las concentraciones de levonorgestrel mediante un método validado de UPLC-ms/ms, para luego obtener los parámetros farmacocinéticos. Todos los procedimientos consideraron los aspectos éticos de la Declaración de Helsinki y las buenas prácticas clínicas. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas observadas para el grupo de estudio fueron 11,8 % para*1B/*1B; 5,8 % para *1/*1B, y 82,4 % para *1/*1 de CYP3A4*1B. Para CYP3A5*3, las frecuencias genotípicas fueron 70,5 % para *3/*3; 23,5 % para *1/*3, y 6,5 % para *1/*1. Se observa una interesante variabilidad entre las voluntarias que sugiere una relación con las variantes genéticas CYP3A, pero que no permite establecer una asociación estadísticamente significativa, presumiblemente debido albajo número de individuos homocigotos mutados de CYP3A4 y silvestres de CYP3A5. Conclusiones. Los polimorfismos genéticos podrían ser factores relevantes en la determinación de la variabilidad entre pacientes en las concentraciones plasmáticas de levonorgestrel, lo cual, sin embargo, no pudo ser establecido estadísticamente en este estudio. Por lo tanto

  2. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withey Laura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively. Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility.

  3. Polymorphism of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes increase the risk of neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability of pharmacogenetics may account for unpredictable neurotoxicities of taxanes. Methods From March 2011 to June 2015, female patients with operable breast cancer who had received docetaxel- or paclitaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. All patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel intravenously (IV) 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for four cycles, or IV 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, and IV 100 mg/m2 docetaxel for four cycles as adjuvant treatment. We evaluated the relationship between neurotoxicity of taxanes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, CYP3A4, ERCC1, ERCC2, FGFR4, TP53, ERBB2, and CYP2C8 genes. Taxane-induced neurotoxicity during the treatment was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.03 prior to each cycle. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the two groups, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used for determining possible risk factors of neuropathy. Results Pharmacogenetic analysis was performed in 219 females. ABCB1 3435 TT genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.759, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.172–6.493, P: 0.017) compared to TC and CC genotype, and also CYP3A4 392 AA and AG genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (OR: 2.259, 95% CI: 1.033–4.941, P: 0.038) compared to GG genotype. For FDGF4 gene with AG and GG genotype, OR was 1.879 (95% CI: 1.001–3.525, P: 0.048) compared to AA genotype with regard to any grade of neuropathy risk. We could not find any other association of other genotypes with neurotoxicity grades. Conclusion ABCB1 3435 TT genotype and CYP3A4 392 AA/AG genotypes may be used as predictors of neurotoxicity during taxane chemotherapy. PMID:27574448

  4. Spectroscopic studies and molecular docking on the interaction of organotin antitumor compound bis[2,4-difluoro-N-(hydroxy-⟨κ⟩O)benzamidato-⟨κ⟩O]diphenyltin(IV) with human cytochrome P450 3A4 protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Niu, Lin; Liu, Xinxin; Zhou, Hongyan; Dong, Hongzhou; Kong, Depeng; Li, Yunlan; Li, Qingshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel organotin DFDPT was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 13C, 119Sn, NMR techniques,etc. In order to investigate profoundly the relationship between DFDPT with human CYP3A4 proteaset and anticancer molecular mechanism of DFDPT, the intercalative mode of binding of DFDPT with CYP3A4 under physiological conditions were comprehensively evaluated using steady state, synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy,circular dichroism and molecular docking. Fluorescence emission data showed that CYP3A4 fluorescence affected by DFDPT was a static quenching procedure, which implied that DFDPT-CYP3A4 complex had been formed. Apparent binding constants Kb of CYP3A4 with compound at 298 and 310 K were 2.51 × 107 and 3.09 × 105, respectively. The binding sites number n was 1.64 and 1.22, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH and ΔS of the DFDPT-CYP3A4 complex were negative, which indicated that their interaction was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force. The binding of DFDPT-CYP3A4 was spontaneous process in which ΔG was negative. The synchronous results showed DFDPT induced conformational changes of CYP3A4 protein. Three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra results also revealed conformation of CYP3A4 protein had been possible changed in the presence of DFDPT. Molecular docking was used to study the interaction orientation between DFDPT and CYP3A4 protease. The results indicated that DFDPT interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP3A4 protein mainly through formation of hydrogen bond. Furthermore, the predicted binding mode of DFDPT into CYP3A4 appeared to adopt an orientation with interactions among Arg105, Ser119 and Thr309.

