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Sample records for 345-kv transmission tie

  1. Sound transmission performance on cavity ferrocement panels with ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandaswamy S; Ramachandraiah A

    2003-01-01

    Ferrocement panels have been used in low cost housing construction in developingcountries. This study focuses on the sound transmission performance of cavity ferrocement pan-els with ties. In this study, panels have been cast and tested in transmission loss suite speciallydesigned and constructed for testing their sound transmission performance experimentally. Themeasured results agree well with the theoretical model.

  2. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    OpenAIRE

    Didouh, S.; Abri, M.; F. T. Bendimerad

    2012-01-01

    A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, ele...

  3. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  4. Bi-Band Bow-Tie Antennas Array Design Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a simple equivalent and accurate transmission line model for bi-band bow-tie antennas array design over a band of frequencies for satellite communications. This model uses the resistance of a square element that appears at the edges of the antenna (radiating slots. To test this model, two antennas array were simulated and results were compared with those obtained by a rigorous method (moment’s method of the simulator ADS/Momentum. Using this transmission line approach the resonant frequency, return loss, VSWR, reflected phase, input impedance can be determined simultaneously. The results confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  5. Bi-Band Bow-Tie Antennas Array Design Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abri, M.; H. Abri Badaoui; Dib, H; A.S.E. Gharnaout

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simple equivalent and accurate transmission line model for bi-band bow-tie antennas array design over a band of frequencies for satellite communications. This model uses the resistance of a square element that appears at the edges of the antenna (radiating slots). To test this model, two antennas array were simulated and results were compared with those obtained by a rigorous method (moment’s method) of the simulator ADS/Momentum. Using this transmission line appro...

  6. Multilayered BOW-TIE Antennas Design for RFID and Radar Applications Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    OpenAIRE

    Didouh, S.; Abri, M.; F. T. Bendimerad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose the design of bow-tie antenna based on a simple modified transmission line model. The developed model is simple, accurate and takes into account all the antenna characteristics.The simulated antennas are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID and Radars applications. To validate this last the obtained simulation results are compared to those obtained by the moment’s method (Agilent Momentum software). Using this transmission li...

  7. Multilayered BOW-TIE Antennas Design for RFID and Radar Applications Using a Simple Equivalent Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the design of bow-tie antenna based on a simple modified transmission line model. The developed model is simple, accurate and takes into account all the antenna characteristics.The simulated antennas are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID and Radars applications. To validate this last the obtained simulation results are compared to those obtained by the moment’s method (Agilent Momentum software. Using this transmission line approach the resonant frequency, input impedance, return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  8. Binding Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-U.S.Strategic Economic Dialogue is an important platform for the healthy development of the two countries’ trade and economic ties The Sino-U.S.Strategic Economic Dialogue(SED)meetings focus mainly on strategic,long-term and upper-level problems in bilateral eco- nomic relations between China and the United States.They serve as a platform for deepening understanding between the two countries and prompting the healthy develop-

  9. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  10. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia

    B. LEVESY

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  11. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  12. More ties than we thought

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Dan; Markström, Ingemar; Patterson, Meredith L; Sandberg, Anders; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    We extend the existing enumeration of neck tie-knots to include tie-knots with a textured front, tied with the narrow end of a tie. These tie-knots have gained popularity in recent years, based on reconstructions of a costume detail from The Matrix Reloaded, and are explicitly ruled out in the enumeration by Fink and Mao (2000). We show that the relaxed tie-knot description language that comprehensively describes these extended tie-knot classes is context free. It has a regular sub-language t...

  13. Relevant ties matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Pedersen, Jacob; Mouw, Ted

    What is the effect of social networks on labor market outcomes? The tradition following Grannovetter claims that social ties have a positive effect on wages, job prestige and job satisfaction. Although a number of studies have found positive correlations between friendship characteristics and lab...

  14. New Tech, New Ties:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    regardless of where they are. But when we are engaged in these intimate conversations with absent friends, what happens to our relationship with the people who are actually in the same room with us? In New Tech, New Ties, Rich Ling examines how the mobile telephone affects both kinds of interactions...

  15. The Ties That Bind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China and the United States prepare for their first Strategic and Economic Dialogue U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner’s China trip from May 31 to June 2 sent a clear message that the two countries plan to establish stronger ties not only in the economic field, but also in other areas where they have com-

  16. Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160101.html Zika Now Tied to Miscarriage Dutch case finds woman's ... tied to maternal infection with the mosquito-borne Zika virus. The virus is best known for its ...

  17. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    that the strategic value of professional informal network ties is contingent on the actual combination of resources these ties provide. Furthermore, this combination depends on micro-level mechanisms that affect three dimensions of tie content: the number of resources, the type of resources and the extent to which...

  18. Water and Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小诗

    1999-01-01

    A tourist got separated from his tour group in the Sahara. He begged apassing nomad (游牧部落的人) for water." Sorry," said the tribesman (部落男子), "I have no water, but I do have some lovely neckties I’ll sell you." "Youmust be crazy," the tourist mumbled (喃喃而语). Nearly dead from thirst, hespied (发现) another man." Water!" the tourist gasped. "Please, give mewater. ""I have no water," came the reply, "only these handsome ties, which Iwill happily sell you."

  19. The Strength of Direct Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Falck, Oliver; Grosjean, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    's connectedness to other developers at multiple points in time. In a regression in which we exploit within-career variation in social network measures, we find that the number of direct ties a developer has to other developers has a strong effect on both a game's revenues and critics' scores. The quality...... of indirect ties makes no additional contribution to the game's success....

  20. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  1. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...

  2. 7 CFR 7.12 - Tie votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tie votes. 7.12 Section 7.12 Agriculture Office of the..., COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.12 Tie votes. (a) Tie votes in community committee elections held by mail or polling place method shall be settled by lot. Tie votes in such elections held by the...

  3. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...... evidence from 83 nations and data on second generation immigrants in 29 countries with ancestry in 85 nations. Strong families cultivate universalist values and produce more civic and altruistic individuals. The results provide a constructive role for families in promoting family values that support...

  4. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...

  5. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  6. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Qijing; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3), consequently an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6*10^7 (1.36*10^5), at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. This dielectric bow-tie nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon source, thresholdless nanolaser, and cavity QED strong coupling experiments.

  7. Roles of Ties in Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Controlling global epidemics in the real world and accelerating information propagation in the artificial world are of great significance, which have activated an upsurge in the studies on networked spreading dynamics. Lots of efforts have been made to understand the impacts of macroscopic statistics (e.g., degree distribution and average distance) and mesoscopic structures (e.g., communities and rich clubs) on spreading processes while the microscopic elements are less concerned. In particular, roles of ties are not yet clear to the academic community. Methodology/Principle Findings: Every edges is stamped by its strength that is defined solely based on the local topology. According to a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model, the steady-state infected density and spreading speed are respectively optimized by adjusting the relationship between edge's strength and spreading ability. Experiments on six real networks show that the infected density is increased when strong ties are favored i...

  8. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  9. Release of Tongue-Tie in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Raveenthiran, V

    2012-01-01

    Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they...

  10. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight...

  11. Broadband bow-tie antenna with tapered balun

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hussein Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In microwave applications spectrum Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band, especially in wireless communication systems applications such as GSM, 3G, Wi-Fi and Wi-MAX applications, high antenna characteristics such as high gain and wide bandwidth are required. In this thesis, a broadband Bow Tie Antenna (BTA) with high performance characteristics has been designed, to cover the wireless application requirements. One of the fundamental problems of the transmission line in the ...

  12. RELEASE OF TONGUE-TIE IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Raveenthiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they believe it to be the cause of maternal nipple pain.Perhaps this is the only indication of tongue tie release in neonates.

  13. Common Values,Strong Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The official visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak to China on June 2-5 is seen as an important step in furthering the strategic and cooperative relationship between the two countries. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Zhou Jianxiong, Mohamed Jawhar Hassan, Chairman and CEO of the Institute of Strategic and International Studies, a top think tank and consulting institution in Malaysia, outlined why Malaysia made its decision to establish diplomatic ties with China 35 years ago and why it looks forward to the development of this relationship in the future.

  14. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3)...

  15. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Soniya; La Porta, Silvia; Budnik, Annika; Busch, Katrin; Hu, Junhao; Tisch, Nathalie; Korn, Claudia; Valls, Aida Freire; Benest, Andrew V; Terhardt, Dorothee; Qu, Xianghu; Adams, Ralf H; Baldwin, H Scott; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-09-22

    Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC)-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeling stalk cells and downregulated in the adult quiescent vasculature. Functionally, Tie1 expression by angiogenic EC contributes to shaping the tip cell phenotype by negatively regulating Tie2 surface presentation. In contrast, Tie1 acts in remodeling stalk cells cooperatively to sustain Tie2 signaling. Collectively, our data support an interactive model of Tie1 and Tie2 function, in which dynamically regulated Tie1 versus Tie2 expression determines the net positive or negative effect of Tie1 on Tie2 signaling.

  16. [Neonatal tongue-tie: myths and science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollberg, Shaul; Botzer, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical restraining of tongue movement (tongue-tie, ankyloglossia) has been known for centuries and the subject of dozens of articles. The heated debate persists on its clinical significance and indications for treatment. Most authorities in the field of infant feeding and Lactation agree that breastfeeding problems, such as nipple pain and latching difficulties, are common signs of clinicaLly significant tongue-tie and indications for performing a frenotomy, while the sole presence of a visible lingual frenulum is not. In contrast, the lack of a visible frenulum does not rule out the diagnosis of clinically significant tongue-tie since submucosal ties, also called "posterior tongue-tie", may interfere with efficient breastfeeding. Whether tongue-tie interferes with speech articulation to a significant extent is currently unknown. Theoretically, articulation of some consonants (e.g., /s/, /th/, /r/) would be affected by impeded tongue movement. These articulation problems are, however, Less common than tongue-tie itself, and children and adults characteristically use various compensatory techniques of mouth opening and tongue movements. When it is indicated, frenotomy is performed by lifting the tongue and snipping the frenulum with scissors. Complications of frenotomy are rare and consist mainly of self-limited minor bleeding. The significance of posterior tongue tie and the long-term effects of frenotomy performed during early infancy are unresolved issues. PMID:21449157

  17. Strong Ties in a Small World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco); S. Goyal (Sanjeev)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we test the celebrated `Strength of weak ties' theory of Granovetter (1973). We test two hypotheses on the network structure in a data set of collaborating economists. While we find support for the hypothesis of transitivity of strong ties, we reject the hypothesis that wea

  18. Tie Strength Distribution in Scientific Collaboration Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent work have demonstrated a counter-intuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribut...

  19. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. PMID:24322245

  20. Tie1: an orphan receptor provides context for angiopoietin-2/Tie2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sarah B; Kontos, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 (ANG1/Tie2) signaling is well documented as regulating angiogenesis and vessel maturation. This pathway is complicated by involvement of the orphan receptor Tie1, which has been implicated as both a positive and negative regulator of ANG1/Tie2 signaling, and ANG2, which can serve as both a Tie2 agonist and antagonist, depending on the context. Two papers in this issue of the JCI provide new insight into this complicated pathway. Korhonen et al. reveal that Tie1 acts to modulate the effects of ANG1 and ANG2 on Tie2 in vitro and in vivo. Kim et al. demonstrate that ANG2 acts as a Tie2 agonist in non-pathological conditions, whereas in the setting of inflammation, ANG2 functions as a Tie2 antagonist and promotes vascular dysfunction. Both studies indicate that inflammation promotes cleavage of the ectodomain of Tie1 and that this cleavage event corresponds with the switch of ANG2 from a Tie2 agonist to an antagonist. The results of these studies lay the groundwork for future strategies to therapeutically exploit this pathway in diseases characterized by adverse vascular remodeling and increased permeability. PMID:27548526

  1. Automated seismic-to-well ties?

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Roberto Henry

    2012-01-01

    The quality of seismic-to-well tie is commonly quantified using the classical Pearson's correlation coefficient. However the seismic wavelet is time-variant, well logging and upscaling is only approximate, and the correlation coefficient does not follow this nonlinear behavior. We introduce the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to automate the tying process, accounting for frequency and time variance. The Dynamic Time Warping method can follow the nonlinear behavior better than the commonly used correlation coefficient. Furthermore, the quality of the similarity value does not depend on the selected correlating window. We compare the developed method with the manual seismic-to-well tie in a benchmark case study.

  2. Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161094.html Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival With ALS Tobacco use ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may speed progression of Lou Gehrig's disease and ...

  3. Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159391.html Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty Nightly breathing ... 15, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep apnea may increase the risk of serious complications ...

  4. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158735.html Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight: Study Elevated blood ... baby's metabolism to 'imprint' the baby for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ...

  5. The self-cohering tied-array

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, P A

    2010-01-01

    Large radio astronomy multi-element interferometers are frequently used as single dishes in a tied-array mode when signals from separate antennas are added. Phase shifts arising during wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere can significantly reduce the effective area of an equivalent single dish. I aim to give estimates of the impact of the ionosphere and troposphere on the effectiveness of a radio interferometer working in tied-array mode. Statistical estimates of the effective area are calculated and the power-law of turbulent atmosphere irregularities has been used. A simple method of tied-array calibration using optimization techniques is proposed. The impact of phase errors on the effectiveness of tied-arrays are given for low and high frequencies. Computer simulations demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed calibration algorithm.

  6. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158735.html Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight: Study Elevated blood ... baby's metabolism to 'imprint' the baby for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ...

  7. Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted. PMID:25258296

  8. Automated seismic-to-well ties?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Roberto Henry; Van Der Baan, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    The quality of seismic-to-well tie is commonly quantified using the classical Pearson's correlation coefficient. However the seismic wavelet is time-variant, well logging and upscaling is only approximate, and the correlation coefficient does not follow this nonlinear behavior. We introduce the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to automate the tying process, accounting for frequency and time variance. The Dynamic Time Warping method can follow the nonlinear behavior better than the commonly used cor...

  9. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soniya Savant; Silvia La Porta; Annika Budnik; Katrin Busch; Junhao Hu; Nathalie Tisch; Claudia Korn; Aida Freire Valls; Andrew V. Benest; Dorothee Terhardt; Xianghu Qu; Ralf H. Adams; H. Scott Baldwin; Carmen Ruiz de Almodóvar; Hans-Reimer Rodewald

    2015-01-01

    Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC)-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeli...

  10. Tie1 controls angiopoietin function in vascular remodeling and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Emilia A; Lampinen, Anita; Giri, Hemant; Anisimov, Andrey; Kim, Minah; Allen, Breanna; Fang, Shentong; D'Amico, Gabriela; Sipilä, Tuomas J; Lohela, Marja; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Koh, Gou Young; McDonald, Donald M; Alitalo, Kari; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2016-09-01

    The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin-dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial Tie1 in mice reduced Tie2 phosphorylation and downstream Akt activation, increased FOXO1 nuclear localization and transcriptional activation, and prevented ANG1- and ANG2-induced capillary-to-venous remodeling. However, in acute endotoxemia, the Tie1 ectodomain that is responsible for interaction with Tie2 was rapidly cleaved, ANG1 agonist activity was decreased, and autocrine ANG2 agonist activity was lost, which led to suppression of Tie2 signaling. Tie1 cleavage also occurred in patients with hantavirus infection. These results support a model in which Tie1 directly interacts with Tie2 to promote ANG-induced vascular responses under noninflammatory conditions, whereas in inflammation, Tie1 cleavage contributes to loss of ANG2 agonist activity and vascular stability. PMID:27548530

  11. Open knot-tying skills: residents skills assessed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Empel; M.G.E. Verdam; J.A. Huirne; H.J. Bonjer; W.J. Meijerink; F. Scheele

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills

  12. The Arithmetic Tie Effect Is Mainly Encoding-based.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenberger, Sven

    2001-01-01

    Examined two possible explanations for the arithmetic tie effect: faster encoding of tie problems versus faster access to arithmetic facts. Found that the tie effect vanished with heterogeneous addition problems, and for seven out of eight participants, the effect vanished with heterogeneous multiplication problems. Concludes that the tie effect…

  13. High tie versus low tie in rectal surgery: comparison of anastomotic perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, N.; Slieker, J.; Kort, P. de; Wilt, J.H. de; Harst, E. van der; Coene, P.P.; Gosselink, M.P.; Tetteroo, G.; Graaf, E. de; Beek, T. van; Toom, R. den; Bockel, W. van; Verhoef, C.; Lange, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both "high tie" (HT) and "low tie" (LT) are well-known strategies in rectal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare colonic perfusion after HT to colonic perfusion after LT. METHODS: Patients undergoing rectal resection for malignancy were included. Colonic perfusion was measured with

  14. The Orphan Receptor Tie1 Controls Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling by Differentially Regulating Tie2 in Tip and Stalk Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya Savant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tie1 is a mechanistically poorly characterized endothelial cell (EC-specific orphan receptor. Yet, Tie1 deletion is embryonic lethal and Tie1 has been implicated in critical vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. Here, we show that Tie1 does not function independently but exerts context-dependent effects on the related receptor Tie2. Tie1 was identified as an EC activation marker that is expressed during angiogenesis by a subset of angiogenic tip and remodeling stalk cells and downregulated in the adult quiescent vasculature. Functionally, Tie1 expression by angiogenic EC contributes to shaping the tip cell phenotype by negatively regulating Tie2 surface presentation. In contrast, Tie1 acts in remodeling stalk cells cooperatively to sustain Tie2 signaling. Collectively, our data support an interactive model of Tie1 and Tie2 function, in which dynamically regulated Tie1 versus Tie2 expression determines the net positive or negative effect of Tie1 on Tie2 signaling.

  15. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  16. A matched Bow-tie antenna at 433MHz for use in underwater wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation underwater is been disregarded because of attenuation at high frequencies, however the theory predicts that propagation is possible at some useful distance in the lower Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Common transceivers rely on narrowband antennas and matching circuit. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband 433MHz bow-tie antenna and experiment it in air and water without a matching circuit. This antenna could be attached to wireless transceivers and form a Wireless Sensor Network for deployment in various underwater applications. The bow-tie antennas were designed, simulated and constructed in laboratory. Experiments were setup carefully by using a completely isolated transmitter from electronics to avoid airborne transmission. The 433MHz. bow-tie proved its suitability for use in Underwater.

  17. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  18. Chemical topology: Tying up some loose ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Edward E.

    2010-03-01

    A linear molecule containing three bipyridine ligands can be wrapped around a single metal-ion template to form an open-knot complex. The loose ends of the knot can be 'tied' together through esterification or olefin-metathesis reactions to form closed knots that do not unravel when the metal template is removed.

  19. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  20. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Analysis and Physics of Laparoscopic Intracorporeal Square-Knot Tying

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Marelyn

    2005-01-01

    Square knots are often used in open surgery to approximate tissue borders or tie off tubular structures like vessels or ducts. Three common methods are used for surgical square-knot tying: one-hand tying, two-hand tying, and the instrument-tying technique. Two types of suture placements are studied in both the open and laparoscopic surgical fields. The first called equal length has suture segment ends placed at equal distances from the tying site. The second called unequal length has one sutu...

  2. Multiple angiopoietin recombinant proteins activate the Tie1 receptor tyrosine kinase and promote its interaction with Tie2

    OpenAIRE

    Saharinen, Pipsa; Kerkelä, Katja; Ekman, Niklas; Marron, Marie; Brindle, Nicholas; Lee, Gyun Min; Augustin, Hellmut; Koh, Gou Young; Alitalo, Kari

    2005-01-01

    The Tie1 receptor tyrosine kinase was isolated over a decade ago, but so far no ligand has been found to activate this receptor. Here, we have examined the potential of angiopoietins, ligands for the related Tie2 receptor, to mediate Tie1 activation. We show that a soluble Ang1 chimeric protein, COMP-Ang1, stimulates Tie1 phosphorylation in endothelial cells with similar kinetics and angiopoietin dose dependence when compared with Tie2. The phosphorylation of overexpressed Tie1 was weakly ind...

  3. Coupling Human Mobility and Social Ties

    CERN Document Server

    Toole, Jameson L; Schneider, Christian M; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2015-01-01

    Studies using massive, passively data collected from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion, and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographic information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns amongst social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composi...

  4. Migration, Friendship Ties, and Cultural Assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, Giovanni; Patacchini, Eleonora; Steinhardt, Max

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we contribute to the analysis of the assimilation process of migrants by analyzing the extent to which friendship with natives can be seen as a measure of cultural assimilation and investigating the formation of social ties in the host country. Using novel information from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we find that migrants with a German friend are more similar to natives than those without a local companion along several important dimensions, including concerns about the eco...

  5. The American Board of Ophthalmology Tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the efforts of the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) to recognize and celebrate the contributions of its volunteers to certification programs and processes. In recognition of service to the ABO, all directors and examiners received ties for men and scarves for women bearing the ABO logo and colors. This article briefly describes the rationale and the importance of these articles for those who receive them. PMID:27550002

  6. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relo...