  5. Cloning and Expression of Key Enzyme Genes Involved in Phalaenopsis Anthocyanins Synthesis%蝴蝶兰花青素苷合成途径关键酶基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟淮钦; 黄敏玲; 吴建设; 樊荣辉

    2013-01-01

    Four key enzyme genes (CHS ,DFR ,F3′5′H ,A NS) involved in anthocyanins synthesis were cloned from the flower petals of Phalaenopsis with homology sequence cloning .The length of the sequence was 302 bp ,275 bp ,285 bp and 285 bp , respectively . Sequence analysis showed that these protein shared high similarity to other proteins from Dendrobium ,Cymbidium et al ,ranging from 81% -95% ,67% -91% ,68% - 92% and 83% -89% ,respectively .The results of phylogenetic analysis were in agreement with those described in plant taxonomy .Results of Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of CHS and F3′5′H gene was the highest in the flower large bud and early flowering stages ,and then decreased in blooming .The expression level of CHS and F3′5′H gene in petals and lip was greater than in sepals ,the trace expression revealed in Leaves and roots .%采用 RT-PCR 技术从蝴蝶兰‘满天红’花瓣中克隆获得花青素苷生物合成途径中 CH S 、 DFR 、 F3′5′H和 A NS 等4个关键酶基因的保守序列,长度分别为302、275、285和285 bp 。序列分析表明:4个关键酶蛋白与石斛兰、大花蕙兰等其他植物来源的花青素苷生物合成相关蛋白均具有较高的同源性,分别为81%~95%、67%~91%、68%~92%和83%~89%。系统进化分析表明4个关键酶基因的系统进化基本上符合植物分类学分类。实时荧光定量 PCR 检测结果表明, CH S 和 F3′5′H 基因在大花蕾期及始花期的表达量最高,盛花期表达量降低;在花瓣、唇瓣中的表达量大于萼片,在叶片、根中仅有微量表达。

  6. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  7. In vitro effects of four native Brazilian medicinal plants in CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression, glutathione levels and P-glycoprotein activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Dias Araujo Mazzari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae, Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae, Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae are medicinal plants species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI. In this work we assess non-toxic concentrations (100μg/mL of their infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR. Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (two-fold decrease, p<0.05, this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38mg/mL. Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p<0.001, Lippia sidoides (-12%, p<0.05 and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p<0.001. The later plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p<0.01. In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  8. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP21A2 genes in the risk for hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto, Eliecer; Tavira, Beatriz; Marín, Rafael; Ortega, Francisco; López-Larrea, Carlos; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto; Díaz, Marta; Corao, Ana I; Alonso, Belén; Alvarez, Victoria

    2010-07-02

    An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3; SNP rs776746) affects RNA splicing and enzymatic activity. The CYP3A5*3 frequency increased with distance from the equator and natural selection has been proposed to explain the worldwide distribution of this allele. CYP3A activity has been related with the risk for hypertension in pregnancy, a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, and CYP3A5*3 could reduce the risk for this disease in populations from regions with high sodium and water availability. The CYP3A5 genotype was related with blood pressure in the general population, but the effect on the risk for hypertension in pregnancy has not been evaluated.We compared the allele and genotype frequencies of three functional SNPs in the CYP3A5 (rs776746), CYP3A4 (rs2740574), and CYP21A2 (rs6471) genes between pregnant women who developed hypertension (n = 250) or who remained normotensive (control group, n = 250). In addition, we sequenced the full CYP3A5 coding sequence in 40 women from the two groups to determine whether some gene variants could explain the risk for hypertensive pregnancies in our population.Allele and genotype frequencies did not differ between hypertensive and normotensive women for the three CYP variants. We did not find CYP3A5 nucleotide changes that could explain a higher risk for hypertension in pregnancy. Our data suggests that the variation in CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and CYP21A2 did not contribute to the risk for hypertension in pregnancy in our population.