  7. Bioabsorbable thread for tight tying of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K; Tomita, N; Tamai, S; Ikada, Y

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a bioabsorbable thread for tight fixation of fractured bones and to examine its mechanical performance in an in-vitro simulation study. The thread is a blend of bioabsorbable poly(L-lactic acid); (PLLA) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone); (PCL) fibers and can be tightly connected by fusion welding of the PCL fibers. The tying strength of the PLLA-PCL blend thread was 39.7 N, which was comparable to that of stainless steel wire. A testing machine was fabricated to measure the fatigue strength of the tying by simulating bone fixation. The results showed that metal wires always failed because of breakage within 25,000 loading cycles, whereas the blend threads did not fail until 50,000 loading cycles. The looseness of tying for simulated bone fixation by the blend thread was within 1mm even after 50 000 loading cycles. In-vivo testing using rats revealed that the blend thread did not cause any severe inflammatory reaction.

  8. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  9. On the nature, modeling, and neural basis of social ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Winden; M. Stallen; K.R. Ridderinkhof

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper addresses the nature, formalization, and neural bases of (affective) social ties and discusses the relevance of ties for health economics. A social tie is defined as an affective weight attached by an individual to the well-being of another individual (‘utility interdependence’).

  10. On the Nature, Modeling, and Neural Bases of Social Ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.A.M. Winden, van (Frans); M. Stallen (Mirre); K.R. Ridderinkhof (Richard)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the nature, formalization, and neural bases of (affective) social ties and discusses the relevance of ties for health economics. A social tie is defined as an affective weight attached by an individual to the well-being of another individual (‘utility interdependence

  11. 49 CFR 195.308 - Testing of tie-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of tie-ins. 195.308 Section 195.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.308 Testing of tie-ins. Pipe associated with tie-ins must be...

  12. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The...

  13. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles in a bow-tie antenna configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Moerland, Robert J; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Törmä, Päivi

    2014-03-26

    The self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into a bow-tie antenna configuration is achieved with the DNA origami method. Instead of complicated particle geometries, spherical silver nanoparticles are used. Formation of the structures in high yields is verified with transmission electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations, the antenna configuration could be used as a DNA sensor. PMID:24659271

  14. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  15. Vínculos organizacionais Organizational ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garcez Kramer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo de caso único, realizado junto a uma organização pública municipal de Curitiba, e tem como objetivo investigar e compreender os vínculos organizacionais. O estudo dos vínculos é feito por meio dos seus elementos constitutivos: a identificação, o sentimento de pertença, a cooperação, a participação, a criação de inimigos, a idealização, o reconhecimento e valorização dos indivíduos, a solidariedade, a integração, o crescimento e desenvolvimento pessoal e profissional e a autonomia. Foram utilizados, como instrumentos de coleta, questionário fechado e análise documental. O resultado dessa pesquisa é a caracterização dos elementos que são importantes na formação e manutenção dos vínculos e, conseqüentemente, para o comprometimento dos empregados com os objetivos, políticas, problemas, desempenho e resultados da organização.This article presents a unique case study of the organizational ties in a public municipal organization in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The ties are studied through their constitutive elements: identification, sense of belonging, cooperation, participation, creation of enemies, idealization, recognition and appreciation of individuals, solidarity, integration, professional and personal development and growth, and autonomy. Documental analysis and closed questionnaires were used for data collection. The research resulted in the characterization of the elements that are important in making and keeping ties, and consequently committing employees to the organization's objectives, policies, problems, performance and results.

  16. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  17. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  18. The Tie Effect in Mental Arithmetic%心算加工中tie effect的加工机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田花; 刘昌

    2011-01-01

    This article is to review the tie effect in simple arithmetic. Tie effect means that simple arithmetic problems with repeated operands (i. e., ties such as 3 + 3,4×4) are solved more quickly and accurately than similar nontie problems (e. g., 3 + 4,4 × 5). Furthermore, problem size and tie effect so interact that latencies on both ties and nonties increase with the problem size, but the increase is much greater in nonties than in ties. There are two possible explanations for the tie effect, i.e., encoding-based and access- based accounts. Encoding-based accounts propose that the tie advantage occurs because repetition of the same physical stimulus results in faster encoding of ties than of nonties. Alternatively, access-based accounts propose that ties may be easier to solve than nonties because of differences in accessibility in memory or differences in the solution processes. Access-based accounts fall into three categories: familiarity, interference, variability in solution approaches. According to familiarity explanations, acee~ibility so varies with practice that the tie effect is related to the frequency with which problems are encountered. Ties receive more practice and the connections between operands and answers in memory are greater. So ties are solved more quickly. According to interference explanations, ties and nonties are defined as separate categories of problems and the interference is greater within categories than between category. Thus, because the tie category includes relatively few problems, ties received less inhibitory input than nonties. According to solution approach explanations, even simple arithmetic is solved not only by direct retrieval from memory but by nov_retrieval procedures. Ties are solved by direct retrieval procedures and nonties are solved by nonretrieval procedures which are slower than direct retrieval. The encoding-account can' t provide reasonable explanations for the tie ~ size interaction. Aceess

  19. Coupling human mobility and social ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Jameson L; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M; González, Marta C

    2015-04-01

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility. PMID:25716185

  20. To tie or not to tie ridges for water conservation in Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, B.B.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia are characterized by sandy loam soils that have poor fertility and unreliable rainfall conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefit of rainwater harvesting by tied-ridges and improved soil fertility on maize productivity through field ex

  1. Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: Low tie preferred over high tie. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Buunen (Mark); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractConsensus does not exist on the level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery. From oncologic considerations, many surgeons apply high tie arterial ligation (level of inferior mesenteric artery). Other strategies include ligation at the level of the superior rectal artery, just cau

  2. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  3. China TieTong: Differentiation Paves the Uncommon Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China TieTong has made great achievements since it was founded about six years ago. And the achievements made by China TieTong cannot be separated from the path of differentiation it has stuck to. Zhao Jibin, board chairman of China TieTong has pointed out the company should develop a path of "enlarging the dedicated network and strengthening the regional service" to ensure precise positioning and successful implementation of the development strategy with solid management foundation and improving managem...

  4. Tie-points and fixed-points in N^*

    CERN Document Server

    Dow, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on betaN setminus N . In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on betaN setminus N. This paper is motivated by the search for 2-to-1 maps and obtaining tie-points of strikingly differing characteristics.

  5. Tie-points and fixed-points in N^*

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Alan; SHELAH, Saharon

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on betaN setminus N . In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on betaN setminus N. This paper is motivated by the search for 2-to-1 maps and obtaining tie-points of str...

  6. Gene expression analysis of Tek/Tie2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Babichev, Yael; Rodrigues, Natalie; Voskas, Daniel; Ling, Ling; Nguyen, Vicky P K H; Dumont, Daniel J

    2005-07-14

    The elaboration of the vasculature during embryonic development involves restructuring of the early vessels into a more complex vascular network. Of particular importance to this vascular remodeling process is the requirement of the Tek/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Mouse gene-targeting studies have shown that the Tie2-deficient embryos succumb to embryonic death at midgestation due to insufficient sprouting and remodeling of the primary capillary plexus. To identify the underlying genetic mechanisms regulating the process of vascular remodeling, transcriptomes modulated by Tie2 signaling were analyzed utilizing serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Two libraries were constructed and sequenced using embryonic day 8.5 yolk sac tissues from Tie2 wild-type and the Tie2-null littermates. After tag extraction, 45,689 and 45,275 SAGE tags were obtained for the Tie2 wild-type and Tie2-null libraries, respectively, yielding a total of 21,376 distinct tags. Close to 62% of the tags were uniquely annotated, whereas 10% of the total tags were unknown. Using semiquantitative PCR, the differential expression of eight genes was confirmed that included Elk3, an important angiogenic switch gene which was upregulated in the absence of Tie2 signaling. The results of this study provide valuable insight into the potential association between Tie2 signaling and other known angiogenic pathways as well as genes that might have novel functions in vascular remodeling. PMID:15899944

  7. Increasing the service life of cross ties at open pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis shows that the service life of cross ties on mobile tracks should be at least 6 years; on permanent ones, 11-12 years. Cross tie failure at open pits is greatly affected by frequent relaying of tracks during mining work, the significant dynamic and static loads when the rail lengths separate (up to 80-100 kN/length in the summer and 150-160 kN in the winter), instability of the soil foundation, movement of the cross ties when the gage is expanded, weakening of joints, etc. Improving their service life is affected by the ballast quality, heavier rail types, separate bolt and wood screw attachments, elastic liners between the tie plate and cross tie, and autoclave impregnation of the cross ties with oil antiseptics. Repair of old cross ties is an indispensable condition for extending their service life. At open pits, cross tie repair should be done at track repair and assembly stations with standard MPS cross tie repair shop equipment.

  8. Expression and role of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma and its relationship with invasion and metastasis in rectal carcinoma.Materials S-P immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of Tie-2 in 40 cases of rectal carcinoma and 10 cases of normal rectal tissues.Results Tie-2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of vascular endothelial cells in cancerous tissues and partly in the cytoplasm of some cancerous cells.The expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma was signi...

  9. BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, J L

    1993-09-01

    This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

  10. Design of Compact Trapezoidal Bow-Tie Chipless RFID Tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel compact design of a low cost fully printable slot-loaded bowtie chipless RFID tag. The tag consists of two trapezoidal metallic patches loaded with multiple slot resonators. Slots with similar size or adjacent frequencies are loaded alternately on two bow-tie patches to double the number of data bits within the UWB frequency band without increasing the mutual coupling between slots. A coding capacity of 12 bits is obtained with 12 slots within a reasonable size of 35 mm × 33 mm. RCS of the tag has been given by simulation. Measurements have been done using a bistatic radar configuration in the frequency domain and transmission coefficient is measured. The agreement between the simulation and measurement validates this new concept of design. This tag has high data capacity and low cost and can be directly printed on product such as personal ID, credit cards, paper, and textile because it needs only one conductive layer.

  11. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  12. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Friedlander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  13. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  14. Tongue tie and breastfeeding: assessing and overcoming the difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breward, Sharon

    2006-09-01

    Tongue tie, a condition in which the tongue's mobility is restricted, may reduce the ability of babies to breastfeed successfully. In this age of mass artificial feeding, the management of this condition has been, until recently, overlooked. This article highlights the effects of tongue tie on breastfeeding and what health professionals should be doing to assess and manage any difficulties PMID:17009777

  15. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence. PMID:24419208

  16. Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

  17. Redoable tie-over dressing using multiple loop silk threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jun Sik; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Kyung Suk; Choi, Jae Hoon

    2013-05-01

    After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  18. Endoscopic Suturing and Knot Tying: Theory Into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To advance modern surgical techniques of endoscopic knot tying, encompassing a new appreciation of knot-tying theory and the application of second-generation, purpose-designed instruments. Summary Background Data During open surgery, surgeons automatically create the surgical half-hitch by using either instrument or hand/finger knot-tying methods (figure 4). Each of these methods, which are mirror images of each other, forms the same result, the half-hitch. Two opposing half-hitches are needed to form a square knot. There are many ways for new-generation instruments to create a secure square knot during endoscopic surgery. An overview of the current endoscopic knot-tying methods is presented. Methods The author presents a theoretical analysis of square knot-tying techniques as applied during instrument and hand/finger movements. The application of a mirror-image concept was considered in the analysis of these two contrasting methods. Results There are 12 ways to create a square knot, some of which have previously not been described or needed in open surgery. Some of these methods have particular application in endoscopic surgery. Conclusions A new understanding of knot-tying theory has been developed, with innovative methods being defined for tissue approximation during endoscopic surgery. These ergonomic, efficient, and contrasting methods of knot tying are described using second-generation endoscopic instruments. The new techniques have direct and broad application in many fields of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:11685022

  19. KAMG: A Tool for Converting Blood Ties and Affinity Ties into Adjacency Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinship Adjacency Matrix Generator (KAMG is a browser-based software for creating adjacency matrices using the information of kinship ties. Specifically, it is capable of converting the family trees in the format of GEDCOM files into adjacency matrices of blood relationship. With the data of intermarriages between different families, it can further create the adjacency matrix of affinity relationship for the families. The outcomes can be directly used to create networks. KAMG is written in JavaScript and implemented on web browsers. It is completely open source and the source code is publicly available on GitHub.

  20. More on Tie-points and homeomorphism in N^*

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Alan; SHELAH, Saharon

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N= N^* and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on N^*. In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on N^*. One application of the results in this paper is the consistency of there being a 2-to-1 continuous image of...

  1. More on Tie-points and homeomorphism in N^*

    CERN Document Server

    Dow, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N= N^* and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on N^*. In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on N^*. One application of the results in this paper is the consistency of there being a 2-to-1 continuous image of N^* which is not a homeomorph of N^* .

  2. Institutional Ties of _Journal of Development Economics_ Authors and Editors

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Daniel B; Therese DiCola

    2004-01-01

    Sociologists of science such as Richard Whitley explain that official institutions may have a profound influence on the character and organization of science. We examine the ties of authors and editorial officers of the Journal of Development Economics (2002) to the World Bank, the IMF, and so on. “Ties†includes past or current employment, consultancy, grant, publication and presentation. Regarding the 124 authorships, we find that 75 percent have ties to the “Big 8†official developme...

  3. Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C; Christensen, Søren T

    2005-01-01

    Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...... of immunohistochemical analysis on human ovarian tissues we also observed a unique localization of Tie-2 to the primary cilia of ovarian surface epithelium. These observations are the first to show ciliary localization of angiopoietin receptors. Our results support the hypothesis that cilia of the female reproductive...

  4. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  5. Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries Study suggests need for 'return-to-learn' guidelines ... more school difficulties than their peers with other sports-related injuries, a new study suggests. Researchers found that concussed ...

  6. Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries Study suggests need for 'return-to-learn' ... more school difficulties than their peers with other sports-related injuries, a new study suggests. Researchers found ...

  7. Timing of Autism Diagnosis Tied to Choice of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160279.html Timing of Autism Diagnosis Tied to Choice of Treatment Kids diagnosed ... Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children diagnosed with autism before age 4 are more likely to get ...

  8. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  9. Loss of Y Chromosome in Men Tied to Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of Y Chromosome in Men Tied to Alzheimer's Risk Study raises provocative questions, expert says To ... age may have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, a new study suggests. The study of ...

  10. Attention on Weak Ties in Social and Communication Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lilian; Perra, Nicola; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Granovetter's weak tie theory of social networks is built around two central hypotheses. The first states that strong social ties carry the large majority of interaction events; the second maintains that weak social ties, although less active, are often relevant for the exchange of especially important information (e.g., about potential new jobs in Granovetter's work). While several empirical studies have provided support for the first hypothesis, the second has been the object of far less scrutiny. A possible reason is that it involves notions relative to the nature and importance of the information that are hard to quantify and measure, especially in large scale studies. Here, we search for empirical validation of both Granovetter's hypotheses. We find clear empirical support for the first. We also provide empirical evidence and a quantitative interpretation for the second. We show that attention, measured as the fraction of interactions devoted to a particular social connection, is high on weak ties --- po...

  11. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  12. Widely Used Heart Drug Tied to Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158678.html Widely Used Heart Drug Tied to Dementia Risk Both warfarin and the atrial fibrillation it's ... fibrillation may have a heightened risk of developing dementia -- and the quality of their drug treatment may ...

  13. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  14. Social ties and health: A social neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has shown that the health of the body is intimately tied to the strength of our social connections, but why? This article reviews evidence from affective and social neuroscience suggesting that, because of the importance of social ties for mammalian survival, threats to social connection are processed by some of the same neural regions that process basic threats to survival and consequently trigger physiological threat responses that have negative health...

  15. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  16. Dual-Frequency Operation of Bow-Tie Microstrip Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺时; 张需溥

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of a single-feed dual-frequency bow-tie microstrip antenna are studied. By using the variation method, simple formulas for resonant frequencies of the bow-tie microstrip antenna are derived. It is shown that the dual-frequency ratio can be controlled easily by choosing the parameters of the antenna. This design gives compact antenna size and simple antenna structure. Experimental results are presented, verifying the validity of the design.

  17. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Friedlander; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tsvi Tlusty; Uri Alon

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in biological and technological networks. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signalin...

  18. Ties, Leaders, and Teams: A Social Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke García, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    To examine the theoretical and empirical implications of integrating the network and team literatures, we opened three different research lines. First, we argued that leader multiplex ties with their team members fulfilled important functions for team performance. In support of our hypotheses, analysis of data from 84 teams of a Spanish public service organization suggested that leaders’ centrality in their teams’ multiplex networks comprising both advice and friendship ties predicted longitu...

  19. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  20. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tieover dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  1. Multicentre randomised double bind crossover trial on contamination of conventional ties and bow ties in routine obstetric and gynaecological practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Biljan, M M; Hart, C. A.; Sunderland, D; Manasse, P R; Kingsland, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess level of contamination of neckwear worn by gynaecologists and obstetricians during routine working week. DESIGN--Multicentre randomised double blind crossover trial. Participants wore the same conventional ties for three days in one week and bow ties for the same period in second week. SETTING--Two teaching and three district general hospitals in the midlands, Wales, and north England. SUBJECTS--15 registrars and senior registrars. INTERVENTIONS--A swab soaked in sterile ...

  2. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Adrian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs. This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins to target proteins (e.g., TFs is important, yet for many processes the signaling pathways remain unknown. Results Here, we present BowTieBuilder for inferring signal transduction pathways from multiple source and target proteins. Given protein-protein interaction (PPI data signaling pathways are assembled without knowledge of the intermediate signaling proteins while maximizing the overall probability of the pathway. To assess the inference quality, BowTieBuilder and three alternative heuristics are applied to several pathways, and the resulting pathways are compared to reference pathways taken from KEGG. In addition, BowTieBuilder is used to infer a signaling pathway of the innate immune response in humans and a signaling pathway that potentially regulates an underlying gene regulatory network. Conclusion We show that BowTieBuilder, given multiple source and/or target proteins, infers pathways with satisfactory recall and precision rates and detects the core proteins of each pathway.

  3. It's the Recipient That Counts: Spending Money on Strong Social Ties Leads to Greater Happiness than Spending on Weak Social Ties

    OpenAIRE

    Aknin, Lara B.; Gillian M Sandstrom; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Norton, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Par...

  4. The Molecular Balance between Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Tie1 and Tie2 Is Dynamically Controlled by VEGF and TNFα and Regulates Angiopoietin Signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Harprit Singh; Hansen, Tania M.; Nisha Patel; Nicholas P J Brindle

    2012-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) signals via the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 which exists in complex with the related protein Tie1 at the endothelial cell surface. Tie1 undergoes regulated ectodomain cleavage in response to phorbol esters, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Recently phorbol esters and VEGF were found also to stimulate ectodomain cleavage of Tie2. Here we investigate for the first time the effects of factors activating ectodomain cleavage on ...

  5. A new "double tie-over method" and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, M; Anthony, J; Ezaki, T

    1978-12-01

    The tie-over method which has been commonly used for skin grafts has some problems. The dressing is large and grafted skin can shift easily due to lateral pressure causing hematoma and secondary necrosis. There was a stronger tendency to observe this in axillary and anal skin grafts.Thus, the "new double tie-over type dressing" (double tie-over method) was developed (2, 3) for postoperative application after subcutaneous shaving for hircismus and hyperhidrosis and excellent results were obtained. The dressing is smaller in volume and shifting of grafted skin does not occur with motion. This method was also applied for skin grafts of various areas and favorable results were obtained.This method is reported since it is an easy and safe procedure that can be applied for various types of skin graft. PMID:24173854

  6. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, J P; Hyvönen, J; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Lazer, D; Saramäki, J; Szabó, G

    2006-01-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to emails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties, but fall apart following a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities, and find that when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective.

  7. Expression and significance of Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors, and angiopoietins-1, 2 and 4 in colorectal adenocarcinoma:Immunohistochemical analysis and correlation with clinicopathological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiyuki Nakayama; Go Hatachi; Chun-Yang Wen; Ayumi Yoshizaki; KazuyukiYamazumi; Daisuke Niino; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: There is strong evidence that tyrosine kinases are involved in the regulation of tumor progression, cellular growth and differentiation. Recently, many kinds of tyrosine kinase receptors have been reported, among them Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors constitute a major class.Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 is known as a ligand ofTie-2 tyrosine kinase receptor. The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive Tie-1 and Tie-2 and Ang-1, 2 and 4expression profile in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.METHODS: We examined 96 cases of surgically resected human colorectal adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and investigated the statistical correlation between the expressions of Ties and Angs and clinicopathological factors.RESULTS: Among the 96 cases of adenocarcinoma, 87(90.6%), 92 (95.8%), 83 (86.5%), 89 (92.7%), and 76cases (79.2%) showed positive staining in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells for the Tie-1 and Tie-2 and Ang-1, 2and 4 proteins, respectively. Histologically, the expressions of Ties and Angs were variable. The expressions of Ties and Angs were correlated with several clinicopathological factors, but did not correlate with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Ties and Angs were highly expressed in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the Tie-Ang receptor-ligand complex is one of the factors involved in the cellular differentiation and progression of human colorectal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  9. Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G/

    2011-01-01

    The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

  10. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Reciprocal customers may disproportionately improve the performance of markets for experience goods. Reciprocal customers reward (punish) firms for providing good (bad) quality by upholding (terminating) the customer relation. This may induce firms to provide good quality which, in turn, may induce...... a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...

  11. Affective Social Ties - Missink Link in Governance Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Winden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although governance is about interpersonal relationships, it appears that the antecedents and consequences of affective bonds (social ties in social groups dealing with common-pool resources and public goods have been neglected. The welfare costs of the neglect of such bonds and their dynamic properties in economics are unclear but may be substantial. In this paper, I discuss a theoretical 'dual process' social ties model and the behavioral experimental and recent neurological evidence this model has obtained. Furthermore, a number of implications and institutional issues are addressed.

  12. A Multichannel THz Detector Using Integrated Bow-Tie Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Hairui Liu; Junsheng Yu; Peter Huggard; Byron Alderman

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a kind of a multichannel THz detector using lens-based bow-tie array. A hyperhemispherical silicon lens is employed to provide a focal plane; 8 bow-tie elements are arranged on the focal plane with careful design to show a performance of broadband, high gain, well compact, and easy assembling. These characteristics of the detector are preferred for detecting weak THz signal. Measured far field shows that the radiation pattern of each element is shifted angularly, by ≈9°, w...

  13. ADIEU TO TONGUE TIE. LINGUAL FRENECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Sanadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue tie, complaining of difficulty in speech. It was surgically treated with uneventful healing and good patient satisfaction.

  14. Software For Tie-Point Registration Of SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric; Dubois, Pascale; Okonek, Sharon; Van Zyl, Jacob; Burnette, Fred; Borgeaud, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    SAR-REG software package registers synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data to common reference frame based on manual tie-pointing. Image data can be in binary, integer, floating-point, or AIRSAR compressed format. For example, with map of soil characteristics, vegetation map, digital elevation map, or SPOT multispectral image, as long as user can generate binary image to be used by tie-pointing routine and data are available in one of the previously mentioned formats. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  15. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  16. Sino-Latin American Trade,Closer Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The financial crisis has provided a new opportunity for Sino-Latin American cooperation.In the past few years,China's economic ties to Latin America have witnessed comparable growth:from 1993 to 2003,China's trade with Latin America increased by 600 percent.

  17. The Ties That Bind Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Scientific ties between JINR and CERN date back to 1957, when JINR Vice-Director Marian Danysz, a Polish professor, visited CERN and agreed with CERN Director-General C.J. Bakker on the exchange of scientists and on joint experiments. Since that time to progress and now JINR takes an active part in the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, project at CERN.

  18. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; Tilburg, T.G. van

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data

  19. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; Tilburg, van T.G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today’s social-cultural conte

  20. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings. PMID:27142951

  1. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  2. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...

  3. Knotcraft the practical and entertaining art of tying knots

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlan, Allan and Paulette

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive reference work explains how to tie hundreds of practical (and decorative) knots in clear illustrations and precisely worded written instructions. Ideal for boaters and campers. Also covers knots in history, knot mystery and magic, and games, stunts and tricks with rope. Introduction. Index. 166 black-and-white illustrations.

  4. Hierarchical modularity of nested bow-ties in metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jian-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exploration of the structural topology and the organizing principles of genome-based large-scale metabolic networks is essential for studying possible relations between structure and functionality of metabolic networks. Topological analysis of graph models has often been applied to study the structural characteristics of complex metabolic networks. Results In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition of three microbes (Escherichia coli, Aeropyrum pernix and Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that almost all of the sub-networks exhibit a highly modularized bow-tie topological pattern similar to that of the global metabolic networks. Moreover, these small bow-ties are hierarchically nested into larger ones and collectively integrated into a large metabolic network, and important features of this modularity are not observed in the random shuffled network. In addition, such a bow-tie pattern appears to be present in certain chemically isolated functional modules and spatially separated modules including carbohydrate metabolism, cytosol and mitochondrion respectively. Conclusion The highly modularized bow-tie pattern is present at different levels and scales, and in different chemical and spatial modules of metabolic networks, which is likely the result of the evolutionary process rather than a random accident. Identification and analysis of such a pattern is helpful for understanding the design principles and facilitate the modelling of metabolic networks.

  5. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behaviour in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behaviour even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behaviour to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behaviour may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum, empathy (anterior insular cortex [AIC] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] as well as altruism and social significance (posterior superior temporal sulcus [pSTS]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behaviour during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

  6. Historic Moments of China-Russia Diplomatic Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1. NEIGHBORLY TIES:Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signs the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the Kremlin,Moscow,on February 14,1950 2. PREMIER IN MOSCOW:Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai makes a speech upon his arrival in Moscow for a visit on August 17,1952

  7. The Verbal Facilitation Effect in Learning to Tie Nautical Knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Motor skills are often demonstrated with a combination of verbal information and video demonstration. In this study, participants learned to tie nautical knots with a video clip demonstrating the motor task preceded by a descriptive or a metaphorical, picture-like verbalization. In a control condition participants learned the knots with a video…

  8. Writing "Everyday Theatre": Applied Theatre, or Just TIE Rides Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, John

    2009-01-01

    The centre of this article is a critical description of the development and production of "Everyday Theatre's" performed pretext, called "replay@timeout", including a detailed account of the devising process and the programme's content. The programme is located within the history and traditions both of theatre in education (TIE) and process drama,…

  9. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  10. On the dynamics of social ties structures in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Sonnemans; F. van Dijk; F.A.A.M. van Winden

    2006-01-01

    Economic behavior often takes place in small groups of people interacting with each other (like work teams and boards of directors, but also social networks and neighborhoods). Characteristic of such interaction is the development of (affective) interpersonal relationships, or social ties. The embed

  11. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  12. Four- year thyroidectomy procedures: Ligasure Vs. clamp & tie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki AR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system is an adjunct to the hemostatic technique, which has been successfully used in many abdominal operation, recently made available to thyroid surgery. The purpose of this was compare the outcomes of new hemostatic technique with traditional method of clamp and tie."n"nMethods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study has been done in surgery's wards of Milad & Rasul- Akram hospitals in Tehran, Iran. During three- year period between 2005-2008 all patients with different kind of pathology that need operation were assessed. Time duration of surgery and hospital stay and post surgery complication in two group, ligasure (n=45 and clamp & tie (n=145 were compared with each others."n"nResults: No difference was seen between two groups in time duration of surgery. Significant difference was seen in hospital stay and complications of surgery. Time of operation in Ligasure group was 132/22 minute and in clamp and tie group was 130/10 minute. There was found significant difference in duration of hospital stay and postoperative complication. Hypocalcemia were seen in two and 24 cases in Ligasure and Clamp & Tie group, respectively (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 2

  13. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism endpoints in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on ...

  14. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez;

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have......-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems....

  15. A Multichannel THz Detector Using Integrated Bow-Tie Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of a multichannel THz detector using lens-based bow-tie array. A hyperhemispherical silicon lens is employed to provide a focal plane; 8 bow-tie elements are arranged on the focal plane with careful design to show a performance of broadband, high gain, well compact, and easy assembling. These characteristics of the detector are preferred for detecting weak THz signal. Measured far field shows that the radiation pattern of each element is shifted angularly, by ≈9°, which can be used for THz imaging. Tested responsivity of the detector shows a good spectral performance from 260 to 400 GHz: respective values were ≥220 V/W, and the best NEP is achieved at about 60 pW/. Besides that, the proposed antenna has advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, and low cost.

  16. Coauthorship Ties in the Colombian Congress, 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines policy connections between Colombian legislators (representatives and senators during Álvaro Uribe’s first presidential term (2002-2006. The analysis draws on information regarding the coauthorship of legislation. The joint sponsorship of a bill by a pair of legislators demonstrates their mutual intent to change the status quo in a specific direction. This cooperative effort to push bills forward reveals the similarities that exist between political actors. Examining the connectedness between different groups and the density within group connections can convey important information about parties and their members’ policy preferences. This article investigates these aspects of the network of coauthorship ties developed in the Colombian lower and upper chambers. In addition to shedding light on the cohesiveness and alignment of legislative parties, the article finds that coauthorship ties appear to be influenced by regional and institutional forces.

  17. The Role of Family Ties in Agency Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Mejía, Luis R.; Núñez-Nickel, Manuel; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Drawing on data based on the entire population of Spanish newspapers over 27 years (1966-93), this study shows that firm performance and business risk are much stronger predictors of chief executive tenure when a firm's owners and its executive have family ties and that the organizational consequences of CEO dismissal are more favorable when the replaced CEO is a member of the family owning the firm. The study also demonstrates that executives operating under weakly relational (less ambiguous...

  18. Kulkurin tie viittoen : Teatterianalyysi tulkkaukseen valmistautumisen työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Karevaara, Leena; Mäkelä, Antti

    2014-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Karevaara, Leena ja Mäkelä, Antti. Kulkurin tie viittoen – Teatterianalyysi tulkkaukseen valmistautumisen työkaluna. Kevät 2014, 55 s., 3 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Viittomakielen ja tulkkauksen koulutus, viittomakielentulkki (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää teatteritulkkausta tuomalla teatterin näkökulma esille viittomakielen tulkkauksessa ja tulkkaukseen valmistautumisessa. Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin valmistautumista varten uudenlainen työkalu, tea...

  19. Representation of Women With Industry Ties in Ophthalmology.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, AK; Bounds, GW; Bakri, SJ; Gordon, LK; Smith, JR; Haller, JA; Thorne, JE

    2016-01-01

    Women in ophthalmology are growing in number and have made strides in traditional metrics of professional achievement. Professional ties to industry represent another potential means of career advancement, recognition, and income.To report the representation of women among ophthalmologists receiving industry remuneration for research, consulting, honoraria, grants, royalties, and faculty/speaker roles.In this observational, retrospective study, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services O...

  20. Gender differences and social ties effects in resource sharing

    OpenAIRE

    D'Exelle, Ben; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In rural areas in developing countries gender inequality tends to be severe which might have substantial welfare implications if it determines how scarce economic resources are shared between men and women. Therefore, it is important to know how gender influences resource sharing and - given the strong embeddedness of resource sharing in social networks - in what ways social ties interact with this influence. To investigate this, we combine data from resource allocation experiments and a soci...

  1. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder Adrian; Dräger Andreas; Planatscher Hannes; Spangenberg Lucía; Supper Jochen; Zell Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs). This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins) to target proteins (e.g...

  2. Performance Characterization of Radial Stub Microstrip Bow-Tie Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    B.T.P.Madhav; S.S. Mohan Reddy; Neha Sharma; J. Ravindranath Chowdary; Bala Rama Pavithra; K.N.V.S. Kishore; G Sriram; B. Sachin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a novel radial stub feeding microstrip bow-tie antenna is designed to operate between C and X band and its performance characterization is presented. This antenna is having simple structure and topology over other stub loaded antennas. In addition the proposed antenna adjusts to the desired frequency easily. Antenna output parameters like radiation pattern, axial ratio, directive gain andquality factor are simulated and presented in this current work.

  3. Performance Characterization of Radial Stub Microstrip Bow-Tie Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T.P.Madhav

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel radial stub feeding microstrip bow-tie antenna is designed to operate between C and X band and its performance characterization is presented. This antenna is having simple structure and topology over other stub loaded antennas. In addition the proposed antenna adjusts to the desired frequency easily. Antenna output parameters like radiation pattern, axial ratio, directive gain andquality factor are simulated and presented in this current work.

  4. Familial Ankyloglossia (Tongue-tie): A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Morowati; Mobin Yasini2; Reza Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Peivandi; Mohsen Ghadami

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  5. ADIEU TO TONGUE TIE. LINGUAL FRENECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Sanadi; Jayant Ambulgekar; Manan Doshi

    2013-01-01

    A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue t...

  6. Familial Ankyloglossia (Tongue-tie: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Morowati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  7. Effects of gender and tie strength on Twitter interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kivran-Swaine, Funda; Brody, Samuel; Naaman, Mor

    2013-01-01

    We examine the connection between language, gender, and social relationships, as manifested through communication patterns in social media. Building on an analysis of 78,000 Twitter messages exchanged between 1,753 gender-coded couples, we quantitatively study how the gender composition of conversing users influences the linguistic style apparent in the messages. Using Twitter data, we also model and control for the strength of ties between conversing users. Our findings show that, in line wi...

  8. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ...

  9. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  10. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara B Aknin

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  11. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness. PMID:21347326

  12. Assessing lameness in cows kept in tie-stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K A; Dippel, S; Huber, J; March, S; Winckler, C; Whay, H R

    2009-04-01

    Identifying lame cows and quantifying the prevalence of lameness are important elements of cattle welfare assessment that are generally achieved by methods involving observations of each animal walking. There is no published method for assessing lameness in cows confined in tie-stalls. The objective of this study (carried out within the European Commission's Welfare Quality(R) project) was to develop a suitable method and validate it for lameness detection against a published locomotion score. A series of indicators of lameness visible in tied cows was formalized into a stall assessment protocol. This was validated against a traditional locomotion score and tested for repeatability between 2 observers. A total of 98 cows on 4 farms were assessed. Overall interobserver agreement was 91%. Sensitivity compared with locomotion scoring was 0.54 to 0.77, dependent on observer and threshold definition. Assessment in the stall underestimated the herd prevalence of lameness revealed by locomotion scoring by 11 to 37% (mean 27%). The discrepancy between herd lameness prevalence assessed in the stall and by locomotion scoring was not affected significantly by farm or observer. The cases of lameness that were not detected in the stall tended to be the least severe. The proposed method for lameness detection in tie-stalls could be used for herd-level assessment of lameness and detection of individual lame animals by farmers and their advisors, but it is important to remember that it is less sensitive than locomotion scoring.

  13. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this kind. (i) Prisoners in the first days after their incarceration. (ii) Prisoners in solitary confinement. (iii) Prisoners who are transferred from one prison to another. (iv) Prisoners in closed versus open prisons. (v) Prisoners in the weeks following their release. (vi) Immigrants in the years following their relocation. (vii) Unmarried versus married people. Furthermore, in order to test the impact of major shocks we consider the responses in terms of suicides to the following shocks. (i) The attack of September 11, 2001 in Manhattan. (ii) The Korean War. (iii) The two world wars. (iv) The Great Depression in the United State...

  14. Social ties and short-term self-reported delinquent behaviour of personality disordered forensic outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.H.A. Bouman; C. de Ruiter; A.H. Schene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. In community-based forensic psychiatry, patients' social ties are considered as protective factor in a risk management strategy. However, it is unknown whether these ties actually assist patients to refrain from re-offending. We hypothesised a protective role for social ties in re-offending

  15. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  16. Sinogram bow-tie filtering in FBP PET reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, M; Vaquero, J J; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Lage, E; Desco, M

    2009-05-01

    Low-pass filtering of sinograms in the radial direction is the most common practice to limit noise amplification in filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction of positron emission tomography studies. Other filtering strategies have been proposed to prevent the loss in resolution due to low-pass radial filters, although results have been diverse. Using the well-known properties of the Fourier transform of a sinogram, the authors defined a binary mask that matches the expected shape of the support region in the Fourier domain of the sinogram ("bow tie"). This mask was smoothed by a convolution with a ten-point Gaussian kernel which not only avoids ringing but also introduces a pre-emphasis at low frequencies. A new filtering scheme for FBP is proposed, comprising this smoothed bow-tie filter combined with a standard radial filter and an axial filter. The authors compared the performance of the bow-tie filtering scheme with that of other previously reported methods: Standard radial filtering, angular filtering, and stackgram-domain filtering. All the quantitative data in the comparisons refer to a baseline reconstruction using a ramp filter only. When using the smallest size of the Gaussian kernel in the stackgram domain, the authors achieved a noise reduction of 33% at the cost of degrading radial and tangential resolutions (14.5% and 16%, respectively, for cubic interpolation). To reduce the noise by 30%, the angular filter produced a larger degradation of contrast (3%) and tangential resolution (46% at 10 mm from the center of the field of view) and showed noticeable artifacts in the form of circular blurring dependent on the distance to the center of the field of view. For a similar noise reduction (33%), the proposed bow-tie filtering scheme yielded optimum results in resolution (gain in radial resolution of 10%) and contrast (1% increase) when compared with any of the other filters alone. Experiments with rodent images showed noticeable image quality

  17. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  18. Transmissible amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  19. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  20. Tying loan interest rates to borrowers' CDS spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Ivan T.; Santos, Joao A. C.; Vo, Thu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the introduction of market-based pricing, the practice of tying loan interest rates to credit default swaps, has affected borrowing costs. We find that CDS-based loans are associated with lower interest rates, both at origination and during the life of the loan. Our results also indicate that banks simplify the covenant structure of market-based pricing loans, suggesting that the decline in the cost of bank debt is explained, at least in part, by a reduction in monitoring c...

  1. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Wei; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social tie density and information flow as a function of the population. We demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population-level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to modularity, specialization, or hierarchy.

  2. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy. PMID:23736887

  3. Design of Compact Trapezoidal Bow-Tie Chipless RFID Tag

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Xu; Kama Huang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact design of a low cost fully printable slot-loaded bowtie chipless RFID tag. The tag consists of two trapezoidal metallic patches loaded with multiple slot resonators. Slots with similar size or adjacent frequencies are loaded alternately on two bow-tie patches to double the number of data bits within the UWB frequency band without increasing the mutual coupling between slots. A coding capacity of 12 bits is obtained with 12 slots within a reasonable size of ...

  4. Intergenerational family ties and the diffusion of cohabitation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rosina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohabitation has been spreading in the population during the last thirty years, and this is one of the most striking aspects of wider social changes that have taken place throughout the industrialized world. However, this change did not take place uniformly across Europe. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current debate around the compatibility of cohabitation experiences with the Italian cultural context. Using an individual-level diffusion approach we obtain results that are consistent with the crucial role that family ties play in the choice of cohabitation in place of (or before marriage.

  5. Burstiness and tie reinforcement in time varying social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Karsai, Marton; Perra, Nicola; Burioni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a time-varying network model accounting for burstiness and tie reinforcement observed in social networks. The analytical solution indicates a non-trivial phase diagram determined by the competition of the leading terms of the two processes. We test our results against numerical simulations, and compare the analytical predictions with an empirical dataset finding good agreements between them. The presented framework can be used to classify the dynamical features of real social networks and to gather new insights about the effects of social dynamics on ongoing spreading processes.

  6. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dezio; Alessandra Piras; Livio Gallottini; Gloria Denotti

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia) according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) of studies about lingual frenum written in English b...

  7. Marginal North Sea fields developed by subsea tie backs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-27

    The use of subsea completions tied back to existing platforms has allowed the development of marginal fields in the U.K. sector of the North Sea. Contractual agreements between various operators permit production from the Staffa field and the Lyell field to flow to the Ninian Southern platform. The lower capital expenditure provided an economic incentive to develop these small fields. The Alwyn field in the North Sea will continue its development through the Alwyn North Extension project with a three-well cluster of subsea completions. This paper reports that with drilling and completion operations batched on the three wells, the operator has cut the development risk, difficult, and cost.

  8. Sternal Closure With Tie Bands: A Word of Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Louis

    2016-08-01

    The median sternotomy for cardiac operations can be reapproximated in a variety of ways. Traditionally, sternal wires have been used in several configurations to afford satisfactory closure. Alternative techniques include cables, plates, and clip-like devices. A relatively recent addition to the menu of options is the plastic tie band. Although a few studies have suggested its efficacy, this favorable experience has not been universal. The purpose of this report is to describe a failure in closure and the reaction of the soft tissue around it. PMID:27449444

  9. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  10. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreau, F R; Wybo, J L; Cauchois, D

    2006-03-31

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety. PMID:16125315

  11. Diversity of social ties in scientific collaboration networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hengshan

    2011-11-01

    Diversity is one of the important perspectives to characterize behaviors of individuals in social networks. It is intuitively believed that diversity of social ties accounts for competition advantage and idea innovation. However, quantitative evidences in a real large social network can be rarely found in the previous research. Thanks to the availability of scientific publication records on WWW; now we can construct a large scientific collaboration network, which provides us a chance to gain insight into the diversity of relationships in a real social network through statistical analysis. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to perform empirical analysis on a scientific collaboration network extracted from DBLP, an online bibliographic database in computer science, in a systematical way, finding the following: distributions of diversity indices tend to decay in an exponential or Gaussian way; diversity indices are not trivially correlated to existing vertex importance measures; authors of diverse social ties tend to connect to each other and these authors are generally more competitive than others.