  9. 定量5-羟奥美拉唑和奥美拉唑砜以探测中国人肝微粒体中CYP2C19和CYP3A4的活性%Probing CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities in Chinese liver microsomes by quantification of 5-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole suiphone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒焱; 王连生; 肖卫民; 王伟; 黄松林; 周宏灏

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To develop an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of 5-hydroxyomeprazole (5-OH-OP) and omeprazole suffone (OPS), and explore whether omeprazole (OP) is an appropriate phenotypic probe for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in Chinese liver microsomes.METHODS: OP metabolism in vitro was conducted in Chinese liver microsomes, and the major metabolites 5-OH-OP and OPS were determined using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Monoclonal antibodies anti-CYP2C8/9/19 and anti-CYP3A4 were employed to conduct inhibition experiments. The protein contents of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 were quantified using Western blot analysis and densitometric scanning. RESULTS:5-OH-OP and OPS gave a baseline resolution in the HPLC analysis. The detection limits for both compounds were 0.01 nmol and the recovery (98 % -102 %) had good precision with relative standard deviation of 87 % ). At a substrate concentration of 2 μmol/L OP, good correlations were found between OP 5-hydroxylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation activities ( r = 0.72, P 87%);在底物浓度为2 μmol/L OP时,中国人肝微粒体中OP的5-羟化与美芬妥英的4'-羟化活性之间(r=0.72,P<0.01)、OP的5-羟化活性与CYP2C19含量之间(r=0.82,P<0.01)以及OP的硫代氧化活性与CYP3A4含量之间(r=0.78,P<0.01)均有很好的相关性.结论:中国人肝微粒体中OP的代谢主要由CYP2C19和CYP3A4介导;采用本研究建立的HPLC方法,在适当的底物浓度下,OP能用于体外探测中国人肝微粒体中CYP2C19及CYP3A4的活性.

  10. Lignolytic Enzymes Production from Selected Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Shantaveera Swamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ligninase enzymes produced by selected mushrooms have been reported. We collected mushrooms from Western Ghats, most of them were edible food. Thirty samples isolated were tested using a plate assay through direct agar plate assay by using ABTS, decolourisation containing the fifteen isolates were able to decolourise the dye, indicating a lignin-degrading ability. Spectrophotometric enzyme assays from all selected isolates were carried out to examine the production of Ligninolytic enzymes (Laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Ten selected isolates produced all three kinds of enzymes tested. Lignolytic enzymes are groups of enzymes these are actively involved in bioremediation.

  11. 淫羊藿总黄酮对大鼠肝微粒体CYP1A2、CYP3A4和CYP2E1活性的影响%Effect of total flavonoids of epimedium on liver microsomal CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 activities in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡道德; 姚慧娟; 顾磊; 王松坡; 刘皋林

    2008-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of total flavonoids of epimedium (TFE) on cytochrome P450 and activity of its main isoforms in rat liver microsomes. TFE (300 mg/kg) was administered once daily to male Sprague-Dowley rats by gavage for fifteen days. The total cytochrome P450 content and its main isoforms CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 activities in rat liver microsomes were detected. The activity of CYP1A2 was measured by fluorometry and the activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 were determined by measuring the amount of methanal and p-aminophenol formed using UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respec- tively. Administration of TFE significantly increased the total CYP450 content and activities of CYP 1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 in rat liver microsomes, compared with the control group. Partieularly, the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 were enhanced significantly (P<0.01). TFE induced the increase in total CYP450 content and its main isoforms CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2EI activities in rat liver microsomes.%评估淫羊藿总黄酮对大鼠肝细胞色素P450及其主要亚型活性的潜在影响.淫羊藿总黄酮以300 mg/kg/d的剂量对SD大鼠进行连续灌胃处理15天,测定肝微粒体中CYP450含量与CYP1A2、CYP3A4和CYP2E1亚型活性,观察淫羊藿总黄酮的效应.CYP1A2的活性用荧光比色法进行测定,CYP3A4和CYP2E1的活性用紫外可见分光光度法测定.淫羊藿总黄酮处理后的大鼠肝脏CYP450含量及CYP1A2、CYP3A4和LICYP2E1亚型活性均明显增高,其中CYP1A2和CYP2E1活性升高显著(P<0.01).淫羊藿总黄酮对大鼠肝脏CYP450及主要亚型CYP1A2、CYP3A4和CYP2E1活性均有诱导效应.