  12. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  13. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  14. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. -- Highlights: → Tie strength is used to measure heterogeneous influences of different pairs of nodes. → Weak ties play a role in maintaining cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games. → Micro-dynamics of nodes are illustrated to explain the conclusion.

  15. Studi Tentang Political Tie, Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keputusan Pemberian Kredit Bank di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tjondro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses bank loan data to examine the effect of (political tie between the company and the government to on the assessment of companies financial leverage and profitability in the bank lending decisions in Indonesia. The numbers of samples are 1465 observations. This study uses moderated regression analysis (MRA. The study finds that a political tie affect corporate profitability assessment in bank lending decisions. Firms with lower profitability receive larger bank loan because their political tie (rent-seeking hypothesis. However, this study inds that a political tie does not affect the assessment of financial leverage in bank's lending decisions. This finding also supports Faccio (2010, Fisman (2001, and Backman (2001. Indonesia condition which has a weak institutional regulation and high information asymmetry is beneficial for companies that have a political tie. This leads to more trusted political tie as an indicator of the profitability.

  16. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo, E-mail: xubosuper@163.com [Department of Information Systems, School of Economics and Management, Beihang University (China); Liu, Lu; You, Weijia [Department of Information Systems, School of Economics and Management, Beihang University (China)

    2011-06-13

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. -- Highlights: → Tie strength is used to measure heterogeneous influences of different pairs of nodes. → Weak ties play a role in maintaining cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games. → Micro-dynamics of nodes are illustrated to explain the conclusion.

  17. Classification and Tie2 mutations in spinal and soft tissue vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Jiang, Renbing; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lisha; Wang, Hua; Li, Wenting; Li, Yiqun; Du, Xiang; Bai, Jingping

    2015-10-15

    Vascular anomalies included hemangiomas and vascular malformations (VMs). VMs are mediated by mutations in the endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 (TEK),which is essential for angiogenesis and vascular stabilization. We identified five types of Tie2 mutations in 80 patients with soft tissue or spinal VMs by PCR including the previously detected missense mutations 2690A>G (Y897C), 2740C>T (L914F), 2743C>T (R915C), and two nonsense mutations 2763G>A, 2688C>T, we identified Tie2 mutation in primary spinal VMs for the first time. Tie2 mutations were found to be absent in 33 patients with hemangiomas and DNA samples of VMs. In addition, we showed that Tie2 mRNA expression in spinal VMs was similar to soft tissue VMs, but obviously lower than infant hemangiomas (PVMs, the association of Tie2 and vascular anomalies needs to be further discussed.

  18. How foreign firms achieve competitive advantage in the Chinese emerging economy: Managerial ties and market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, KZ; Li, JJ

    2010-01-01

    As China experience unprecedented changes in its social, legal, and economic institutions, on what should foreign firms focus more to overcome this challenge, managerial ties or market orientation? This study investigates how managerial ties and market orientation affect competitive advantage and, consequently, firm performance in China. On the basis of a survey of 179 foreign firms in China, we find that both managerial ties and market orientation can lead to firm success-but in different wa...

  19. The Bright Side and Dark Side of Embedded Ties in Business-to-Business Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Noordhoff, Corine; Kyriakopoulos, Kyriakos; Moorman, Christina; Pauwels, Pieter; Dellaert, Benedict

    2011-01-01

    Although the number and importance of joint innovation projects between suppliers and their customers continue to rise, the literature has yet to resolve a key question: Do embedded ties with customers help or hurt supplier innovation? Drawing on both the tie strength and knowledge literatures, the authors theorize that embedded ties interact with supplier and customer innovation knowledge to influence supplier innovation. In a sample of 157 Dutch business-to-business innovation relationships...

  20. A Rationale for Tying Merchants' Membership of Platforms Serving Independent Markets

    OpenAIRE

    King, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A Rationale for Tying Merchants' Membership of Platforms Serving Independent Markets. This thesis was submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Social Sciences in the Faculty of Humanities by Michael King during September 2010. I analyses the effect of tying sellers' membership of a monopoly platform to membership of another platform, which operates in an otherwise competitive market. Visa's contentious use of the honour-all-cards rule to tie their debit and cr...

  1. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  2. Bonding, postpartum dysphoria, and social ties : A speculative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Mira

    2002-09-01

    Since the late 1970s, disruptions and "failure" of maternal-infant bonding have been causally linked to postpartum depression. Part I of this paper examines the grounds for this connection while tracing the ramifications of bonding theory (Klaus and Kennell 1976) through obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatry, as well as in the (mis)representations of it in the popular media. This discussion resolves into a view of maternal attachment as a long-term development progressively established through intensive mother-infant interaction. The forms of this interaction are phylogenetically determined, albeit culturally and personally mediated. Flowing from this premise, Part II of the paper casts postpartum depression as an adaptive response to threat (from whatever cause) to adequate mothering, and develops an argument for the evolutionary role of enacted social ties in the establishment of maternal responsiveness. PMID:26192928

  3. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons......On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  4. Social Ties and Emotions: Evidence from Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina; Gallegos, Luciano; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    The social connections, or ties, individuals create affect their life outcomes, for example, by providing novel information that leads to new jobs or career opportunities. A host of socioeconomic and cognitive factors are believed to affect social interactions, but few of these factors have been empirically validated. In this research work, we extracted a large corpus of data from a popular social media platform that consists of geo-referenced messages, or tweets, posted from a major US metropolitan area. We linked these tweets to US Census data through their locations. This allowed us to measure emotions expressed in tweets posted from a specific area, and also use that area's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics in the analysis. We extracted the structure of social interactions from the people mentioned in tweets from that area. We find that at an aggregate level, areas where social media users engage in stronger, less diverse online social interactions are those where they express more negative em...

  5. Cooperation Prevails When Individuals Adjust Their Social Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of “social viscosity” alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional

  6. Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

  7. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  8. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  9. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  10. The Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) Televised Interactive Education (TIE) Evaluation Report, 1989-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice N.

    The purpose of this report is to provide both formative and summative results concerning the 1990 academic year operation of the Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) Televised Interactive Education (TIE) system. The TIE system is composed of a two-way microwave connection whereby two colleges and one university are able to produce and…

  11. A study on the dynamic tie points ASI algorithm in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Guanghua; SU Jie

    2015-01-01

    Sea ice concentration is an important parameter for polar sea ice monitoring. Based on 89 GHz AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System) data, a gridded high-resolution passive microwave sea ice concentration product can be obtained using the ASI (the Arctic Radiation And Turbulence Interaction Study (ARTIST) Sea Ice) retrieval algorithm. Instead of using fixed-point values, we developed ASI algorithm based on daily changed tie points, called as the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm in this study. Here the tie points are expressed as the brightness temperature polarization difference of open water and 100% sea ice. In 2010, the yearly-averaged tie points of open water and sea ice in Arctic are estimated to be 50.8 K and 7.8 K, respectively. It is confirmed that the sea ice concentrations retrieved by the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm can increase (decrease) the sea ice concentrations in low-value (high-value) areas. This improved the sea ice concentrations by present retrieval algorithm from microwave data to some extent. Comparing with the products using fixed tie points, the sea ice concentrations retrieved from AMSR-E data by using the dynamic tie point ASI algorithm are closer to those obtained from MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In 40 selected cloud-free sample regions, 95% of our results have smaller mean differences and 75% of our results have lower root mean square (RMS) differences compare with those by the fixed tie points.

  12. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed. PMID:9836218

  13. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico... of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to section 732(c)(1)(B) of the Act (19...

  14. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the...

  15. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...

  16. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 30, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie...

  17. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  18. Structural Assimilation Revisited: Mexican-Origin Nativity and Cross-Ethnic Primary Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Classical assimilation theory postulates that over time, members of immigrant groups will develop more primary ties with native members of the host society. However, lack of data has led most research to rely on the study of either spatial mobility or other secondary variables as proxies of primary ties. Using data from the Multi-City Study of…

  19. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components...

  20. The Role of Reciprocity and Directionality of Friendship Ties in Promoting Behavioral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Friendship is a fundamental characteristic of human beings and usually assumed to be reciprocal in nature. Despite this common expectation, in reality, not all friendships by default are reciprocal nor created equal. Here, we show that reciprocated friendships are more intimate and they are substantially different from those that are not. We examine the role of reciprocal ties in inducing more effective peer pressure in a cooperative arrangements setting and find that the directionality of friendship ties can significantly limit the ability to persuade others to act. Specifically, we observe a higher behavioral change and more effective peer-influence when subjects shared reciprocal ties with their peers compared to sharing unilateral ones. Moreover, through spreading process simulation, we find that although unilateral ties diffuse behaviors across communities, reciprocal ties play more important role at the early stages of the diffusion process.

  1. Break the Ties for NEH Heuristic in Solving the Permutation Flow Shop Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shou-wei; LEISTEN Rainer; DAI Yang; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (PFSP) based on the maximum completion time (makespan). NEH (the algorithm of Nawaz, Enscore and Ham) is the concluded most efficient constructive method in solving this NP-hard problem. The principal features of its strengths are the initial arrangement of jobs and the job insertion phase. In some instances, ties will occur in both the initial permutation and the partial sequences. The problem of ties breaking may have a significant impact on the NEH performance, but evaluate all the ties will be non-polynomial in the worst case. Several kinds of methods are presented in the paper to break the ties in a quick time. Together with the basic one, all 22 methods are tested on the famous Taillard's benchmarks and the most suitable ties breaking policy is recommended.

  2. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  3. Transnational Corporate Ties: A Synopsis of Theories and Empirical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nollert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, corporations are not isolated actors in an economic “war of all against all” but members of corporate networks of global reach. Although the literature on globalization emphasizes the increasing economic power of these networks and postulates the formation of a transnational capitalist class, there is still a lack of empirical findings. The article starts with a review of theoretical perspectives (resource dependence, social capital, coordination of markets, financial hegemony, class hegemony, inner circle, and transnational capitalist class which focuses on the functions and structures of corporate interlocks at the national and the transnational level. The subsequent section offers an outline of empirical studies concerning transnational corporate networks. These analyses of corporate ties (interlocking directorates, financial participations and policy group affiliations suggest the emergence of transnational economic elites whose members, however, have not lost their national identity. In the final section, the theoretical perspectives will be assessed and some prospects are sketched out. Finally, it will be argued that the disintegration of the world society, which is considerably driven by rent-seeking corporate networks, can only be restrained if a potential global regulatory agency will be anchored in a post-Washington consensus.

  4. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    SLR techniques via the so-called space ties, instead of relying on the terrestrial ties evaluated with ground measurement campaigns at co-located ITRF sites.

  5. Tie2-dependent deletion of α6 integrin subunit in mice reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvard, Claire; Segaoula, Zacharie; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Mauge, Laetitia; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Helley, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    The α6 integrin subunit (α6) has been implicated in cancer cell migration and in the progression of several malignancies, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In mice, anti-α6 blocking antibodies reduce tumor angiogenesis, whereas Tie1-dependent α6 gene deletion enhances neovessel formation in melanoma and lung carcinoma. To clarify the discrepancy in these results we used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line, α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre(+), with α6 gene deletion specifically in Tie2-lineage cells: endothelial cells, pericytes, subsets of hematopoietic stem cells, and Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs), known for their proangiogenic properties. Loss of α6 expression in α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre(+) mice reduced tumor growth in a murine B16F10 melanoma model. Immunohistological analysis of the tumors showed that Tie2-dependent α6 gene deletion was associated with reduced tumor vascularization and with reduced infiltration of proangiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. These findings demonstrate that α6 integrin subunit plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis and TEM infiltration. Targeting α6 could be used as a strategy to reduce tumor growth. PMID:25176420

  6. Global TIE: Developing a Virtual Network of Robotic Observatories for K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Clark, G.

    2001-11-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE, http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE provides unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns essentially unused observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the

  7. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  8. Resilience by solidary ties (Resiliencia por lazos de solidaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers an empirical approach to the relationships among three well known concepts: “Benevolence” (Schwartz, Solidarity and Resilience ("Subjective wellbeing scale" - SWB. The first concept refers to cultural values, the second one to social networks and the third to the ability to recover from crisis. The measurement of solidarity has been done from the point of view of supportive ties. The baseline hypothesis considers that the presence of a high value in Benevolence contributes to the involvements in solidarity networks. Participation in supportive relationships facilitates recovery from personal crisis. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS6, we conclude from this structural analysis that the resilience reflected in a society is partly a consequence of the supportive networks shaped by the presence of benevolence values. | Tras introducir teóricamente los conceptos de "Benevolencia" (Schwartz, "Lazos de solidaridad" y "Resiliencia", se presenta su operativización en la Encuesta Social Europea de 2012. La hipótesis de partida plantea que la presencia de un valor alto en Benevolencia influye en la participación en interacciones solidarias y que la participación en redes solidarias facilita el recobrarse de las crisis. A partir de estos datos, y considerando varias sociedades europeas, se han testado dos modelos alternativos, según el efecto de la Benevolencia y los lazos de solidaridad sobre la resiliencia. Se concluye que existe un efecto directo de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Solidaridad, y de esta sobre la Resiliencia. La influencia de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Resiliencia se establece de forma indirecta mediante la activación de relaciones solidarias.

  9. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion ...

  10. Hanging Together, Together Hung? Career Implications of Interpersonal Ties Between CEOs and Top Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hilger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute to managerial succession research by underlining the ambivalence of interpersonal ties within top management teams.

  11. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously accessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist motives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through on-line...... gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separately. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening of weak ties....

  12. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF......-with-ROPA (Reception of Oocytes from Partner), which allows lesbian couples to 'share motherhood', with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible, but here I argue that the increased biological ties which IVF...

  13. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    OpenAIRE

    Simonetta Dovier; Edi Piasentier; Mirco Corazzin; Stefano Bovolenta

    2010-01-01

    Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for...

  14. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use tie-up facilities? 86.31 Section 86.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... charge the public to use tie-up facilities? You may charge the public only a reasonable fee, based on the..., based on other publicly and privately owned tie-up facilities in the area. You must approve any...

  15. 77 FR 52352 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Rio Mesa Gen-Tie Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Gen-Tie Project and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Riverside County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land..., California, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Rio Mesa Gen- Tie Project. The... Gen-Tie Project by any of the following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ca/st/en.html ;...

  16. Current sensors using highly-birefringent bow-tie fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, J.R.; Li, L.

    1986-01-01

    Faraday-effect optical-fibre current sensors have a number of well-known advantages for use in high-voltage transmission systems and other hostile environments. However, these applications have been restricted by the presence of linear birefringence in the fibre which adversely interacts with the Faraday polarisation rotation produced by magnetic fields. Linear birefringence results from (a) intrinsic effects within the fibre (ellipticity, inbuilt thermal-stress) and (b) packaging and co...

  17. Do family ties with those left behind intensify or weaken migrants’ assimilation?

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded; Dorn, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Strong ties with the home country and with the host country can coexist. An altruistic migrant who sends remittances to his family back home assimilates more the more altruistic he is, and also more than a non-remitting migrant.

  18. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; TAO Lin; YU Hong; LUO JianHua; GAO ZhiWei; LI YiXue

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for in vestigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed topological pattern helps to design more efficient algorithm specifically for metabolic networks. This coarsegrained graph also visualizes the vulnerable connections in the network, and thus could have important implication for disease studies and drug target identifications. In addition, analysis on the reciprocal links and main cores in the GSC part of bow-tie also reveals that the bow-tie structure of metabolic networks has its own intrinsic and significant features which are significantly different from those of random networks.

  19. The weakness of strong ties : Collective action failure in a highly cohesive group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Macy, MW

    1996-01-01

    Following Homans, exchange theorists have modeled informal social control as an exchange of peer approval for compliance with group obligations. The exchange model predicts higher compliance in cohesive networks with strong social ties. However, previous specifications failed to incorporate bilatera

  20. Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159804.html Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study Preliminary finding ... News) -- People who develop heart failure after a heart attack may also face a higher risk of cancer, ...

  1. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue Previous research has linked higher density to increased ... Western-style diet may develop more dense breast tissue, possibly increasing their risk for breast cancer, Spanish ...

  2. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  3. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below.

  4. Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) Phases I, II and III Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation summarizes the sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow researchers to characterize and identify chemical causes of acute toxicity in sediments that can be applied using the 10-d solid-phase sediment toxicity tests.

  5. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

  6. THE RATIONALE BEHIND WEAKLY TIED NETWORKING OF THE BANGLADESHI DIASPORA IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nayeem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration of the survival strategies of the Bangladeshi Diaspora in Malaysia. To cope with the realities, Bangladeshi migrants develop different forms of survival strategies. As a result intra and inter-ethnic strong and weak ties are formed in the receiving country. Empirical analysis depicts that respondents with weak ties have higher income mobility than those with strong ties. It also demonstrates that the Bangladeshi migrants of the study areas do not restrict themselves only to their close social networks; rather they develop distant networks for higher social mobility. Or in other words, though the ideal socio-cultural model emphasizes community cohesion (something that can be conceptualized as an example of a tightly structured social system, the actual behavior of the Bangladeshi migrants indicates a loosely or disintegrated social system. Migrant's embeddedness in the ongoing social relations and power structures regulates the nature and strength of these ties.

  7. One long tie bar broken after 3 days because of hydrogen contamination.

    CERN Multimedia

    H. Gerwig

    2000-01-01

    The tie bars have been produced with a high yield strength. As known for these type of high strength bolts, and hydrogen contamination during manufacture or heat treatment could lead to rupture under stress after several days.

  8. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  9. A longitudinal analysis of cross-border ties and depression for Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Lee, Anne; González, Hector M; Garcia, Lorena; Haan, Mary N

    2016-07-01

    Recent scholarship suggests a significant association between cross-border ties, or ties maintained with family and friends in countries and communities of origin, and the mental health of immigrants and their descendants. To date, this research has been exclusively cross-sectional, precluding conclusions about a causal association between cross-border ties and mental health outcomes. In the present study we undertake a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cross-border ties and depression measured over a ten-year period for a sample of immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos. Data are from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), a population-based, prospective study of Latin American-origin adults 60 years and older. We find that cross-border ties reported at baseline were significantly associated with depression in subsequent study waves, even after controlling for the presence of depression at baseline, albeit with substantial differences by gender and nativity. Specifically, communication with family and friends in Latin America and travel to Latin America at baseline were each significantly associated with greater odds of depression for immigrant women, but with lower odds of depression for U.S.-born Latina women over the study period. Travel to Latin America at baseline was significantly associated with lower odds of depression for Latino men across the study. Across all models we control for depressive symptomatology at baseline to account for the reciprocal nature of depressive symptoms and engagement with social ties, including cross-border ties. Our findings suggest that cross-border ties may represent a unique source of both resilience and risk for the long-term mental health of immigrant Latinos and their descendants. PMID:27239901

  10. Relational ties or customized contracts? An examination of alternative governance choices in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Zheng Zhou; Laura Poppo; Zhilin Yang

    2008-01-01

    As business transactions become more complex in China – an increasingly market-driven economy – are managers more likely to employ relational ties or contracts? Consistent with the view that personal institutions govern transactions in China, our analysis of 361 buyer–supplier exchanges indicates that managers rely more on relational ties as asset specificity and uncertainty increase. We also find some support that impersonal institutions govern market transactions: as uncertainty increases, ...

  11. Exploring contributions to opera by The Black Tie Ensemble : a historical case study / Antoinette Johanna Olivier

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Antoinette Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the contribution to opera in South Africa by The Black Tie Ensemble. The research follows a qualitative research design. It is a historical case study which is conducted against an interpretivist philosophical perspective. Data were collected through interviews conducted with prominent role-players in The Black Tie Ensemble and through various articles from newspapers and magazines. From the data collected, specific themes crystallized; the impact of performance and...

  12. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Zhao; Lin, Tao; Hong, Yu; Jian-Hua, Luo; Cao, Z W; Yixue, Li

    2006-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for investigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed top...

  13. The Contaminating Effects of Building Instrumental Ties: How Networking Can Make Us Feel Dirty

    OpenAIRE

    Casciaro, Tiziana; Gino, Francesca; Kouchaki, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    To create social ties to support their professional or personal goals, people actively engage in instrumental networking. Drawing from moral psychology research, we posit that this intentional behavior has unintended consequences for an individual's morality. Unlike personal networking in pursuit of emotional support or friendship, and unlike social ties that emerge spontaneously, instrumental networking in pursuit of professional goals can impinge on an individual's moral purity—a psychologi...

  14. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    of lactation kept in tie-stalls. The time spent lying, eating, ruminating, lying inactive without ruminating, and lying with the neck muscles relaxed, as well as the milk yield of primiparous and multiparous cows were recorded for 2d. The effects of milk yield and parity on behavior were analyzed with mixed...... production had less lying time even with free access to lie down in the tie-stall....

  15. Division of tongue tie: review of practice through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, R W

    2012-10-01

    Recent NICE guidance declared that evidence regarding surgical division of tongue tie was adequate to support the use of the procedure, provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance. This work aimed to carry out a retrospective review of those patients who have previously undergone tongue tie division through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service. We further aimed to identify the referral patterns, indications for, and outcomes following, division.

  16. Does it pay to have friends? Social ties and executive appointments in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Allen N. Berger; Kick, Thomas; Koetter, Michael; Schaeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Social capital theory predicts individuals establish social ties based on homophily, i.e., affinities for similar others. We exploit a unique sample to analyze how similarities and social ties affect career outcomes in banking based on age, education, gender, and employment history to examine if homophily and connectedness increase the probability that the appointee to an executive board is an outsider (an individual without previous employment at the bank) compared to being an insider. Our r...

  17. The Effects of De-energizing Ties in Organizations and How to Manage Them

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Andrew; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Porath, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    While there is growing recognition about the role of informal networks in organizations and the importance of energizers in the workplace, chances are that managers and organizations are missing a potentially devastating expense: de-energizers. Over the past decade we've studied the effects of negative or de-energizing ties, defined as enduring, recurring set of negative judgments, feelings, and behavioral intentions towards another person. While de-energizing ties may represent a relatively ...

  18. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  19. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  20. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  1. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  2. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks.

  3. Current singularities in line-tied three-dimensional magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, I J D

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at t...

  4. Vibration Testing of Electrical Cables to Quantify Loads at Tie-Down Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for defining static equivalent structural load factors for components is based on Mile s equation. Unless test data is available, 5% critical damping is assumed for all components when calculating loads. Application of this method to electrical cable tie-down hardware often results in high loads, which often exceed the capability of typical tie-down options such as cable ties and P-clamps. Random vibration testing of electrical cables was used to better understand the factors that influence component loads: natural frequency, damping, and mass participation. An initial round of vibration testing successfully identified variables of interest, checked out the test fixture and instrumentation, and provided justification for removing some conservatism in the standard method. Additional testing is planned that will include a larger range of cable sizes for the most significant contributors to load as variables to further refine loads at cable tie-down points. Completed testing has provided justification to reduce loads at cable tie-downs by 45% with additional refinement based on measured cable natural frequencies.

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel peptide ligand of Tie2 for targeting gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghua Wu; Jianren Gu; Zonghai Li; Ming Yao; Huamao Wang; Sumin Qu; Xianlian Chen; Jinjun Li; Ye Sun; Yuhong Xu

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain-2 (Tie2) has been considered as a rational target for gene therapy in solid tumors. In order to identify a novel peptide ligand of Tie2 for targeted gene therapy, we screened a phage display peptide library and identified a candidate peptide ligand NSLSNASEFRAPY(designated GA5).Binding assays and Scatchard analysis revealed that GA5 could specifically bind to Tie2 with a dissociation constant of 2.1×10-8M.In addition,we showed that GA5 was internalized into tumor cells highly expressing Tie2.In the biodistribution assay.125I-GA5 was mainly accumniated in SPC-A1 xenograft tumors that express Tie2.Ingene delivery studies,GA5-conjugated polyethylenimine vector could achieve greater transgene transduction than non-targeted vectors both in vitro and in vivo.Tumor growth inhibition was observed in SPC-A1 xenograft-bearing mice that received eight intratumoral injections of GA5 polyethylenimine/p53 complexes in 3 weeks.The difference in tumor volume between the experiment and control groups was significant(P<0.05).Our results showed that GA5 is a potentially efficient targeting element for cancer gene or molecular therapy.

  6. LRP5 regulates development of lung microvessels and alveoli through the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanori Mammoto

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is crucial for lung development. Although there has been considerable exploration, the mechanism by which lung vascular and alveolar formation is controlled is still not completely understood. Here we show that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5, a component of the Wnt ligand-receptor complex, regulates angiogenesis and alveolar formation in the lung by modulating expression of the angiopoietin (Ang receptor, Tie2, in vascular endothelial cells (ECs. Vascular development in whole mouse lungs and in cultured ECs is controlled by LRP5 signaling, which is, in turn, governed by a balance between the activities of the antagonistic Tie2 ligands, Ang1 and Ang2. Under physiological conditions when Ang1 is dominant, LRP5 knockdown decreases Tie2 expression and thereby, inhibits vascular and alveolar development in the lung. Conversely, when Ang2 dominates under hyperoxia treatment in neonatal mice, high LRP5 and Tie2 expression suppress angiogenesis and lung development. These findings suggest that the LRP5-Tie2-Ang signaling axis plays a central role in control of both angiogenesis and alveolarization during postnatal lung development, and that deregulation of this signaling mechanism might lead to developmental abnormalities of the lung, such as are observed in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD.

  7. STABLE MARRIAGE PROBLEM WITH TIES AND INCOMPLETE BOUNDED LENGTH PREFERENCE LIST UNDER SOCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shrivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a variant of socially stable marriage problem where preference lists may be incomplete, may contain ties and may have bounded length. In real world application like NRMP and Scottish medical matching scheme such restrictions arise very frequently where set of agents (man/woman is very large and providing a complete and strict order preference list is practically in-feasible. In presence of ties in preference lists, the most common solution is weakly socially stable matching. It is a fact that in an instance, weakly stable matching can have different sizes. This motivates the problem of finding a maximum cardinality weakly socially stable matching. In this paper, we find maximum size weakly socially stable matching for an instance of Stable Marriage problem with Ties and Incomplete bounded length preference list with Social Stability. The motivation to consider this instance is the known fact, any larger instance of this problem is NP-hard.

  8. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein de Haas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".

  9. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  10. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an ego-centric perspective which accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie-strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme-value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable `super ties', the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scienti...

  11. A Synchronization Method for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng;

    2016-01-01

    for the performance of the entire grid-tied inverter. In this paper, a new synchronization method with good dynamics and high accuracy under a highly distorted voltage is proposed. This method uses a Multi-Harmonic Decoupling Cell (MHDC), which thus can cancel out the oscillations on the synchronization signals due......The controllers of single-phase grid-tied inverters require improvements to enable distribution generation systems to meet the grid codes/standards with respect to power quality and the fault ride through capability. In that case, the response of the selected synchronization technique is crucial...... to the harmonic voltage distortion while maintaining the dynamic response of the synchronization. Therefore, the accurate and dynamic response of the proposed MHDC-PLL can be beneficial for the performance of the whole single-phase grid-tied inverter....

  12. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  13. Social capital, labour precariousness and the economic performance. An empirical assessment of the strength of weak ties in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Sabatini

    2005-01-01

    This paper carries out an assessment of the influence that different kinds of social ties exert on labour precariousness, on the state of health of urban environments and on the economic performance in Italy. Overall, the empirical evidence shows that weak ties connecting members of voluntary organizations positively affect the economic performance and the quality of urban ecosystems, differently from strong ties connecting family members and close friends, which, on the other side, are prove...

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  15. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  16. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are

  17. Third party referrals in the venture capital financing process : do network ties matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Heuven, Joris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and third parties and the network ties between VC’s and third parties. To do so we collected in depth information on 25 venture capital investment decisions and studied how third parties played a role in t...

  18. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously ac-cessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist mo-tives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through...... on-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separate-ly. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening...

  19. Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is...

  20. Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Szałowski, Karol

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various size in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predic...

  1. Analysis of Silver Ink Bow-Tie RFID Tag Antennas Printed on Paper Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Merilampi; Leena Ukkonen; Lauri Sydänheimo; Pekka Ruuskanen; Markku Kivikoski

    2007-01-01

    In this study, polymeric silver inks, paper substrates, and screen printing were used to produce prototype Bow-Tie tags. Because of increasing interest in applying passive UHF-RFID systems in paper industry, the Bow-Tie antenna used in this study was designed to work through paper. The maximum reliable read ranges of the tags were measured thorough stacked paper and also in air. The analysis and functioning of the antenna design are also discussed. All inks and paper substrates were suitable ...

  2. FAMILIAL ANKYLOGLOSS IA [TONGUE – TIE] – A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Subba Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4 - 5% and characterized by abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality is 2 times more common in males. The pathogenesis of Ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated Ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal domin ant trait in four consecutive generations. The identification of the defective gene (s in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. This case report elucidates a specific inheritance pattern of tongue tie.

  3. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    , due to the dramaturgic structure of handball transmissions, viewers consider such transmissions particularly reliable and effective sources of entertainment. The transmissions’ entertainment value derives from their specific ability to give the viewers a complex experience of feeling autonomous...

  4. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  5. Performance analysis of new type grid-tied inverter-Aalborg Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Wang, Zhen; Ji, Junhao;

    2014-01-01

    Aalborg Inverter is a grid-tied DC/AC inverter. In order to optimize the design, its power losses are analyzed in detail, combined with a description of the single-phase operating principle and the modulation strategy. A 2 kW / 220 V experimental prototype is constructed to verify the theoretical...

  6. Method and matter in the social sciences: Umbilically tied to the Enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This commentary deals with the nonconformity of academics and the ethos of social science. Academics in all fields deviate from majority norms in politics and religion, and this deviance may be essential to the academic mind and to academic norms. The Enlightenment legacy inspires both methods and subject matter in academic work, and severing ties with it may be impossible. PMID:26787220

  7. Mechanical characterization of the tie rods for the ATLAS B0 model coil

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandria, Franco; Todero, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Barrel Toroid (BT) consists of 8 superconducting coils of 25 m length and 5 m width. Each coil is equipped with eight titanium alloy tie rods acting as support for the magnetic forces, the intensity of which will be up to 180 t for the most loaded one. The B0 model coil is about 1/3 length scale of the BT, equipped with three tie rods. In order to simulate the behavior of the coil supports, a test facility has been built to test individual tie rods at cryogenic temperature. The initial aim was to verify the amount of stick and slip, the possibility of it occurring during the excitation and the flexion of the support at the anchoring point on the magnet. This was achieved by inducing in the support the same movements foreseen during the cool-down and the excitation of the magnet and loading with the same forces. Following the evolution of the project it was decided to test the tie rod simply in traction at 250 tons, without displacements. In this paper the test facility is described and the data of t...

  8. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  9. Social Networks and Cultural Mediators: The Multiplexity of Personal Ties in Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heebels, B.; Atzema, O.A.L.C.; van Aalst, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relational and affective aspects of personal ties of cultural mediators by means of in-depth interviews with Dutch book publishers. Through examining the affective side of publishers’ personal networks, we contribute to understanding the role of cultural mediators—those in-be

  10. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  11. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk

  12. Any Ties that Bind? Economic Diplomacy on the South Asian Subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); H. Dorussen; H. Ward (Huge)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe liberal peace emphasizes the importance of commercial ties and shared norms—of which shared democratic institutions have received most attention—for peaceful interstate relations. Ever since the creation of India and Pakistan in 1947, political relations between the two states have b

  13. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants’ intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the l

  14. Single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy using a pre-tied loop ligature in Santa Ines ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Farias Pereira da Câmara Barros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to develop and assess the feasibility, postoperative pain and inflammatory response of the single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy in ewes, using a simple pre-tied loop ligature technique. Pre-tied Meltzer's knot was employed for prophylactic hemostasis of the ovarian pedicle. Slipknot was inserted within the abdominal cavity through a 14-gauge needle and tied surrounding the ovarian pedicle. Mean surgical time, manipulation, ligature and resection of each ovary and anesthesia time were 63±20, 20±10 and 91±26 minutes, respectively. No bleeding occurred during the surgeries. Ewes showed low scores pain (0.5±0.5 at all time-points. Postsurgical plasma fibrinogen was within the normal range for sheep specie at all time-points. The ewes showed a significant weight gain in comparison to the basal scaling (one day before the surgery. Single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy using a pre-tied loop ligature is feasible in the ovine specie and provided minimal postoperative distress and quick weight gain.

  15. Social ties within school classes : The roles of gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and

  16. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  17. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform…

  18. The Role of Social Ties in Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne Duhr; Grønholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article develops consumer segmentation based on the strength of social ties in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and examines the influence of WOM on behavioral attitude and intention in these segments. Data were collected through a survey among receivers of retail banking WOM. A cluster...

  19. Third party referrals in the venture capital financing process : do network ties matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, Joris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and thir

  20. Founding a business inspired by close entrepreneurial ties: Does it matter for survival?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.J.; Marsili, O.

    2015-01-01

    Founding a business may be inspired by close entrepreneurial ties, that is, business-owning relatives or friends. We analyze if and when such inspiration is associated with post-entry survival. Drawing on longitudinal data on 942 founders, we find a positive relationship only if founders start by ta

  1. Double-sided printed bow-tie antenna with notch filter for UWB applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Akimasa; ヒラタ, アキマサ; 平田, 晃正

    2009-01-01

    This letter proposes a double-sided printed bow-tie antenna with a notch band. The notch filter is based on a grounded patch inserted into the feeding microstrip line. The advantage of the structure is its tunability of the notch band.

  2. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  3. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  4. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... withstand the limit loads resulting from a 65-knot horizontal wind from any direction. Water Loads ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General. The airplane must be designed to withstand the limit load...

  5. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  6. A possible mechanism for cross-tie fibril generation in crazing of amorphous polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssens, M.G.A.; van der Giessen, E.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mechanism for cross-tie fibril generation in crazes of amorphous polymers is proposed. Detailed finite element calculations are performed on an axisymmetric model of a single fibril inside the craze. These calculations suggest that the hydrostatic stress inside the fibril is large enough

  7. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  8. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer–employee dataset from Vietnam the authors find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job...

  9. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  10. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325, 29330 (May 20, 2013... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of...

  11. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17, at 75 FR 9692. The Ordering Clause of the First...(c)(3) published at 75 FR 9692, March 3, 2010 are effective on June 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 76 Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of...

  12. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  13. How To Explore Weak Ties in the Biotechnological Field: The Role of Technological Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    -organisational weak ties. A number of organisational practices that enable such open exploration are identified while the main argument points to the impact a general technological competence has on the potential to form boundary-spanning social relations and the related opportunity to exchange knowledge with diverse...

  14. Investigation on the Consumption Values of Hong Kong People on Tie Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Mei-yi Leung; Alice Wai-ching Chu; Kit-lun Yick

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the consumption values of Hong Kong people on necktie. Based on the Sheth-Newman-Gross Model of consumption values on consumers' choice decision as conceptual framework, results from the focus group interview, a questionnaire was designed and adopted for conducting the survey. Data collected from 245 respondents were analysed using the Factor Analysis to review the important elements of consumers' decision of purchasing tie products. Implications on the results on the Functional value were reviewed and discussed in details. Interesting elements such as fabric hand-feel were also identified as influential associated in Hong Kong consumers' selection of necktie. Since, both fibre content and fabric handle were also found as major selection criteria for fabric materials, the study was focused on the analysis of functional value of the product and further extended to study the handle preference for Hong Kong customers, in which a subjective handle assessment of a wide range of tie fabrics being newly developed and introduced in the market was conducted and objective fabric physical and mechanical properties were measured. Important fabric handle attributes that influence the consumers' preference on tie fabrics were identified and their objective translation by fabric physical and mechanical properties were also obtained. The investigation provides decision support to necktie manufacturers and retailers through scientific and quantitative recommendations for product development of tie products and material selection.

  15. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  16. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the

  17. Transient Stability Studies on Industrial Power Systems Interconnected to the Transmission Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón–Guizar J.G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to ensure continuity in the electrical supply to critical processes, the electrical systems of large industrial plants, i.e. gas, and petrochemical industries usually posses local generation. Should the local generation be enough to satisfy the demand of the plant, then the interconnection with the public grid is commonly used as an important support for emergency conditions. This paper is concerned with the dynamical performance of two interconnected industrial power systems tied to the transmission system. Simulation results indicate that the frequency performance of one of the industrial plants, after the transients caused by the loss of the tie with the transmission system have died out, is greatly improved if both industrial plants remain connected after the disturbance.

  18. What’s Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  19. 30 CFR 285.223 - What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid? 285.223 Section 285.223 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... is a tie for the highest bid? (a) Unless otherwise specified in the Final Sale Notice, except in...

  20. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325 (May... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico,...

  1. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  2. Tongue-Tie Assessment and Division: A Time-Critical Intervention to Optimise Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donati-Bourne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recent reports have highlighted the benefits of surgical division of tongue-tie (frenulotomy in infants with breastfeeding difficulties. There is no clear consensus defining the appropriate age for this procedure to be undertaken in selected infants. We aimed to evaluate the impact of delays in time between referral and frenulotomy in relation to maternal abandonment of breastfeeding.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study done in out-patient Neonatal Surgery Department, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, between April 2013 and July 2013. All infants, referred to our tongue-tie clinic between April and July 2013, were studied prospectively. Referral time lags were calculated using computer records; details regarding breastfeeding were collected by an independent interviewer completing a questionnaire.Results: Seventy patients were included. The median infant age at clinic was 28.5 days [range 1-126]. Fifty eight [82%] of mothers had breastfeeding difficulty and their infants were confirmed to have a prominent tongue-tie. By the time of their clinic attendance, breastfeeding had either not been established or abandoned in 21%. Despite difficulty, 61% of mothers persisted breastfeeding and all these mothers consented for frenulotomy. At time of clinic, median age of infants whose mothers had abandoned breastfeeding was 37 days [range 1-80] compared to 27 days [range 1-126] in infants whose mothers had persisted.Conclusions: We demonstrated a time-critical dimension for frenulotomy: delay beyond 4-weeks from referral to assessment of neonatal tongue-tie is more likely to be associated with abandonment of breastfeeding. Timely assessment and division of tongue-tie in selected infants can therefore play an important role in a birthing unit’s breastfeeding strategy.

  3. The monetary transmission mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Peter N. Ireland

    2005-01-01

    The monetary transmission mechanism describes how policy-induced changes in the nominal money stock or the short-term nominal interest rate impact on real variables such as aggregate output and employment. Specific channels of monetary transmission operate through the effects that monetary policy has on interest rates, exchange rates, equity and real estate prices, bank lending, and firm balance sheets. Recent research on the transmission mechanism seeks to understand how these channels work ...

  4. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  5. Tie2基因RNA干扰慢病毒表达载体的构建与鉴定%Construction and identification of RNAi lentiviral expression vector for Tie2 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑厚兵; 单秀英; 刘照亮; 王彪; 郭国祥; 张炜强; 庄福连

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建并鉴定Tie2基因的RNA干扰慢病毒表达我体.方法 先构建pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-siRNA慢病毒转移质粒,通过Xba I酶切电泳及测序鉴定,再以pNL-EGFP- U6- Tie2-siRNA慢病毒转移质粒,pVSVG包膜质粒和pHelper包装质粒三质粒共转染293T细胞,产生慢病毒,收集病毒上清液并测定病毒滴度.结果 成功构建pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-siRNA慢病毒转移质粒2条,通过Xba I酶切及测序鉴定,Tie2-siRNA核苷酸序列插入正确,利用三质粒慢病毒包装系统生产EGFP-Tie2-siRNA病毒,收集病毒上清,并测得病毒滴度为9×103/μL.结论 成功构建了Tie2基因的RNA干扰慢病毒表达载体.

  6. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

  7. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs

  8. The weak-ties in advanced business services as a major force of innovation and diffusion; Las Eak-Ties en los servicios avanzados a empresas como factor relevante de la innovacion y su difusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almenar i Llongo, V.; Hernandez Sancho, F.; Solar i Marco, V.

    2012-07-01

    This paper tries to expose the role of weak-ties of advanced business services in both mechanisms which generate innovation as well as allow technological diffusion and transfer of innovations (spillovers). Assuming that the latest information generally flows to agents through weak ties, the Weak-Ties Hypothesis (WTH) is an approach that helps to explain the importance of the relations with the environment in the process of innovation and generation of new knowledge and its implementation and dissemination, evaluating the synergy's resulting from cooperation between agents. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ludwig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased levels of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 and soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2, but its impact on vascular disease is still unknown. This study aimed to further explore the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with metabolic control and diabetic complications. Methods In a cross-sectional designed study, levels of Ang-2 and sTie-2 as well as their relationships to cardiometabolic parameters were determined in 80 type 2 diabetic subjects (age 65 ± 7 years, female 47.4%. Results After controlling for age and BMI, Ang-2 levels were associated with levels of sTie-2, diastolic blood pressure, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT (all p 1c, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, and liver function parameters (all p 1c, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR (p Conclusions Ang-2 is independently associated with levels of GGT while sTie-2 is independently associated with levels of HbA1c, plasma insulin and HOMA-IR in type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore we suggest that the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with type 2 diabetes are based on different patho-physiological mechanisms.

  10. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-04-30

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. PMID:21287589

  11. Design and stability analysis of continuous skew tied-arch bridge over Bin Jiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiancheng YU; Hao TONG; Wei HUANG

    2008-01-01

    A tied arch bridge without wind bracing was built over the Bin Jiang River, with oblique angle of 20°. Its main design details are described and mechanical performances are analyzed. The stability analytical types are also introduced and the first elastic stability theory is used. A space finite element model has been built to analyze the stability performances in both construction and operation stages for single span or continuous, orthogonal or oblique bridge. The influence of stiffness of the end crossbeam is also analyzed. The result shows that out-plane buckling occur for a rigid tie and similar no matter whether it is single span or continuous and orthogonal or oblique. When there are more and stronger inner crossbeams, the influence of the end crossbeams on arch stability becomes unremarkable.

  12. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  13. A Study of Near-Field Radiation Pattern of Bow-Tie Dipole on Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yi; LIANG Changhong; FANG Guangyou; YUAN Hongwei

    2001-01-01

    The study of bow-tie antenna forpulse'radiation in a ground penetrating radar systemis complicated due to the existence of reflections fromthe feed,the far end of the antenna,the air-groundinterface and their interactions.The FDTD methodsare applied in this paper by incorporating a trans-parent source,a bow-tie antenna above the ground,and a lossy soil to investigate the issues.Numeri-cal verifications are conducted to check the accuracyof the method.The radiation properties are demon-strated by near-field radiation patterns and time do-main waveforms at different positions.The influencesdue to different antenna heights and soil parametersare also discussed in detail.

  14. Dendrometer Bands Made Easy: Using Modified Cable Ties to Measure Incremental Growth of Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn R. Anemaet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. Methods and Results: As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. Conclusions: This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  15. Analysis of Silver Ink Bow-Tie RFID Tag Antennas Printed on Paper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Merilampi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymeric silver inks, paper substrates, and screen printing were used to produce prototype Bow-Tie tags. Because of increasing interest in applying passive UHF-RFID systems in paper industry, the Bow-Tie antenna used in this study was designed to work through paper. The maximum reliable read ranges of the tags were measured thorough stacked paper and also in air. The analysis and functioning of the antenna design are also discussed. All inks and paper substrates were suitable as antenna material and the prototype tag antennas had good reading performance. The maximum reliable read ranges were quite the same as for copper and aluminum tags studied elsewhere. This means that printed UHF tags are competitive solutions for the identification of simple mass products.

  16. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

  17. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  18. LOFAR tied-array imaging and spectroscopy of solar S bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; O'Flannagain, A; Fallows, R; Reid, H; Magdalenic, J; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thide, B; Vocks, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; Eisloffel, J; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Munk, H; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Scaife, A M M; Sluman, J; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission that is often associated with energetic phenomena ranging from nanoflares to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), numerous millisecond duration radio bursts have been reported, such as radio spikes or solar S bursts (where S stands for short). To date, these have neither been studied extensively nor imaged because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims. Here, Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations were used to study the spectral and spatial characteristics of a multitude of S bursts, as well as their origin and possible emission mechanisms. Methods. We used 170 simultaneous tied-array beams for spectroscopy and imaging of S bursts. Since S bursts have short timescales and fine frequency structures, high cadence (~50 ms) tied-array images were used instead of standard interferometric imaging, that is currently limited to one image per second. Results. On 9 July 2013, over 3000 S bursts were ob...

  19. Social ties and risk for cancer--a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... had an increased risk for lung cancer of borderline significance (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.02-4.60). The risks for breast cancer and colorectal cancers were not significantly increased in the same group of women. DISCUSSION: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that social network size...

  20. UWB Bi-directional Bow-tie antenna loaded by rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Sun, Kai; Xie, Ji-yang; Qiu, Yu-jie; Jiang, Xing

    2016-07-01

    Performances of bow-tie antennae can be improved by loading a ring. Specially, the distorted radiation patterns of the reference bow-tie antenna (RBA) at high frequencies become less distorted when a ring is added. That is due to the disciplined current flows trained by the ring. Furthermore, when more rings are loaded, which act as reflectors, higher directivities are obtained and, patterns become bi-directional. Antennae with no ring (RBA), one ring, two rings (three cases), three rings, and four rings are investigated. Research find that loading more rings means better directivity. The directivity of the RBA varies from 2.29 dB to 3.66 dB for the frequency band from 2.5 to 7.5 GHz while the directivity for the four-ring-loaded case varies from 4.27 dB to 7.61 dB in that frequency band.

  1. An Exploratory Examination of Social Ties and Crime in Mobile Home Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. McCarty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the systemic model of social disorganization, the purpose of this study was to explore the nature of social ties in mobile home communities and examine how that relates to rates of violent and property crime. Interviews with a small sample of mobile home residents, owners, and managers in Omaha, Nebraska, indicate a wide spectrum of communities, from those characterized by an atomized population to those with strong social ties. Fear of crime, ethnically heterogeneous populations, and lax management were cited by respondents as factors that undermined relationships. Proactive management and a desire to help neighbors were cited by respondents as factors that helped strengthen relationships. Violent and property crime rates for the mobile home communities were largely consistent with the interview data, providing support for the importance of social networks and a systemic model of social disorganization. The implications of these findings for research and policy are also explored.

  2. Knowledge-based network ties in early rapidly internationalising small firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masango, Shingairai Grace; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2014-01-01

    strong knowledge-based contacts. The ERISF acts as the source that provides the technical information and knowledge, which is then adopted by their network partners. This means that the ERISF’s product and technological capabilities drive the international knowledge creation process. The findings provide......This paper sets out to establish the sources of the relationships underpinning Early Rapidly Internationalising Small Firm (ERISF) cross border activities, the main characteristics and specific functions of these relationships, and their process of development. Using interview data from ten South...... African firms, the findings show that the founder’s pre-firm knowledge pools are important in establishing the source of the initial hierarchical knowledge-based interpersonal ties. ERISF internationalisation is enabled by an initial prior interpersonal network tie set, which is composed of predominantly...

  3. FAILURES AND DEFECTS IN THE BUILDING PROCESS – APPLYING THE BOW-TIE APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. A Danish research project focusing on failures and defects in building processes has been carried out over the last 2 years. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction...... site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model from the area of safety research. It combines critical-event analysis for both causes and effects...... with event-tree analysis. The paper describes this analytical approach as an introduction to a new concept for understanding failures and defects in construction. Analysing the many critical events in the building process with the bow-tie model visualises the complexity of causes. This visualisation offers...

  4. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  5. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  6. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  7. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Dovier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for three months in summer; they were visited three times: (i four weeks before grazing during the indoor period in the stall; (ii about three weeks after the start of grazing; and (iii in the stall, in autumn, at least three weeks after returning from grazing. The other twelve farms kept the animals in tie-stalls all year; they were visited once in autumn. Data were collected following a protocol that considers animal-based measures and structure information on the basis of Quality Welfare Consortium® indications. Data allowed the calculation of both the Animal Needs Index score (ANI 35L and an overall assessment of the cows’ welfare obtained from three general aspects: housing, animal’s physical condition, and animal’s behaviour. Summer grazing had a significant positive effect on injuries, lameness and animal’s rising duration but a negative effect on faeces consistency. Moreover, a reduction of tongue playing was observed. The ANI 35L and the overall assessment did not show significant differences linked to summer grazing, which tended to have a positive but temporary effect on animal behaviour.

  8. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science...

  9. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the "Bow-tie" Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Timár, G.; Goltsev, A. V.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2016-01-01

    We reveal a hierarchical organization of finite directed components---tendrils---around the giant components represented by the celebrated "bow-tie" diagram for directed networks. We develop an efficient algorithm to find tendril layers. It is used together with the message passing technique, generalized to directed graphs, to find the structure and attack tolerance of complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. We introduce a genera...

  10. Comparison radiographic and automated ultrasonic inspection of pipeline tie-in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the use of automated ultrasonic inspection (AUT) for pipeline girth welds has seen rapid growth and is now used almost exclusively for all gas metal arc welding (GMAW) girth weld inspection. The following paper reviews some of the major features of ultrasonic inspection by comparison to conventional Film Radiography (RT) and reviews the use of ultrasonic inspection for pipeline and tie-in welds. (author)

  11. Dendrometer bands made easy: Using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees 1

    OpenAIRE

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Beth A. Middleton

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. • Method...

  12. Potts critical frontiers of inhomogeneous and asymmetric bow-tie lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Scullard, Christian R.; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke

    2012-01-01

    We study the critical frontiers of the Potts model on two-dimensional bow-tie lattices with fully inhomogeneous coupling constants. Generally, for the Potts critical frontier to be found exactly, the underlying lattice must be a 3-uniform hypergraph. A more general class of lattices are the 4-uniform ones, with unit cells contained within four boundary vertices. We demonstrate that in some cases, such lattices can be decomposed into triangular cells, and solved using a modification of standar...

  13. Bow-tie nano-antenna assisted generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Pfullmann, N.; Waltermann, C.; Noack, M.; Rausch, S.; Nagy, T.; Reinhardt, C.; Kovacev, M.; Knittel, V.; Bratschitsch, R.; Akemeier, D.; Huetten, A.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Morgner, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We report on the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation utilizing the plasmonic field enhancement in arrays of bow-tie gold optical antennae. Furthermore, their suitability to support high-order harmonic generation is examined by means of finite-difference time-domain calculations and experiments. Particular emphasis is paid to the thermal properties, which become significant at the employed peak intensities. A damage threshold depending on the antenna length is predict...

  14. Bow-tie wobble artifact: Effect of source assembly motion on cone-beam CT

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Dandan; John C. Ford; Lu, Jun; Lazos, Dimitrios; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Pokhrel, Damodar; Zhang, Lisha; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cause of a bow-tie wobble artifact (BWA) discovered on Varian OBI CBCT images and to develop practical correction strategies.Method and Materials: The dependence of the BWA on phantom geometry, phantom position, specific system, and reconstruction algorithm was investigated. Simulations were conducted to study the dependence of the BWA on scatter and beam hardening corrections. Geometric calibration was performed to rule out other gantry-angle dependent mechanical ...

  15. Note: auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments. PMID:23464273

  16. The critical manifolds of inhomogeneous bond percolation on bow-tie and checkerboard lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ziff, Robert M.; Scullard, Christian R.; Wierman, John C.; Sedlock, Matthew R. A.

    2012-01-01

    We give a conditional derivation of the inhomogeneous critical percolation manifold of the bow-tie lattice with five different probabilities, a problem that does not appear at first to fall into any known solvable class. Although our argument is mathematically rigorous only on a region of the manifold, we conjecture that the formula is correct over its entire domain, and we provide a non-rigorous argument for this that employs the negative probability regime of the triangular lattice critical...

  17. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the “bow-tie” architecture, which stipulates a focal component - a “knot” - uncoupling circuits’ inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs i...

  18. Failures and Defects in the Building Process:Applying the Bow-Tie Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. A Danish research project focusing on failures and defects in building processes has been carried out over the last 2 years. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model ...

  19. Connections to distant knowledge: Interpersonal ties between more- and less-developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Z. Levin; Helena Barnard

    2013-01-01

    Less-developed countries benefit from being connected to technologically and economically advanced countries. The well-documented mechanisms for this cross-national flow of knowledge all involve interfirm connections, such as trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and alliances. We examine the potential of a different mechanism – interpersonal ties abroad – that has only recently become practicable, owing to advances in communication and transportation technologies, globalization, and increa...

  20. How do family ties, boards and regulation affect pay at the top? Evidence for Indian CEOs

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Fagernäs

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of corporate governance factors and family ties on the pay of managing directors in a sample of Indian stock listed companies. It uses a unique seven-year firm level panel dataset and controls for firm performance and both CEO and firm specific fixed effects. The hypothesis is that corporate governance, ownership structures and market pressure shape the power relations between the board and managers, and affect the level and structure of CEO pay. The eviden...

  1. Tongue-Tie Assessment and Division: A Time-Critical Intervention to Optimise Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Donati-Bourne; Zainab Batool; Charles Hendrickse; Bowley, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recent reports have highlighted the benefits of surgical division of tongue-tie (frenulotomy) in infants with breastfeeding difficulties. There is no clear consensus defining the appropriate age for this procedure to be undertaken in selected infants. We aimed to evaluate the impact of delays in time between referral and frenulotomy in relation to maternal abandonment of breastfeeding.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study done in out-patient Neonatal Surgery ...

  2. FAMILIAL ANKYLOGLOSS IA [TONGUE – TIE] – A RARE CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Subba Rao; Vineeth Abraham; Fouzia

    2014-01-01

    Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4 - 5% and characterized by abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality is 2 times more common in males. The pathogenesis of Ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated Ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal domin ant trait in four consecutive generations. The identification of the defective gene (s) in these patients might reveal novel info...

  3. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons be...

  4. LLCL-Filter Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Aalborg Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Feng, Shuangshuang; Ji, Junhao;

    2014-01-01

    The Aalborg Inverter is a new type of high efficient DC/AC grid-tied inverter, where the input DC voltage can vary in a wide range. Compared with the LCL-filter, the LLCL-filter can save the total inductance for the conventional voltage source inverter. In this paper, an LLCL-filter based Aalborg....... Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the design through an 220 V/50 Hz, 2000 W prototype....

  5. Study of frame tie between planetary ephemerids and ICRF with millisecond and young pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingbo; Hobbs, George; Coles, William

    2016-07-01

    The positions of pulsar can be measured by pulsar timing technology and VLBI astrometry with high precision. They can be used to tie between referece frame based on solar system ephemerids and distant quasars with high accuracy. In this paper, we have collect the pulsar positions with VLBI measurement and obtain the pulsar timing position form Nanshan and Parkes data archive. We derive the rotation matrix between JPL DE and ICRF reference frame.

  6. Political power and aid tying practices in the development assistance committee countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pincin, Jared

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines on a panel of 22 OECD Development Assistance Committee countries whether fragmentation of executive power and the degree of competition in the legislative branch of government increases the amount of tied aid over the 1979-2009 period. Fragmentation and competition are broadly defined as the degree to which the costs of a dollar of aid expenditure are internalized by decision makers and the relative strength of the government’s position vis-à-vis legislative composition re...

  7. LRP5 Regulates Development of Lung Microvessels and Alveoli through the Angiopoietin-Tie2 Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda Rose; Jiang, Elizabeth Qingyu; Mammoto, Akiko; Chen, Jing; Smith, Lois Elaine Hodgson; Ingber, Donald Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial for lung development. Although there has been considerable exploration, the mechanism by which lung vascular and alveolar formation is controlled is still not completely understood. Here we show that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a component of the Wnt ligand-receptor complex, regulates angiogenesis and alveolar formation in the lung by modulating expression of the angiopoietin (Ang) receptor, Tie2, in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Vasc...

  8. Attenuating resonant behavior of a tied arch railway bridge using increased hanger damping

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Andreas; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic analyses and field measurements of a tied arch railway bridge is presented. Excessive vibrations of the hangers were obtained, caused by resonance during train passages. The resulting increase of the stress level and number of stress cycles were shown to decrease the fatigue service life significantly. The most critical section is a threaded turnbuckle connection of the hangers. Due to low damping of the hangers, more than 50 % of the cumulative fatigue damage was relat...

  9. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  10. Enduring Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU HAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ This month commemorates the 60th anniversary of the establishment of Sino-Vietnamese relations, coming at the outset of 2010-the official China-Viet Nam Friendship Year. Given the complex nature of China's relationship with nations of Southeast Asia, there can be no denying the bumps on the road. Nonetheless, friendship and cooperation have since taken center stage in full force: Indeed, it is a part-nership only expected to flourish more with time.

  11. Expanding Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's visit to Southeast Asia further strengthens U.S. relationship with ASEAN The United States continues on the path toward regarding Viet Nam as a country, not an enemy. In early June, Hanoi welcomed another high-level U.S. official, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. On June 2, Rumsfeld kicked off his first tour of Asia this year. He had three objectives: to attend the fifth Asia Security Conference (known as the Shangri-La Dialogue) in Singapore, to improve m...

  12. UPGRADING TIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Relations between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have matured and currently are the strongest in their history. This assertion comes from Hu Zhengyue, Director General of the Department of Asian Affairs of China's Foreign Ministry, as he sat down with Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei two weeks before the China-ASEAN Commemorative Summit in southwest China's Nanning, Guangxi. Excerpts of the interview follow:

  13. Ties Renewed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari’s state visit to China on October 14-17, China and Pakistan enhanced their bilateral relationship by issuing a joint declaration and inking 12 cooperation agreements and MOUs. Before concluding his first overseas trip as president, Zardari sat down with Beijing Review President and Editor in Chief Wang Gangyi and talked about Sino-Pakistani relations, the global financial crisis, antiterrorism and other major regional and international issues.

  14. Tighter Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Russia, two big neighbors that greatly influence the world, are drawing closer through enhanced cooperation Today’s world requires understanding, notonlyinthefieldsofpoliticsandthe economy, but also in culture and civi- lization. The rela

  15. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  16. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  17. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: The role of negative ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k ≥2 ). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden.

  18. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks - The role of negative ties

    CERN Document Server

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links.In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure.A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature.We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities.In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks.Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k >= 2).Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad + + - (hostile-mediator-hostile)...

  19. Social features of online networks: the strength of intermediary ties in online social media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw A Grabowicz

    Full Text Available An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties; events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties.

  20. Reverse Flipping Technique: An Alternate Approach to Tie Reversing Half-Hitches on Alternating Posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alexander C M; Prohaska, Daniel J; Pate, Ryan C

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic knot tying requires practice and attention to detail, especially tying the 3 reversing half-hitches on alternating posts (RHAPs) in a knot. Mistakes can occur that result in an unintentional tension (>10 N) applied to the wrapping suture limb, and by placing tension in the wrong limb, the previously "flipped" half-hitch is converted from a series of RHAPs into a series of identical half-hitches on the same post, thereby producing insecure knots or suture loops. This was hypothesized to be a source of knot failure by knot slippage. This error can be avoided by using a technique we describe as "reverse flipping," which purposely "flips" the half-hitch down at the main knot while tying the 3 RHAPs in a knot, and then the half-hitch is retightened using either a past-pointing or over-pointing technique. This way the surgeon can be absolutely sure that the half-hitch is tightened in the direction that it was intended to be placed, and can also prevent the unintentional tension applied to the wrapping suture limb that causes the half-hitch to "flip." However, caution should be used when tensioning the half-hitches; overtensioning (>40 N) during past-pointing or over-pointing could also potentially "flip" the previous half-hitch that has already been tightened and cause potential knot failure. PMID:27462541

  1. Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Kim, Chong Min; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies identify those factors that might account for the development of social capital. Understanding those factors associated with the existence of a social tie among actors in schools is important because absent social ties, individuals do not have access to social resources. We investigate social tie formation in schools focusing on advice…

  2. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  3. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles

  4. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  5. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Bruce R., E-mail: whitingbrucer@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Dohatcu, Andreea C. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on

  6. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  7. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  8. Social capital and core network ties: a validation study of individual-level social capital measures and their association with extra- and intra-neighborhood ties, and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Spencer; Bockenholt, Ulf; Daniel, Mark; Frohlich, Katherine; Kestens, Yan; Richard, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    Research on social capital and health has assumed that measures of trust, participation, and perceived cohesion capture aspects of people's neighborhood social connections. This study uses data on the personal networks of 2707 Montreal adults in 300 different neighborhoods to examine the association of socio-demographic and social capital variables with the likelihood of having core ties, core neighborhood ties, and high self-rated health (SRH). Persons with higher household income were more likely to have core ties, but less likely to have core neighborhood ties. Persons with greater diversity in extra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core ties, and persons with greater diversity in intra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core neighborhood ties. Generalized trust, perceived neighborhood cohesion, and extra-neighborhood network diversity were shown associated with high SRH. Conventional measures of social capital may not capture network mechanisms. Findings suggest a critical appraisal of the mechanisms linking social capital and health, and the further delineation of network and psychosocial mechanisms in understanding these links.

  9. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  10. Study on the Application of the Tie-Line-Table-Look-Up-Based Methods to Flash Calculations in Compositional Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Belkadi, Abdelkrim; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2013-01-01

    Flash calculation can be a time-consuming part in compositional reservoir simulations, and several approaches have been proposed to speed it up. One recent approach is the shadow-region method that reduces the computation time mainly by skipping stability analysis for a large portion...... computation time by replacing rigorous phase-equilibrium calculations with the stored results in a tie-line table whenever the new feed composition is on one of the stored tie-lines within a certain tolerance. In this study, a modified version of CSAT, named the TTL method, has been proposed to investigate...... if approximation by looking up a tie-line table can save flash-computation time in the two-phase region. The number of tie-lines stored for comparison and the tolerance set for accepting the feed composition are the key parameters in this method because they will influence the simulation speed and the accuracy...