  12. Effects of Roxarsone on the Protein Expression of CYP3A4 and 2E1 in Swine Liver Hepatic Microsome%洛克沙胂对猪肝微粒体CYP3A4及CYP2E1蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋美琳; 李银生; 赵春; 鲁晓旭; 周新初; 王秀红; 邱江平; 艾晓杰

    2015-01-01

    洛克沙胂是一种常用的饲料添加药物,细胞色素P450酶系(CYP或P450)是动物体内药物代谢的主要酶类.本文研究了洛克沙胂对猪肝微粒体P450酶系中的2种酶CYP3A4和CYP2E1的蛋白表达的影响,为揭示该药的代谢机理、残留机制以及临床安全用药提供理论依据.实验将洛克沙胂以5、25和125 mmol/L 3个剂量,分别添加到猪肝微粒体体外孵育体系中,以生理盐水作对照,于37℃孵育1h,测定微粒体蛋白含量及CYP3A4及2E1的蛋白表达.结果表明中剂量和高剂量的洛克沙胂对猪肝细胞微粒体的CYP3A4及2E1的蛋白表达均呈现抑制作用,而低剂量的洛克沙胂对CYP3A4和CYP2E1的蛋白表达影响很小.

  13. Involvement of metals in enzymatic and nonenzymatic decomposition of C-terminal alpha-hydroxyglycine to amide: an implication for the catalytic role of enzyme-bound zinc in the peptidylamidoglycolate lyase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Harada, Saori; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Shimokawa, Chizu; Sato, Hideaki; Sugishima, Masakazu; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Noguchi, Masato

    2009-02-24

    The peptide C-terminal amide group essential for the full biological activity of many peptide hormones is produced by consecutive actions of peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidylamidoglycolate lyase (PAL); PHM catalyzes the hydroxylation of C-terminal glycine, and PAL decomposes the peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine to an amidated peptide and glyoxylate. PAL contains 1 mol of zinc, but its role, catalytic or structural, has not yet been clarified. In this study, we found that a series of transition metals, Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+), catalyze the nonenzymatic decomposition of the hydroxyglycine intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. The second-order rate constant of the metal catalysis increased with elevation of pH, indicating that the hydrated metal acts as a general base. Extensive removal of the enzyme-bound metals remarkably diminished the PAL activity; k(cat) of the metal-depleted enzyme retaining 0.1 mol of zinc decreased to 3.2 s(-1) from 25.7 s(-1) of the wild-type enzyme. Among a series of divalent metals tested, Zn(2+), Co(2+), and Cd(2+) could fully restore the PAL activity of the metal-depleted enzyme. Especially, Zn substitution reproduced the steady-state parameters of the wild-type enzyme. On the other hand, Co and Cd substitution largely altered the kinetic parameters; the k(cat) increased 3- and 5-fold and the K(m) for the substrate increased 2.5- and 4-fold, respectively. These observations support that the enzyme-bound zinc plays a catalytic role, rather than a structural role, in the PAL reaction through the action of zinc-bound water as a general base.