  11. Resilience by Structural Entrenchment: Dynamics of Single-Layer and Multiplex Networks Following Sudden Changes to Tie Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Smaldino, Paul E; Maoz, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    We examine a model of network formation in single-layer and multiplex networks in which individuals have positive incentives for social ties, closed triangles, and spillover edges. In particular, we investigate the influence of shocks to the network in which the cost of social ties changes after an initial equilibrium. We highlight the emergence of structural entrenchment, a new concept we define as the persistence of structural features, such as closed triangles and spillover edges, which are formed under historically different conditions from those currently incentivizing the creation of new social ties or the destruction of existing ties. This work has broad implications for understanding path dependence in the structure and dynamics of single-layer and multiplex networks.

  12. Electrical stimulation upregulates angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 mRNA expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shasha Li; Yonghong Yang; Qiang Gao; Jing He; Chengqi He

    2010-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 2(Tie-2)is a newly discovered signaling pathway of angiogenesis.Angiogenesis benefits recovery of neurological functions such as swallowing.In the present study,a rat model of dysphagia following stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion to investigate the influence of low frequency electrical stimulus with bidirectional square waves and triangular waves on angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 mRNA expression.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that low frequency electrical stimulus significantly improved the neurological scores of the model rats,and increased angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 mRNA expression.This demonstrates that low frequency electrical stimulation can ameliorate neurological function in rats with focal brain ischemia,potentially through regulation of angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 expression in the angiogenesis pathway.

  13. Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

  14. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed...

  15. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  16. How does the Indian diaspora help drive trade and investment ties between India and North America? An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Masud Sohail Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the role that the Indian diaspora plays in helping to drive trade and investment ties between India on one hand and Canada and the United States on the other. The Indian diaspora is becoming increasingly important in both political and economic terms in North America. As trade and investment ties continue to grow between a fast developing India and Canada and the United States, the Indian diaspora has been playing an important role in driving this relationship. This study ...

  17. TacSat-2/TIE Payload Development: Enabling Rapid Development and Testing of Space Payload Hardware and Software

    OpenAIRE

    Huffine, Christopher; Duffey, Timothy; Nicholson, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Tactical Satellite-2 (TacSat-2) carrying the Navy’s Target Indicator Experiment (TIE) payload has provided the first opportunity to test some of the constructs used in its development, and that of its predecessor, TacSat-1 Flying the TIE payload for the past eleven months has demonstrated, and validated, the approaches taken, proving that flexibility, extensibility, and software portability can decrease development time, increase the leveraging of existing tools, and help co...

  18. Microcontroller based new single-phase transformer less inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic system with constant common mode voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Afrin; Monirul Islam; Anarul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transformerless inverters are becoming more attractive for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system because of high efficiency and low cost. Unfortunately, leakage current may flow through the whole grid-tied PV system due to fluctuating common mode (CM) voltage that depends on the topology structure and control strategy. Therefore, to meet the safety regulations, leakage current of transformerless PV inverter has to be addressed carefully. In this paper, a new microcontroller based trans...

  19. The rational weakness of strong ties: Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Flache, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Recent research (Flache, 1996; Flache and Macy, 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than cooperation in more complex group exchanges, favoring ties at the expense of the common good. This article uses game theory to demonstrate that cognitive simplicity is not a scope condition for the result....

  20. Down hole transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  1. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  2. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  3. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  4. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Judson; Joseph Prescott; Vincent Munster

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fil...

  5. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  6. Continuously Variable Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  7. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  8. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  9. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru;

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie......-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power...... are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the...

  10. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  11. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123

  12. Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC (∼140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine

  13. A High-Efficiency Grid-Tie Battery Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion based battery energy storage system has become one of the most popular forms of energy storage system for its high charge and discharge efficiency and high energy density. This dissertation proposes a high-efficiency grid-tie lithium-ion battery based energy storage system, which consists of a LiFePO4 battery based energy storage and associated battery management system (BMS), a high-efficiency bidirectional ac-dc converter and the central control unit which controls the operation...

  14. Outcome of unstable fractures of metacarpal and phalangeal bones treated by bone tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Jagannath B; Jayasheelan, Nikil; Savur, Amaranth; Mathews, Rejith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of the hand need surgical stabilization which should be rigid enough for early active mobilization. Conventional methods of open reduction and stabilization in the form of composite fixation or screws with or without plates have served the purpose but can be definitely improvised addressing both biological and mechanical principles of fixation. Materials and Methods: 34 patients (29 males and 5 females) with an average age of 32 years (range 10–64 years) with unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of hand who were treated with the modified bone tie between June 2009 and June 2013 were included in this study. 42 fractures, involving the 31 metacarpals and 11 phalanges were included. We have not used this technique in fractures involving the terminal phalanges. Thirty nine of the fractures were treated with K-wires along with the modified bone tie, whereas the other two cases were treated with modified bone tie alone and in one case the bone tie has been used along with the external fixator. The nature of injuries were Road Traffic Accident (n = 24), domestic/industrial injuries (n = 8) and blast (n = 2) injuries. Etiology was crush (n = 24), blunt (n = 7) and incised (n = 3) injuries, respectively. Twenty seven patients were involved with single fractures (either metacarpal or the phalanges), 6 patients had two fractures (both metacarpals or phalanges or one each of metacarpal and phalanx), and 1 patient had three fractures in this study. Dominant hand was involved in 14 patients (40%). Results: We achieved excellent to good results in 83% of 42 fractures within an average period of 10 weeks. Postoperative grip strength of 85% was achieved with in an average period of 12 weeks. Twenty six (20 metacarpals and 6 phalanges) of the 42 fractures regained >85% of the total active movements (TAMs) compared to the contralateral side were considered excellent results. All patients were

  15. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals.

  16. Effects of Social Ties in Knowledge Diffusion: case study on PLOS ONE

    CERN Document Server

    Eltermann, Felipe; Von Zuben, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    In order to capture the effects of social ties in knowledge diffusion, this paper examines the publication network that emerges from the collaboration of researchers, using citation information as means to estimate knowledge flow. For this purpose, we analyzed the papers published in the PLOS ONE journal finding strong evidence to support that the closer two authors are in the co-authorship network, the larger the probability that knowledge flow will occur between them. Moreover, we also found that when it comes to knowledge diffusion, strong co-authorship proximity is more determinant than geographic proximity.

  17. Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J; Kurde, J; Piantek, M; Kuch, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez-Barriga, J; Heitkamp, B; Kronast, F; Duerr, H A [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bayer, D; Aeschlimann, M, E-mail: jorge.miguel@fu-berlin.d [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 46, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2009-12-02

    We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.

  18. Passivity Enhancement of Grid-Tied Converters by Series LC-Filtered Active Damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2016-01-01

    The series LC-filtered active damper can be used for stabilizing a grid converter tied to the non-ideal grid. Its operation principle is to mimic a damping resistance at the resonance frequencies appearing in the grid. However, the selection of the damping resistance has not been fully analyzed...... in the literature. Its effect with parasitic capacitance present in the grid has also usually been ignored, even though it may bring new challenges to the active damper. To address these issues, passivity is applied to study the grid converter stability before the understanding gained is used for formulating...

  19. [Cable tie used for suicidal ligature strangulation--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberentz, Elke; Hagemeier, Lars; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Based on a case of self-strangulation committed with two connected cable ties, criteria for the differentiation of homicidal and suicidal ligature strangulation are discussed. Differentiation may be difficult and demands close cooperation between the police and the forensic experts. Apart from the history and general circumstances of the case, not only the kind of strangulation, but also the presence of any concomitant injuries, the degree of congestion and any internal injuries are of relevance for the criminalistic evaluation. As self-strangulations are rare, these cases demand special attention. PMID:19746825

  20. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H D

    2012-09-10

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of [Formula: see text] in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

  1. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of ∼105 in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes ano...

  2. Liquid Crystal Bow-Tie Microstrip antenna for Wireless Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T.P.Madhav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented the design and analysis of Bow-Tie antenna on liquid crystal substrate, which is suitable for the Bluetooth/WLAN-2.4/WiBree/ZigBee applications. The Omni-directional radiation patterns along with moderate gain make the proposed antenna suitable for above mentioned applications. Details of the antenna design and simulated results Return loss, Input impedance, Radiation Patterns, E-Field, H-Field and Current Distributions, VSWR are presented and discussed. The proposed antenna is simulated at 2.4 GHz using Ansoft HFSS-11.

  3. Liquid Crystal Bow-Tie Microstrip antenna for Wireless Communication Applications

    OpenAIRE

    B.T.P.Madhav; VGKM Pisipati; Habibulla Khan; V.G.N.S Prasad; K. Praveen Kumar; KVL Bhavani; M. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we presented the design and analysis of Bow-Tie antenna on liquid crystal substrate, which is suitable for the Bluetooth/WLAN-2.4/WiBree/ZigBee applications. The Omni-directional radiation patterns along with moderate gain make the proposed antenna suitable for above mentioned applications. Details of the antenna design and simulated results Return loss, Input impedance, Radiation Patterns, E-Field, H-Field and Current Distributions, VSWR are presented and discussed. The propose...

  4. Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Farahani, Javad N.; Eisler, Hans-Jürgen; Pohl, Dieter W; Pavius, Michaël; Flückiger, Philippe; Gasser, Philippe; Hecht, Bert

    2007-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of bow-tie optical antennas at the apex of pyramidal Si3N4 atomic force microscopy tips is described. We demonstrate that these novel optical probes are capable of sub-wavelength imaging of single quantum dots at room temperature. The enhanced and confined optical near-field at the antenna feed gap leads to locally enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum dots. Photoluminescence quenching due to the proximity of metal is found to be insignificant. The met...

  5. Millimeter-wave near-field imaging with bow-tie antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarouayache, Rachid; Payet, Pierre; Raoult, Jérémy; Chusseau, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    A near-field reflectometry experiment operating at 60 GHz is built in view of material and circuit inspection. Experiments are always obtained in constant height mode of operation. The bow-tie near-field probe acts mostly as a linearly-polarized electric dipole and allows strongly subwavelength resolution of ≈ λ/130. Its interaction with sample is shown polarization dependent and sensitive to both the local topography and the local dielectric constant or metal conductivity. Resonant and non-resonant probes are both evaluated. PMID:25969302

  6. Printed Modified Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna for DVB/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A printed modified bow-tie dipole antenna which consists of asymmetric-feed and inserted slots is presented to apply to the DVB and WLAN systems. This antenna combines omnidirectional radiation pattern, broad bandwidth, and band rejection in an easy way to fabricate. Experimental results of the constructed prototype indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieve 166.7%, 28.57%, and 23.63% at 660 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively.

  7. Printed Modified Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna for DVB/WLAN Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Chih Hung; Chia-Mei Peng; I-Fong Chen

    2013-01-01

    A printed modified bow-tie dipole antenna which consists of asymmetric-feed and inserted slots is presented to apply to the DVB and WLAN systems. This antenna combines omnidirectional radiation pattern, broad bandwidth, and band rejection in an easy way to fabricate. Experimental results of the constructed prototype indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieve 166.7%, 28.57%, and 23.63% at 660 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively.

  8. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Gert F. Pedersen

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances...

  9. THE ROLE OF FAMILY TIES FOR THE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HUMAN CAPITAL CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Flammer

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of financing a child's primary education when the parent is faced with credit constraints, contracting with minors is not possible and the legal enforceability of contracts is limited – a profound problem in many developing countries. It presents a model in which the empathy of agents towards their kinship (family ties) is endogenized and self-enforcement of contracts is guaranteed through the interlinkage of credit markets – first a market for education cre...

  10. An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    . Particularly, it can attenuate the switching-frequency current ripple components much better than an LCL filter, leading to a decrease in the total inductance and volume. Furthermore, by decreasing the inductance of a grid-side inductor, it raises the characteristic resonance frequency, which is beneficial...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...

  11. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K;

    2001-01-01

    the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate...... germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth...

  12. Proof-of-Concept Studies for a Local Tie Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeing, Benno; Behrend, Dirk; Gipson, John; Nothnagel, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of proof-of-concept studies for an automatic monitoring system of local site ties. The system is based on the usage of robotic total stations. A set of tests were performed with a Leica TCA2003 total station on the local network of Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) and the 5-m VLBI antenna at this site. Both the TCA2003 and the VLBI antenna are controlled from a Matlab-coded control program. Running specific observational programs, data were collected that indicate that the reference point of the VLBI antenna can be automatically determined with an accuracy of 1 mm or better.

  13. Bank Ties and Firm Performance in Japan: Some Evidence since FY2002

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, major Japanese banks have sold off a significant portion of their holdings of corporate equity. Using information on the identity of Japanese firms f top 10 shareholders, this paper explores the process of banks f equity disposal. There is some evidence that, after FY2001, banks f sales of equity accelerated, even holdings in firms for which the bank served as the main bank. However, affiliation with a main bank - proxied by firm-bank loan and shareholding ties - continue...

  14. KaTie: for parton-level event generation with k_T-dependent initial states

    CERN Document Server

    van Hameren, A

    2016-01-01

    KaTie is a parton-level event generator for hadron scattering processes that can deal with partonic initial-state momenta with an explicit transverse momentum dependence causing them to be space-like. Provided with the necessary transverse momentum dependent parton density functions, it calculates the off-shell matrix elements and performs the phase space importance sampling to produce weighted events, for example in the Les Houches Event File format. It can deal with arbitrary processes within the Standard Model, for up to four final-state particles and beyond. Furthermore, it can produce events for single-parton scattering as well as for multi-parton scattering.

  15. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the "Bow-tie" Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, G; Dorogovtsev, S N; Mendes, J F F

    2016-01-01

    We reveal a hierarchical organization of finite directed components---tendrils---around the giant components represented by the celebrated "bow-tie" diagram for directed networks. We develop an efficient algorithm to find tendril layers. It is used together with the message passing technique, generalized to directed graphs, to find the structure and attack tolerance of complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. We introduce a generalized susceptibility characterizing the response of directed networks to damage.

  16. 2006 Final Transmission Proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-06-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

  17. Ultrahigh Transmission Optical Nanofibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, J E; Grover, J A; Solano, P; Kordell, P R; Wong-Campos, J D; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2014-01-01

    We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 $ \\pm$ 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 $\\,\\times \\,$ 10$^{-5}$ dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 $\\pm$ 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 $\\,\\times \\,$ 10$^{-4}$ dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported...

  18. Probabilistic transmission system planning

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    "The book is composed of 12 chapters and three appendices, and can be divided into four parts. The first part includes Chapters 2 to 7, which discuss the concepts, models, methods and data in probabilistic transmission planning. The second part, Chapters 8 to 11, addresses four essential issues in probabilistic transmission planning applications using actual utility systems as examples. Chapter 12, as the third part, focuses on a special issue, i.e. how to deal with uncertainty of data in probabilistic transmission planning. The fourth part consists of three appendices, which provide the basic knowledge in mathematics for probabilistic planning. Please refer to the attached table of contents which is given in a very detailed manner"--

  19. Dynamic lung transmission studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method for determining regional lungvolumes, which could replace bronchospirometry in routine clinical use. Transmission through the thorax of sup(99m)Tc-gammarays is measured by means of a gamma camera on line with a computer. The technique of measurement and data analysis is described and tested in several series of phantom studies. The results proved to be good: the mean difference with the real volumes was -4%. The error varied between -10% and +1. Transmission studies and bronchospirometry are compared in a group of 11 patients and there proved to be a good correspondence between the results of these methods. It is concluded that transmission experiments can determine the vital capacity of both lungs as a whole as accurately as spirometry and allows the measurement of vital capacity for each lung separately with the same accuracy as bronchospirometry. (Auth.)

  20. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  1. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  2. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  3. Transmission positron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyama, Masao [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan)]. E-mail: doyama@ntu.ac.jp; Kogure, Yoshiaki [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Inoue, Miyoshi [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Kurihara, Toshikazu [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator, Research Organization (KEK), Ohno 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University, Noda, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0451 (Japan); Oshima, Ryuichiro [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Matsuya, Miyuki [Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima 196-0021 (Japan)

    2006-02-28

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons.

  4. Nosocomial Transmission of SARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nelson; Sung, Joseph J.Y.

    2003-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta/fomites. Good hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to prevent/interrupt disease transmission from patients to HCWs (and vice versa) and among inpatients and HCWs themselves. Education and training should target broadly to all HCWs.

  5. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  6. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  7. Dendrometer bands made easy: Using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. • Methods and Results: As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. • Conclusions: This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies. PMID:25202589

  8. Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szałowski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl, E-mail: kszalowski@wp.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)

    2013-12-28

    The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various sizes in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predicted to occur in charge-undoped structures. For small nanoflake doped with a single charge carrier, the low-field phase is ferrimagnetic and a metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetic ordering can be forced by the field. The critical field is found to decrease with increasing size of the nanoflake. The influence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder on the mentioned magnetic properties is studied. The effect of off-diagonal disorder is found to be more important than that of diagonal disorder, leading to significantly widened distribution of critical fields for disordered population of nanoflakes.

  9. Conductivities consistent with Birkeland currents in the AMPERE-driven TIE-GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsal, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) satellite mission has offered for the first time global snapshots of the geomagnetic field-aligned currents with unprecedented space and time resolution, thus providing an opportunity to feed an acknowledged first-principles model of the Earth's upper atmosphere such as the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIE-GCM). In the first step, Marsal et al. (2012) used AMPERE data in the current continuity equation between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere to drive the TIE-GCM electrodynamics. In the present work, ionospheric conductivities have been made consistent with enhanced upward field-aligned currents, which are assumed to correspond to electrons plunging as a result of downward acceleration by electric fields built up along the geomagnetic field lines. The resulting conductance distribution is reasonably commensurate with an independent model that has tried to quantify the ionizing effect of precipitating particles onto the auroral ionosphere. On the other hand, comparison of geomagnetic observatory data with the ground magnetic variations output by the model only shows a modest improvement with respect to our previous approach.

  10. Rotating kink modes in a non-line tied plasma column in the Reconnection Scaling experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi; Ryutov, Dmitri; Abbate, Sara

    2005-10-01

    The screw pinch is one of the simplest MHD equilibria, and is relevant to fusion physics, astro-physics, and basic plasma physics. It has been studied for many years, but usually in the context of a periodic toroidal plasma column. Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX)[1] is a cylindrical device built to study the linear and non-linear evolution of the current carrying screw pinch. A plasma column is injected into one end of the chamber from a plasma gun, and terminates at an anode that can be biased to draw current. This anode acts as an adjustable non-line tied end boundary for the column. Line-tying appears to give rise to several unexpected characteristics including finite rotation frequency, and a kink instability threshold less than the Kruskal Shafranov predictions. Experimental data is compared to a phenomenological theory of the kink instability developed for a slender plasma[2] column, including effects such as boundary conditions at the electrodes, finite plasma resistivity and axial flow. [1] I. Furno et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2324 (2003).2] D. Ryutov et al., to be submitted to Phys. Plasmas.

  11. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Bruce R., E-mail: whitingbrucer@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Dohatcu, Andreea C. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Politte, David G. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  12. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  13. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  14. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  15. Improving Transmission Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswat, Kavita; Gupta, Amol

    2016-01-01

    Development of power transmission networks requires long lead times and substantial capital. Optimization of investment is especially critical in fast-growing economies such as India’s, where there are competing demands on financial resources, and utilities need to maintain adequate cash flow to expand electricity service for economic growth and poverty reduction. As shown by examples from...

  16. THE STUDY OF STABLE MARRIAGE PROBLEM WITH TIES AND INCOMPLETE BOUNDED LENGTH PREFERENCE LIST UNDER SOCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shrivastava

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a variant of the Stable Marriage Problem where preference lists of man/woman may be incomplete, may contain ties and may have bounded length in presence of a notion of social stability. In real world matching applications like NRMP and Scottish medical matching scheme such restrictions can arise very frequently where set of agents (man/woman is very large and providing a complete and strict order preference list is practically in-feasible. In presence of ties in preference lists, there exist three different notion of stability, weak stability, strong stability and super stability. The most common solution is to produce a weakly stable matching. It is a fact that in an instance of Stable Marriage problem with Ties and Incomplete list (SMTI, weakly stable matching can have different sizes. This motivates the problem of finding a maximum cardinality weakly socially stable matching.

  17. Effects of angiopoietins-1 and -2 on the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 are differentially regulated at the endothelial cell surface

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Tania M.; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A.; Nicholas P J Brindle

    2010-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and Ang2 are ligands for the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. Structural data suggest that the two ligands bind Tie2 similarly. However, in endothelial cells Ang1 activates Tie2 whereas Ang2 can act as an apparent antagonist. In addition, each ligand exhibits distinct kinetics of release following binding. These observations suggest that additional factors influence function and binding of angiopoietins with receptors in the cellular context. Previous work has shown that A...

  18. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  19. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization

  20. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  1. Use of tongue ties in thoroughbred racehorses in the United Kingdom, and its association with surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakzai, S Z; Finnegan, C; Dixon, P M; Hillyer, M H; Boden, L A

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of the use of tongue ties, calculated from 60 randomly selected race meetings held in the UK during 2001 to 2003, was 5.0 per cent. After its first use on an individual horse a tongue tie was used in an average of 77 per cent of its races during the first 12 months, but after this time period, in only 55 per cent of its races. Thirty-nine per cent of horses that underwent surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate raced with a tongue tie preoperatively, and 41 per cent of these surgical cases raced with a tongue tie postoperatively. PMID:19734559

  2. Emerging Patterns of HRM: The Influence of Social Ties and 'Guanxi' on Recruitment and Selection in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Yu Hong

    2008-01-01

    This is an investigation of guanxi and social ties that may influence the recruitment and selection and also the Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in the Chinese business environment. The purpose of this research is to examine how guanxi and social ties influence hiring practices in different business ownerships and which HRM model is the most suitable for China. Interviews and three case studies were conducted to examine this research question. Results indicate that �¢â�¬��gua...

  3. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide. PMID:25322381

  4. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Hyun Eom; Yunsik Seo; Sungjoon Lim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antenn...

  5. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide.

  6. 8-THP-DHI analogs as potent Type I dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudkins, Robert L; Zulli, Allison L; Underiner, Ted L; Angeles, Thelma S; Aimone, Lisa D; Meyer, Sheryl L; Pauletti, Daniel; Chang, Hong; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ruggeri, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    A novel series of 8-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-12,13-dihydroindazolo[5,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles (THP-DHI) was synthesized and evaluated as dual TIE-2 and VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Development of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) with the support of X-ray crystallography led to identification of 7f and 7g as potent, selective dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Compounds 7f and 7g were orally active in tumor models with no observed toxicity.

  7. Grid tie inverter energy stabilizing in smart distribution grid with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋野; 李大双; 褚恩辉; 张艺缤

    2014-01-01

    With the growing deployment of smart distribution grid, it has become urgent to investigate the smart distribution grid behavior during transient faults and improve the system stability. The feasibility of segmenting large power grids and multiple smart distribution grids interconnections using energy storage technology for improving the system dynamic stability was studied. The segmentation validity of the large power grids and smart distribution grid inverter output interconnections power system using energy storage technology was proved in terms of theoretical analysis. Then, the influences of the energy storage device location and capacity on the proposed method were discussed in detail. The conclusion is obtained that the ESD optimal locations are allocated at the tie line terminal buses in the interconnected grid, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by simulations in an actual power system.

  8. Survey on welfare of dairy cow in tie-stalls in mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bovolenta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the survey was to study the effect of Alpine pasture and breed on welfare of dairy cattle bred in tie-stalls in mountain area of Friuli Venezia Giulia Region. Twenty-four representative farms were divided into 4 groups following a factorial design: 2 managements (with vs. without summer grazing x 2 breeds (Italian Simmental vs. Italian Brown. Data were collected following a protocol that considers direct animals’ measures or remarks, buildings and equipments information. The results showed that summer grazing affected some physical parameters - BCS, claw conformation and injuries - and some behaviour parameters such as rising movements. In this trial the breed did not seem to markedly influence cows’ welfare, except for BCS and lie down time.

  9. Quantitative spectroscopy on individual wire, slot, bow-tie, rectangular, and square-shaped optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin

    2013-11-15

    By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna.

  10. Application of Coordinated SOFC and SMES Robust Control for Stabilizing Tie-Line Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind power causes fluctuations in power systems and introduces issues concerning system stability and power quality because of the lack of controllability of its discontinuous and intermittent resources. This paper presents a coordinated control strategy for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES to match the intermittent wind power generation and compensate for the rapid load changes. An optimal H∞ control method, where the weighting function selection is expressed as an optimization problem, is proposed to mitigate tie-line power fluctuations and the mixed-sensitivity approach is used to deal with the interference suppression. Simulation results show that the proposed method significantly improves the smoothing effect of wind power fluctuations. Compared with the conventional control method, the proposed method has better anti-interference performance in various operating situations.

  11. Easier contagion and weaker ties make anger spread faster than joy in social media

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Rui; Zhao, Jichang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to face-to-face communication in daily life, more and more evidence suggests that human emotion also spread in online social media through virtual interactions. However, the mechanism underlying the emotion contagion, like whether different feelings diffuse unlikely or how the spread is coupled with the social network, is rarely investigated. Indeed, because of the costly expense and spatio-temporal limitations, it is challenging for conventional questionnaires or controlled experiments. While given the instinct of collecting natural affective responses of massive connected individuals, online social media offer us an ideal proxy to tackle this issue from the perspective of computational social science. In this paper, based on the analysis of millions of tweets in Weibo, a Twitter-like service in China, we surprisingly find that anger is more contagious than joy, indicating that it can sparkle more angry follow-up tweets and anger prefers weaker ties than joy for the dissemination in social network, i...

  12. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  13. Research on the network structure of the urban economic ties in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Wenyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the network structure of the urban economic ties (NSUET of a city can help us understand its development level.Using the gravity model,the social network analysis method and the Arcgis tool,this paper has done some researches about the NSUET in Shanghai.The research results show that the NSUET in Shanghai was improved gradually from 2000 to 2010 and is in a stable status now.In the future,the NSUET in Shanghai should be adjusted to meet the need of urban development;the more focuses should be placed on the districts with better infrastructure,while the other areas are also considered to develop the NSUET.

  14. Structure, date and sources of Hikayat Aceh revisited: The problem of Mughal-Malay literary ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Braginsky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that from the early centuries AD to the nineteenth century India remained an important source of inspiration for creators of traditional Malay culture and Malay men of letters. However, if literary ties between Hindu India and the Malay world, both direct and mediated by Javanese literature, have frequently drawn the attention of researchers, creative stimuli that came to the Malays from Muslim India remain inadequately studied. Yet the role of these stimuli, radiating from major centres of the Muslim, Persianate, India such as Bengal, Gujarat, Deccan, and the Coromandel coast, in the development of Malay literary culture was by no means inferior to the inspiration originating from Hindu India. In this context, cultural and literary contacts of the Sultanate of Aceh with the Mughal Empire in the seventeenth century are a particularly interesting and challenging subject.

  15. The large scale use of strippable coatings in preventative, tie-down and decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of strippable coatings both to remove and prevent the radioactive contamination of equipment is discussed. Details of application by brush, roller, conventional (air) and airless spray are given. The use of strippable coatings to prevent the components of a re-useable temporary containment system from becoming contaminated is described and results of simple tests in which the coatings were used to remove plutonium dioxide contamination from a number of different surfaces in a Pressurised Suit Area are given. It is concluded that strippable coatings are particularly useful in contamination prevention and tie-down roles but test results indicate that they do not possess overwhelming advantages when used as a decontamination technique. The products used in the work reported here are water based. (author)

  16. Application of Coordinated SOFC and SMES Robust Control for Stabilizing Tie-Line Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Zhang; Wei Gu; Haojun Yu; Wei Liu [School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Wind power causes fluctuations in power systems and introduces issues concerning system stability and power quality because of the lack of controllability of its discontinuous and intermittent resources. This paper presents a coordinated control strategy for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) to match the intermittent wind power generation and compensate for the rapid load changes. An optimal H{sub {infinity}}control method, where the weighting function selection is expressed as an optimization problem, is proposed to mitigate tie-line power fluctuations and the mixed-sensitivity approach is used to deal with the interference suppression. Simulation results show that the proposed method significantly improves the smoothing effect of wind power fluctuations. Compared with the conventional control method, the proposed method has better anti-interference performance in various operating situations.

  17. Dynamic Behavior of Tied-Arch Bridges under the Action of Moving Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lonetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of tied-arch bridges under the action of moving load is investigated. The main aim of the paper is to quantify, numerically, dynamic amplification factors of typical kinematic and stress design variables by means of a parametric study developed in terms of the structural characteristics of the bridge and moving loads. The basic formulation is developed by using a finite element approach, in which refined schematization is adopted to analyze the interaction between the bridge structure and moving loads. Moreover, in order to evaluate, numerically, the influence of coupling effects between bridge deformations and moving loads, the analysis focuses attention on usually neglected nonstandard terms in the inertial forces concerning both centripetal acceleration and Coriolis acceleration. Sensitivity analyses are proposed in terms of dynamic impact factors, in which the effects produced by the external mass of the moving system on the dynamic bridge behavior are evaluated.

  18. Technical specification for design, fabrication, use and maintenance of tie-down system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Series ndeg6 states that to ensure compliance with the Regulation the programs of quality assurance must be put in practice either for design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use and maintenance and inspection of all packages or for transport and intransit storage operations. Therefore in view of a standardization coming from Q.A. criteria, the Italian Competent Authority for transport of radioactive material (ENEA-DISP) is preparing a technical guide for the design, construction, use and maintenance of tie-down system for road transport of packages containing radioactive materials. The paper shows some phases of the program started by ENEA-DISP for the redaction of the technical guide. (J.P.N.)

  19. Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

    2013-04-01

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each. PMID:23478811

  20. Anchoring historical sequences using a new source of astro-chronological tie-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Michael W.; Pope, Benjamin J. S.

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of past spikes in atmospheric radiocarbon activity, caused by major solar energetic particle events, has opened up new possibilities for high-precision chronometry. The two spikes, or Miyake Events, have now been widely identified in tree-rings that grew in the years 775 and 994 CE. Furthermore, all other plant material that grew in these years would also have incorporated the anomalously high concentrations of radiocarbon. Crucially, some plant-based artefacts, such as papyrus documents, timber beams and linen garments, can also be allocated to specific positions within long, currently unfixed, historical sequences. Thus, Miyake Events represent a new source of tie-points that could provide the means for anchoring early chronologies to the absolute timescale. Here, we explore this possibility, outlining the most expeditious approaches, the current challenges and obstacles, and how they might best be overcome.

  1. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  2. The Limits of Popularity-Based Recommendations, and the Role of Social Ties

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Marco; Panconesi, Alessandro; Raghavan, Prabhakar; Terolli, Erisa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model that captures some of the salient features of recommender systems that are based on popularity and that try to exploit social ties among the users. We show that, under very general conditions, the market always converges to a steady state, for which we are able to give an explicit form. Thanks to this we can tell rather precisely how much a market is altered by a recommendation system, and determine the power of users to influence others. Our theoretical results are complemented by experiments with real world social networks showing that social graphs prevent large market distortions in spite of the presence of highly influential users.

  3. The emergence and role of strong ties in time-varying communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social, information, and collaboration systems the complex activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. Temporal changes in the network structure and the dynamical processes occurring on its fabric are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset describing the activity of millions of individuals and investigate the temporal evolution of their egocentric networks. We empirically observe a simple statistical law characterizing the memory of agents that quantitatively signals how much interactions are more likely to happen again on already established connections. We encode the observed dynamics in a reinforcement process defining a generative computational network model with time-varying connectivity patterns. This activity-driven network model spontaneously generates the basic dynamic process for the differentiation between strong and weak ties. The model is used to study the effect of time-varyi...

  4. Quantitative spectroscopy on individual wire, slot, bow-tie, rectangular, and square-shaped optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin

    2013-11-15

    By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna. PMID:24322083

  5. A fuzzy-clustering analysis based phonetic tied-mixture HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xianghua; ZHU Jie; GUO Qiang

    2005-01-01

    To efficiently decrease the size of parameters and improve the robustness of parameters training, a fuzzy clustering based phonetic tied-mixture model, FPTM, is presented.The Gaussian codebook of FPTM is synthesized from Gaussian components belonging to the same root node in phonetic decision tree. Fuzzy clustering method is further used for FPTM covariance sharing. Experimental results show that compared with the conventional PTM with approximately the same parameters size, FPTM decrease the size of Gaussian weights by 77.59% and increases word accuracy by 7.92%, which proves Gaussian fuzzy clustering is efficient. Compared with FPTM, covariance-shared FPTM decreases word error rate by 1.14% , which proves the combined fuzzy clustering for both Gaussian and covariance is superior to Gaussian fuzzy clustering alone.

  6. Data transmission networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  7. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M.I.T. gyrotron group operates a 140 GHz, short pulse (1μs) gyrotron with output power, at present, of up to 175 kW. Output radiation has been obtained in several modes, including TE03 at 140 GHz, TE23 at 137 GHz, TE42 at 128 GHz and TE52 at 145 GHz. Studies have been carried out of the mode purity, both in frequency and in space, of gyrotron output radiation. These studies investigate parasitic mode excitation and mode conversion of gyrotron output power. Far field patterns of gyrotron radiation have been investigated to determine mode symmetry and purity. These results are useful in estimating the efficiency of various transmission systems. Finally, a new approach to quasi-optical transmission lines and mode converters, using axisymmetric optics, is suggested

  9. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  10. Global wireless power transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1995-01-01

    Economic and environmental pressures require the development of technologies that are compatible with the Earth’s environment and acceptable to society. An emerging power supply option based on Nikola Tesla’s concept of wireless power transmission (WPT) can be applied to transmit power over intercontinental distances with power relay satellites (PRS) [1] to access renewable energy sources at undeveloped or underutilized remote sites, and to convert solar energy in space for use on Earth on a ...

  11. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz C. de S. Dias; Oswaldo Marçal Jr.; GLASSER Carmem M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the prog...

  12. Wireless Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Pragati S. Chawardol; Deepali R. Badre ,; , Mithul S. There

    2014-01-01

    A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy, the limited supply of resourses, and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems. Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. One of the major issue in power system is the losses occurs during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. As the demand increases day by day, the power generation increases and the power loss is also increas...

  13. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Axon, Anthony T. R.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter gastroduodenitis is a serious chronic infectious disease that is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the way in which it spreads is fundamentally important when considering measures for its control. Its prevalence is highest in the developing world and in individuals with a disadvantaged socio-economic childhood. The disease is believed to be contracted during the early years of life. A faeco-oral mode of transmission is considered by many to b...

  14. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  15. Transnational ties and past-year major depressive episodes among Latino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2015-07-01

    Latino immigrants live in an increasingly global world in which maintaining contact with kin in the home country is easier than ever. We examined (a) the annual distribution of remittances burden (percentage of remittances/household income) and visits to the home country, (b) the association of these transnational ties with a past-year major depressive episode (MDE), and (c) moderation by Latino subethnicity or gender. We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses with the Latino immigrant subsample (N = 1,614) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Mexican and Other Latino immigrants had greater remittances burden than Puerto Rican migrants. Cuban immigrants made the fewest visits back home. After adjustment for sociodemographics and premigration psychiatric history, remittances burden decreased odds of MDE (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.67, .0.98]), whereas visits back home increased odds of MDE (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]). Latino subethnicity was not a significant moderator. Visits back home were more strongly linked to depression among women than men. The distribution of transnational ties differs by Latino subgroup, although its association with depression is similar across groups. Monetary giving through remittances might promote a greater sense of self-efficacy, and caregiving for relatives back home that positively affect mental health. Visits back home, especially for women, might signal social stress from strained relationships with kin, spouses, or children left behind, or increased caregiving demands that negatively affect mental health. Clinical practice with immigrants should routinely assess the social resources and strains that fall outside national borders. PMID:25090146

  16. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Or¬ganization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of to¬bacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are ei¬ther directly engaged in tobacco industry oper-ations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that chal¬lenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy.Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian gov¬ernment’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advo¬cacy campaign (May to October 2010 to chal¬lenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy.Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsor¬ship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies in¬cluding en¬gaging all concerned government agencies from the be¬ginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes.Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strate¬gies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an impor¬tant advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for im¬provements in national tobacco control regulations.

  17. Gender Differences in Physicians' Financial Ties to Industry: A Study of National Disclosure Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah L Rose

    Full Text Available Academic literature extensively documents gender disparities in the medical profession with regard to salary, promotion, and government funded research. However, gender differences in the value of financial ties to industry have not been adequately studied despite industry's increasing contribution to income and research funding to physicians in the U.S.We analyzed publicly reported financial relationships among 747,603 physicians and 432 pharmaceutical, device and biomaterials companies. Demographic and payment information were analyzed using hierarchical regression models to determine if statistically significant gender differences exist in physician-industry interactions regarding financial ties, controlling for key covariates. In 2011, 432 biomedical companies made an excess of $17,991,000 in payments to 220,908 physicians. Of these physicians, 75.1% were male. Female physicians, on average, received fewer total dollars (-$3,598.63, p<0.001 per person than men. Additionally, female physicians received significantly lower amounts for meals (-$41.80, p<0.001, education (-$1,893.14, p<0.001, speaker fees (-$2,898.44, p<0.001, and sponsored research (-$15,049.62, p=0.05. For total dollars, an interaction between gender and institutional reputation was statistically significant, implying that the differences between women and men differed based on industry's preference for an institution, with larger differences at higher reputation institutions.Female physicians receive significantly lower compensation for similarly described activities than their male counterparts after controlling for key covariates. As regulations lead to increased transparency regarding these relationships, efforts to standardize compensation should be considered to promote equitable opportunities for all physicians.

  18. Transnational Ties and Past-Year Major Depressive Episodes among Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Objective Latino immigrants live in an increasingly global world where maintaining contact with kin in the home country is easier than ever. We examined: (a) the annual distribution of remittances burden (percentage of remittances/household income) and visits to the home country; (b) the association of these transnational ties with odds of a past-year major depressive episode (MDE); and (c) moderation by Latino sub-ethnicity or gender. Methods We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses with the Latino immigrant subsample (N=1614) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Results Mexican and Other Latino immigrants had greater remittances burden than Puerto Rican migrants. Cuban immigrants made fewer visits back home than Puerto Rican migrants. After adjustment for socio-demographics and pre-migration psychiatric history, a percentage increase in remittances burden decreased odds of MDE (OR=0.80 [95%CI:0.67–.0.98]), whereas visits back home increased odds of MDE (OR=1.04 [95%CI:1.01–1.06]). Latino sub-ethnicity was not a significant moderator. Visits back home were more strongly linked to depression among women than men. Conclusions The distribution of transnational ties differs by Latino subgroup, although its association with depression is similar across groups. Monetary giving in the form of remittances might promote a greater sense of self-efficacy, social integration, and caregiving for relatives back home that positively affect mental health. Visits back home, especially for women, might signal social stress from strained relationships with kin/spouses/children left behind, or increased caregiving demands that negatively affect mental health. Clinical practice with immigrants should routinely assess the social resources and strains that fall outside national borders. PMID:25090146

  19. Effect of softer flooring in tie stalls on resting behavior and leg injuries of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Haley, D; de Passillé, A M

    2007-08-01

    To test the advantages of softer flooring in tie stalls, we compared the behavior and injuries of dairy cows housed in tie stalls with either soft rubber mats (n = 12) or concrete flooring (n = 12), both lightly covered with straw. Data were collected for 112 d beginning at 14 DIM (+/-4 d). Cows' general activity was observed continuously for 24 h every 28 d. Behavior was also scored by a scan sampling technique every 14 d such that each cow was observed for a period of 3 min every 12 min. We scored the occurrence of leg lesions and other injuries every 7 d throughout the study. Cows on rubber mats had shorter bouts of lying but the frequency of bouts was higher, leading them to tend to spend more time lying compared with cows housed on concrete. Cows on concrete spent more time standing idle, but there was no difference in the time spent eating. There was no effect of stall flooring on the number of minor abrasions to the legs and body. There was a significantly higher incidence of swelling of the carpus joints for cows housed on concrete. Cows housed on soft rubber flooring appeared to be less hesitant to change posture from lying to standing (and vice versa), and as a result changed posture more frequently and spent more time lying than cows on concrete flooring. The decreased incidence of swelling of the carpus joint for cows on soft rubber mats may have important long-term effects in preventing a variety of leg problems.

  20. Case study installation of a HDPE curtain wall with sheetpile tie-in on both ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, R.M.; Maltese, P.C. [Geo-Con, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The plans for eliminating the off-site migration of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from a refinery into a nearby river included the installation of a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) curtain wall and an underdrain system. A 640 m (2100 lineal feet) HDPE Curtain Wall was installed along the river boundary, tying into an existing sheet pile wall on both ends. The wall varied from approximately 4.5 m (15 feet) deep at the northern end to about 7 m (23 feet) deep at the southern end, running approximately 3 to 3.6 m (10 to 12 feet) inland of an existing wooden bulkhead. The curtain wall was successfully installed through a slurry supported trench. A 930 m (3050 lineal feet) interception/collection trench was installed parallel to the HDPE Curtain Wall, continuing on beyond the curtain wall on the southern end. The depth of the trench varied from approximately 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 feet) deep. A 20.32 cm (8 inch) diameter perforated HDPE header pipe was placed in the trench to convey groundwater and product to two sumps. The trench is 53.34 cm (21 inches) wide and contained aggregate to approximately 0.9 m (3 feet) below ground. This work was accomplished using the bio-polymer slurry drainage trench (BP Drain) technique. This paper briefly describes the construction methods utilized during this project, specifically HDPE curtain wall installation thru a bentonite slurry and tie-in to the existing sheet pile wall.