  14. Dynamically simulating the interaction of midazolam and the CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole using individual coupled whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang In-Jin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-drug interactions resulting from the inhibition of an enzymatic process can have serious implications for clinical drug therapy. Quantification of the drugs internal exposure increase upon administration with an inhibitor requires understanding to avoid the drug reaching toxic thresholds. In this study, we aim to predict the effect of the CYP3A4 inhibitors, itraconazole (ITZ and its primary metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole (OH-ITZ on the pharmacokinetics of the anesthetic, midazolam (MDZ and its metabolites, 1' hydroxymidazolam (1OH-MDZ and 1' hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (1OH-MDZ-Glu using mechanistic whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic simulation models. The model is build on MDZ, 1OH-MDZ and 1OH-MDZ-Glu plasma concentration time data experimentally determined in 19 CYP3A5 genotyped adult male individuals, who received MDZ intravenously in a basal state. The model is then used to predict MDZ, 1OH-MDZ and 1OH-MDZ-Glu concentrations in an CYP3A-inhibited state following ITZ administration. Results For the basal state model, three linked WB-PBPK models (MDZ, 1OH-MDZ, 1OH-MDZ-Glu for each individual were elimination optimized that resulted in MDZ and metabolite plasma concentration time curves that matched individual observed clinical data. In vivo Km and Vmax optimized values for MDZ hydroxylation were similar to literature based in vitro measures. With the addition of the ITZ/OH-ITZ model to each individual coupled MDZ + metabolite model, the plasma concentration time curves were predicted to greatly increase the exposure of MDZ as well as to both increase exposure and significantly alter the plasma concentration time curves of the MDZ metabolites in comparison to the basal state curves. As compared to the observed clinical data, the inhibited state curves were generally well described although the simulated concentrations tended to exceed the experimental data between approximately 6 to 12 hours following

  15. Herbal medicine Yin Zhi Huang induces CYP3A4-mediated sulfoxidation and CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan FAN; Hong-hao ZHOU; Guo WANG; Lian-sheng WANG; Yao CHEN; Wei ZHANG; Yuan-fei HUANG; Rui-xue HUANG; Dong-li HU; Dan WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To explore the potential interactions between Yin Zhi Huang (YZH) and omeprazole, a substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Methods: Eighteen healthy volunteers, including 6 CYP2C19* 1/*1, 6 CYP2C19*1/*2 or *3 and 6 CYP2C19*2/ *2 were enrolled in a 2-phase, randomized, crossover clinical trial. In each phase,the volunteers received either placebo or 10 mL YZH oral liquid, 3 times daily for 14 d. Then all the patients took a 20 mg omeprazole capsule orally. Blood samples were collected up to 12 h after omeprazole administration. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole and its metabolites were quantified by HPLC with UV detection.Results: After 14 d of treatment of YZH, plasma omeprazole significantly decreased and those of omeprazole sulfone and 5-hydroxyomeprazole signifi-cantly increased. The ratios of the area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-∞) of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomprazole and those of omeprazole to omeprazole sulfone decreased by 64.80%±12.51% (P=0.001 ) and 63.31%±18.45 % (P=0.004) in CYP2C 19* 1/* 1,57.98%±14. 80% (P=0.002)and 54.87%±18.42% (P=0.003) in CYP2C19*1/*2 or *3, and 37.74%±16.07% (P=0.004) and 45.16%± 15.54% (P=0.003) in CYP2C19*2/*2, respectively. The decrease of the AUC(0-∞) ratio of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomprazole in CYP2C19*1/*1 and CYP2C19*1/*2 or *3 was greater than those in CYP2C19*2/*2 (P=0.047 and P=0.009). Conclusion: YZH induces both CYP3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole leading to decreases in plasma omeprazole concentrations.

  16. Role of positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of bone involvement in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: specific implications for succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B gene mutations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelinka, T.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Kozupa, A.; Chen, C.C.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Reynolds, J.C.; Ling, A.; Eisenhofer, G.; Lazurova, I.; Adams, K.T.; Whatley, M.A.; Widimsky, J.Jr.; Pacak, K.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 71 subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (30 subjects with mutation of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B (SDHB) gene and 41 subjects without SDHB mutation). Sixty-nine percent presented with bone metastases (SDHB +/-: 77% vs 63%),

  17. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O' Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward