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Sample records for 32p 90y 188re

  1. Report on the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting on The Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on 188Re and 90Y for Radionuclide. Working Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy is practiced for the treatment of malignant disorders of various organs and tissues as well as for treating certain other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Advances in understanding tumor biology as well as developments in peptide chemistry and monoclonal antibody technology are opening new opportunities for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, thereby widening the scope of radionuclide therapy. In addition, particulate based radiopharmaceuticals are useful for treating hepatocarcinoma as well as in radiation synovectomy. With the establishment of new products the demand and application of therapeutic nuclear medicine is expected to grow rapidly. While there are a large number of radioisotopes proposed for targeted therapy, practical considerations had been limiting the number of usable isotopes. Generator-produced radionuclides are an attractive option for the large scale on-site availability of therapeutic isotopes. The IAEA’s CRP on the ‘Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides’ (2004-2007) was successful in developing technologies for the preparation of 188W/188Re and 90Sr/90Y generators for eluting 188Re and 90Y of high radionuclidic and chemical purity usable for research applications in the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The IAEA’s CRP on ‘The development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re and 90Y for radionuclide therapy’ was formulated to focus on enhancing the capacity of the 90Sr/90Y generator; to develop and validate quality control methods for the generator eluate; and to develop therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re and 90Y. The first RCM of the CRP was held in Polatom, Warsaw, Poland from 30 June to 4 July 2008. The meeting reviewed the work going on in the different participating laboratories, and the facilities, expertise and capabilities of the different participating groups, and formulated the work plan of the CRP. The work

  2. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for 90Y, 131I, 166Ho, and 188Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for 90Y, 131I, 166Ho, and 188Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. 166Ho and 188Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for preclinical therapy studies, from tissue

  3. Development, Preparation and Quality Assurance of Radiopharmaceuticals Based on 188Re and 90Y for Radionuclide Therapy: In House Production of Radioisotopes at Vinča Instute of Nuclear Sciences. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project described in this chapter was the development of different radiolabelled compounds with 188Re and 90Y and optimization of labelling procedures. Four different groups of compounds were evaluated as follows: different polyphosphonates (HEDP, MDP and (2-hydroxy-3,4-dioxopentyl) phosphate (DPD)) and DMSA; HA particles; colloids like antimony trisulphide and tin colloid for radiosynovectomy and/or HCC; and biodegradable microspheres of HSA for HCC. During the project, the work was focused on the development of a 90Sr/90Y electrochemical generator, quality control methods for radionuclidic purity of 90Y, use of 90Y for radiometallation of a DOTA conjugated somatostatin analogue, [DOTA, Tyr3] octreotate, and preparation of 90Y DOTATATE for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the labelled molecules and collection of data of promising radiotracers for clinical trials were also carried out. (author)

  4. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC. 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  5. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) and Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Gronigen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  6. Studies of HEDP labelled with 188Re from different generators of 188W /188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread interest in 188Re for therapeutic applications, is due to its attractive 16,9 hours half-life, emission of a β- particle with maximum energy of 2.12 MeV and gamma-ray of 155 keV suitable for imaging. This work presents the radiolabelling of HEDP (etidronate) with 188Re eluted from alumina-based 188W/188Re generators and tungstate-based 188W/188Re gel generators. Dependence of the yield of the 18'8Re-HEDP on the concentration of the reduction agent, p H, reaction time, temperature and addition of carrier Re2O7 were evaluated. The radiolabelling of 188Re-HEDP procedure using the optimum conditions resulted a yield >= 98% for liquid and lyophilized kits. This basic formulation contains: 30 mg de HEDP, 7 mg de SnCl2, 3 mg de ascorbic acid and addition of 20 mug of Re2O7. The reactions were carried out with heating in boiling water for 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of incubation. Another important aspect of this work was the radiochemical quality control comparing the results of PC, TLC and ion chromatography, along with the experiments with HPLC. The biological distribution proved the adequate bone uptake and in vivo stability of 188Re-HEDP complexes. (author)

  7. Development of a 188W/188Re Generator, Post-Elution Concentration of 99mTc and Evaluation of High Capacity Adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the coordinated research project was the development of techniques for the preparation of 90Sr/90Y and 188W/188Re generators. The research at IPEN-CNEN/SP focused on developing a generator technology using high specific activity 188W imported from the Russian Federation. The development of a 188Re gel type generator, using the experience acquired by IPEN in recent years through the 99mTc gel generator project, is discussed. Quality control procedures were developed to ensure the purity of the eluted 188Re, and special attention was given to post-elution concentration of 188Re. (author)

  8. Synthesis of {sup 188}Re-DMSA complex using carrier-free {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Izumo, Mishiroku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Islam, M.S.

    1997-03-01

    The synthesis of rhenium-DMSA labelled compound using carrier-free {sup 188}Re from the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator has been carried out. Stannous chloride was used as the reducing agent for reduction of rhenium and ascorbic acid was used as an antioxidant in the reaction media. The dependence of the yield of Re-DMSA complex upon the concentration of reducing agent, pH, reaction time, anti-oxidant, carrier and temperature was investigated. Under optimum conditions, the yield of Re-DMSA complexes were more than 98% for the carrier-free as well as carrier-added {sup 188}Re. The stability of the Re-DMSA complexes at different pH and time were also investigated. It was found that the Re-DMSA complex was very stable and did not undergo any changes or decomposition with the changes of pH from its initial values even after 48 hours of pH change for carrier-free as well as carrier-added complexes. (author)

  9. 188W/188Re Generator System and Its Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 188Re radioisotope represents a useful radioisotope for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic applications, particularly because of its favorable nuclear properties. The nuclide decay pattern is through the emission of a principle beta particle having 2.12 MeV maximum energy, which is enough to penetrate and destroy abnormal tissues, and principle gamma rays (Eγ=155 keV, which can efficiently be used for imaging and calculations of radiation dose. 188Re may be conveniently produced by 188W/188Re generator systems. The challenges related to the double neutron capture reaction route to provide only modest yield of the parent 188W radionuclide indeed have been one of the major issues about the use of 188Re in nuclear medicine. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<185 GBq/g, the eluted Re188O4- can have a low radioactive concentration, often ineffective for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient postelution concentration techniques have been developed, which yield clinically useful Re188O4- solutions. This review summarizes the technologies developed for the preparation of 188W/188Re generators, postelution concentration of the 188Re perrhenate eluate, and a brief discussion of new chemical strategies available for the very high yield preparation of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals.

  10. Labelling of Biotin with 188Re. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different chemical strategies have been employed for labelling biotin using 188Re with the aim to develop a sterile and pyrogen free kit formulation that is suitable for clinical use. A number of biotin conjugated 188Re complexes were prepared and evaluated to determine their affinity for avidin. The most difficult challenge was to devise an efficient reaction pathway that was able to obtain the final radiocompounds in a high radiochemical yield. This work describes the molecular design and the chemical strategy that were followed to obtain reliable preparation of the new radiopharmaceuticals starting from generator produced [188ReO4]–. (author)

  11. Extraction centrifugal W-188/Re-188 generator for radiotherapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    188 Re extraction generator for medical purposes development results are presented. The main advantage of such generator is the possibility to use as starting material the tungsten oxide of natural isotope composition irradiated in react or with mean neutron flux (1.0– 1.4·10 14 n ⋅ cm-2 ⋅ s-1). The parent (188 W) and daughter radionuclides were separated using centrifugal semicounter -current extractor developed at Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry Institute under RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences). In the course of simulated solution experiments, optimal operating conditions were established for 188 Re production process. For this purpose, it is proposed to recover 188 Re by methylethylketone from alkaline solution (2.5 M KON + 2.5 M K2CO3) containing up to 200 g/l of W element. Methylethylketone is subsequently evaporated to dryness and residue is dissolved in isotonic solution of NaCl. An extraction generator model was built in hot cell; the process developed was then tested on radioactive solutions. The test has shown that the yield is 89% in the average and the radiochemical purity of 188 Re solution is ~ 97%. The activity of 188 W was less than 1·10-3 relative to that of 188 Re. Activity of other radioisotopes was below 1·10-4 . The content of inorganic impurities in 188 Re solution is determined only by the purity of aqueous solutions used for 188 Re dissolution. The generator model may be recommended as a basis for creation of commercial prototype of 188 Re extraction generator. Key words: extraction, generator, methylethylketone, radiopharmaceutical, metastases, preclinical research

  12. Specific energy from Auger and conversion electrons of 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20 to a lymphocyte's nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-García, E.; Carrillo-Cazares, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The typical radionuclides used to label anti-CD20 in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 90Y, 131I, and 188Re, with the emission of beta particles, Auger electrons, and conversion electrons for the latter two. The aim of the present work was to calculate the contribution of high linear energy transfer radiation as Auger electrons (AE) and conversion electrons (CE) of 131I and 188Re-anti-CD20 to mean specific energy into the cell nucleus by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), so as to infer therapeutic effectiveness on a dosimetric basis. MCS was used to quantify the frequency-mean specific energy into the cell nucleus, where the cell was modeled by two concentric spheres, considering two cell models. The results showed that 10% and 33% of the mean-specific energies (z¯) per disintegration imparted to the cell nucleus for both geometries are due to AE and CE; on the other hand, if the hit of AE and CE occurs, the contribution to (z¯) is about 64% and 86% for 131I and 188Re, respectively. According to the amount of specific energy from AE and CE into the cell nucleus by positive event, they can cause catastrophic effects in the nuclear DNA in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20.

  13. A study on indirect radiolabeling of IgG with carrier free 188Re

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    188Re labeled monoclonal antibodies are potential candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy. S-Bz-MAG3 as a bifunctional chelating agent was used for labeling of IgG with carrier free 188Re by pre-radiolabeling of the chelating approach. The conjugation conditions were optimized. The stability of 188Re-MAG3-IgG in vitro was high. The results may be useful to the studies of 188Re labeled MAbs for radioimmunotherapy.

  14. Study on the preparation and stability of 188Re biomolecules via EHDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct labelling technique via ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid (EHDP) as a weak competing ligand was developed for the preparation of several biomolecules: 188 Re-monoclonal antibody ior cea1 against carcinoembryonic antigen (188 Re-MoAb), biotinylated 188Re-MoAb (188 Re-MoAb-biotin), 188 Re-polyclonal IgG (188 Re-IgG), 188 Re-peptide (somatostatine analogue peptide b-(2-naphtyl)-D-Ala-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-amide), 188 Re-MoAb fragments (188 Re-F(ab')2) and biotinylated 188 Re-F(ab')2 (188 Re-F(ab')2-biotin). The reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, weak ligand concentration and stannous chloride concentration were optimized during the radiolabelling of each biomolecule. Before the labelling procedure, disulphide bridge groups of the biomolecules were reduced with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). To obtain 188 Re labelled antibodies and peptides in high radiochemical yields (>90%) via EHDP, it was necessary to use acidic conditions and a high concentration of stannous chloride to allow the redox reaction Re+7→Re+5:Re+4. The labelling of MoAb and F(ab')2 with 188Re via EHDP was also evaluated employing a pretargeted technique by avidin-biotin strategy in normal mice, demonstrating that the 188Re-labelled biotinylated antibodies are stable complexes in vivo. The 188Re-peptide complex prepared by this method, was stable for 24 h and no radiolytic degradation was observed. (author)

  15. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanreotide is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype I with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125I-Lanreotide and 188Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge. (C) The stability of 125I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  16. Preparation of 188W/188Re generator in a clinical-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 188W/188Re generator based on acid-treated alumina is prepared for medical application. 188Re can be eluted into vacuum vial with 0.9% NaCl solution in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid. The elution yield of 188Re is more than 70% during a period of three months. The 188W leakage is less than 10 - 4 %. Both the radiochemical purity and radionuclide purity are more than 99%

  17. Levels of 188Re nucleus populated in thermal neutron capture reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Běrziņš, J.; Krasta, T.; Simonova, L.; Balodis, M.; Bondarenko, V.; Jentschel, M.; Urban, W.; Tomandl, I.

    2016-03-01

    Levels of 188Re populated in thermal neutron capture reaction with enriched 187Re targets have been studied. Single γ-ray spectrum of 188Re, measured with the high-resolution crystal diffraction spectrometer GAMS5, as well as γγ-coincidence experiments performed with high efficiency Ge detectors, allowed to develop model-independent level scheme of the doubly-odd 188Re nucleus up to ˜ 1.5 MeV excitation energy. Analysis of the established 188Re level scheme in terms of the quasiparticle-plus-rotor model indicates coexistence of axially-deformed and triaxial structures in the energy range above 400 keV.

  18. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanreotide (D-β-Nal-Cys-Try-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-NH2) is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype 1 with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125I-Lanreotide and 188Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge. For PC method, 125I-Lanreotide is spotted on the Whatman No.1 paper and developed in the mixture of CH3CH2CH2CH2OH and CH3CH2OH and NH4OH (v/v/v=5:2:1), the Rf value of every component in the mobile phase is given in table 1. For Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge methods each cartridge is washed with 10 ml of ethanol followed by 10 ml of iso-CH3CH2CH2OH solution. Aliquots of 0.1 mI sample is loaded onto the cartridge, unbound peptide (sodium iodine-125) is eluted with 5 ml of 0.5mol/L sodium acetate solution, 125I-Lanreotide is eluted with 5 mI of 95% aqueous ethanol solution. (C) The stability of 125I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg. C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  19. An alternative approach to the preparation of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals from generator-produced [188ReO4]-: efficient synthesis of 188Re(V)-meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new efficient approach for the preparation of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals starting from [188ReO4]-, produced at a carrier-free level through the 188W/188Re generator system, is described. The reaction procedure was based on the combined action of different reagents and has been applied in detail to the preparation of the therapeutic agent 188Re(V)-DMSA (H2DMSA [meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid]). The most efficient combination required the use of SnCl2, oxalate ions, and γ-cyclodextrin. These were reacted with [188ReO4]- and H2DMSA to afford the final radiopharmaceutical in high radiochemical purity, at room temperature, and in weakly acidic solution. The role played by the various reagents in the reaction was investigated. It was found that SnCl2 behaved as the actual reducing agent, whereas oxalate and γ-cyclodextrin greatly enhanced the ease of reduction of [188ReO4]- through the action of two hypothetical mechanisms. In the first step of the reaction, oxalate ions gave rise to the formation of Re(VII) complexes with the concomitant expansion of the coordination sphere of the metal. This process strongly favored the electron transfer between Sn2+ and Re+7 centers, giving rise to intermediate reduced rhenium complexes. These species were further stabilized by the formation of transient host-guest aggregates with γ-cyclodextrin and finally converted into 188Re(V)-DMSA through simple replacement of the coordinated ligands by H2DMSA

  20. An alternative approach to the preparation of {sup 188}Re radiopharmaceuticals from generator-produced [{sup 188}ReO{sub 4}]{sup -}: efficient synthesis of {sup 188}Re(V)-meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzati, Cristina; Boschi, Alessandra; Uccelli, Licia; Duatti, Adriano E-mail: dta@unife.it; Franceschini, Rodolfo; Piffanelli, Adriano

    2000-04-01

    A new efficient approach for the preparation of {sup 188}Re radiopharmaceuticals starting from [{sup 188}ReO{sub 4}]{sup -}, produced at a carrier-free level through the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator system, is described. The reaction procedure was based on the combined action of different reagents and has been applied in detail to the preparation of the therapeutic agent {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA (H{sub 2}DMSA [meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid]). The most efficient combination required the use of SnCl{sub 2}, oxalate ions, and {gamma}-cyclodextrin. These were reacted with [{sup 188}ReO{sub 4}]{sup -} and H{sub 2}DMSA to afford the final radiopharmaceutical in high radiochemical purity, at room temperature, and in weakly acidic solution. The role played by the various reagents in the reaction was investigated. It was found that SnCl{sub 2} behaved as the actual reducing agent, whereas oxalate and {gamma}-cyclodextrin greatly enhanced the ease of reduction of [{sup 188}ReO{sub 4}]{sup -} through the action of two hypothetical mechanisms. In the first step of the reaction, oxalate ions gave rise to the formation of Re(VII) complexes with the concomitant expansion of the coordination sphere of the metal. This process strongly favored the electron transfer between Sn{sup 2+} and Re{sup +7} centers, giving rise to intermediate reduced rhenium complexes. These species were further stabilized by the formation of transient host-guest aggregates with {gamma}-cyclodextrin and finally converted into {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA through simple replacement of the coordinated ligands by H{sub 2}DMSA.

  1. Exploitation of nano alumina for the chromatographic separation of clinical grade 188Re from 188W: a renaissance of the 188W/188Re generator technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Shukla, Rakesh; Ram, Ramu; Venkatesh, Meera; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar; Dash, Ashutosh

    2011-08-15

    The (188)W/(188)Re generator using an acidic alumina column for chromatographic separation of (188)Re has remained the most popular procedure world over. The capacity of bulk alumina for taking up tungstate ions is limited (∼50 mg W/g) necessitating the use of very high specific activity (188)W (185-370 GBq/g), which can be produced only in very few high flux reactors available in the world. In this context, the use of high-capacity sorbents would not only mitigate the requirement of high specific activity (188)W but also facilitate easy access to (188)Re. A solid state mechanochemical approach to synthesize nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3) possessing very high W-sorption capacity (500 mg W/g) was developed. The structural and other investigations of the material were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The synthesized material had an average crystallite size of ∼5 nm and surface area of 252 ± 10 m(2)/g. Sorption characteristics such as distribution ratios (K(d)), capacity, breakthrough profile, and elution behavior were investigated to ensure quantitative uptake of (188)W and selective elution of (188)Re. A 11.1 GBq (300 mCi) (188)W/(188)Re generator was developed using nanocrystalline γ-Al(2)O(3), and its performance was evaluated for a period of 6 months. The overall yield of (188)Re was >80%, with >99.999% radionuclidic purity and >99% radiochemical purity. The eluted (188)Re possessed appreciably high radioactive concentration and was compatible for the preparation of (188)Re labeled radiopharmaceuticals.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of radioimmunotherapeutic agent of direct labeling mAb 188Re-HAb18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Lou; Zhi-Nan Chen; Hui-Jie Bian; Jie Li; Shou-Bo Zhou

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To labed Anti-hepatoma monoclonal antibody (mAb)fragment HAb18 F (ab')2 was labeled with 188 Re for thepharmacokinetic model of 188 Re-HAb18 F (ab')2 and toevaluate its pharmacokinetic parameters in hepatoma-bearing nude mice.METHODS: HAb18 F(ab')2 was directly labeled with 188Reusing 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as reducing agents.Labeling efficiency and immunoreactivity of 188 Re-HAb18 F( ab')2 were evaluated by Whatman 3MM paperchromatography and live cell assay, respectively.Biodiatribution analysis was also conducted in nude micebearing human hepatoma in which animals were sacrificed atdifferent time points(1, 4, 18, 24 and 24h) after 188Re-HAb18F(ab' )2 was injected through tail-vein into hepatoma-bearingnude mice. The blood and radioactivity of organs and masswere measured. The concentrations of 188 Re-HAb18 F(ab')2were evaluated with a pharmacokinetic 3P97 software.RESULTS: The optimum labeling efficiency andimmunoreactive fraction were 91.7% and 0.78%,respectively. The parameters of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab')2 were:T1/2, 2.29h; Vd, 1.49 × 10-9L@ Bq- 1; AUC, 20.49 × 109Bq@ h@L-1 ;CL, 0.45 × 10-3L@ h- 1. 188Re- HAb18 F(ab')2 could locatespecially in hepatoma with high selective reactivity of HAb18F(ab')2. 188 Re-HAb18 F(ab')2 was mainly eliminated bykidney. The maximal tumor to blood ratio was at 48h, andmaximal tumor to liver ratio was at 18h.CONCLUTION: The pharmacokinetics of 188Re-HAb18 F(ab')2fit a I-compartment model. 188 Re-HAb18 F(ab')2 can beuptaken selectively at the hepatoma site.

  3. Rhenium-188: Availability from the W-188/Re-188 Generator and Status of Current Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, M R A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India; Dash, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India; Knapp Jr, Russ F [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting - particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 KeV, 15.1%). The 188W/188Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) 188Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent 188W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of 188Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade 188W/188Re generator. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<5 Ci/g), the eluted 188ReO4- can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful 188ReO4-. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability, and use of188Re including a discussion of why broader use of 188Re has not progressed as ecpected as a popular radionuclide for therapy.

  4. Preparation and biodistribution of 188Re-labeled folate conjugated human serum albumin magnetic cisplatin nanoparticles (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA MNPs in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang QS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiu-Sha Tang1,*, Dao-Zhen Chen2,*, Wen-Qun Xue2, Jing-Ying Xiang2, Yong-Chi Gong1, Li Zhang2, Cai-Qin Guo21Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Medical College, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu; 2Central Laboratory, Wuxi Hospital for Maternal and Child Health Care, Affiliated Medical School of Nanjin, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China *Authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to develop intraperitoneal hyperthermic therapy based on magnetic fluid hyperthermia, nanoparticle-wrapped cisplatin chemotherapy, and magnetic particles of albumin. In addition, to combine the multiple-killing effects of hyperthermal targeting therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the albumin-nanoparticle surfaces were linked with radionuclide 188Re-labeled folic acid ligand (188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA.Methods: Human serum albumin was labeled with 188Re using the pre-tin method. Reaction time and optimal conditions of labeling were investigated. The particles were intravenously injected into mice, which were sacrificed at different time points. Radioactivity per gram of tissue of percent injected dose (% ID/g was measured in vital organs. The biodistribution of 188Re-folate-CDDP/HAS magnetic nanoparticles was assessed.Results: Optimal conditions for 188Re-labeled folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles were: 0.1 mL of sodium gluconate solution (0.3 mol/L, 0.1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid with dissolved stannous chloride (10 mg/mL, 0.04 mL of acetic acid buffer solution (pH 5, 0.2 mol/L, 30 mg of folate-conjugated albumin combined with cisplatin magnetic nanoparticles, and 188ReO4 eluent (0.1 mL. The rate of 188Re-folate-CDDP-HSA magnetic nanoparticle formation exceeded 90%, and radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. The overall labeling rate was 83% in calf serum at 37°C. The major uptake tissues were the liver, kidney, intestine, and tumor after the 188Re-folate-CDDP/HSA magnetic nanoparticles

  5. External beam radiotherapy synergizes 188Re-liposome against human esophageal cancer xenograft and modulates 188Re-liposome pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hsien Chang,1,2 Shin-Yi Liu,3 Chih-Wen Chi,3 Hsiang-Lin Yu,1 Tsui-Jung Chang,1 Tung-Hu Tsai,4 Te-Wei Lee,1 Yu-Jen Chen3–5 1Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 3Department of Medical Research MacKay Memorial Hospital, 4Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 5Department of Radiation Oncology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT treats gross tumors and local microscopic diseases. Radionuclide therapy by radioisotopes can eradicate tumors systemically. Rhenium 188 (188Re-liposome, a nanoparticle undergoing clinical trials, emits gamma rays for imaging validation and beta rays for therapy, with biodistribution profiles preferential to tumors. We designed a combinatory treatment and examined its effects on human esophageal cancer xenografts, a malignancy with potential treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Human esophageal cancer cell lines BE-3 (adenocarcinoma and CE81T/VGH (squamous cell carcinoma were implanted and compared. The radiochemical purity of 188Re-liposome exceeded 95%. Molecular imaging by NanoSPECT/CT showed that BE-3, but not CE81T/VGH, xenografts could uptake the 188Re-liposome. The combination of EBRT and 188Re-liposome inhibited tumor regrowth greater than each treatment alone, as the tumor growth inhibition rate was 30% with EBRT, 25% with 188Re-liposome, and 53% with the combination treatment at 21 days postinjection. Combinatory treatment had no additive adverse effects and significant biological toxicities on white blood cell counts, body weight, or liver and renal functions. EBRT significantly enhanced the excretion of 188Re-liposome into feces and urine. In conclusion, the combination of EBRT with 188Re-liposome might be a potential treatment modality for esophageal cancer. Keywords: Radionuclide

  6. Comparative studies of antibody anti-CD20 labeled with {sup 188}Re; Estudo comparativo da marcacao do anticorpo anti-CD20 com {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is an unique and important modality in oncology and the development of new tumor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnosis and therapy is an area of interest for researchers. Rituximab (RTX) is a quimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) (IgG 1) that specifically binds to CD20 antigen with high affinity and has been successfully used for the treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) of cell B. The CD20 antigen is expressed over more than 90% of cell B NHL. Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re) are an attractive radionuclide pair for clinical use due to their favorable decay properties for diagnosis ({sup 99m}Tc: T{sub 1/2} = 6 h, {gamma} radiation = 140 keV) and therapy ({sup 188}Re: T{sub 1/2} = 17 h, maximum {beta} energy = 2.12 MeV) and to their availability in the form of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99}mTc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators. The radionuclides can be conjugated to mAb using similar chemical procedures. The aim of this work was to study the labeling of anti-CD20 mAb (RTX) with {sup 188}Re using two techniques: the direct labeling method [{sup 188}Re(V)] and the labeling method via the carbonyl nucleus [{sup 188}Re(I)]. Besides the quality control, the radiolabeled mAb was submitted to in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo biological studies. For the direct labeling, RTX was reducing by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol for generating sulphydryl groups (-SH) and further labeled with {sup 188}Re(V), in a study of several parameters in order to reach an optimized formulation. The labeling via the carbonyl nucleus both {sup 99}mTc and {sup 188}Re were employed through 2 different procedures: (1) labeling of intact RTX with {sup 99}mTc(I) and (2) reduced RTX (RTX{sub red}) labeled with {sup 99}mTc(I)/{sup 188}Re(I). Also a parameter study was performed to obtain an optimized formulation. The quality control method for evaluating the radiochemical purity showed a good labeling yield (93%) for the direct method. The labeling method

  7. 188Re-LABELED HYPERBRANCHED POLYSULFONAMINE AS A ROBUST TOOL FOR TARGETED CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Li; Yue Jin; Li-zhe Xue; Pei-yong Li; De-yue Yan; Xin-yuan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbranched polysulfonamine (HPSA) is a promising biomaterial due to its highly branched spherical architecture and efficient intracellular translocation.To realize the functionalization of HPSA,both N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP) for tethering the human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody CH12 and N-hydroxy succinimidyl S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycinate (NHS-MAG3) for labeling 188Re were sequentially grafted onto the primary amine terminals of HPSA via covalent linkages,attaining the SPDP-HPSA-MAG3 intermediate.In order to reserve the structural integrity of CH12,the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region was also processed by oxidation of oligosaccharide moieties with sodium periodate and then reacted with N-(κ-maleimidoundecanoic acid) hydrazide (KMUH).After chelating 188Re with MAG3 group,the SPDP was reduced to PDP and connected onto the maleinimide group at the Fc region.As a result,both the epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII) targeted monoclonal antibody CH12 and the radionuclide 188Re were conjugated to the HPSA-based vehicles,forming the 188Re-labeled and CH12-tethered HPSA (CH12-HPSA-188Re).The molecular weight and in vitro stability of CH12-HPSA-l88Re were evaluated by gel electrophoresis and paper chromatography.On one hand,the CH12-HPSA-188Re could specifically bind to the EGFRvIII-positive human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro.On the other hand,it could also target at the tumor tissue of nude mice in vivo.Hence,the CH12-HPSA-188Re could effectively target at the human hepatocarcinoma and facilitate the tumor detection and targeted radioimmunotherapy.

  8. Dosimetric evaluation of anti-CD20 labelled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy has the potential to deliver lethal radiation energy directly to malignant cells via targeting of radioisotope-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to specific antigens. B-cell lymphoma is a particularly good candidate for radioimmunotherapy because the disease is inherently radiosensitive, malignant cells in the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lymphonodes are accessible, and MAbs have been developed to B-cell surface antigens that do not shed or modulate. Rituximab (RTX), the human IgG1-type chimeric form of the parent murine antibody ibritumomab, is specifically targeted against CD20, a surface antigen expressed by pre-B and mature human B lymphocytes. The use of rhenium-188 from a 188W/188Re generator system represents an attractive alternative radionuclide for therapy. 188Re is produced from beta decay of the 188W parent. In addition to the emission of high-energy electrons (Eβ= 2118 keV), 188Re also decays with emission of a gamma photon with an energy of 155 keV in 15% abundance. Besides the therapeutic usefulness of 188Re, the emission of gamma photon is an added advantage since the biodistribution of 188Re-labeled antibodies can be evaluated in vivo with a gamma camera. Also, rhenium has chemical properties similar to technetium. Thus, both can be conjugated to antibodies using similar chemistry methods. The objective of this work is to prove the usefulness of this radiopharmaceutical based on dosimetric studies, that are also required by the Brazilian Regulatory Agency (ANVISA). (author)

  9. A review on the current status and production technology for 188W-188Re generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of 188W-188Re generator production technology were reviewed in PART 1. Main interests were given to the aspects of 188W reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. In order to develop the more convenient and advanced 188W-188Re generator, further studies must be carried out to get the precise evaluation of production and burn-up cross section of 188W, the more easily realizable generator loading procedure, and also to optimize the column and generator design to compensate the deterioration of generator performance because of parent radionuclide decay. By irradiation of 186W enriched sample, 188W-188Re generator production experiments were performed to evaluate the possibility of 188W-188Re generator production using HANARO, and PART 2 describes about the experiments. The experimental results shows the possibility of practical 188W-188Re generator production using of low-specific activity 188W produced in HANARO. (author). 79 refs., 4 tabs., 26 figs

  10. Labelling of Re-ABP with {sup 188}Re for bone pain palliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo E-mail: cmurphy@data.net.mx; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Croft, B.Y.Barbara Y.; Ramirez, Flor de Maria; Padilla, Juan

    2001-03-01

    Etidronate and medronate have been labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc-HEDP, {sup 99m}Tc-MDP) for bone scanning and, with rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re-HEDP) to palliate the pain resulting from bone metastases. The objective of this study was to label alendronate, ABP, a new bisphosphonate, with SnF{sub 2}-reduced-{sup 188}Re. The reagents for the 5 mg ABP kit were SnF{sub 2}, KReO{sub 4} and gentisic acid at acid pH. The chemical, spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics, quality control, rat bone uptake of [{sup 188}Re]Re-ABP and similarities with {sup 99m}Tc-ABP are presented. We conclude that this is a promising new radiopharmaceutical for bone metastases pain palliation.

  11. Uptake of {sup 188}Re-{beta}-naphthyl-peptide in cervical carcinoma tumours in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo E-mail: cmurphy@data.net.mx; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Murphy-Stack, Eduardo; Chavez-Mercado, Leonora; Ascencio, Jorge A.; Garcia-Salinas, Laura; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Salomon

    2001-04-01

    Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues have been used in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine to treat cancerous tumours. Lanreotide, a cyclic octapeptide, {beta}-naphthyl-peptide, with antiproliferative action on human small cell lung carcinoma was {sup 188}Re labelled and characterised, and its biodistribution was studied in mice. Molecular modelling indicates that the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical might be an oxo-rhenium (V) penta-coordinated complex. The implanted human cervical tumour of epidermoid origin was positive for cytokeratins and Vimentin. Uptake of {sup 188}Re-labelled peptide in the implanted tumour in athymic mice was 6.2{+-}2.9% and was rapidly cleared via the hepatobiliary system. {sup 188}Re-{beta}-naphthyl-peptide might be a potential therapeutic agent.

  12. Labeling procedures for the preparation of {sup 188}Re- DMSA(V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania P.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: taniabrambilla@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 188}Re has received a lot of attention in the past decade, due to its favorable nuclear characteristics [t{sub 1/2} 16.9 h, E{sub beta}{sub max} 2.12 MeV and E{sub gamma} 155 keV (15%) suitable for imaging], including the fact that it is carrier-free and can be obtained cost-effectively through the generator {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re. Besides the therapeutic usefulness of {sup 188}Re, the emission of the 155 keV gamma photon is an added advantage since the biodistribution of {sup 188}Re-labeled agents can be evaluated in vivo with a gamma camera. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99}mTc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of the same tumors, i.e., medullary thyroid carcinoma, bone metastases, soft tissue, head and neck tumors. The aim of this work is to evaluate two labeling procedures for the preparation of {sup 188}Re- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) was prepared by two methods. The first method was prepared using a commercial kit of DMSA(III) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, at high temperature (100 deg C). The second method was prepared in a vial containing 2.5 mg of DMSA, 1.00 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H2{sub O} and 30 mg of sodium oxalate, in a total volume of 1.1 mL. The pH was adjusted to 5 with 37% HCl. After labeling the solution was stirred and incubated for 15 min at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined using TLC-SG developed with two different solvent systems. Preliminary results for both methods of labeling {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) showed that the labeling yield was >90%. (author)

  13. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with 188Re via small animal imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Baldazzi, G; Muciaccio, A; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Pancaldi, G; Perrotta, A; Zuffa, M; Boccaccio, P; Uzunov, N; Bello, M; Bernardini, D; Mazzi, U; Moschini, G; Riondato, M; Rosato, A; Garibaldi, F; Pani, R; Antoccia, A; De Notaristefani, F; Hull, G; Cencelli, V O; Sgura, A; Tanzarella, C

    2006-01-01

    188Re is a beta- (Emax = 2.12 MeV) and gamma (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, 99mTc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with 188Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6x0.6x10 mm**3 pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of 188Re and with C57 black mice injected with the 188Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at...

  14. Preliminary study of metabolic radiotherapy with {sup 188}Re via small animal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoccia, A. [Dept. of Biology, Univ. Roma3, V.le G. Marconi, I-00146 Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma3, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Baldazzi, G. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. Bologna, V.le C. Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione Bologna, V.le C. Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bello, M. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN - LNL, V.le dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro(Italy)

    2006-01-15

    {sup 188}Re is a {beta}{sup -} (Emax=2.12 MeV) and {gamma} (155 keV) emitter. Since its chemistry is similar to that of the largely employed tracer, {sup 99m}Tc, molecules of hyaluronic acid (HA) have been labelled with {sup 188}Re to produce a target specific radiopharmaceutical. The radiolabeled compound, i.v. injected in healthy mice, is able to accumulate into the liver after a few minutes. To study the effect of metabolic radiotherapy in mice, we have built a small gamma camera based on a matrix of YAP:Ce crystals, with 0.6x0.6x10 mm{sup 3} pixels, read out by a R2486 Hamamatsu PSPMT. A high-sensitivity 20 mm thick lead parallel-hole collimator, with hole diameter 1.5 mm and septa of 0.18 mm, is placed in front of the YAP matrix. Preliminary results obtained with various phantoms containing a solution of {sup 188}Re and with C57 black mice injected with the {sup 188}Re-HA solution are presented. To increase the space resolution and to obtain two orthogonal projections simultaneously we are building in parallel two new cameras to be positioned at 90 degrees. They use a CsI(Tl) matrix with 1x1x5 mm{sup 3} pixels read out by H8500 Hamamatsu Flat panel PMT.

  15. Synthesis of polyacrylamide modified magnetic nanoparticles and radiolabeling with 188Re for magnetically targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized, modified with polyacrylamide, and then characterized by TEM, FTIR, VSM and PCS. Rhenium-188 (188Re) was bound to the nanoparticles by imidazolyl groups of histidine immobilized on the surface. The labeling yield was about 90% with good in vitro stability. Such nanoparticles might be useful for magnetically targeted radiotherapy

  16. 188Re-ethylene dicysteine: a novel agent for possible use in endovascular radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T; Banerjee, S; Samuel, G; Sarma, H D; Ramamoorthy, N; Pillai, M R

    2000-10-01

    Several agents, such as 188ReO4-, 188Re-MAG3 and 188Re-DTPA are currently under investigation as radiation sources in liquid-filled balloons for prevention of restenosis following coronary angioplasty. Bearing in mind the risk factor associated with leakage of radioactivity in the event of balloon rupture, the criteria sought in selecting suitable agents for endovascular radiation therapy (EVRT) are rapid clearance and low dose to vital organs. Since 99Tcm labelled ethylene dicysteine (EC) is a well established agent for renal tubular function imaging, the use of 186Re-ethylene dicysteine as a potential agent for prevention of restenosis after angioplasty has been evaluated previously. Therefore, it was of interest to evaluate the applicability of the more potential isotope of rhenium, 188Re, a high energy beta-emitter (Ebetamax = 2.12 MeV) with a suitable T 1/2 = 16.9 h, obtainable carrier-free from the 188W-188Re generator, as an attractive and alternative radionuclide for labelling with L,L-EC. In this paper, the preparation and pharmacological behaviour of the 188Re complex of ethylene dicysteine are reported. The complex can be prepared in high yields (99.5%) under optimized conditions of pH 2-3, at a ligand concentration of 15 mM, 50 microg (0.18 mM) carrier rhenium and using 2 mg x mL(-1) stannous chloride. On storage at 4 degrees C, the RC purity was more than 97% after 48 h when prepared under optimum conditions. Biodistribution studies in Wistar rats showed the desired characteristics of fast blood clearance and low retention of activity in the vital organs (< 2% in intestine, < 1% in stomach, < 0.5% in liver) with a high renal excretion (90.65+/-0.6%) at 3 h post-injection. These results confirm the advantages of using the 188Re-EC complex compared with perrhenate and other rhenium radiopharmaceuticals currently being used in balloons for EVRT. PMID:11130335

  17. Comparative studies of antibody anti-CD20 labeled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine is an unique and important modality in oncology and the development of new tumor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnosis and therapy is an area of interest for researchers. Rituximab (RTX) is a quimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) (IgG 1) that specifically binds to CD20 antigen with high affinity and has been successfully used for the treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) of cell B. The CD20 antigen is expressed over more than 90% of cell B NHL. Technetium-99m (99mTc) and rhenium-188 (188Re) are an attractive radionuclide pair for clinical use due to their favorable decay properties for diagnosis (99mTc: T1/2 = 6 h, γ radiation = 140 keV) and therapy (188Re: T1/2 = 17 h, maximum β energy = 2.12 MeV) and to their availability in the form of 99Mo/99mTc and 188W/188Re generators. The radionuclides can be conjugated to mAb using similar chemical procedures. The aim of this work was to study the labeling of anti-CD20 mAb (RTX) with 188Re using two techniques: the direct labeling method [188Re(V)] and the labeling method via the carbonyl nucleus [188Re(I)]. Besides the quality control, the radiolabeled mAb was submitted to in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo biological studies. For the direct labeling, RTX was reducing by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol for generating sulphydryl groups (-SH) and further labeled with 188Re(V), in a study of several parameters in order to reach an optimized formulation. The labeling via the carbonyl nucleus both 99mTc and 188Re were employed through 2 different procedures: (1) labeling of intact RTX with 99mTc(I) and (2) reduced RTX (RTXred) labeled with 99mTc(I)/188Re(I). Also a parameter study was performed to obtain an optimized formulation. The quality control method for evaluating the radiochemical purity showed a good labeling yield (93%) for the direct method. The labeling method via carbonyl group, the results showed that the - SH groups of RTXred are a possible way of labeling. The formulation of 99m

  18. Formulation, radiopharmaceutical kinetics and dosimetry of the {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA complex; Formulacion, radiofarmacocinetica y dosimetria del complejo {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, L.; Ferro F, G. [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It was developed through experimental design (ANOVA), a formulation to prepare the {sup 188} Re(V)-Dmsa complex. Likewise, there were realized studies of radiopharmaceutical kinetics and internal dosimetry in animals, its normal and with induced tumors, considering an open bi compartmental model using the MIRD methodology. The {sup 188} Re(V)-Dmsa complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 95% incubating 30 min at 90 Centigrade under the following formulation: [SnCl{sub 2}] = 1.4 mg/ml, [ascorbic acid] = 0.5 mg/ml, p H = 2.0 - 3.0. The stability test of the formulation, shows that after 48 h of its preparation, does not produce radiolytic degradation neither chemical decomposition. The radiopharmaceutical kinetics data show an average residence time 7.2h, velocity constant {alpha} = 0.6508h{sup -1} and {beta} = 0.1046 h{sup -1} with an apparent distribution volume 6.9 l. The main elimination via was renal and it was observed osseous caption with an accumulated activity 522.049 {+-} 62 MBq h (residence time 14.1094 {+-} 1.69h). In according with the dosimetric calculations, by each 37 MBq injected, the equivalent dose at the tumor was 9.67{+-} 0.33 Sv/g, for an effective dose 0.292 {+-} 0.0017 mSv/MBq. The images obtained in the gamma camera of the mice with induced tumors, show that do not have significant accumulation in the metabolic organs. The caption in bone and in tumors induced of the {sup 188} Re(V)-Dmsa complex, show its potential for be used as a palliative agent for pain in patients with osseous metastasis and in the treatment of tumors of soft tissue. (Author)

  19. Labeling of MDP with {sup 188}Re for bone tumour therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbezan, Angelica B.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    {sup 188}Re is one of the most attractive radioisotopes for a variety of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine, due to its physical decay properties, such as {beta}{sup -} emission of 2.12 MeV, {gamma} emission of 155 keV and half life of 16.9 hours. Biphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and are effective in several diseases that cause bone fragility and bone metastases. Because of these characteristics, labeled biphosphonates have been studied for bone pathologies, also acting as palliation of bone pain in case of metastasis.The aim of this study was to optimize the labeling of a phosphonate-MDP (Sodium Methylene Diphosphonate) with {sup 188}Re for use in bone pain palliation. {sup 188}Re was obtained by eluting a {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator from POLATOM. The labeling was performed at room temperature using MDP, SnCl{sub 2} as reducing agent and ascorbic acid. The variables studied were: Mass of ligand (3, 6 and 10 mg), reducing agent mass (5, 7, 10 and 11 mg), ascorbic acid mass (1, 3, 5 and 6 mg), pH (1 and 2) and time of reaction (15, 60, 120, 360 and 4320 minutes), that also reflected the stability of the radiopharmaceutical. The radiochemical control, that also measures the labeling efficiency was evaluated by paper chromatography using Whatman 3MM paper and the solvents acetone and 0.9%NaCl. The best formulation was the following: Mass of ligand MDP: 10 mg, mass of SnCl{sub 2}: 5 mg, ascorbic acid mass: 3 mg, time of reaction: 30 minutes, pH: 1. Under optimum conditions, {sup 188}Re MDP radiolabeling yield was 98,07% and the radiopharmaceutical was stable up to 72 h. (author)

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of anti-CD20 labelled with {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Graciela; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: gracielabarrio@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has the potential to deliver lethal radiation energy directly to malignant cells via targeting of radioisotope-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to specific antigens. B-cell lymphoma is a particularly good candidate for radioimmunotherapy because the disease is inherently radiosensitive, malignant cells in the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lymphonodes are accessible, and MAbs have been developed to B-cell surface antigens that do not shed or modulate. Rituximab (RTX), the human IgG1-type chimeric form of the parent murine antibody ibritumomab, is specifically targeted against CD20, a surface antigen expressed by pre-B and mature human B lymphocytes. The use of rhenium-188 from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator system represents an attractive alternative radionuclide for therapy. {sup 188}Re is produced from beta decay of the {sup 188}W parent. In addition to the emission of high-energy electrons (E{beta}= 2118 keV), {sup 188}Re also decays with emission of a gamma photon with an energy of 155 keV in 15% abundance. Besides the therapeutic usefulness of {sup 188}Re, the emission of gamma photon is an added advantage since the biodistribution of {sup 188}Re-labeled antibodies can be evaluated in vivo with a gamma camera. Also, rhenium has chemical properties similar to technetium. Thus, both can be conjugated to antibodies using similar chemistry methods. The objective of this work is to prove the usefulness of this radiopharmaceutical based on dosimetric studies, that are also required by the Brazilian Regulatory Agency (ANVISA). (author)

  1. Very stable 188Re-S4 chelates for labelling biomolecules. Preparation with highly concentrated perrhenate eluates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The preparation and stability of a new 188Re-S4-complex [S4 (1-aza-18-crown-6)(O)C-C(SH)-C(SH)-C(O)NH-(CH2)3-NH-(CH2)3-NHC(O)- = C(SH)- C(SH )-C(O)(1-aza-18-crown-6)] was studied at therapeutic relevant radioactive concentrations. The results were compared with 188Re-MAG3 (MAG3: mercaptoacetyltriglycine) and 188Re-DMSA preparations (DMSA: dimercaptosuccinic acid) performed with the same highly concentrated [188Re]perrhenate solution (12-15 GBq/ml). Methods: The 188Re complexes were prepared by direct reduction of perrhenate (188Re-S4-complex) as well as via the 188Re-EDTA precursor complex (188Re-MAG3, 188Re-DMSA). The preparations were stabilised with 15 mg of ascorbic acid and analysed after 1, 2, and 24 hours by TLC and HPLC. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo stability studies were performed with the purified complexes. Results: After stabilisation with 15 mg of ascorbic acid, all of the complexes were nearly stable under nitrogen for hours, and only 2-8% of perrhenate was observed after 24 h. In contrast, only the 188Re-S4 complex was completely stable in vitro and in all investigated in vivo samples after separation of ligand excess and reducing agent by HPLC. Conclusion: The bridging amine group or free carboxylic groups of the S4-ligand framework make available reactive positions for coupling biomolecules to the chelate. Thus it appears that the new 188Re-S4 complexes offer the possibility of stable and high specific activity labelling of biomolecules for therapeutic application. (orig.)

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of nanotargeted 188Re-liposome with the MIRDOSE3 and OLINDA/EXM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OLINDA/EXM computer code was created as a replacement for the widely used MIRDOSE3 code for radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine. A dosimetric analysis with these codes was performed to evaluate nanoliposomes as carriers of radionuclides (188Re-liposomes) in colon carcinoma-bearing mice. Pharmacokinetic data for 188Re-N, N-bis (2-mercaptoethyl)-N', N'-diethylethylenediamine (188Re-BMEDA) and 188Re-liposome were obtained for estimation of absorbed doses in normal organs. Radiation dose estimates for normal tissues were calculated using the MIRDOSE3 and OLINDA/EXM programs for a colon carcinoma solid tumor mouse model. Mean absorbed doses derived from 188Re-BMEDA and 188Re-liposome in normal tissues were generally similar as calculated by MIRDOSE3 and OLINDA/EXM programs. One notable exception to this was red marrow, wherein MIRDOSE3 resulted in higher absorbed doses than OLINDA/EXM (1.53- and 1.60-fold for 188Re-BMEDA and 188Re-liposome, respectively). MIRDOSE3 and OLINDA have very similar residence times and organ doses. Bone marrow doses were estimated by designating cortical bone rather than bone marrow as a source organ. The bone marrow doses calculated by MIRDOSE3 are higher than those by OLINDA. If the bone marrow is designated as a source organ, the doses estimated by MIRDOSE3 and OLINDA programs will be very similar. (author)

  3. Assessment of 188Re marked anti MHC class Ⅱ antibody by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by donor alloantigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo-ping; CAO Li-ping; LIU Jie; LIU Da-ren; QUE Ri-sheng; ZHU Lin-hua; ZHOU Yi-ming; MAO Ke-jie; HU Jun-an

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that anti MHC-Ⅱ monoclone antibody (MAb) only had partial inhibiting effect of alloreactive mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and it was unsteady and non-persistent. The aim of this research was to determine whether radioactive isotope 188Re marked MHC-Ⅱ antibody could benefit the allograft acceptance in transplantation as compared to normal MHC-Ⅱ antibody.Methods 188Re was incorporated to 2E9/13F(ab')2 which is against swine MHC class Ⅱ antigen (MAb-188Re). Porcine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells were examined for proliferation and cytokine mRNA expression after stimulation with MHC-Ⅱ MAb or MAb-188Re.Results The proliferative response of recipient PBMCs in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) to donor alloantigen showed that the stimulation index of MAb-188Re group was significantly lower than the MHC-Ⅱ MAb group and control (P<0.05). mRNA expression of interleukin 2, interferon Y and tumor necrosis factor α (type 1 cytokines) was lower in MAb-188Re group than the MHC-Ⅱ MAb group, while interleukin 10 (type 2 cytokines) was higher in MAb-188Re group in the first 24 hours.Conclusion MAb-188Re could help the graft acceptance by inhibiting T cell proliferation, lowering the expression of type 1 cytokines and elevating the type 2 cytokines produced by PBMC.

  4. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with 99mTc and 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are 99mTc-labeled compounds. 99mTc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of 188Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of 99mTc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with 99mTc and 188Re. 99mTc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to ∼ 8.5 with NaHCO3. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with 99mTc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl2.2H2O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of 99mTc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with 99mTc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of 188Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for 99mTc- DMSA(V). 188Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with 99mTc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with 188Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved with this methodology, with a rection time of 30 minutes at 100 deg C using no more than 1 m L of 188ReO4

  5. Radioimmunotherapy of fungal infection with 213-Bi- and 188-Re-labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a therapeutic modality that utilizes monoclonal antibodies (mAb) radiolabeled with therapeutic radioisotopes to selectively deliver lethal doses of radiation to cells. We hypothesized that 18B7 mAb (murine IgG1), specific for Cryptoccocus neoformans (CN) polysaccharide capsule, may be used to deliver fungicidal doses of radioisotopes to the sites of CN infection in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: 18B7 mAb was radiolabeled with either the beta-emitter 188-Rhenium (188Re) or with the alpha-emitter 213-Bismuth (213Bi). The biodistribution of radiolabeled 18B7 was measured in BALB/c mice with and without intratracheal CN infection. For in vitro killing assays 105 CN cells/well were treated with 0-3.2 μCi 213Bi-18B7 (3 h incubation), 32 μCi 188Re-18B7 (48 h incubation) or with radiolabeled IgG1 MOPC21 as a control and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined. To compare the activity of radiolabeled mAb's against CN infection with an established antifungal drug, we evaluated the susceptibility of CN strain to Amphoterecin B. In vivo therapy of CN was conducted in groups of 10 A/JCr mice infected intravenously with 105 CN cells 24 h prior to treatment with 50-200 μCi 213Bi- or 188Re-18B7, 213Bi- or 188Re-MOPC21, unlabeled 18B7 or saline. Student's t test for unpaired data was used to analyze in vitro data, and log-rank test - for animal survival data. Results: MAb 18B7 preserved its immunoreactivity post-labeling and delivered 10% ID/g to the lungs of the CN-infected BALB/c mice in 24 h after injection. Two-log reduction in colony forming units (CFU) was achieved in treatment of CN with 213Bi-18B7 and 188Re-18B7, which compared favorably with Amphoterecin B. MIC's were determined to be 0.4 μCi/1.5 mg and 4 μCi/1.25 mg mAb for 213Bi-18B7 and 188Re-18B7, respectively. The fungicidal activity of irrelevant mAb 213Bi-or 188Re-MOPC21 was negligible (P213Bi-18B7 and of 100 μCi 188Re-18B7 significantly (P<0

  6. Rhenium-188 Production in Hospitals, by W-188/Re-188 Generator, for Easy Use in Radionuclide Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Argyrou; Alexia Valassi; Maria Andreou; Maria Lyra

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium-188 (Re-188) is a high energy β-emitting radioisotope obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 (W-188/Re-188) generator, which has shown utility for a variety of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional radiology/cardiology. Re-188 decay is accompanied by a 155 keV predominant energy γ-emission, which could be detected by γ-cameras, for imaging, biodistribution, or absorbed radiation dose studies. Its attractive physical properties and its potential...

  7. Biokinetic and dosimetric studies of {sup 188}Re-hyaluronic acid: a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy)], E-mail: laura.melendez@unipd.it; Nadali, Anna; Zangoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy); Banzato, Alessandra; Rondina, Maria [Dipartimento di Scienze Oncologiche e Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Rosato, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Oncologiche e Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Istituto Oncologico Veneto, IOV, Padova, Padua (Italy); Mazzi, Ulderico [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and has very limited therapeutic options. Recently, it has been found that hyaluronic acid (HA) shows selective binding to CD44 receptors expressed in most cancer histotypes. Since the trend in cancer treatment is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy, the aim of this research was to label HA with rhenium-188 and to evaluate its potential use as a hepatocarcinoma therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Methods: {sup 188}Re-HA was prepared by a direct labelling method to produce a ReO(O-COO){sub 2}-type coordination complex. {sup 188}Re-HA protein binding and its stability in saline, phosphate buffer, human serum and cysteine solutions were determined. Biokinetic and dosimetric data were estimated in healthy mice (n=60) using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose methodology and mouse model beta-absorbed fractions. To evaluate liver toxicity, alanine aminotranferase (AST) and aspartate aminotranferase (ALT) levels in mice were assessed and the liver maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of {sup 188}Re-HA was determined. Results: A stable complex of {sup 188}Re-HA was obtained with high radiochemical purity (>90%) and low serum protein binding (2%). Biokinetic studies showed a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}{alpha}=21 min). Four hours after administration, {sup 188}Re-HA was almost totally removed from the blood by the liver due to the selective uptake via HA-specific receptors (73.47{+-}5.11% of the injected dose). The liver MTD in mice was {approx}40 Gy after 7.4 MBq of {sup 188}Re-HA injection. Conclusions: {sup 188}Re-HA complex showed good stability, pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics that confirm its potential as a new agent for HCC radiation therapy.

  8. DNA damage in lymphocytes after irradiation with 211At and 188Re. Quantification by alkaline and neutral comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Ionising radiation produces many types of DNA lesions of different complexity. High linear energy transfer (LET) types of radiation are biological more effective than low LET radiation. In the present work we applied the single cell gel electrophoreses (comet assay) to study the induction of initial DNA damage, efficiency of repair and residual DNA damage in lymphocytes after treatment with 211At and 188Re. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from heparinized blood of healthy donors and irradiated with 211At and 188Re at different doses. The comet assay was performed under alkaline and neutral conditions in order to detect the initial DNA damage and its repair. The measure of damage was% tail DNA (percentage of DNA in the tail). Results: After treatment of cells with 188Re the initial DNA damage (% tail DNA) detected with the alkaline comet assay was higher than the damage measured for 21lAt. The neutral comet assay estimated higher tail intensities for 211At in contrast to 188Re. Compared with the complete repair (10%) after irradiation with 188Re, the radiotoxicity of alpha particles indicated reduced rejoining of DNA strand breaks (60-80% residual damage). Rejoining of DNA damage measured by the neutral comet method detected about 70% unrepaired strand breaks for 211At and 188Re. Conclusions: There are major differences between the repair of strand breaks caused by 188Re and 211At detected by the alkaline comet assay. The DNA-damage induced by the high LET Emitter 211At remains nearly unrepaired detected by both alkaline and neutral comet assay. Represented data following irradiation of lymphocytes with alpha and beta particles demonstrated higher biological effectiveness of 211At by factors of 2.0-2.5. (orig.)

  9. 188Re(V)-DMSA revisited: preparation and biodistribution of a potential radiotherapeutic agent with low kidney uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, E; Chapman, J

    1998-02-01

    Methods of preparation and biodistribution in mice of tin-free 99Tcm(V)-DMSA and 188Re(V)-DMSA, a potential matching pair of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy of certain cancers, are described. Preparation of tin-free 188Re(V)-DMSA (I) is based on reduction with either SO2-releasing compounds like Na2S2O4 (30 mg Na2S2O4, 10 mg DMSA, 1 mg L-ascorbic acid, 37 degrees C, 60 min incubation), Na2S2O5 (as before, 70 degrees C, 15 min incubation), or HBr (0.2 ml 48% HBr, 0.2 ml 7 M HCl, 10 mg DMSA, 1 mg L-ascorbic acid, 70 degrees C, 60 min incubation). I exhibits significantly lower kidney uptake than tin-containing 188Re(V)-DMSA (II) (2-3% and 49% injected dose per gram organ, 1 h post-injection, respectively). HPLC profiles of I and II are similar. DMSA excess in tin-free 188Re(V)-DMSA is not responsible for the low kidney uptake of I. High kidney uptake of II is explained by formation of a mixed 188Re(V)-Sn-DMSA complex in vivo. Age-linked bone uptake in mice dependent on the maturation of the bone is demonstrated for both I and II.

  10. Lipiodol solution of a lipophilic agent, {sup 188}Re-TDD, for the treatment of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min E-mail: jmjng@snu.ac.kr; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Yoon Sang; Ko, Jun Il; Son, Miwon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-02-01

    Radiolabeled lipiodol has been used for targeting liver cancer. We developed a lipiodol solution of {sup 188}Re-TDD (2,2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanedithiol) and investigated its feasibility for the treatment of liver cancer. The lipiodol solution of {sup 188}Re-TDD was well-retained in the lipiodol phase in vitro. After injection through the tail veins of mice, high lung-uptake was investigated which is evidence of embolizing activity. We also found high accumulation in hepatoma after injection through the hepatic arteries of hepatoma-bearing rats. In conclusion, the lipiodol solution of {sup 188}Re-TDD is a promising agent for liver cancer therapy.

  11. Evaluating the potential of {sup 188}Re-SOCTA-trastuzumab as a new radioimmunoagent for breast cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, T.-Y. [Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-27, Longtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tylo@iner.gov.tw; Tang, I-C.; Wu, Y.-L.; Hsu, K.-L. [Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-27, Longtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Liu, S.-W. [Chemistry Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Kung, H.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tung Nan University, Taipei 222, Taiwan (China); Lai, P.-S. [Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-J. [Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-27, Longtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Radioimmunotherapy, which utilizes monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic radioisotopes against antigen-expressing tumor tissues, is an attractive therapeutic approach for cancer therapy. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a humanized anti-HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody for breast cancer treatment. In this paper, we introduce a new radioimmunoagent, {sup 188}Re-trastuzumab, via a bifunctional ligand, succinimidyl 3,6-diaza-5-oxo-3-[2-((triphenylmethyl)thio)ethyl] -8-[(triphenylmethyl)thio]octanoate (SOCTA), and evaluate its potential to be a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for breast cancer treatment. Methods: Equimolar amounts of SOCTA and trastuzumab were selected to react, and the conjugation ratio of SOCTA-trastuzumab was evaluated by the MALDI-TOF method. The immunoreactivity of SOCTA-trastuzumab was compared with nonconjugated trastuzumab in HER-2/neu overexpressing human breast cancer cell BT-474. Biodistribution experiment and microSPECT/CT images of {sup 188}Re-SOCTA-trastuzumab being administered intravenously to SCID mice bearing xenografted BT-474 breast cancer were investigated to evaluate the tumor-targeting capability. Results: The covalent attachment of SOCTA to trastuzumab (at 1:1 molar ratio) resulted in the averaged conjugation ratio of 0.27{+-}0.06 (n=3). The complex could easily be labeled with {sup 188}Re and achieve 95% radiochemical purity (RCP) after 1 h of reaction at room temperature. The in vitro stability study also revealed that the RCP of {sup 188}Re-SOCTA-trastuzumab was at a value of more than 85% after 48 h of incubation with human serum. The immunoreactivity evaluation showed that SOCTA-trastuzumab and nonconjugated trastuzumab had similar binding capacity (B{sub max}) to HER-2/neu receptor in BT-474 cells. The animal experiments showed that {sup 188}Re-SOCTA-trastuzumab accumulated more intensively in the tumor site as compared to normal tissue. Conclusion: We suggest that {sup 188}Re-SOCTA-trastuzumab could be a potential

  12. Comparative study of 188Re( V )-DMSA and 99mTc ( V )-DMSA in tumor model%188Re(V)-DMSA与99mTc(V)-DMSA在肿瘤模型体内的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊; 安锐

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the biodistribution and imaging characteristics of 188Re(V)-DMSA and 99mTc(V)-DMSA in tumor model, and to discuss the possibility of treating tumors with 188Re(V)-DMSA. Methods The solid neoplasm bearing mice (Ehrlich carcinoma bearing mice) models underwent biodistribution study and static whole body planar imaging after injection of 188Re(V)-DMSA and 99mTc(V)-DMSA respectively. When the mice were sacrificed at different time after the injection, the tumor, blood and contralateral normai muscles were removed, weighted and the radioactivity was measured. Then the radioactivity ratios of target (tumor)-to-blood (T/B),target-to-non targeted (contralateral limbs or muscles) (T/NT) were calculated. ROIs were drawn and T/NT were calculated in planar imagines. Results Two radiopharmaceuticals were mainly concentrated in bone and kidney, and the uptake ratios in tumor were high too.The half-clearance times of these two radiopharmaceuticals in blood were both less than 1h. The greatest T/NT ratio of 99mTc group was higher than 188Re group in planar imagings, but the highest T/B, T/NT ratios of these two radiopharmaceuticals in biodistribution study had no significant difference and were all above 3.0. Conclusion The biodistribution characteristics of 188Re(V)-DMSA and 99mTc( V)-DMSA were similar. 188Re(V)-DMSA has good applied foreground in treating tumors and their metastases.%目的比较188Re(V)-DMSA(五价188Re-二巯基丁二酸钠)和99mTc(V)-DMSA在肿瘤模型体内生物分布与显像的特点,探讨188Re(V)-DMSA用于肿瘤治疗的可能性.方法用188Re(V)-DMSA和99mTc(V)-DMSA对实验性实体肿瘤(小鼠艾氏腹水癌)模型进行生物学分布实验和全身平面显像,并通过脏器克组织百分摄取率(%ID/g)测定法和感兴趣区(ROI)技术进行定量分析,计算各时点两种放射性药物的靶/血、靶/非靶比值.结果两种放射性药物均主要浓聚于骨骼和肾脏,肿瘤组织也有较高的摄

  13. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re; Desenvolvimento de metodos para marcacao de DMSA pentavalente com {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula, email: jtoniolo@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to {approx} 8.5 with NaHCO{sub 3}. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of {sup 99m}Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with {sup 188}Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were

  14. Uptake of the {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA complex by cervical carcinoma cells in nude mice: pharmacokinetics and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Salinas, Laura; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina E-mail: gff@nuclear.inin.mxtendilla@acnet.net; Arteaga-Murphy, Consuelo; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Salomon; Azorin-Nieto, Juan

    2001-03-01

    The uptake of the rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA) complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid by cervical carcinoma cells in nude mice was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics and dosimetry calculations in normal rats were also evaluated. The images obtained in mice did not show significant accumulation in metabolic organs and the biodistribution studies showed that 3.52{+-}0.76% of the injected activity per gram (n=4) was taken up by the tumor. This percentage produces a cumulated activity of 35.63{+-}8.40 MBq h and an equivalent dose per injected activity of 260{+-}8.91 mSv/MBq. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of the {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA complex indicate that this radiopharmaceutical could be evaluated in patients with soft tissue tumors, since the risk of radiation damage to the kidney or red bone marrow could not be an obstacle for its application in therapeutic nuclear medicine.

  15. Uptake of the 188Re(V)-DMSA complex by cervical carcinoma cells in nude mice: pharmacokinetics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of the rhenium-188 (188Re(V)-DMSA) complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid by cervical carcinoma cells in nude mice was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics and dosimetry calculations in normal rats were also evaluated. The images obtained in mice did not show significant accumulation in metabolic organs and the biodistribution studies showed that 3.52±0.76% of the injected activity per gram (n=4) was taken up by the tumor. This percentage produces a cumulated activity of 35.63±8.40 MBq h and an equivalent dose per injected activity of 260±8.91 mSv/MBq. Pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of the 188Re(V)-DMSA complex indicate that this radiopharmaceutical could be evaluated in patients with soft tissue tumors, since the risk of radiation damage to the kidney or red bone marrow could not be an obstacle for its application in therapeutic nuclear medicine

  16. Radiolabeling of rituximab with {sup 188}Re and {sup 99m}Tc using the tricarbonyl technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jeger, Simone [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Osso, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mueller, Cristina; De Pasquale, Christine; Hohn, Alexander; Waibel, Robert [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger, E-mail: roger.schibli@psi.c [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences of the ETH, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: The most successful clinical studies of immunotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) use the antibody rituximab (RTX) targeting CD20{sup +} B-cell tumors. Rituximab radiolabeled with {beta}{sup -} emitters could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody by virtue of the particle radiation. Here, we report on a direct radiolabeling approach of rituximab with the {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 188}Re-tricarbonyl core (IsoLink technology). Methods: The native format of the antibody (RTX{sub wt}) as well as a reduced form (RTX{sub red}) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}. The partial reduction of the disulfide bonds to produce free sulfhydryl groups (-SH) was achieved with 2-mercaptoethanol. Radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro human plasma stability as well as transchelation toward cysteine and histidine was investigated. The immunoreactivity and binding affinity were determined on Ramos and/or Raji cells expressing CD20. Biodistribution was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous Ramos lymphoma xenografts. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency and kinetics of RTX{sub red} were superior to that of RTX{sub wt} ({sup 99m}Tc: 98% after 3 h for RTX{sub red} vs. 70% after 24 h for RTX{sub wt}). {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} was used without purification for in vitro and in vivo studies whereas {sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} was purified to eliminate free {sup 188}Re-precursor. Both radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human plasma for 24 h at 37{sup o}C. In contrast, displacement experiments with excess cysteine/histidine showed significant transchelation in the case of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} but not with pre-purified {sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red}. Both conjugates revealed high binding affinity to the CD20 antigen (K{sub d}=5-6 nM). Tumor uptake of {sup 188}Re(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} was 2.5 %ID/g and 0.8 %ID/g for {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-RTX{sub red} 48 h after injection. The values for other

  17. Investigations of directly labelling octreotide with 188Re%188Re直接标记octreotide的方法学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌

    2002-01-01

    188Re标记octreotide可用直接标记法或间接标记法。直接标记法包括预锡化法和分步还原法,分步还原法需先用还原剂还原octreotide,然后用SnCl2还原188ReO4-进行直接标记;预锡化法则直接以SnCl2还原octreotide和188ReO4-,打开octreotide分子内双硫键,使188Re直接标记octreotide。预锡化直接标记法简便快速,能够得到较高的放化纯度,无须进一步纯化,适合用于制备药盒。

  18. Studies on biodistribution and imaging of 188Re labeled insulin-like growth factor-1 analogue in nude mice bearing human pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the biodistribution and planar gamma camera imaging characteristics of 188Re labeled insulin-like growth factor 1 analogue (188Re-IGF-1A) in tumor-bearing mice. Methods: (1)To label IGF-1A with 188Re directly and to determine the labeling efficiency. (2)To establish nude mice model which bearing human pancreatic carcinoma cell Patu8988. (3)To scan those nude mice at 15 min, 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, 3 d and 5 d after intratumor injection with 188Re-IGF-1A into their tumors. (4)To scan those nude mice at 15 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 24 h after intratumor injection with 188ReO4- into their tumors. To calculate the tumor to normal tissue ratio (T/NT) and the percentages of injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g) of different organs. Results: (1)The labeling efficiency of 188Re-IGF-1A was (94.07 ± 0.32)%. (2)The largest uptake of tumors was (42.38 ± 17.82)%ID/g at 4 h after injection of 188Re-IGF-1A. Then the tumor to normal tissue ratios 5ncreased and the largest tumor to muscle ratio was 6531.79 ± 4930.26 at 5 d after injection. (3) 188ReO4- was major distributed in thyroid glands, stomachs, tumors and blood in nude mice after injection at first. Then %ID/g decreased rapidly in tumors. (4) The difference of %ID/g was significant (t=5.877, t=13.287, P188Re-IGF-1A group than in 188ReO4- group. The largest ratio of tumors in the two groups was 74.10 at 24 h after injection. (5) After being injected, 188Re-IGF-1A formed clear images in tumors, 5 d later, nothing but tumors can be seen. Conclusions: 188Re-IGF-1A has good affinity with human pancreatic cancer, and the tumor to muscle ratios in nude mice is high. So 188Re-IGF-1A is expected to be used for targeting therapy of human pancreatic carcinoma. (authors)

  19. {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re-labelled lipid nanocapsules as promising radiotracers for imaging and therapy: formulation and biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballot, Sandrine; Noiret, Nicolas; Rajerison, Holisoa [Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes UMR CNRS 6052 ' Syntheses et Activations de Biomolecules' , Rennes-Beaulieu (France); Hindre, Francois; Denizot, Benoit; Benoit, Jean-Pierre [Ingenierie de la Vectorisation Particulaire' , Inserm U 646, Angers (France); Garin, Etienne [Centre Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France)

    2006-05-15

    This study focusses on a promising carrier system for imaging and therapeutic purposes using lipid nanocapsules. To assess their potential for clinical use, we labelled nanocapsules with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re and analysed some kinetic biodistribution parameters after intravenous injection in rats. Lipophilic complexes [{sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re(S{sub 3}CPh){sub 2}(S{sub 2}CPh)] ({sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re-SSS) were encapsulated within the nanoparticles during their manufacture with quantitative yield and satisfactory radiochemical purity. Rats were injected intravenously with 3.7 MBq {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re-labelled nanocapsules and sacrificed at 5, 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. Dynamic scintigraphic acquisitions showed predominant hepatic uptake, and ex vivo counting indicated a long circulation time of labelled nanocapsules, with a half-life of 21{+-}1 min for {sup 99m}Tc and 22{+-}2 min for {sup 188}Re. Very weak urinary elimination was observed, indicating good stability of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re labelling. {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re-SSS nanocapsules can be obtained with high yield and satisfactory radiochemical purity. The biodistributions of {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re-labelled nanocapsules are close to those of classical PEG-coated particles and show good stability of {sup 188}Re/{sup 99m}Tc-SSS labelling. (orig.)

  20. Study on radiolabeling of 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs with fac-[188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ via click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click chemistry was used to study on radiolabeling of 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs with. fac-[188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+. CuSO4/L-sodium ascorbate was chosen as the catalyst system, three terminal alkynes were conjugated with two different azides respectively, and then the new prepared fac-[188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ was coordinated to the six triazoles. The results showed that the radiochemical yields (RCY) of the conjugation of fac-[188Re(CO)3]+ with six triazoles were over 90%, and the triazoles showed high stability in phosphate-buffered saline and new-born calf serum. The preliminary biological evaluation results showed that the new 188Re-labeling method via click chemistry could have general application in labeling bioactive molecules in high radiochemical yield and high specific activity for further SPECT research. (authors)

  1. {sup 188}Re-HEDP combined with capecitabine in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a phase I safety and toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosma, Tjitske B.; Rijk, Peter P. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, Bernard A. [UMC Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    {sup 188}Re-HEDP is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients with painful osteoblastic bone metastases, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Efficacy may be improved by adding chemotherapy to the treatment regimen as a radiation sensitizer. The combination of {sup 188}Re-HEDP and capecitabine (Xeloda registered) was tested in a clinical phase I study. Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with capecitabine for 14 days (oral twice daily in a dose escalation regimen with steps of 1/3 of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day in cohorts of three to six patients, depending on toxicity). Two days later patients were treated with 37 MBq/kg {sup 188}Re-HEDP as an intravenous injection. Six hours after treatment post-therapy scintigraphy was performed. Urine was collected for 8 h post-injection. Follow-up was at least 8 weeks. The primary end-point was to establish the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of capecitabine when combined with {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Secondary end-points included the effect of capecitabine on the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Three patients were treated in the first and second cohorts, each without unacceptable toxicity. One of six patients in the highest cohort experienced unacceptable toxicity (grade 4 thrombopaenia). The MTD proved to be the maximum dose of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day capecitabine. No unexpected toxicity occurred. Capecitabine had no effect on uptake or excretion of {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Capecitabine may be safely used in combination with {sup 188}Re-HEDP in a dose of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day and 37 MBq/kg, respectively. Efficacy will be further studied in a phase II study using these dosages. (orig.)

  2. {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA quantitatively predicts {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA distribution in patients with prostate cancer metastatic to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blower, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O' Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. [Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Rhenium-188 dimercaptosuccinic acid complex [{sup 188}Re(V)DMSA], a potential therapeutic analogue of the tumour imaging agent {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA, is selectively taken up in bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. It would be helpful in planning palliative radionuclide therapy if {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA could be used to predict tumour and kidney retention of {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between tumour-to-normal tissue ratios and kidney-to-soft tissue ratios of {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA and {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA. This would determine whether a scan with {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA, could be used to identify patients for whom {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA treatment would be contra-indicated, and enable prediction of relative kidney and tumour radiation absorbed dose in {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA treatment. Ten patients with prostate carcinoma were recruited following observation of disseminated bone metastases on a recent {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxydiphosphonate bone scan. Whole-body planar scans were obtained at ca. 4 h and 24 h after hydration and injection of 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA, and a week later, at similar times after hydration and injection of 370 MBq {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA. A triple-energy window (TEW) scatter correction was applied to the {sup 188}Re scans. Counts per pixel were determined in regions of interest drawn over metastatic sites, kidneys and normal soft tissue. Tumour-to-soft tissue ratios were significantly lower (by a factor of approximately 0.8 after the TEW was applied) on {sup 188}Re scans than on {sup 99m}Tc scans, but the two were highly linearly correlated both in all individual patients and in tumours pooled from all patients together both at 4 h and at 24 h. Kidney-to-soft tissue ratios were similarly correlated and were lower for {sup 188}Re than for {sup 99m}Tc by a similar factor. Both tumour- and kidney-to-soft tissue ratios increased between 4 and 24 h but the latter increased more. In conclusion, only minor differences were

  3. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 188Re-liposomes and their comparative therapeutic efficacy with 5-fluorouracil in C26 colonic peritoneal carcinomatosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai CC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chia-Che Tsai1, Chih-Hsien Chang1, Liang-Cheng Chen1, Ya-Jen Chang1, Keng-Li Lan2, Yu-Hsien Wu1, Chin-Wei Hsu1, I-Hsiang Liu1, Chung-Li Ho1, Wan-Chi Lee1, Hsiao-Chiang Ni1, Tsui-Jung Chang1, Gann Ting3, Te-Wei Lee11Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, 2Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 3National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCBackground: Nanoliposomes are designed as carriers capable of packaging drugs through passive targeting tumor sites by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effects. In the present study the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, micro single-photon emission computed tomography (micro-SPECT/CT image, dosimetry, and therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-labeled nanoliposomes (188Re-liposomes in a C26 colonic peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse model were evaluated.Methods: Colon carcinoma peritoneal metastatic BALB/c mice were intravenously administered 188Re-liposomes. Biodistribution and micro-SPECT/CT imaging were performed to determine the drug profile and targeting efficiency of 188Re-liposomes. Pharmacokinetics study was described by a noncompartmental model. The OLINDA|EXM® computer program was used for the dosimetry evaluation. For therapeutic efficacy, the survival, tumor, and ascites inhibition of mice after treatment with 188Re-liposomes and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, respectively, were evaluated and compared.Results: In biodistribution, the highest uptake of 188Re-liposomes in tumor tissues (7.91% ± 2.02% of the injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g] and a high tumor to muscle ratio (25.8 ± 6.1 were observed at 24 hours after intravenous administration. The pharmacokinetics of 188Re-liposomes showed high circulation time and high bioavailability (mean residence time [MRT] = 19.2 hours, area under the curve [AUC] = 820.4%ID/g*h. Micro-SPECT/CT imaging of 188Re-liposomes showed a high uptake and targeting in ascites, liver, spleen, and tumor. The results were correlated with

  4. Treatment of transplanted tumor of lung adenocarcinoma A549 transfected by human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (hsstr2) gene with 188Re-RC-160

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and aim: Radionuclide-labeled somatostatin analogues selectively target somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing tumors as a basis for diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. To those tumors without somatostatin receptor expressed, the hSSTR2 gene was transfected. Express of the hSSTR2 receptor was imaging and the radiotherapeutic effect was evaluated with 188Re-RC-160. Methods: The stable hSSTR2-expressing A549 cells (pcDNA3-hSSTR2 A549) and non-somatostatin receptor expressing A549 cells (pcDNA3 A549) were selected by western blot. Later, a corresponding animal tumor model was established. Expression of the hSSTR2 reporter was imaged using 188Re-RC-160 recognition. Tumors were evaluated for somatostatin receptor expression using immunohistochemistry. The distribution of 188Re-RC-160 in the animal tumor model was measured and the inhibitory effects of 188Re-RC-160 were evaluated by measurement of tumor growth and hematoxylin and eosin and TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results: In vivo radioimaging revealed specific targeting of 188Re-RC-160 to tumors derived from pcDNA3- hSSTR2 A549 cells, compared to those from pcDNA3 A549 cells. pcDNA3- hSSTR2 A549 tumor growth inhibition was significantly higher in the single 7.4 MBq 188Re-RC-160 treatment group than in the 2x7.4 MBq rhenium-188, RC-160 group, control group, and pcDNA3 A549 tumors (P188Re-RC-160), induced significantly increased tumor-growth inhibition compare with single 7.4 MBq 188Re-RC-160 treatment (P188Re-RC-160 could be effectively used for targeting therapy the A549-derived tumors exogenously expressing hSSTR2, which will offers a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-negative cancers.

  5. A YAP camera for the biodistribution of {sup 188}Re conjugated with Hyaluronic-Acid in 'in vivo' systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoccia, A. [Department of Biology, Roma3 University (Italy); INFN, Roma3 (Italy); Baldazzi, G. [Department of Physics, Bologna University (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Banzato, A. [Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, Padova University (Italy); Bello, M. [INFN, National Laboratories, Legnaro (Italy); Department of Physics, Padova University (Italy); Boccaccio, P. [INFN, National Laboratories, Legnaro (Italy); Bollini, D. [Department of Physics, Bologna University (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); De Notaristefani, F. [INFN, Roma3 (Italy); Department of Electronic Engineering, Roma3 University and INFN (Italy); Mazzi, U. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Padova University (Italy); Alafort, L.M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Padova University (Italy); Moschini, G. [INFN, National Laboratories, Legnaro (Italy); Department of Physics, Padova University (Italy); Navarria, F.L. [Department of Physics, Bologna University (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Pani, R. [Department of Experimental Medecine and Pathology, Roma1 University (Italy); INFN, Roma1 (Italy); Perrotta, A. [INFN, Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: perrotta@bo.infn.it; Rosato, A. [Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, Padova University (Italy); Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Padova (Italy); Tanzarella, C. [Department of Biology, Roma3 University (Italy); Uzunov, N.M. [INFN, National Laboratories, Legnaro (Italy); Dept. Natural Sciences, Shumen Univ. (Bulgaria)

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the SCINTIRAD experiment is to determine the radio-response of {sup 188}Rhenium (Re) in in vitro cells and the biodistribution in different organs of in vivo mice, and subsequently to assess the therapeutic effect on liver tumours induced in mice. Both the {gamma}- and {beta}- emissions of {sup 188}Re have been exploited in the experiment. The in vivo biodistribution in mice was studied also with a {gamma}-camera using different parallel hole collimators. In the {sup 188}Re spectrum, while the 155 keV {gamma}-peak is useful for imaging, the photons emitted at larger energies and the {beta}-particles act as noise in the image reconstruction. The {gamma}-cameras previously used to image biodistributions obtained with {sup 99}Tc are, therefore, not optimized for use with {sup 188}Re. A new setup of the {gamma}-camera has been studied for {sup 188}Re: 66x66 YAP:Ce crystals (0.6x0.6x10 mm{sup 3}, 5 {mu}m optical insulation) guarantee a FOV of 40x40 mm{sup 2}, a Hamamatsu R2486 PSPMT, 3 in. diameter, converts their light into an electrical signal and allows reconstructing the spatial coordinates of the light spot; incoming photon directions are selected through a lead collimator with 1.5 mm diameter hexagonal holes, 0.18 mm septa, 40 mm thickness. Using this setup, results have been obtained both with {sup 99}Tc filled and {sup 188}Re filled capillaries and wells. The energy spectrum of the collected photons and the spatial resolutions obtainable with the {sup 188}Re source will be presented.

  6. 188Re-HEDP combined with capecitabine in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a phase I safety and toxicity study

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosma, Tjitske B.; Rijk, Peter P. van; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose 188Re-HEDP is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients with painful osteoblastic bone metastases, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Efficacy may be improved by adding chemotherapy to the treatment regimen as a radiation sensitizer. The combination of 188Re-HEDP and capecitabine (Xeloda®) was tested in a clinical phase I study. Methods Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with capecitabine for 14 days (oral twice daily in a dose esca...

  7. 用188Re直接标记octreotide%Investigations of direct labeling of octreotide with 188 Re

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 吴翼伟; 范我; 江一民

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨具有较高标记率和良好稳定性的188Re直接标记octreotide的方法.方法采用预锡化法标记octreotide.①分别在标记后1、2、3、4、5、6 h测定标记率;②乙酸缓冲液pH值从3.8~5.8;③淋洗液体积从50~250 μL;④多因素分析法同时改变octreotide和氯化亚锡的用量;⑤标记完成0.5 h后分别加入人血清或生理盐水50 μL,室温下放置48 h以测定标记物体外稳定性.结果 188 Re直接标记octreotide最佳标记条件:0.1 mL葡萄糖酸钠(0.3 mol/L),0.04 mL浓盐酸溶解的SnCl2*2H2O (20 g/L),0.04 mL 0.2 mol/L乙酸缓冲液(pH值5.0),0.05 mL octreotide(2 g/L),188ReO-4淋洗液0.1 mL.188Re-octreotide可达到最大标记率(92.6±1.9)%,室温下放置24 h标记率为(86.6±1.8)%,在标记物中加入人血清50 μL后室温下放置24 h标记率为(84.2±2.7)%.标记反应中胶体含量均小于8%.结论预锡化直接标记法简便快速,能够得到较高的标记率,稳定性好,无需进一步纯化.

  8. 2012 Rose Site 32P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 32P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 2, 2004. With a start point...

  9. 2004 Rose Site 32P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 32P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 2, 2004. With a start point...

  10. Labeling , in -Vitro Stability and Biological Distribution of 188 Re- Ethylenediamine- N,N,N,N,-tetrakis (Methylene Phosphonic) Acid complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeling of ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetrakis (methylene phosphonic) acid (EDTMP) with rhenium -188 was investigated. Stannous chloride was used as a reducing agent for the reduction of 188 ReO4. Dependence of the yield of 188Re-EDTMP complex upon the concentration of EDTMP, tin (II) content, reaction time, amount of antioxidant, Ph, reaction temperature and adding of carrier was examined. The optimum condition that given high labeling yield of 188 Re-EDTMP complex (95.8% with carrier - free rhenium and 97% with carrier-added rhenium) was achieved using 40 mg EDTMP, 0.8 mg Sn(II),Ph=0.8, reaction temperature 100 degree and 5 min reaction time. the amount of carrier added equal to 200 μg KReO4 Furthermore, 188Re-EDTMP complex prepared at 100 degree is more stable than that prepared at 30 degree and the carrier added 188R-EDTMP complex is more stable than the no carrier added complex

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of 188Re-MN-16ET lipiodol in an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our recent study, we developed a new radiopharmaceutical (rhenium-188 (Re-188) MN-16ET lipiodol) with encouraging results for the treatment of liver malignancy. In this study, we further evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of this radiopharmaceutical by measuring tumor response and survival times in rats with liver tumors after intra-hepatic arterial injection of Re-188 MN-16ET lipiodol. Twelve male rats bearing hepatic tumors were divided into three groups. Group 1 received an intra-hepatic arterial injection of 18.5 MBq Re-188 MN-16ET lipiodol; Group 2 received lipiodol and Group 3 received normal saline. Tumor size was measured by liver sonography before injection, at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. Survival time and response rate were calculated. All rats showed good response and survived over 60 days in Group 1 while all rats showed poor response in Group 2 and Group 3 with only 25% of rats in Group 2 and none (0%) in Group 3 survived over 60 days. The p value was 0.0067 between Group 1 and Group 3; 0.04 between Group 1 and Group 2; and 0.034 between Group 2 and Group 3. Re-188 MN-16ET lipiodol has good potential for the treatment of hepatoma. (author)

  12. Country report: United Kingdom. Bifunctional bisphosphonate complexes with 99mTc and 188Re for the diagnosis and therapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,1-Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a family of compounds extensively used in the management of disorders of bone metabolism.1 They accumulate in areas of high bone metabolism, such as bone metastases, and consequently have been receiving increasing attention as molecular imaging probes and pain palliation treatments.2 Imaging bone metastases with BPs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or planar scintigraphy is one of the most often-performed clinical imaging procedures. Beta-emitting analogues capable of producing a therapeutic effect have also been developed.3 In particular, the rhenium compounds 186/188Re-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate (186/188Re-HEDP) have shown promise as palliative agents for bone metastases in recent clinical trials.4 The radiochemicals consist of a complex of a BP (e.g. methylene diphosphonate, MDP) with gamma- (99mTc) or beta- (186/186Re) emitters

  13. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of 188 Re-anti-CD20 and 131 I-anti-CD20 for the treatment of No Hodgkin lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare 131I-anti-CD20 and 188Re-anti-CD20 and to estimate the radiation absorbed dose at macro- and micro- level during a NHL treatment. The work was divided in 4 general objectives: 1) preparation of 131I-anti-CD20 and 188Re-anti-CD20, 2) application in patients to obtain biokinetic parameters and estimate the organ absorbed doses 3) estimation of the cellular dosimetry using the MIRD methodology and the MCNP4C2 code and 4) estimation of the cellular microdosimetry using the NOREC code. 188Re-anti-CD20 was prepared by a direct labelling method using sodium tartrate as a weak ligand. To evaluate the biological recognition a comparative study of the in vitro binding of 188Re-anti-CD20, 125I-anti-CD20 (positive control) and 188Re-anti-CEA (negative control) to normal B Iymphocytes was performed. Biodistribution studies in normal mice were accomplished to assess the in vivo Re-anti-CD20 complex stability. The binding of ' Re-anti-CD20 to cells was in the same range as '251-anti-CD20 (>80%) considered as the positive control. 188Re-anti-CD20 and '3'1-anti-CD20 prepared were administered in patients diagnosed with B cell NHL at the Centro Medico Siglo XXI (IMSS). The protocol was approved by the hospital's Medical Ethics Committee. AJI patients signed a consent form after receiving detailed information on the aims of the study. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to organs and whole body. Dosimetric studies indicate that after administration of 6.4 GBq and 4.87 to 8.75 GBq of '3'1-anti-CD20 and 188Re-anti-CD20 respectively, the absorbed dose to total body would be 0.75 Gy which corresponds to the recommended dose for NHL therapies. The calculated organ absorbed doses indicate that 188Re-anti-CD20 may be used in radioimmunotherapy without the risk of toxicity to red marrow or healthy organs. The absorbed dose (D) into cellular nucleus was calculated by two different

  14. Therapeutic effect of intratumoral injection of 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension in liver cancer. A comparative study with chemical agents in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Hepatoma is a common disease in some countries. The intervention therapy was used often for non-resectable tumor. The aim of our study was to compare the therapeutic effect of 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension to ethanol, acetic acid and the mixture of mitomycin and lipiodol for hepatoma in an animal model by intermittently injection. Methods: Forty-nine nude mice bearing hepatic cell carcinoma were divided into six groups. Group 1 (n=14) was intratumoral y injected with 0.1 ml saline. There were 5 experimental groups (group 2 to 6). Each group consisted of 7 mice. The mice in group 2 was intratumoral y injected with 18.5 MBq/0.1 ml 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension each, the mice in group 3 was injected intratumorally with 9.25 MBq/0.1 ml 188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension each, group 4 was injected intratumorally with 0.1 ml ethanol, the mice in group 5 was injected with 0.1 ml 30% acetic acid and group 6 was injected intratumorally with 30 μg mitomycin in 0.1 ml lipiodol respectively. The mice were sacrificed 7 days post injection and the specimen were collected for pathological analysis. Results: The average tumor weight were 1.75±0.29 g (mean±S.D.), 0.26±0.03 g, 0.44±0.17 g, 1.38±0.25 g, 0.91±0.28 g, 1.38±0.28 g for group 1 to 6 respectively. Tumors in all experimental groups were significantly smaller than group 1 (control group, P88Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension injection had the smallest tumor weight among all the experimental groups (P188Re labeled stannic sulfur suspension shows better therapeutic effect. (authors)

  15. Development of pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium for cancer therapy. Production of {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, synthesis of labeled compounds and their biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Production of the radioactive rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, and synthesis of their labeled compounds have been studied together with the biodistributions of the compounds. This work was carried out by the Working Group on Radioactive Rhenium, consisting of researchers of JAERI and some universities, in the Subcommittee for Production and Radiolabeling under the Consultative Committee of Research on Radioisotopes. For {sup 186}Re, production methods by the {sup 185}Re(n,{gamma}){sup 186}Re reaction in a reactor and by the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction with an accelerator, which can produce nocarrier-added {sup 186}Re, have been established. For {sup 188}Re, a production method by the double neutron capture reaction of {sup 186}W, which produces a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator, has been established. For labeling of bisphosphonate, DMSA, DTPA, DADS, aminomethylenephosphonate and some monoclonal antibodies with the radioactive rhenium isotopes, the optimum conditions, including pH, the amounts of reagents and so on, have been determined for each compound. The biodistributions of each of the labeled compounds in mice have been also obtained. (author)

  16. {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol solution as a new therapeutic agent for transhepatic arterial administration in liver cancer: a preclinical study using liver-cancer model in rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeng, J. C.; Jeong, J. M.; Lee, Y. S. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol solution was developed and reported to be a new therapeutic material for transhepatic arterial embolization (TAE) of liver cancer. In this study we compared the tissue retention of {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol with that of {sup 188}Re-TDD-lipiodol using liver-cancer model in rabbit. Cancer cell line VX2 was inoculated into 7 rabbits and grown up to larger than 3 cm. TAE was performed with {sup 188}Re-TDD-lipiodol in 3 rabbits and with {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol in 4 rabbits. Conjugated planar scans were performed at 1, 2, 6, 24, 48 hours after TAE. From these images, the mean life of radioactivity retention in tumor was calculated, and the required dose for human application as also calculated from the mean life and MIRDOSE3 software. The mean lifes of radioactivity in liver were 10.2{+-}1.0 hr in TDD group and 17.6{+-}0.8 hr in HTDD group (p<0.001). The required dose for the tumor to be irradiated 50 Gy of radiation was calculated to be 18 mCi of {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol for 5.7 cm-sized tumor and 88 mCi for 9,7 cm-sized tumor. By the introduction of long chain alkyl group, {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol showed significantly better tumor retention than that of {sup 188}Re-TDD-lipiodol. And the required dose of radiation for human application was calculated to be 18 {approx} 88 mCi when using {sup 188}Re-HTDD-lipiodol.

  17. Isostructural folate conjugates radiolabeled with the matched pair 99mTc/188Re: a potential strategy for diagnosis and therapy of folate receptor-positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-technetium (99mTc) and 188Re-rhenium (188Re) represent an interesting pair of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize in vitro/in vivo the first 188Re-folate derivative [188Re(CO)3-picolylamine monoacetic acid 188Re-PAMA-folate (2)] for potential targeted radionuclide therapy of FR-positive tumors. The data were compared with those of the isostructural 99mTc-analog [99mTc-PAMA folate (1)] reported previously. Methods: In vitro stability of compound was tested in phosphate-buffered saline and human plasma. Cell binding experiments were performed with FR-positive human KB cells. Biodistribution was assessed in female nude mice, bearing KB tumor xenografts. Results: Cell binding experiments showed high and FR-specific uptake. In vivo, compound accumulated specifically in the FR-positive tumors with maximal values 4 h post injection (p.i.) [: 1.87±0.04 percent injected dose per gram of weight tissue (% ID/g) vs. : 2.33±0.36% ID/g]. Unfavorably high retention of radioactivity was found in FR-positive kidneys (12.04±0.62% ID/g; 4 h p.i.). Tumor-to-blood ratio of radioactivity (: 14.5±1.32, 4 h p.i.) was lower than for compound (58.0±12.2, 4 h p.i.), whereas tumor-to-kidney ratios were in the same range (: 0.15±0.01 vs. : 0.13±0.02, 4 h p.i.). Preadministration of the antifolate pemetrexed significantly improved the tumor-to-kidney ratio (: 1.59±0.30, 4 h p.i.). Conclusions: The isostructural radiofolates and displayed almost identical pharmacokinetic profiles and accumulated both specifically in FR-positive tumors. However, only the coapplication of the antifolate pemetrexed improved the biodistribution of the radiotracers in such ways that a potential therapeutic application of compound can be envisaged in the future

  18. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of {sup 188} Re-anti-CD20 and {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 for the treatment of No Hodgkin lymphomas; Dosimetria y microdosimetria del {sup 188} Re-anti-CD20 y {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 para el tratamiento de linfomas No Hodgkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres G, E

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 and to estimate the radiation absorbed dose at macro- and micro- level during a NHL treatment. The work was divided in 4 general objectives: 1) preparation of {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20, 2) application in patients to obtain biokinetic parameters and estimate the organ absorbed doses 3) estimation of the cellular dosimetry using the MIRD methodology and the MCNP4C2 code and 4) estimation of the cellular microdosimetry using the NOREC code. {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 was prepared by a direct labelling method using sodium tartrate as a weak ligand. To evaluate the biological recognition a comparative study of the in vitro binding of {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20, {sup 125}I-anti-CD20 (positive control) and {sup 188}Re-anti-CEA (negative control) to normal B Iymphocytes was performed. Biodistribution studies in normal mice were accomplished to assess the in vivo Re-anti-CD20 complex stability. The binding of ' Re-anti-CD20 to cells was in the same range as '251-anti-CD20 (>80%) considered as the positive control. {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 and '3'1-anti-CD20 prepared were administered in patients diagnosed with B cell NHL at the Centro Medico Siglo XXI (IMSS). The protocol was approved by the hospital's Medical Ethics Committee. AJI patients signed a consent form after receiving detailed information on the aims of the study. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to organs and whole body. Dosimetric studies indicate that after administration of 6.4 GBq and 4.87 to 8.75 GBq of '3'1-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 respectively, the absorbed dose to total body would be 0.75 Gy which corresponds to the recommended dose for NHL therapies. The calculated organ absorbed doses indicate that {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 may be used in radioimmunotherapy without the risk of toxicity to red marrow or

  19. Steps toward high specific activity labeling of biomolecules for therapeutic application: preparation of precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) and synthesis of tailor-made bifunctional ligand systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibli, Roger; Schwarzbach, Rolf; Alberto, Roger; Ortner, Kirstin; Schmalle, Helmut; Dumas, Cécile; Egli, André; Schubiger, P August

    2002-01-01

    Two kit preparations of the organometallic precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) in aqueous media are presented. Method A uses gaseous carbon monoxide and amine borane (BH(3).NH(3)) as the reducing agent. In method B CO(g) is replaced by K(2)[H(3)BCO(2)] that releases carbon monoxide during hydrolysis. Both procedures afford the desired precursor in yields >85% after 10 min at 60 degrees C. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed 7 +/- 3% of unreacted (188)ReO(4)(-) and 95% with [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) under mild reaction conditions (PBS buffer, 60 degrees C, 60 min) at ligand concentrations between 5 x 10(-4) M and 5 x 10(-5) M. Thus, specific activities of 22-220 GBq pe micromol of ligand could be achieved. Incubation of the corresponding Re-188 complexes in human serum at 37 degrees C revealed stabilities between 80 +/- 4% and 45 +/- 10% at 24 h, respectively, and 63 +/- 3% and 34 +/- 3% at 48 h postincubation in human serum depending on the chelating system. Decomposition product was mainly (188)ReO(4)(-). The routine kit-preparation of the precursor [(188)Re(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) in combination with tailor-made ligand systems enables the organometallic labeling of biomolecules with unprecedented high specific activities. PMID:12121130

  20. 温敏型壳聚糖介入核素188Re内照射抗小鼠移植性肝癌(H22)%Invistagation of antitumor efffect of internal Irradiation of Interventional Radionuclide 188 Re in Thermosensitive Chitosan on Mouse Transplanted Tumor H22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董峰; 郭红云; 张永东; 梅澍

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the inhibitory activity of internal irradiation of interventional radionuclide 188 Re in thermosensitive chitosan on mouse transplanted tumor H22 (liver cancer).Method The tumor-bearing mice were divided into 7 groups randomly, including model control, 188Re(0.1mCi) group, 188Re-S(0.1mCi) group, 188Re + CS(0.1mCi)group, 188Re + CS (0.2mCi)group, 188Re-S + CS 0.1mCi)and188Re-S + CS(0.2mCi)group.The mice tumor was injected with corresponding reagent respectively, and the inhibitoy rate of tumor was observed after administrated.Results The growth of tumors in 188Re + CS group and 188Re-S + CS group was slowed.the tumor inhibitory rate reached the highest level after 6 days therapy, which respectively was 67.35% and 67.81%.Conclusions Internal irradiation of interventional radionuclide 188 Re in thermosensitive ehitosan had the effect of inhibitory mice liver cancer.%目的 研究温敏型壳聚糖(chitonsan CS)介入核素188Re内照射对小鼠移植性肝RW(H22)的抑制作用.方法 建立小鼠肝癌(H22)模型后随机分成7组,即模型对照组、.88Re(0.1mCi)组、188Re-S (0.1mCi)组、188Re +CS (0.1 mci)组、188Re + CS (0.2mCi)组、188Re+硫胶体+壳聚糖(188Re-S + CS 0.1 mCi)组和188Re-S + CS (0.2mCi )组.各组动物瘤内分别注射相应试药,测定肿瘤抑制率.结果 188Re + CS组和188Re-S + CS组肿瘤生长速度减慢,肿瘤生长延迟,肿瘤抑制率在治疗后6d最高,抑制率分别为67.35%和67.81%.结论 温敏型壳聚糖介入核素188Re内照射对小鼠肝癌(H22)具有一定的抑制作用.

  1. 188Re-ZHER2:V2, a promising targeting against HER2-expressing tumors: in vitro and in vivo assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Rhenium-188 (T1/2 =17 h) is a promising radionuclide for therapy applications. This generator-produced high energy beta-emitter is suitable for eradication of bulky non-operable tumors. Low abundance 155 KeV photons permit SPECT imaging of biodistribution of Rhenium-188 labeled targeting agents during therapy for personalized dosimetry. Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins with good tumor targeting properties and favorable kinetics. Optimization of the targeting properties of Technetium-99m and Rhenium-188 labeled anti-HER2 affibody molecules demonstrated that the variant with C-terminal glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-cysteine (-GGGC) chelating sequence (designated ZHER2:V2) has the best biodistribution profile in vivo and the lowest renal uptake of radioactivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate 188Re-ZHER2:V2 as a potential candidate for affibody-based radionuclide targeted therapy against HER2-expressing tumors. Methods: ZHER2:V2 was labeled with Rhenium-188 using gluconate-containing kit at pH 4.2. Binding specificity to HER2-expressing cells in vitro was evaluated. Targeting of HER2-over-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma xenografts in NMRI nu/nu female mice was studied for a preliminary dosimetry assessment. Results: The labeling method provided labeling yields over 95%. The release of free 188Re was negligible after incubation in serum. Binding of 188Re-ZHER2:V2 to living SKOV-3 cells was HER2-mediated (KD = 13 pM). The biodistribution study showed a rapid blood clearance (1.2±0.1 %IA/g at 1 h p.i.). Bone uptake was 1.2±0.1 %IA/g at 1 h p.i. and remained below 0.15 %IA/g after 4 h p.i. The tumor uptake was 11±3, 10±1, 4±2 and 1.6±0.5 %IA/g at 1, 4, 24 and 48 h p.i., respectively. Pre-saturation of HER2 in xenografts by a pre-injection of a large excess of non-labeled affibody molecules reduced tumor uptake to 2±0.1 %IA/g at 4 h p.i., suggesting receptor specificity of the targeting

  2. Investigation of plasma stealth excited by 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Plasma stealth is one of the most important branches of the electromagnetic stealth technology. β-ray could ionize the air and excite the plasma. Under certain conditions, the plasma has stealth effect to the radar wave. Purpose: The aim is mainly to investigate the plasma stealth excited by 90Sr/90Y. Methods: We calculated the density distribution of the plasma excited by 90Sr/90Y with different radioactivity through configuring the weighting factor based on the decay energy spectrum of 90Sr/90Y with the electron diffusion and recombination in the air taken into consideration, and obtained the reflectivity of the plasma that was excited by infinite metal plate coated with 90Sr/90Y to electromagnetic waves with different incident angles and frequencies using the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) method. Results: The reflectivity of the plasma with the radioactivity being 3.7x1010Bq·cm-2 and 3.7x1011Bq·cm-2 to the vertically incident electromagnetic wave of 1.5 GHz could reach -2.2 dB and -7.45 dB respectively. Conclusion: In the range of 1-100 GHz, the reflectivity increases monotonically with the frequency, while decreases monotonically with the increase of incident angle. The stealth effect of the plasma excited by 90Sr/90Y with a certain radioactivity is of significance. (authors)

  3. 90 Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan: a nearly forgotten opportunityr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Navarra, Michele; Mian, Michael

    2016-02-16

    Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y-IT) combines the benefits of a monoclonal antibody with the efficacy of radiation in the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a remarkably radiosensitive hematologic malignancy. 90Y-IT activity has been well established in the indolent setting, being approved in front-line treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients as well as salvage therapy. However, no advantage in OS was observed with respect to standard treatment. Promising data are available also for aggressive B-cell lymphoma. In particular, the addition of RIT to short-course first line chemotherapy enables reduction of chemotherapy while maintaining cure rates in elderly, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Furthermore, 90Y-IT improves response rate and outcomes of relapsed/refractory DLBCL patients, eligible and ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Clinical results have shown a role of 90Y-IT even in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). RIT might improve responses and treat minimal residual disease when used as consolidation after first-line chemotherapy in MCL. Moreover, 90Y-IT has demonstrated its efficacy in combination with high-dose chemotherapies as conditioning regimen for ASCT, with evidence suggesting the ability to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Herein, we review the available evidence for this approved drug and examine the recently published and ongoing trials for potential novel indication in aggressive B-cell NHL. PMID:26657116

  4. Affinity of hydroxyapatite by radionuclides parent/child in {sup 188}Re/{sup 188}W generator for radiotherapy; Afinidad de la hidroxiapatita por los radionuclidos padre/hijo en el generador {sup 188}Re/{sup 188}W para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera D, A. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Campus Universitario Siglo XXI, Ejido La Escondida, Carretera a Guadalajara Km. 6 (Mexico); Badillo A, V. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela 98068, Zacatecas (Mexico); Badillo A, V. E.; Monroy G, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: ana_carrera7@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    To assess the feasibility of using apatites as matrices of {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator is essential to obtain the distribution coefficients as much of parent radionuclide as child radionuclide in apatite, that is to say to know their affinity for the solid. It was selected the mineral species more representative as adsorbent, the hydroxyapatite Ca{sub 10} (PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} it is known for its great capacity of ions retention and by presenting a large affinity for anionic species in their surface. In this paper we use a synthetic hydroxyapatite marketed by Bio-Rad. This paper presents the preliminary results regarding the affinity of hydroxyapatite for the anionic species tungstates (WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and perrhenates (ReO{sub 4}{sup -} in EDTA, as background electrolyte expressed as distribution coefficients between two immiscible phases obtained with the help of radioactive tracers {sup 187}W and {sup 188}Re respectively. The retention measures of these ions, traces show that Bio-Gel hydroxyapatite presents moderate values of distribution coefficients for anionic species of W(Vi) in EDTA 0.01 mol/L that are in the range p H 5 to 6.5; the parent radionuclide of generator {sup 188}Re/{sup 188}W is fixed but not enough to consider it a good absorbent. By contrast, the fixation of perrhenate ions is virtually wiped as may be easily removed from a hydroxyapatite column packed with a saline solution. The influence of this saline solution in the removal of perrhenate ions is null practically. (Author)

  5. Calculus of spatial distribution of absorbed dose to cellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a radio-labelled peptide with {sup 188}Re and with nuclear internalization : preliminary results; Calculo de la distribucion espacial de dosis absorbida a nivel celular por simulacion Monte Carlo para un peptido radiomarcado con {sup 188}Re y con internalizacion nuclear : resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The {sup 188}Re is a radionuclide of radiation gamma emitter, useful in obtaining of gamma-graphic images, but it is also emitter of beta radiations and Auger electrons. A bio-molecule directed to a specific receptor of a cancer cell labeled with a emitter radionuclide of beta particles and Auger electrons, as the {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin, it has the potential to be used in radiotherapy of molecular targets for its capacity to penetrate to cellular nucleus. In this system, the radiation dose is distributed in way located at microscopic levels in sub cellular specific places, where Auger emissions contributes of significant way in absorbed dose. The cellular dosimetry is realized in most of cases, using analytic or semi analytical methods, for example the cellular MIRD methodology. However, it is required to complement these calculations simulating the electrons transport and considering experimental bio kinetics data. Therefore, in this work preliminary results are presented of dosimetric calculation to sub cellular level for {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bombesin by Monte Carlo simulation, using the 2008 version of PENELOPE: PENEASY code. The spatial distribution of absorbed dose in membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, was calculated with geometry of a cell of 10 {mu}m of diameter, a nucleus of 2 {mu}m of ratio and membrane of 0.2 {mu}m of thickness, considering elementary constitution for each cellular compartment proposal in literature. The total number of disintegrations at sub cellular level was evaluated integrating the activity in function of time starting from experimental bio kinetics data in mamma cancer cells MDA-MB231. The preliminary results show that 46.4% of total disintegrations for unit of captured activity by cell occurs in nucleus, 38.4% in membrane and 15.2% in cytoplasm. The due absorbed dose to Auger electrons for 1 Bq of {sup 188}Re located in cellular membrane were respectively of 1.32E-1 and 1.43E-1 Gy in cytoplasm and nucleus. (Author)

  6. Calibration of dermatological applicators of 90 Sr+90 Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90 Sr+90 Y dermatological applicators are widely used in the treatment of skin lesions. Despite calibrated by the manufacturers, these sources must be re-calibrated periodically by standard laboratories. Articles published by different authors show the discrepancies between manufacturers and standard laboratories calibrations of 90 Sr+90 Y applicators. Ionization chambers with variable volume, named extrapolation chambers, are utilized for the calibration of such sources. An extrapolation chamber was developed at IPEN for the calibration of 90 Sr+90 Y dermatological applicators. This chamber shows a good performance in the detection of beta particles. The aim of this work is to establish and to apply a routine calibration procedure to a dermatological applicator, based on former work developed in this institution. (author)

  7. Preparation & in vitro evaluation of 90 Y-DOTA-rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Kameswaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Radioimmunotherapy is extensively being used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL. Use of rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody directed against the CD20 antigen in combination with suitable beta emitters is expected to result in good treatment response by its cross-fire and bystander effects. The present work involves the conjugation of p-isothiocyanatobenzyl DOTA (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA to rituximab, its radiolabelling with [90] Y and in vitro and in vivo evaluation to determine its potential as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Methods: Rituximab was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA at 1:1 antibody: DOTA molar ratio. The number of DOTA molecules linked to one molecule of rituximab was determined by radioassay and spectroscopic assay. Radiolabelling of rituximab with 90 Y was carried out and its in vitro stability was evaluated. In vitro cell binding studies were carried out in Raji cells expressing CD20 antigen. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal Swiss mice. Results: Using both radioassay and spectroscopic method, it was determined that about five molecules of DOTA were linked to rituximab. Radiolabelling of the rituximab conjugate with [90] Y and subsequent purification on PD-10 column gave a product with radiochemical purity (RCP > 98 per cent which was retained at > 90 per cent up to 72 h when stored at 37°C. In vitro cell binding experiments of 90 Y-DOTA-rituximab with Raji cells exhibited specific binding of 20.7 ± 0.1 per cent with [90] Y-DOTA-rituximab which reduced to 15.5 ± 0.2 per cent when incubated with cold rituximab. The equilibrium constant K d for 90 Y-DOTA-Rituximab was determined to be 3.38 nM. Radiolabelled antibody showed clearance via hepatobiliary and renal routes and activity in tibia was found to be quite low indicating in vivo stability of [90] Y-DOTA-rituximab. Interpretation & conclusions: p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was conjugated with rituximab and radiolabelling with 90 Y was

  8. 90 Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan: a nearly forgotten opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mondello, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Navarra, Michele; Mian, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y-IT) combines the benefits of a monoclonal antibody with the efficacy of radiation in the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a remarkably radiosensitive hematologic malignancy. 90Y-IT activity has been well established in the indolent setting, being approved in front-line treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients as well as salvage therapy. However, no advantage in OS was observed with respect to standard treatment. Promising data are available als...

  9. Reduction of skeletal accumulation of radioactivity by co-injection of DTPA in [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide solutions containing free 90Y3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy is nowadays being performed with radiolabeled DOTA-conjugated peptides, such as [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide (also known as OctreoTher[reg ] or 90Y-DOTATOC). The incorporation of 90Y3+ is typically ≥99%, however, since a total patient dose can be as high as 26 GBq or 700 mCi the amount of free 90Y3+ (=non-DOTA-incorporated) can be substantial. Free 90Y3+ accumulates in bone with undesired radiation of bone marrow as a consequence. 90Y-DTPA is excreted rapidly via the kidneys. Incorporation of free 90Y3+ into 90Y-DTPA might prevent this fraction from being accumulated into bone, therefore we have investigated: the biodistribution in rats of 90YCl3, [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide, and 90Y-DTPA; possibilities to complex 10% of free 90Y3+ in a [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide containing solution into 90Y-DTPA prior to intravenous injection; and effects of 10% free 90Y3+ in [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide solution, in the presence and in the absence of excess DTPA, on the biodistribution of in rats. The following results are presented: 90YCl3 showed high skeletal uptake (i.e., 1% ID (injected dose) per gram femur, with main localization in the epiphyseal plates) and a 24 h total body retention of 74% ID; 90Y-DTPA had rapid renal clearance, and 24 h total body retention of 90Y3+ in [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide solution could rapidly be incorporated into 90Y-DTPA at room temperature; and accumulation of 90Y3+ in femur, blood, and liver was related to the amount of free 90Y3+, whereas these accumulations could be prevented by the addition of DTPA. In conclusion, the addition of excess DTPA to [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide with incomplete 90Y-incorporation is recommended

  10. SNO+ scintillator cocktail studies using an ${}^{90}$Y source

    CERN Document Server

    Arushanova, Evelina

    2016-01-01

    We present the design of ${}^{90}$Y calibration source and its manufacturing procedure, that has been implemented in the University of Sussex radioactive laboratory. The radioactive source was first tested at the University of Sussex using a small scintillator cocktail sample. Further measurements were performed at the University of Pennsylvania using a larger volume of the scintillator cocktail. The results of both studies are presented and discussed.

  11. Preparation & in vitro evaluation of 90Y-DOTA-rituximab

    OpenAIRE

    Mythili Kameswaran; Usha Pandey; Ashutosh Dash; Grace Samuel; Meera Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Radioimmunotherapy is extensively being used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL). Use of rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody directed against the CD20 antigen in combination with suitable beta emitters is expected to result in good treatment response by its cross-fire and bystander effects. The present work involves the conjugation of p-isothiocyanatobenzyl DOTA (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA) to rituximab, its radiolabelling with [90] Y and in vitro and in vivo ev...

  12. Imaging targeted at tumor with {sup 188}Re-labeled VEGF{sub 189} exon 6-encoded peptide and effects of the transfecting truncated KDR gene in tumor-bearing nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Zhexue; Li Qianwei; Liu Guangyuan; Luo Chaoxue; Xie Ganfeng; Zheng Lei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Huang Dingde [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)], E-mail: huangdde@tmmu.edu.cn

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: Planar imaging of {sup 188}Re-labeled vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF){sub 189} exon 6-encoded peptide (QKRKRKKSRYKS) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in tumor-bearing nude mice and effects of the transfecting truncated KDR gene on its imaging were investigated, so as to provide a basis for further applying the peptide to tumor-targeted radionuclide treatment. Methods: QKRKRKKSRYKS, coupling with mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) chelator was labeled with {sup 188}Re; then in vivo distribution, planar imaging with SPECT and blocking experiment in tumor-bearing nude mice were analyzed. Recombinant adenovirus vectors carrying the truncated KDR gene were constructed to transfect tumor tissues to evaluate the effects of truncated KDR on the in vivo distribution and tumor planar imaging of {sup 188}Re-MAG{sub 3}-QKRKRKKSRYKS in tumor-bearing nude mice. Results: The labeled peptide exhibited a sound receptor binding activity. Planar imaging with SPECT demonstrated significant radioactivity accumulation in tumor 1 h after injection of the labeled peptide and disappearance of radioactivity 3 h later. Significant radioactivity accumulation was also observed in the liver, intestines and kidneys but was not obvious in other tissues. An hour after injection of the labeled peptide, the percentage of the injected radioactive dose per gram (%ID/g) of tumor and tumor/contralateral muscle tissues ratio were 1.98{+-}0.38 and 2.53{+-}0.33, respectively, and increased to 3.08{+-}0.84 and 3.61{+-}0.59 in the group transfected with the truncated KDR gene, respectively, and radioactivity accumulation in tumor with planar imaging also increased significantly in the transfection group. Conclusion: {sup 188}Re-MAG{sub 3}-QKRKRKKSRYKS can accumulate in tumor tissues, which could be increased by the transfection of truncated KDR gene. This study provides a basis for further applying the peptide to tumor targeted radionuclide imaging and

  13. Development of [90Y]DOTA-conjugated bisphosphonate for treatment of painful bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Based on the concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals, we have previously developed 186Re-complex-conjugated bisphosphonate analogs for palliation of painful bone metastases and have demonstrated the utility of these compounds. By applying a similar concept, we hypothesized that a bone-specific directed 90Y-labeled radiopharmaceutical could be developed. Methods: In this study, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was chosen as the chelating site, and DOTA was conjugated with 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate. [90Y]DOTA-complex-conjugated bisphosphonate ([90Y]DOTA-HBP) was prepared by coordination with 90Y, and its biodistribution was studied in comparison to [90Y]citrate. Results: In biodistribution experiments, [90Y]DOTA-HBP and [90Y]citrate rapidly accumulated and resided in the bone. Although [90Y]citrate showed a higher level of accumulation in the bone than [90Y]DOTA-HBP, the clearances of [90Y]DOTA-HBP from the blood and from almost all soft tissues were much faster than those of [90Y]citrate. As a result, the estimated absorbed dose ratios of soft tissues to osteogenic cells (target organ) of [90Y]DOTA-HBP were lower than those of [90Y]citrate. Conclusions: [90Y]DOTA-HBP showed superior biodistribution characteristics as a bone-seeking agent and led to a decrease in the level of unnecessary radiation compared to [90Y]citrate. Since the DOTA ligand forms a stable complex not only with 90Y but also with lutetium (177Lu), indium (111In), gallium (67/68Ga), gadolinium (Gd) and so on, complexes of DOTA-conjugated bisphosphonate with various metals could be useful as agents for palliation of metastatic bone pain, bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging

  14. 放射性核素188Re诱导人乳腺癌ER-75-30细胞的凋亡%Apoptosis of human breast cancer cell induced by radionuclide 188Re

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹保民; 段小艺; 胡国瑛

    2002-01-01

    目的研究放射性核素188铼(188Re)诱导乳腺癌 ER-75-30细胞凋亡及其与bcl-2和bax基因表达的关系. 方法应用光镜、电镜、流式细胞仪和免疫组化方法检测不同浓度 188Re作用于体外培养的乳腺癌ER-75-30细胞后,诱导细胞凋亡及bcl-2和bax基因表达情况。结果188Re以诱导乳腺癌ER-75-30细胞发生凋亡形态学变化,并且随着188Re浓度增大,凋谢亡率增加,bcl-2表达减弱,bax表达增强。结论188Re能诱导乳腺癌ER-75-30细胞凋谢亡且具有剂量和周期依赖性,bcl-2和bax基因在188Re诱导的细胞凋亡过程中具有重要作用。%AIM To study apoptosis of human breast cancer ER-75-30 cell induced by 188Re and expression of bcl-2 gene and bax gene. METHODS Light microscope, transmissional electron microscope, flow cytometer and immunohistochemical method were used to observed ER-75-30 cells apoptosis after expose to 188Re of different doses and expressing of bcl-2 and bax. RESULTS 188Re can induced ER-75-30 cell producing typical morphologic changes of apoptosis and with the rise of radiation dose, cell apoptosis rate increased, bcl-2 gene decreased and bax gene was enhanced. Cells were blocked in G2/M period. CONCLUSION Radionuclide 188Re can induce tumor cell apoptosis. This effect takes on dose-effect relation and cellcycle dependent. bcl-2 and bax gene play import part in the course.

  15. Calibration of two 90Sr+90Y dermatological applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 90Sr+90Y applicators need to be periodically calibrated, but in Brazil the service it not offered yet. The recommended method for the calibration of this kind of applicators is the use of extrapolation chambers. An alternative method for the calibration of clinical applicators is the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters. A dosimetric method of these applicators was already developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) and several types of thermoluminescent dosimeters were studied in previous works. The aim of this work was the application of this method to calibrate two dermatological applicators. Thin CaSO4:Dy pellets, with and without 10% of graphite were utilized. The reproducibility of these pellets was studied, and calibration curves were obtained using a standard applicator calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. Both applicators showed similar results. The TL materials tested showed usefulness for dosimetry and calibration of this kind of applicators. (author)

  16. Radiochemistry, pre-clinical studies and first clinical investigation of 90Y-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) particles prepared utilizing 90Y produced by (n,γ) route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The scope of using no carrier added (NCA) 90Y [T1/2 = 64.1 h, Eβ(max) = 2.28 MeV] obtained from 90Sr/90Y generator in radiation synovectomy (RSV) is widely accepted. In the present study, the prospect of using 90Y produced by (n,γ) route in a medium flux research reactor for use in RSV was explored. Methods: Yttrium-90 was produced by thermal neutron irradiation of Y2O3 target at a neutron flux of ~ 1 × 1014 n/cm2.s for 14 d. The influence of various experimental parameters were systematically investigated and optimized to arrive at the most favorable conditions for the formulation of 90Y labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) using HA particles of 1–10 μm size range. An optimized kit formulation strategy was developed for convenient one-step compounding of 90Y-HA, which is easily adaptable at hospital radiopharmacy. The pre-clinical biological evaluation of 90Y-HA particles was studied by carrying out biodistribution and bioluminiscence imaging studies in Wistar rats. The first clinical investigation using the radiolabeled preparation was performed on a patient suffering from chronic arthritis in knee joint by administering 185 MBq 90Y-HA formulated at the hospital radiopharmacy deploying the proposed strategy. Results: Yttrium-90 was produced with a specific activity of 851 ± 111 MBq/mg and radionuclidic purity of 99.95 ± 0.02%. 90Y-labeled HA particles (185 ± 10 MBq doses) were formulated in high radiochemical purity (> 99%) and excellent in vitro stability. The preparation showed promising results in pre-clinical studies carried out in Wistar rats. The preliminary results of the first clinical investigation of 90Y-HA preparation in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis in knee joints demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation prepared using 90Y produced via (n,γ) route in the management of the disease. Conclusion: The studies revealed that effective utilization of 90Y produced via (n,γ) route in a medium flux research reactor coupled with the

  17. Liver radioembolization with {sup 90}Y microspheres. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. de Radiologia; Reiser, Maximilian F. (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2014-07-01

    New, up-to-date edition of the only book devoted specifically to the subject. Key basic information on how to use the procedure successfully in clinical practice. Detailed information on candidate selection, vascular anatomy, dosimetry, and treatment evaluation. Thorough summary of published results. This is the second edition of a very well received book devoted specifically to the treatment of liver tumors by radioembolization with {sup 90}Y microspheres. The success of the first edition was based on the provision of all the fundamental information required for successful use of this therapeutic modality in clinical practice. The new edition has been fully updated to cover the most recent advances and includes additional chapters on regulations and emerging trends. Detailed information is provided on the full range of relevant topics, including hepatic vascular anatomy (including variants), dosimetry, assessment of tumor response, and the results achieved using radioembolization alone and in combination with other treatments in patients with primary or metastatic disease. Complications and side-effects are also fully discussed. This book will prove immensely valuable for both beginners and practitioners.

  18. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ''milked'' from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country

  19. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ``milked`` from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country.

  20. Therapy with {sup 90}Y microspheres: radiation protection in new medical therapies; Terapia con microesferas de {sup 90}Y: proteccion radiologica en nuevas terapias medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Ana; Puerta, Nancy, E-mail: arojo@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the most frequent in the world and with a low cure rate. Radioembolization using 90y spheres is a promising treatment of this pathology and involves the percutaneous vascular application of radioisotope-labeled the order of Micron size particles. The advantages of this technique include the permit administered high doses of radiation to small volumes with low relative toxicity, offer the possibility of treating all the liver including microscopic tumors, and finally, the feasibility of combined with other therapies. Radiation protection in new medical therapies requires justification and optimization, as requirements for their implementation. The application of the principle of optimization in the context of the protection of the patient must be the minimum that it can be reasonably reached compatible with the required doses of treatment dose to healthy tissue. With {sup 90}Y microspheres therapy this optimization applies to the activity of 90y which is administered to the patient, and estimation methods are postulated. in this work are analyzed comparatively these methods, described the early physicists, equations and the limitations of each. Finally, it is concluded that the optimal method to be implemented for the evaluation of the activity of {sup 90}Y manage must be based in a voxel dosimetric model specific for each patient, however, the partitional method may be a good alternative if you don't have the tools to apply the method.

  1. Enrichment and determination of small amounts of 90Sr/90Y in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small amounts of 90Sr/90Y can be concentrated from large volumes of surface water (100 l) by precipitation of the phosphates, using bentonite as adsorber matrix. In the case of samples containing no or nearly no suspended matter (tap water, ground water, sea water), the daughter 90Y can be extracted directly by using filter beds impregnated with HDEHP. The applicability of both techniques is demonstrated under realistic conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO

  2. An adapted purification procedure to improve the quality of {sup 90}Y for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiques Castillo, A.; Olive, K. Isaac; Casanova Gonzalez, E.; Beckford, D.; Leyva Montana, R.; Olive Alvare, E. [Centro dc Isotopos (CENTIS), La Habana (Cuba); Montero Alvarez, A. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-07-01

    There is an increasing interest for {sup 90}Y for radionuclide therapy. However, radioimmunotherapy, one of the most important applications for {sup 90}Y, demands a very high purity product. Obtaining a high quality {sup 90}Y is difficult not only because of the complex and time consuming production schemes but also because of the quality control which has challenging tasks like the determination of {sup 90}Sr at very low concentrations. The present paper investigates a reported purification procedure for the removal of stable metal trace contaminants from an {sup 90}Y solution, seeking for its potential use in the elimination of the radioactive contaminant {sup 90}Sr and its fast determination. For this purpose a washing step with HNO{sub 3} acid is introduced to elute {sup 90}Sr, the order of each acid solution is rearranged to reduce the potential contaminants present in acids and the size of the column is reduced to further optimize the procedure. As a result, an improved purification method is obtained, which allows the removal of both trace metal contaminants and {sup 90}Sr from an {sup 90}Y solution and the measurement of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y ratios of the order of 10{sup -7}, which are well below the established pharmacopeia limit of 2 x 10{sup -5}. (orig.)

  3. Standardization of 90Sr+ 90Y by Means of a Chemical Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation of strontium in a 90Sr + 90Y solution by fuming nitric acid offers an opportunity of preparing sources in which, at first, one of the two activities is much weaker than the other. If the initially weaker activity is known, the other can be calculated from the count rates measured at two suitably chosen times. A procedure is developed which quantitatively connects the specific activity of the mother solution with that of the solution dispensed onto the source mounts. The main difficulty is encountered in determining the initial 90Y activity of the 90Sr-enriched sources. Since a high degree of separation can hardly be achieved in a single precipitation, the 90Y content of the supernate has to be determined as well. If the 90Y is distributed uniformly after the precipitation, the corresponding 90Y activity retained by the precipitate can be calculated easily. Yet the 90Y concentration sometimes deviated significantly from uniformity. A way of partially circumventing this difficulty is pointed out. Exact formulae are derived expressing the activities in terms of the count rates observed at different times. A full account of the various sources of error is given; the spread of the results obtained is compatible with that expected. The specific activity of the mother solution is calculated with 15 sources prepared from four independent precipitations. The mother solution had already been calibrated by 24 laboratories taking part in an international comparison organized by the Bipm in 1964. The agreement is well within the limits of error. Although the separation method described here is too laborious to be used in routine work, it merits some attention as an independent method of standardizing a pure β-emitter by β-counting alone, without using any extrapolation. The accuracy reached compares favourably with that of currently used methods. The separation method may be superior to others when a 90Sr + 90Y solution with a high carrier content is to be

  4. {sup 90}Y-oxine-ethiodol, a potential radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Junfeng; Haefeli, U.O. E-mail: hafeliu@ccf.org; Sands, Mark; Dong Yonghua

    2003-05-01

    Ethiodol (or lipiodol) is selectively retained in hepatocellular carcinoma and is used as a vehicle to deliver radioactive agents following intraarterial hepatic infusion. We prepared the lipophilic complex {sup 90}Y-oxine with a radiolabeling efficiency of 97.6{+-}1.1%. After extraction into ethiodol, a stability test in serum at 37 deg. C showed that 87.8% of the {sup 90}Y remained ethiodol-bound for 7 days. Bremsstrahlung imaging of a rabbit for 48 h confirmed that the homogeneous mixture of radiolabeled {sup 90}Y-oxine and ethiodol stayed in the targeted liver lobe. This radiopharmaceutical is thus a potential candidate for the treatment of non-resectable liver cancer.

  5. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Sr+90Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: • 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. • An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. • The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. • All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%

  6. Portable {sup 90}SR/{sup 90}Y prostatic hyperplasia applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Shanyu; Tang, Kejian; Zhou, Changling [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Zhi [Zhelimumen Hospital (China)

    1998-07-01

    In order to seek a new method of curing the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), two different kinds of {sup 9} {sup 0}Sr/9{sup 0}Y intracavity applicators, including a 'urethra-type' and a 'rectum-type', have been developed in China since 1991. The structural design and radiation characteristics of the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y prostatic hyperplasia applicator are given in this paper. The hypertrophic prostate gland can be irradiated through the wall of the urethra or rectum by {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta rays and small quantity of bremsstrahlung radiation from the applicator. Clinical tests indicate that the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y prostatic hyperplasia applicators provide a safe, effective, non-invasive and economical therapeutic method for BPH. It is especially applicable for old and high-risk patients. (author)

  7. Modeling of biodistribution of 90 Y-DOTA-hR3 by using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the biodistribution of radioimmunoconjugate 90Y-DOTA-hR3 was modeled by using an artificial neural network. In vivo stability of 90Y-DOTA-hR3 was determined in healthy male Wistar rats at 4, 24 and 48 hours, in different organs. A model describing the relationship between, by one hand, the incorporated dose and, by the other hand, organ and time was developed by using a multilayer perceptron neural network. Adjusted model was analyzed by several statistical tests. Outcomes shown that proposed neural model describes the relationship between the studied variables in a proper way. (Author)

  8. The somatostatin receptor-targeted radiotherapeutic [90Y-DOTA-dPhe1,Tyr3]octreotide (90Y-SMT 487) eradicates experimental rat pancreatic CA 20948 tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours are potential targets for therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. We have synthesized a number of such analogues in the past and identified [DOTA-dPhe1, Tyr3]octreotide (SMT 487) as the most promising candidate molecule because of its advantageous properties in cellular and in vivo tumour models. In the current paper we describe the radiotherapeutic effect of yttrium-90 labelled SMT 487 in Lewis rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic tumour CA 20948. SMT 487 binds with nanomolar affinity to both the human and the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) (human sst2 IC50=0.9 nM, rat sst2 IC50=0.5 nM). In vivo, 90Y-SMT 487 distributed rapidly to the sst2 expressing CA 20948 rat pancreatic tumour, with a tumour-to-blood ratio of 49.15 at 24 h post injection. A single intravenous administration of 10 mCi/kg 90Y-SMT 487 resulted in a complete remission of the tumours in five out of seven CA 20948 tumour-bearing Lewis rats. No regrowth of the tumours occurred 8 months post injection. Control animals that were treated with 30 μg/kg of unlabelled SMT 487 had to be sacrificed 10 days post injection due to excessive growth or necrotic areas on the tumour surface. Upon re-inoculation of tumour cells into those rats that had shown complete remission, the tumours disappeared after 3-4 weeks of moderate growth without any further treatment. The present study shows for the first time the curative potential of 90Y-SMT 487-based radiotherapy for somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours. Clinical phase I studies with yttrium-labelled SMT 487 have started in September 1997. (orig.)

  9. Surface dose rate measurement of 90Sr/90Y ophthalmic applicator: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removable ophthalmic plaques are used in treatment of malignant melanoma of the uvea, post-operative irradiation in treatment of pterygium and other superficial lesions. 90Sr/90Y ophthalmic applicator uses 90Y(T1/2 64 hours) present in secular equilibrium with its parent 90Sr(T1/2 = 28 years). Filters (AI, Stainless Steel) in the front surface flatten the energy spectrum, absorb most of the low energy beta particles from 90Sr (0.54 MeV) and also permits the high-energy beta from 90Y (2.27 MeV) to enter the eye. Different methods have been used to quantify surface dose rate of ophthalmic applicators. Surface dose rate representing the applicator characteristic allows a convenient way for evaluation and correlation of results using different procedures. Experiments were performed to measure the surface dose rate of 90Sr/90Y planar ophthalmic applicator (Tracerlab, U.S.A.) by the reference method using extrapolation chamber and the GAFChromic MD-55 films

  10. Synthesis and biological property evaluation of 90Y radiolabeled glycosylated somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural somatostatin (SMS), dextran-70 (Dx70) and a bifunctional chelator 2-methyl-6-(p-amidobenzyl) -diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA) were used to synthesize a novel somatostatin-dextran-DTPA (SMS-Dx70-DTPA) conjugate and radiolabeled with 9OY. An in vitro somatostatin receptor competition binding study was carded out by using 125I-Tyr3-Octreotide as a radioligand to measure the IC50 value of SMS-Dx70-DTPA. Biodistribution and blood half-life of 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS were investigated in normal rats. The results show that SMS-Dx70-DTPA has a high receptor binding affinity to somatostatin receptor subtype 2, with the IC50 value being in the same range as somatostatin. The blood half-life of 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS in normal rats was 6.39h post-injection. Digestion and excretion of 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS was mainly through the hepatobiliary and kidney systems. Increased uptake was seen in the adrenals and pancreas, and it kept almost constant during 24h. Therefore 90Y-DTPA-Dx70-SMS has targeting properties towards somatostatin receptor positive organs and it may become a promising therapeutic agent candidate for somatostatin receptor positive tumors. (authors)

  11. Change in total lesion glycolysis and clinical outcome after 90Y radioembolization in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Our aim was to assess the prognostic value of post-treatment decrease in total lesion glycolysis (ΔTLG) assessed by 2-[18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18 F] FDG) PET-CT performed 6 weeks after 90Y radioembolization (90Y RE) in patients affected by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Methods: A total of 18 patients were accepted into our department for 90Y RE. Before the procedure, all patients underwent [18 F] FDG PET-CT, and total lesion glycolysis was calculated. Six weeks after 90Y administration, PET scan was performed, and ΔTLG was determined. Patients underwent follow up by imaging and laboratory at quarterly intervals until death or for at least 24 months from 90Y RE. Furthermore, subjects were divided in 2 groups (group 1: 6 weeks ΔTLG > 50%, group 2: ΔTLG < 50%). Kaplan–Meier method was used to achieve time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) curves for each group. TTP and OS curves were compared to demonstrate eventual relevant differences between the 2 groups. Results: Seventeen patients underwent 90Y RE, and one subject was considered ineligible. According to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors, partial response was found in 14 patients (82.4%), stable disease in 3 (17.6%). No patient showed complete metabolic response. The mean OS for all patients was 64.5 ± 5.0 weeks. Subjects with a ΔTLG > 50% and ΔTLG < 50% had a mean OS of 79.6 ± 3.6 and 43.1 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively (p < 0.001). TTP resulted of 28.9 ± 3.8 weeks for the whole cohort. Patients with ΔTLG > 50% had a significantly longer TTP (mean 36.9 ± 3.6 weeks) than those with ΔTLG < 50% (mean 13.7 ± 1.7 weeks, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicate that 90Y RE can be an effective and safe therapy for ICC. ΔTLG calculated on post-treatment [18 F] FDG PET-CT agrees with patients' final outcome

  12. MO-G-17A-06: Kernel Based Dosimetry for 90Y Microsphere Liver Therapy Using 90Y Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikell, J; Siman, W; Kappadath, S [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mahvash, A [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mourtada, F [Christiana Care Hospital, Newark, DE (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: 90Y microsphere therapy in liver presents a situation where beta transport is dominant and the tissue is relatively homogenous. We compare voxel-based absorbed doses from a 90Y kernel to Monte Carlo (MC) using quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT as source distribution. Methods: Liver, normal liver, and tumors were delineated by an interventional radiologist using contrast-enhanced CT registered with 90Y SPECT/CT scans for 14 therapies. Right lung was segmented via region growing. The kernel was generated with 1.04 g/cc soft tissue for 4.8 mm voxel matching the SPECT. MC simulation materials included air, lung, soft tissue, and bone with varying densities. We report percent difference between kernel and MC (%Δ(K,MC)) for mean absorbed dose, D70, and V20Gy in total liver, normal liver, tumors, and right lung. We also report %Δ(K,MC) for heterogeneity metrics: coefficient of variation (COV) and D10/D90. The impact of spatial resolution (0, 10, 20 mm FWHM) and lung shunt fraction (LSF) (1,5,10,20%) on the accuracy of MC and kernel doses near the liver-lung interface was modeled in 1D. We report the distance from the interface where errors become <10% of unblurred MC as d10(side of interface, dose calculation, FWHM blurring, LSF). Results: The %Δ(K,MC) for mean, D70, and V20Gy in tumor and liver was <7% while right lung differences varied from 60–90%. The %Δ(K,MC) for COV was <4.8% for tumor and liver and <54% for the right lung. The %Δ(K,MC) for D10/D90 was <5% for 22/23 tumors. d10(liver,MC,10,1–20) awere <9mm and d10(liver,MC,20,1–20) awere <15mm; both agreed within 3mm to the kernel. d10(lung,MC,10,20), d10(lung,MC,10,1), d10(lung,MC,20,20), and d10(lung,MC,20,1) awere 6, 25, 15, and 34mm, respectively. Kernel calculations on blurred distributions in lung had errors > 10%. Conclusions: Liver and tumor voxel doses with 90Y kernel and MC agree within 7%. Large differences exist between the two methods in right lung. Research reported in this

  13. Some preliminary results on labelling of 1-hydroxyethylene-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) with 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest for radiopharmaceuticals for direct management of serious illness and specially cancer and rheumatism has increased during the last decade. Such radioisotopes as 89Sr, 186Re, 153Sm, 90Y and 166Ho are now used routinely in the practice of medical clinics. The tendency is to concentrate the studies in designing radioparmaceuticals that fulfill these important requirements: a) realize a high absorbing dose in malign cells in the shortest time and b) not damage the healthy cells. Radioisotopes that emit α and β particles generally fulfill these requests. 90Y is one of the radioisotopes of the choice. 90Y has a LET useful for therapy. Eβmax = 2.3 MeV, T1/2=64.1 h with no gamma emissions. 90Y is produced from the homemade 90Sr-90Y generator. 90Sr was fixed in Aminex-5 ion-exchange resin of Bio-Rad Company. The 90Sr-90Y generator consist of three chromatographic columns, the first was loaded 90Sr, the second is for safety reason, with aim to fix breakthrough of 90Sr from first column and the third column transforming 90Y from organic complex form (α-hydroxyisobutyrate) in inorganic (cationic) form. The solution of 90Y produced is of high purity and useful for labeling sensitive molecules. This 90Y solution is used for labeling 1-hydroxyethylenediphosphonic acid (HEDPA). The structural formula of HEDPA is given. Following reaction home makes HEDPA: PCl3 + CH3COOH → HEDPA The aim of the work was to study the conditions of labeling, investigate yield of labeling, and the stability of constitute complex. 1. Initially the capability of complexion of HEDPA with 90Y was studied. For this purpose it is used HPLC method to check formation of HEDPA-Y complex. It is mixed 1 ml of HEDPA solution (concentration 1mg/ml) with 0.1 ml solution of YCl3 at pH∼5 (concentration 0.1mg/ml). It is compared RT of pure HEDPA with potentially formed complex. The reaction mixture has been studied by using HPLC system of KNUER Company and NucleosilmC18 5μm, as a column. As elute

  14. Using Cherenkov Counting For Fast Determination of 90Sr/90Y Activity in Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Sr is one of the main long-lived fission products, and it is transferred into human body primarily by food, with milk being a substantial contributor. Due to its biochemical similarity to calcium, most strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissues. 90Sr is characterized by a long physical half life (28.8 y) and decays by beta particles with an Emax of 0.546 MeV to 90Y. This daughter isotope has a half life of 64 h and decays into 90Zr by beta particles with an Emax of 2.284 MeV. The milk components produce a high turbidity and light attenuation, causing a significant decrease of the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) systems, mostly used for beta emitters detection. Most methods proposed in the past are time-consuming, as they are based on several stages of chemical and physical treatments, including precipitation, ashing, ion exchange and extraction (Wikins et al., 1984, Porter et al, 1961, Kimura et al., 1979). When measuring 90Sr/90Y activity by Cherenkov counting, most of the Cherenkov radiation is produced by 90Y (about 98.6%), due to the much higher energy of its beta particles relative to these from 90Sr. The counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, at a greater extent than in standard liquid scintillation counting (L'Annunziata, 2012), and therefore the quench correction is critical. The ‘‘external source area ratio’’ (ESAR) quench correction method was applied to measure 90Sr/90Y activities in aqueous samples with a wide range of quenching levels (Tsroya et al., 2009). This method was proved to be superior to all other quench correction methods (Tsroya et al., 2012) and is applicable also for determination of 90Sr/90Y in human urine (Tsroya et al., 2013). In the present work the applicability of the ESAR method to measurement of 90Sr/90Y activities in milk and some of its products was investigated

  15. Disproof of solar influence on the decay rates of 90Sr/90 Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossert, Karsten; Nähle, Ole J.

    2015-09-01

    A custom-built liquid scintillation counter was used for long-term measurements of 90Sr/90 Y sources. The detector system is equipped with an automated sample changer and three photomultiplier tubes, which makes the application of the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method possible. After decay correction, the measured decay rates were found to be stable and no annual oscillation could be observed. Thus, the findings of this work are in strong contradiction to those of Parkhomov (2011) who reported on annual oscillations when measuring 90Sr/90 Y with a Geiger-Müller counter. Sturrock et al. (2012) carried out a more detailed analysis of the experimental data from Parkhomov and claimed to have found correlations between the decay rates and processes inside the Sun. These findings are questionable, since they are based on inappropriate experimental data as is demonstrated in this work. A frequency analysis of our activity data does not show any significant periodicity.

  16. Disproof of solar influence on the decay rates of 90Sr/90Y

    CERN Document Server

    Kossert, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    A custom-built liquid scintillation counter was used for long-term measurements of 90Sr/90Y sources. The detector system is equipped with an automated sample changer and three photomultiplier tubes, which makes the application of the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method possible. After decay correction, the measured decay rates were found to be stable and no annual oscillation could be observed. Thus, the findings of this work are in strong contradiction to those of Parkhomov [1] who reported on annual oscillations when measuring 90Sr/90Y with a Geiger-M\\"uller counter. Sturrock et al. [2] carried out a more detailed analysis of the experimental data from Parkhomov and claimed to have found correlations between the decay rates and processes inside the Sun. These findings are questionable, since they are based on inappropriate experimental data as is demonstrated in this work. A frequency analysis of our activity data does not show any significant periodicity.

  17. (90) Y/(177) Lu-labelled Cetuximab immunoconjugates: radiochemistry optimization to clinical dose formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Nair, K V Vimalnath; Rajeswari, Ardhi; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are increasingly being utilized in cancer theranostics, which is a significant move toward tailored treatment for individual patients. Cetuximab is a recombinant, human-mouse chimeric IgG1 mAb that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity. We have optimized a protocol for formulation of clinically relevant doses (~2.22 GBq) of (90) Y-labelled Cetuximab and (177) Lu-labelled Cetuximab by conjugation of the mAb with a suitable bifunctional chelator, N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(paraisothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″-DTPA). The radioimmunoconjugates demonstrated reasonably high specific activity (1.26 ± 0.27 GBq/mg for (90) Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab and 1.14 ± 0.15 GBq/mg for (177) Lu-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab), high radiochemical purity (>95%) and appreciable in vitro stability under physiological conditions. Preliminary biodistribution studies with both (90) Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab and (177) Lu-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumours demonstrated significant tumour uptake at 24-h post-injection (p.i.) (~16%ID/g) with good tumour-to-background contrast. The results of the biodistribution studies were further corroborated by ex vivo Cerenkov luminescence imaging after administration of (90) Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab in tumour-bearing mice. The tumour uptake at 24 h p.i. was significantly reduced with excess unlabelled Cetuximab, suggesting that the uptake was receptor mediated. The results of this study hold promise, and this strategy should be further explored for clinical translation. PMID:27264196

  18. Receptor-mediated radiotherapy with 90Y-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed somatostatin radioligand, DOTA-[D-Phe1-Tyr3]-octreotide (DOTATOC), has been synthesised for therapeutic purposes, because of its stable and easy labelling with yttrium-90. The aim of this study was to determine the dosage, safety profile and therapeutic efficacy of 90Y-DOTATOC in patients with cancers expressing somatostatin receptors. We recruited 30 patients with histologically confirmed cancer. The main inclusion criterion was the presence of somatostatin receptors as documented by 111In-DOTATOC scintigraphy. 90Y-DOTATOC was injected intravenously using a horizontal protocol: patients received equivalent-activity doses in each of three cycles over 6 months. The first six patients received 1.11 GBq per cycle and the four successive groups of six patients received doses increasing in 0.37-GBq steps. Toxicity was evaluated according to WHO criteria. No patient had acute or delayed adverse reactions up to 2.59 GBq 90Y-DOTATOC per cycle (total 7.77 GBq). After a total dose of 3.33 GBq, one patient developed grade II renal toxicity 6 months later. The maximum tolerated dose per cycle has not yet been reached, although transient lymphocytopenia has been observed. Total injectable activity is limited by the fact that the maximum dose tolerated by the kidneys has been estimated at 20-25 Gy. Complete or partial tumour mass reduction occurred in 23% of patients; 64% had stable and 13% progressive disease. It is concluded that high activities of 90Y-DOTATOC can be administered with a low risk of myelotoxicity, although the cumulative radiation dose to the kidneys is a limiting factor and requires careful evaluation. Objective therapeutic responses have been observed. (orig.)

  19. Efficiency calibration of a liquid scintillation counter for 90Y Cherenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a complete and self-consistent method for 90Sr determination in environmental samples is presented. It is based on the Cherenkov counting of 90Y with a conventional liquid scintillation counter. The effects of color quenching on the counting efficiency and background are carefully studied. A working curve is presented which allows to quantify the correction in the counting efficiency depending on the color quenching strength. (orig.)

  20. Studying on process for labeling of EDTMP with 90Y using for bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Study describes the method for preparation of labelling compound Ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) with 90Y. Malignant cancer is one of the most important resulting in human death. Bone metastases in nearly 25% of all cancer patients; so it is useful to develop radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of bone cancer. Yttrium-90 is high energy (2.3 MeV) beta emitter required with a physical haft life of 2.7 days which has limited bone-seeking properties. Its physical properties make it ideal for therapeutic application, the most energetic beta emission being able to penetrate to 1 cm from the site of deposition in soft tissue with an average range of approximately 4 mm. Theoretically, therefore, it can penetrate all marrow spaces in normal trabecular bone and conceivably even to the centre of large tumours where bone destruction may be extensive. Specific deposition of 90Y into the skeleton demands its delivery in a chemical form with affinity for bone mineral alone. Compounds with these properties are the phosphonate analogues of polyaminocarboxylic acids, and one in particular EDTMP (ethylen diamine tetra methylene phosphonate) has already been used to target 153Sm to bone mineral with success. Because of chemical similarities between 90Y and the rare earths, EDTMP should form stable complexes with 90Y and carry it specifically to the bone with comparable efficiency. Skeletal uptake of -emitting radionuclides may be used for bone pain palliation or myeloablation. The physical characteristics of the β- particles required for the two conditions are, however, different, that is, higher energies are favorable for destruction of bone marrow. (author)

  1. Beta radiation exposure of staff during and after therapies with 90Y-labelled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-immuno-therapies (RITs) and peptide receptor radio-therapies (PRRTs) with 90Y-labelled compounds offer promising prospects for tumor treatment in nuclear medicine. However, when preparing and performing these therapies, which require manipulations of high activities of 90Y (>1 GBq), technicians and physicians may receive high exposures, mainly to the skin of the hands. Even non-occupationally exposed persons, such as caregivers and family members, receive external exposures in the initial period after therapy, arising from the 90Y in the patient. The local skin doses of the individual staff members, measured during RITs and PRRTs with thermoluminescence detectors fixed with tapes to the fingers, vary considerably. The exposure of staff can exceed the annual permissible dose limit of 500 mSv if radiation protection standards are low. Thus, adequate safety measures are needed. Measurements of the dose rate around patients, made using survey meters with sufficient response to beta particles, indicate that the exposure of caregivers and family members is considerably higher than previously assumed, and was dominated by primary beta radiation instead of Bremsstrahlung. Nevertheless, under normal circumstances, the annual dose limits for the public (effective dose: 1 mSv, skin dose: 50 mSv) will be complied with. (authors)

  2. Utilization of a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator for the preparation of {sup 90}Y-labeled RGD peptide dimer in clinically relevant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Sarma, Haladhar Dev [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div.

    2014-09-01

    The work reported in this paper provides a systematic study towards the development of an optimized strategy for preparation of a clinically relevant dose of {sup 90}Y-labeled dimeric RGD peptide derivative, DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} [DOTA-(RGD){sub 2}] for in vivo targeted therapy utilizing {sup 90}Y obtained from a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator. The performance of the generator was evaluated to ensure its suitability for providing {sup 90}Y in adequate quantity and purity required for formulation of clinically relevant dose for PRRT. {sup 90}Y-DOTA-(RGD){sub 2} was synthesized in high yield (86.2 ± 2.5%) and radiochemical purity (98.4 ± 0.5%) using clinically relevant dose (∝ 3.8 GBq) of {sup 90}Y. In vitro stability studies revealed that the radiolabeled conjugate retained its radiochemical purity in normal saline and human serum. Preliminary biodistribution studies carried out in C57/BL6 mice bearing melanoma tumors showed that the preparation exhibited significant tumor uptake (5.30 ± 0.78% of injected activity at 30 min post-injection) with good tumor to background ratio. The optimized radiolabeling protocol seems to be an attractive strategy which is largely viewed as a springboard to realize scope of developing {sup 90}Y labeled cyclic RGD peptides for targeted therapy of tumors over-expressing integrin-α{sub ν}β{sub 3} receptors. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of pharmaceuticals and medical devices containing 90Y extracted from high radioactive liquid waste in spent-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmaceuticals and medical devices containing radioactive 90Y are realized, approved and placed on the international market where three products are available in Europe and the United States, and one product in Japan. These products are used not for diagnosis but for treatment by internal irradiation. It was estimated from the deliberative report of the approval in Japan that 90Y was extracted in Europe from high radioactive liquid waste (HALW) yielded in spent-fuel reprocessing. In this report, products placed on the market and physical properties were reviewed, reasons of the realization and conditions to realize succeeding products were estimated, extraction method was compared with other methods, technical subjects, and relevant regulations were investigated. Although a medical device containing radioactive 90Y has been studied in Japan and one pharmaceutical product was approved, a breakthrough would be necessary to put 90Y utilization beyond alternative treatments. The breakthrough would become be promising; for example, if conventional treatments could be supported by technical development to deliver 90Y more sharply to the target with shorter serum half-life. Extraction of 90Y nuclide from HALW has advantages over thermal neutron irradiation of natural nuclide, a system is envisioned where 90Sr as a parent nuclide is separated in the reprocessing then transported to and stored in a factory of radiopharmaceuticals followed by 90Y extraction on demand. (author)

  4. Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

  5. Characterization of tumor dose heterogeneity for 90Y microsphere therapies using voxel- based dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Mikell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dosimetry for 90Y microsphere therapies (YMT with Standard (SM and Partition (PM models provide only uniform dose estimates to tumor and liver. Our objective is to calculate tumor dose heterogeneity, known to effect response, using voxel-based dosimetry and investigate the limitations of SM and PM.Methods: Voxel-based dosimetry was performed on 17 YMT patients using Monte Carlo DOSXYZnrc. 90Y activity and tissue/density distributions were based on quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Tumors (n=31, liver, and treatment lobe/segments were segmented on diagnostic CT or MR. Dose volume histograms (DVH were created for tumors and normal liver. Bland-Altman analysis compared voxel-based mean absorbed doses to tumor and liver with SM and PM. Tumor and normal liver absorbed dose heterogeneity were investigated through metrics: integral uniformity (IU, D10/D90, COV. Correlations of heterogeneity with voxel-based mean doses and volumes were evaluated.Results: Heterogeneity metrics (mean ± 1σ for tumor dose were COV = 0.48 ± 0.28, D10/D90 = 4.7 ± 3.9, and IU = 0.8 ± 0.18. Heterogeneity metrics correlated with tumor volume (r > 0.58 but not tumor mean doses (r < 0.20. Voxel-based tumor mean doses correlated with PM (r = 0.84 but not SM (r = 0.08. Both yielded poor limits of agreement with of 83 ± 174 and -28 ± 181 Gy, respectively. Normal liver heterogeneity metrics (mean ± 1σ were COV = 0.83 ± 0.29, D10/D90 = 12 ± 15, and IU = 0.97 ± 0.03. Only D10/D90 (r = 0.49 correlated with mean normal liver absorbed dose. Voxel-based normal liver/lobe mean doses correlated with PM (r = 0.96, but had poor limits of agreement (26 ± 29 Gy.Conclusion: Tumor doses have high levels of heterogeneity that increase with volume but are independent of dose. Voxel-based DVH and dose heterogeneity metrics will promote accurate characterization of tumor response following YMT.--------------------------------------Cite this article as: Mikell J, Mourtada F

  6. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radiomicrosphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amor-Coarasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHS is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected in the lungs 24 hours after tail vein administration. 90Y-DOTA-CHS in vivo label stability was superior to resin microspheres. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-DOTA served as a radioprotectant for bone marrow as the 5% 90Y released, during the first 24 hours, was quickly eliminated via urine.

  7. PET optimization for improved assessment and accurate quantification of {sup 90}Y-microsphere biodistribution after radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martí-Climent, Josep M., E-mail: jmmartic@unav.es; Prieto, Elena; Elosúa, César; Rodríguez-Fraile, Macarena; Domínguez-Prado, Inés; Vigil, Carmen; García-Velloso, María J.; Arbizu, Javier; Peñuelas, Iván; Richter, José A. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 36, Pío XII Avenue, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y-microspheres are widely used for the radioembolization of metastatic liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma and there is a growing interest for imaging {sup 90}Y-microspheres with PET. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a current generation PET/CT scanner for {sup 90}Y imaging and to optimize the PET protocol to improve the assessment and the quantification of {sup 90}Y-microsphere biodistribution after radioembolization. Methods: Data were acquired on a Biograph mCT-TrueV scanner with time of flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) modeling. Spatial resolution was measured with a{sup 90}Y point source. Sensitivity was evaluated using the NEMA 70 cm line source filled with {sup 90}Y. To evaluate the count rate performance, {sup 90}Y vials with activity ranging from 3.64 to 0.035 GBq were measured in the center of the field of view (CFOV). The energy spectrum was evaluated. Image quality with different reconstructions was studied using the Jaszczak phantom containing six hollow spheres (diameters: 31.3, 28.1, 21.8, 16.1, 13.3, and 10.5 mm), filled with a 207 kBq/ml {sup 90}Y concentration and a 5:1 sphere-to-background ratio. Acquisition time was adjusted to simulate the quality of a realistic clinical PET acquisition of a patient treated with SIR-Spheres{sup ®}. The developed methodology was applied to ten patients after SIR-Spheres{sup ®} treatment acquiring a 10 min per bed PET. Results: The energy spectrum showed the{sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung radiation. The {sup 90}Y transverse resolution, with filtered backprojection reconstruction, was 4.5 mm in the CFOV and degraded to 5.0 mm at 10 cm off-axis. {sup 90}Y absolute sensitivity was 0.40 kcps/MBq in the center of the field of view. Tendency of true and random rates as a function of the {sup 90}Y activity could be accurately described using linear and quadratic models, respectively. Phantom studies demonstrated that, due to low count statistics in {sup 90}Y PET

  8. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radio microsphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan (CHS) is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected) in the lungs 24 hours after tail vein administration. 90Y-DOTA-CHS in vivo label stability was superior to resin microspheres. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-DOTA served as a radioprotectant for bone marrow as the 5% 90Y released, during the first 24 hours, was quickly eliminated via urine.

  9. Effect of pulmonary irradiation from inhaled 90Y on immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunological response of mice subjected to irradiation from particles deposited in the lungs and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Mice, exposed by inhalation to 90Y (a beta-emitting radionuclide) in relatively insoluble fused aluminosilicate particles, were immunized with L. monocytogenes either before or after exposure. Two additional groups of mice were either immunized or irradiated only. A group of control mice received no irradiation or immunization. The beta radiation dose absorbed by the lungs of each mouse at time of challenge averaged 10,000 rads. Fourteen days after immunization, all mice were challenged with 2 LD50 doses of L. monocytogenes via the respiratory route. Survival of all immunized mice either with or without exposure to 90Y varied from 90 to 100% as compared to 10 to 20% for the mice irradiated only and for control mice through 14 days after challenge. Pulmonary clearance of inhaled L. monocytogenes during the first 4 hr after challenge was suppressed in the mice irradiated only but not in those immunized only, or in the immunized and irradiated groups, and control mice. There appeared to be a suppression of proliferation of L. monocytogenes in lungs and spleen in the immunized groups 72 hr after challenge, whereas the lungs and spleens of the mice irradiated only and the control mice had extensive bacterial invasion. It was concluded that the 10,000 rads of beta radiation absorbed by the lungs did not suppress the immune mechanisms of the immunized mice

  10. Time optimization of (90)Sr measurements: Sequential measurement of multiple samples during ingrowth of (90)Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Stina; Tovedal, Annika; Björnham, Oscar; Ramebäck, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more rapid determination of a series of samples containing (90)Sr by making the Cherenkov measurement of the daughter nuclide (90)Y more time efficient. There are many instances when an optimization of the measurement method might be favorable, such as; situations requiring rapid results in order to make urgent decisions or, on the other hand, to maximize the throughput of samples in a limited available time span. In order to minimize the total analysis time, a mathematical model was developed which calculates the time of ingrowth as well as individual measurement times for n samples in a series. This work is focused on the measurement of (90)Y during ingrowth, after an initial chemical separation of strontium, in which it is assumed that no other radioactive strontium isotopes are present. By using a fixed minimum detectable activity (MDA) and iterating the measurement time for each consecutive sample the total analysis time will be less, compared to using the same measurement time for all samples. It was found that by optimization, the total analysis time for 10 samples can be decreased greatly, from 21h to 6.5h, when assuming a MDA of 1Bq/L and at a background count rate of approximately 0.8cpm.

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y using amorphous ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO2-a) before beta radiations of 90 Sr/ 90 Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H3 and Zr-O2. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO2-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of 90 Sr/90 Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO2-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of ± 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  12. Development of a dosimetric system for 90Sr + 90Y betatherapy applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 90Sr+90Y applicators, used in betatherapy for prevention of keloids and pterigium, are imported and many times their dosimetric features are shown only in an illustrated form by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents the development of a methodology for the dosimetry of 90Sr+90Y betatherapy applicators. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves and dose distribution profiles produced by these applicators. The experimental measurements of the radial and axial radiation attenuation, have been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic films. The experimental results have been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage depth dose curves and the radial dose profiles, the theoretical and the experimental ones, have presented good agreement, which may validate the use of the MCNP5 for these simulations, confirming the viability of the usage of this method in procedures of beta emitter sources dosimetry. (author)

  13. A prototype of an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation beams of 90Sr+90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extrapolation chamber is the only primary standard dosimeter for beta radiation. With the aim to test new configurations and materials using easily-available and low-cost materials and fulfill the need of a chamber for scientific metrological purposes, in this paper the prototype of an extrapolation chamber has been built and its performance has been investigated in the beta radiation field of 90Sr+90Y. The main differences between the chamber and commercially available chambers are the geometry, constituent material and configuration. The obtained results were compared with those of the calibration certificate of the source and an agreement within 4 % was verified. The depth-dose curve was also obtained and compared with the curve published in ISO 6980, showing a good agreement. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulation was undertaken using MCNP4C code and the relative difference of 0.3 % was observed compared to the experiment. All of the results proved the suitability of the chamber in the beta radiation field of 90Sr+90Y. (author)

  14. Absorption and scattering of 90Sr/90Y beta particles transmitted through aluminium and plastic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and scattering of 90Sr/90Y beta particles transmitted through aluminium and plastic filters have been studied. From measurements of the ionisation current by the extrapolation chamber, it was shown that a build-up in absorbed dose rate occurred over the first 0.1 mm of aluminium thickness before attenuation started to dominate. This build-up thickness corresponded to a δ particle energy of 150 keV. The attenuation at large thicknesses followed an exponential function which predicted a half-value thickness of ∼ 112mg.cm-2 and a range (99% attenuation) of ∼1000 mg.cm-2. Angular distributions of the absorbed dose rate for 90Sr/90Y beta particles transmitted through aluminium and plastic filters have also been measured. These distributions followed the multiple scattering Gaussian curves for small projected angles and the single scattering tails for large projected angles. The mean square angle of the Gaussian distribution was approximately a linear function of the filter thickness. The peak height, however, dropped rapidly with increasing filter thickness at small thicknesses but slowly at large thicknesses. Both the mean square angle and the peak height were slightly dependent on the filter material. (Author)

  15. Depth dose curves from 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 90Sr+90Y beta-ray sources widely used in brachytherapy applications were developed in the 1950's. Many of these sources, called clinical applicators, are still routinely used in several Brazilian radiotherapy clinics for the treatment of superficial lesions in the skin and eyes, although they are not commercialized anymore. These applicators have to be periodically calibrated, according to international recommendations, because these sources have to be very well specified in order to reach the traceability of calibration standards. In the case of beta-ray sources, the recommended quantity is the absorbed dose rate in water at a reference distance from the source. Moreover, there are other important quantities, as the depth dose curves and the source uniformity for beta-ray plaque sources. In this work, depth dose curves were obtained and studied of five dermatological applicators, using thin thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO4:Dy and phantoms of PMMA with different thicknesses (between 1.0 mm and 5.0 mm) positioned between each applicator and the TL pellets. The depth dose curves obtained presented the expected attenuation response in PMMA, and the results were compared with data obtained for a 90Sr+90Y standard source reported by the IAEA, and they were considered satisfactory. (author)

  16. Assessment of the best N3− donors in preparation of [M(N)(PNP)]-based (M = 99mTc-; 188Re) target-specific radiopharmaceuticals: Comparison among succinic dihydrazide (SDH), N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HDTCZ) and PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Succinic dihydrazide (SDH), N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HDTCZ) and PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ) are nitrido nitrogen atom donors employed for the preparation of nitride [M(N)]‐complexes (M = 99mTc and 188Re). This study aims to compare the capability and the efficiency of these three N3− group donors, in the preparation of [M(N)PNP]-based target-specific compounds (M = 99mTc, 188Re; PNP = aminodiphosphine). For this purpose, three different kit formulations (SDH kit; HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ kit; HDTCZ kit) were assembled and used in the preparation of [M(N)(cys ∼)(PNP3)]0/+ complexes (cys ∼ = cysteine derivate ligands). For each formulation, the radiochemical yield (RCY) of the [M(N)(∼ cys)(PNP3)] compounds, was determined by HPLC. The deviation of the percentage of RCY, due to changes in concentration of the N3− donors and of the exchanging ligand, was determined. For 99mTc, data clearly show that HDTCZ is the most efficient donor of N3−; however, SDH is the most suitable nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of [99mTc(N)(PNP)]-based target-specific agents with high specific activity. When HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ or HDTCZ are used in N3− donation, high amounts of the exchanging ligand (10−4 M) were required for the formation of the final complex in acceptable yield. The possibility to use microgram amounts of HDTCZ also in [188Re(N)] preparation (0.050 mg) reduces its ability to compete in ligand exchange reactions, minimizing the quantity of chelators required to obtain the final complex in high yield. This finding can be exploit for increasing the radiolabeling efficiency in [188Re(N)]-radiopharmaceutical preparations compared to the previously reported HDTCZ-based procedure, notwithstanding a purification process could be necessary to improve the specific activity of the complexes

  17. Quantifying 32P-labeled and unlabeled nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant DNA technology depends on detection methods for nucleic acids compatible with amounts ranging from picograms to grams and from tenths of a microliter to liters. In practical terms there are three basic techniques: (1) absorbance methods suitable for a minimum concentration of micrograms per milliliter, (2) fluorescence methods capable of detecting nanograms of DNA and micrograms of RNA, and (3) methods based on the detection of 32P. Because of the overwhelming importance in molecular biology of the third group, this chapter will stress exquisitely sensitive methods for measuring radioactivity in very small volumes. An illustration in which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction performed in 20 μl is monitored by consuming less than 2% of the total volume will be presented

  18. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

  19. [Disintegration and elimination of 32P-naled in milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedek, W; Scheybal, A; Gabrio, T; Kirst, E

    1981-01-01

    The organophosphorus insecticide naled (O,O-dimethyl-O,O-(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl)-phosphate, labeled by 32P] is degraded in milk in vitro at 5 degrees C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0,05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5-8 ppb of naled and 7-9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h p.a., not exceeding the given tolerance level of 0,02 mg/kg in the German Democratic Republic. PMID:7290169

  20. Occupational radiation exposure of medical staff performing 90Y-loaded microsphere radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioembolization of liver cancer with 90Y-loaded microspheres is increasingly used but data regarding hospital staff exposure are scarce. We evaluated the radiation exposure of medical staff while preparing and injecting 90Y-loaded glass and resin microspheres especially in view of the increasing use of these products. Exposure of the chest and finger of the radiopharmacist, nuclear medicine physician and interventional radiologist during preparation and injection of 78 glass microsphere preparations and 16 resin microsphere preparations was monitored. Electronic dosimeters were used to measure chest exposure and ring dosimeters were used to measure finger exposure. Chest exposure was very low for both products used (<10 μSv from preparation and injection). In our experience, finger exposure was significantly lower than the annual limit of 500 mSv for both products. With glass microspheres, the mean finger exposure was 13.7 ± 5.2 μSv/GBq for the radiopharmacist, and initially 17.9 ± 5.4 μSv/GBq for the nuclear medicine physician reducing to 13.97 ± 7.9 μSv/GBq with increasing experience. With resin microspheres, finger exposure was more significant: mean finger exposure for the radiopharmacist was 295.1 ± 271.9 μSv/GBq but with a reduction with increasing experience to 97.5 ± 35.2 μSv/GBq for the six most recent dose preparations. For administration of resin microspheres, the greatest mean finger exposure for the nuclear medicine physician (the most exposed operator) was 235.5 ± 156 μSv/GBq. Medical staff performing 90Y-loaded microsphere radioembolization procedures are exposed to safe levels of radiation. Exposure is lower than that from treatments using 131I-lipiodol. The lowest finger exposure is from glass microspheres. With resin microspheres finger exposure is acceptable but could be optimized in accordance with the ALARA principle, and especially in view of the increasing use of radioembolization. (orig.)

  1. Occupational radiation exposure of medical staff performing {sup 90}Y-loaded microsphere radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffont, Sophie; Ardisson, Valerie; Lenoir, Laurence [Cancer Institute, Centre Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy [Cancer Institute, Centre Eugene Marquis, Department of Interventional Radiology, Rennes (France); Edeline, Julien [University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Pracht, Marc; Sourd, Samuel Le [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, Rennes (France); Lepareur, Nicolas [Cancer Institute, Centre Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Garin, Etienne [Cancer Institute, Centre Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rennes (France); University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France)

    2016-05-15

    Radioembolization of liver cancer with {sup 90}Y-loaded microspheres is increasingly used but data regarding hospital staff exposure are scarce. We evaluated the radiation exposure of medical staff while preparing and injecting {sup 90}Y-loaded glass and resin microspheres especially in view of the increasing use of these products. Exposure of the chest and finger of the radiopharmacist, nuclear medicine physician and interventional radiologist during preparation and injection of 78 glass microsphere preparations and 16 resin microsphere preparations was monitored. Electronic dosimeters were used to measure chest exposure and ring dosimeters were used to measure finger exposure. Chest exposure was very low for both products used (<10 μSv from preparation and injection). In our experience, finger exposure was significantly lower than the annual limit of 500 mSv for both products. With glass microspheres, the mean finger exposure was 13.7 ± 5.2 μSv/GBq for the radiopharmacist, and initially 17.9 ± 5.4 μSv/GBq for the nuclear medicine physician reducing to 13.97 ± 7.9 μSv/GBq with increasing experience. With resin microspheres, finger exposure was more significant: mean finger exposure for the radiopharmacist was 295.1 ± 271.9 μSv/GBq but with a reduction with increasing experience to 97.5 ± 35.2 μSv/GBq for the six most recent dose preparations. For administration of resin microspheres, the greatest mean finger exposure for the nuclear medicine physician (the most exposed operator) was 235.5 ± 156 μSv/GBq. Medical staff performing {sup 90}Y-loaded microsphere radioembolization procedures are exposed to safe levels of radiation. Exposure is lower than that from treatments using {sup 131}I-lipiodol. The lowest finger exposure is from glass microspheres. With resin microspheres finger exposure is acceptable but could be optimized in accordance with the ALARA principle, and especially in view of the increasing use of radioembolization. (orig.)

  2. Labeling an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphomas are among the 10 leading causes of death, both in Cuba and in the world, with an increasing incidence in recent years. Follicular lymphoma low-grade (indolent) is one of the most common in the Western world, representing 1/3 of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). More than 90% of patients present with disseminated disease at diagnosis and generally have a slow evolution and good response to conventional treatment; but radically changed its forecast to relapse, resistance to therapeutic and histologic transformation can occur. The monoclonal antibody therapy has been a promising therapeutic. In this respect CD20 antigen it has been considered one of the most attractive targets in the therapy of follicular B cell lymphoma This is expressed in more than 90% of cases, while not present in stem cells and lines progenitors. Despite the success of immunotherapy, the relapse rate is still considerable. In order to increase the cytotoxic potential of immunotherapy, marked with beta emitting radionuclides alpha particles or monoclonal antibodies are used today. Despite encouraging results in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas refractory to other treatments, the extremely high costs of these commercial radiopharmaceuticals have greatly limited its application, even in the first world. A sustainable alternative is the marking of other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, so researchers from several countries have concentrated their efforts on rituximaby other similar antibodies labeled with therapeutic radionuclides, as a possible cost-effectively to more problem. Today in Cuba it has an electrolytic generator 90Sr-90Y Isotope Center, which ensures the availability of the radionuclide. In addition, the chimeric MAb rituximab is applied as part of the therapy of NHL in its health system and, recently, the Center for Molecular Immunology has obtained a chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody biosimilar rituximab, which is in phase clinical trial; which opens prospects for the

  3. Somatostatin-based radiopeptide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC versus [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin-based radiopeptide treatment is generally performed using the β-emitting radionuclides 90Y or 177Lu. The present study aimed at comparing benefits and harms of both therapeutic approaches. In a comparative cohort study, patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours underwent repeated cycles of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC or [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC until progression of disease or permanent adverse events. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risks regression were employed to examine predictors of survival and adverse events for both treatment groups. Overall, 910 patients underwent 1,804 cycles of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC and 141 patients underwent 259 cycles of [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC. The median survival after [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC and after [90Y-DOTA]-TOC was comparable (45.5 months versus 35.9 months, hazard ratio 0.91, 95 % confidence interval 0.63-1.30, p = 0.49). Subgroup analyses revealed a significantly longer survival for [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC over [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with low tumour uptake, solitary lesions and extra-hepatic lesions. The rate of severe transient haematotoxicities was lower after [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC treatment (1.4 vs 10.1 %, p = 0.001), while the rate of severe permanent renal toxicities was similar in both treatment groups (9.2 vs 7.8 %, p = 0.32). The present results revealed no difference in median overall survival after [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC and [90Y-DOTA]-TOC. Furthermore, [177Lu-DOTA]-TOC was less haematotoxic than [90Y-DOTA]-TOC. (orig.)

  4. Long-term effect of /sup 90/Y pituitary implantation in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadresic, A.; Jimenez, L.E.; Joplin, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    This report examines the long-term trends in GH levels and pituitary function in a group of 38 acromegalic patients who were selected insofar as we were able to follow them up for more than 10 years after a single dose /sup 90/Y interstitial pituitary irradiation as the sole treatment. Mean serum GH had fallen from 106 to 24 mIU/l within 3-6 months and then slowly declined to 4 mIU/l after 10 years. GH levels of less than or equal to 5 mIU/l during a 50 g oral glucose tolerance test were obtained in 8% of patients at 3-6 months and in 18% at 1 year, the cumulative percentage increasing to 53% at 10, and 76% at 14 years. The percentage of patients requiring hormone replacement therapy rose from nil pre-implant to 16% by 3-6 months, and then slowly increased to 39% by 14 years. Serial coned radiographs of the pituitary fossa were available for 32 patients. By 10 years, 16 showed thickening of the dorsum sellae and/or reduction of at least one diameter by 3 mm. Concerning symptoms, all 29 patients whose GH level fell to less than or equal to 5 mIU/l showed improvements, 22 becoming asymptomatic. Seven patients with lesser falls in GH levels (from a mean of 193 to a mean of 15 mIU/l) all improved, one becoming asymptomatic. Two showed no variation. These results show that /sup 90/Y pituitary implants have a cumulative effect over the years in inducting remission and hypopituitarism in acromegalic patients, the early decline in GH levels being swifter than from other forms of irradiation.

  5. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for anti-CD20 pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in murine lymphoma xenograft models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia H L Frost

    Full Text Available Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y and lutetium-177 (177Lu are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice.Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-biotin second step reagent.The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq. More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes.90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in these human lymphoma

  6. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibodystreptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTAbiotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in

  7. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with sup 32 P nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with {sup 32}P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law.

  8. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

  9. Radiolabeling optimization and reduced staff radiation exposure for high-dose {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (HD-Zevalin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papi, Stefano [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: stefano.papi@ieo.it; Martano, Luigi; Garaboldi, Lucia [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan (Italy); Rossi, Annalisa; Cremonesi, Marta [Division of Health Physics, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan (Italy); Grana, Chiara Maria; Paolucci, Daniele [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan (Italy); Sansovini, Maddalena [Division of Radiometabolic Therapy, IRST, 47014 Meldola (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni; Chinol, Marco [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milan (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: {sup 90}Y-Zevalin labeling may cause severe finger radiation exposure, especially in high-dose protocols (HD-Zevalin), where up to 7.4 GBq could be injected. In this work, we optimized the labeling of HD-Zevalin with special regard to simplicity, speed, safety and radiation protection. Methods: Factors influencing labeling outcome (activity, specific activity, time, final volume, stability) were studied separately. The critical steps of a standard radiolabeling procedure were optimized to reduce finger exposure, developing an alternative labeling procedure and including a different {sup 90}Y supplier. Finger doses were monitored by thermoluminescent dosimeters at each fingertip under anti-X gloves, considering both absolute values and values after normalization to 1.48 GBq. Results: Labeling of {sup 90}Y-Zevalin was safe and reproducible up to 7.4 GBq with a simple and single-step procedure offering good stability for several hours. Radiolabeling specific activity was found critical, being kept at 740 MBq.mg{sup -1}. Radiochemical purity values {>=}98% were routinely achieved. The alternative procedure allowed a sensible reduction of finger dose, due to both the different {sup 90}Y vial and the handling. Finger exposure was reduced from 6.6{+-}4.3 to 3.1{+-}0.8 mSv/1.48 GBq in the case of the original {sup 90}Y vial and from 1.5{+-}0.9 to 0.3{+-}0.1 mSv/1.48 GBq using a shielded {sup 90}Y vial. Conclusions: HD-Zevalin can be prepared in a safe and reproducible way, giving high radiochemical purity values, good stability and low finger exposure. This study may improve the safety of nuclear medicine professionals involved in the preparation of Zevalin.

  10. A performance evaluation of 90Y dose-calibrator measurements in nuclear pharmacies and clinics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blind performance test was conducted to evaluate dose-calibrator measurements at nuclear pharmacies in the United States (US). Two test-sample geometries were chosen to represent those used for measurements of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (ZEVALIN). The radioactivity concentration of test-samples was verified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Forty-five results were reported by 10 participants. Eighty percent of reported values were within the US Pharmacopoeia content standard (±10%) for 90Y-ZEVALIN. All results were within US Nuclear Regulatory Commission conformance limits (±20%) for defining therapeutic misadministrations

  11. Separation of 90Y from 90Sr using hollow fiber supported liquid membrane containing PC-88A as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-Ethylhexylphosphonic acid -2- ethyl hexylmonoester (PC-88A) has been used as the extractant for Y3+ and Eu3+ (used as a surrogate) from pH solutions where Sr2+ remained inextractable. The relative extraction efficiency of PC-88A towards Y3+ and Sr2+ was investigated from dilute HNO3 media using solvent extraction, as well as hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) methods. A separation method for 90Y from 90Sr + 90Y mixture was developed using HFSLM method and discussed in the present paper. (author)

  12. A performance evaluation of {sup 90}Y dose-calibrator measurements in nuclear pharmacies and clinics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Michael K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nuclear Medicine Standards Program, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: michael-schultz@uiowa.edu; Cessna, Jeffrey T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nuclear Medicine Standards Program, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8462, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Anderson, Tamara L. [College of Pharmacy, Univ. of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, New Mexico Center for Isotopes in Medicine, 2502 Marble, NE MSC09 5360, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Ponto, James A. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, 3832 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Petry, Neil [Dept. of Radiology, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Duke Univ. Medical Center, 133 Bell Building, Box 3304, Durham, NC 27710-3304 (United States); Kowalsky, Richard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina, 1312 Kerr Hall, CB 7360, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Palmer, Matthew R. [Dept. of Radiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215-5400 (United States); Beinlich, Uwe F. [QSA Global, Inc., Auriga Medical Div., 40 North Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States); Baker, William [Pharmaceutical and Diagnostic Services, 1152 West 2240 South St. E., West Valley City, UT 84119 (United States); Hinkle, George H. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Room 203D, Doan Hall, 410 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hung, Joseph C. [Mayo Clinic, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Quinton, Timothy [Radiopharmacy, Inc., 1409 E. Virginia St., Evansville, IN 47711 (United States); Rice, Peter A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Tilton-2, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    A blind performance test was conducted to evaluate dose-calibrator measurements at nuclear pharmacies in the United States (US). Two test-sample geometries were chosen to represent those used for measurements of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (ZEVALIN). The radioactivity concentration of test-samples was verified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Forty-five results were reported by 10 participants. Eighty percent of reported values were within the US Pharmacopoeia content standard ({+-}10%) for {sup 90}Y-ZEVALIN. All results were within US Nuclear Regulatory Commission conformance limits ({+-}20%) for defining therapeutic misadministrations.

  13. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radiomicrosphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Amor-Coarasa; Andrew Milera; Denny Carvajal; Seza Gulec; McGoron, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan (CHS) is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected) in the lungs 24 hours after tail ve...

  14. Brachytherapy on restenosis. {sup 32}P radioisotope in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.; Cocca, C.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry; Croci, M.; Guzman, L.

    2000-05-01

    Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope ({sup 32}P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by

  15. Brachytherapy on restenosis. 32P radioisotope in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope (32P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by fluoroscopy

  16. Three dosimetry models of lipoma arborescens treated by {sup 90}Y synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Doherty, Jim, E-mail: jim.odoherty@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics-Nuclear Medicine, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre at St. Thomas’ Hospital, King' s College London, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Clauss, Ralf [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Scuffham, James [Department of Medical Physics-Nuclear Medicine, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Khan, Aman [Department of Rheumatology, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Petitguillaume, Alice; Desbrée, Aurélie [Service de Dosimétrie Interne, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Lipoma arborescens (LA) is a benign intra-articular lipomatous proliferation of the synovial membrane. This extremely rare condition has previously been treated by intra-articular{sup 90}Y radiosynoviorthesis but dosimetry literature on this form of radionuclide therapy is nonexistent. The authors detail methodology for successful treatment of LA and provide for the first time estimates of radiation dosimetry. The authors also analyze the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical over the course of the patient's treatment through sequential imaging. Methods: A patient with bilateral LA underwent intracavity injection of{sup 90}Y citrate colloid to the right and left knee joint spaces (181 and 198 MBq, respectively). SPECT/CT datasets were acquired over 9 days to quantify the biodistribution and kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical. Radiation dosimetry was performed using the MIRD schema (through OLINDA software), a custom voxel-based method, and a direct Monte Carlo calculation (OEDIPE). Results: Follow-up MRI showed marked reduction in LA size in both knees. Mean absorbed doses to the LA were 21.2 ± 0.8 and 42.9 ± 2.3 Gy using OLINDA, 8.1 ± 0.3 and 16.7 ± 0.5 Gy using voxel based methodology, and 8.2 ± 0.3 and 15.7 ± 0.5 Gy for OEDIPE in the right and left LA, respectively. Distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the joint space alters over the imaging period, with less than 1% of the remaining activity having moved posteriorly in the knee cavity. No uptake was detected outside of the joint space after assessment with whole-body scintigraphy. Conclusions: An activity of approximately 185 MBq successfully relieved clinical symptoms of LA. There was good correlation between direct Monte Carlo and voxel based techniques, but OLINDA was shown to overestimate the absorbed dose to the tumor. Accurate dosimetry may help select an activity more tailored to the specific size and location of the LA.

  17. Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

  18. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF{sub 2} for beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de CaF{sub 2} comercial para radiacao beta de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mlolivei@ipen.br, e-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2003-07-01

    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF{sub 2} commercial dosimetry for detection of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves.

  19. Clinical results of radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours with {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE and tandem {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE: which is a better therapy option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunikowska, Jolanta; Krolicki, Leszek [Medical University of Warsaw, Nuclear Medicine Department, Warsaw (Poland); Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna [Collegium Medicum Cracow, Cracow (Poland); Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz [Institute of Atomic Energy POLATOM, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a treatment option for patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). A combination treatment using the high-energy {sup 90}Y beta emitter for larger lesions and the lower energy {sup 177}Lu for smaller lesions has been postulated in the literature.The aim of the study was to evaluate combined {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE therapy in comparison to {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE alone. Fifty patients with disseminated NET were included in the study prospectively and divided into two groups: group A (n = 25) was treated with {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE, whereas group B (n = 25) received the 1:1 {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. The administered activity was based on 3.7 GBq/m{sup 2} body surface area in three to five cycles, with amino acid infusion for nephroprotection. The median overall survival time in group A was 26.2 months while in group B median survival was not reached. Overall survival was significantly higher in group B (p = 0.027). Median event-free survival time in group A was 21.4 months and in group B 29.4 months (p > 0.1). At the 12-month follow-up, comparison of group A vs group B showed stable disease (SD) in 13 vs 16 patients, disease regression (RD) in 5 vs 3 patients and disease progression (PD) in 3 vs 4 patients; 4 and 2 patients died, respectively. The 24-month follow-up results were SD in nine vs ten patients, RD in one patient vs none and PD in four patients in both groups; three and four patients died, respectively. Side effects were rare and mild. The results indicate that therapy with tandem radioisotopes ({sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) provides longer overall survival than with a single radioisotope ({sup 90}Y-DOTATATE) and the safety of both methods is comparable. (orig.)

  20. Monitoring Kidney Function in Neuroendocrine Tumor Patients Treated with 90Y-DOTATOC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne K; Kramer, Stine M J; Iversen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    and during a 4-hour and a 24-hour amino acid (AA) infusion protocol. We measured the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in 28 patients before and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after 90Y-DOTATOC therapy. We used standardized 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance (Cr-GFR) and estimated GFR (eGFR) by the simplified 4 variable...... Modification of Diet in Renal Disease based on serum creatinine values. Further, we determined GFR in 15 patients treated with a 4-hour infusion of AA compared to 13 patients with a 24-hour infusion at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after therapy. Pre-existing risk factors associated with kidney failure were seen...... in 82% of the patients. We observed a significant reduction in Cr-GFR up to 12 months after PRRT (mean loss 27 ml/min/1,73 m2 (32%)). The eGFR continuously overestimated the Cr-GFR with a bias of 8%. There was no significant difference between the two AA protocols, however, the 24-hour AA protocol...

  1. Monitoring 90Y-SIRsphere treatment response with 18FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 75-year-old male presented to emergency with severe abdominal pain and vomiting which had increased over 3 months. This patient also had a history of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Renal Failure, Primary Heart Block and Colonic Polyps. An abdominal CT displayed a soft tissue density mass or thickening within the descending colon, causing incomplete obstruction and significant distension of the colon. He also had a positive faecal occult blood test and his Carcino-embryonic antigen blood test (CEA) was 3.9μg/L (normal 4N0Mx). He declined chemotherapy post-surgery His CEA dropped to 1.3μg/L immediately post-surgery. 3-monthly CEA measurements were made. At 12 months post-surgery, his CEA level had risen to 5.9μg/L, and an abdominal CT scan revealed 2 hypo-dense lesions in segment 4a of the liver, adjacent to the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC). These lesions measured 3.2cm (medial lesion) and 2.6cm (lateral lesion) at their maximum diameters. The patient underwent an l8FDG-PET scan on a Philips Allegro dedicated PET scanner [Philips medical Systems, Cleveland OH, USA], using a standard l8FDG dose of 5.14MBq/kg. The patient fasted for 6 hours prior to the test and withheld his oral hypoglycae-mics. Scanning commenced at 1 hour post-injection. The PET scan displayed 2 lesions within the liver, corresponding to the CT findings. The PET scan showed these lesions to be avid (SUV = 5.1 and 4.1 respectively, normal liver SUV = 1.3), with no evidence of extrahepatic disease. Due to proximity to the IVC, these lesions were deemed unresectable and unable to be treated with Radiofrequency (RF) ablation. The patient discussed treatment options with his surgeon and agreed to undergo 90Y-SIRsphere (Sirtex Medical Ltd, Sydney Australia) Selective Internal Radiation Treatment (SIRT) for his liver metastases, but again declined chemotherapy. Work-up for this treatment included hepatic angiography and embolic coiling of the hepatic artery branches to eliminate pathways for visceral

  2. A complete dosimetric characterization of two 90Sr-90Y dermatologic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete dosimetric characterization of two Amershan 90Sr-90Y dermatologic applicators is described in this present work. The dosimetric parameters analyzed are: percentage depth dose curve, radial dose distribution, non-uniformity and asymmetry. Both applicators are planar-circular having 22.57 and 9.0 mm diameters. In the range where the percentage depth dose goes from 100% down to 20%, the measured percentage depth dose and that obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation have shown maximum discrepancy of 5.3% for both applicators. The radial dose distribution has been measured at several depths using a GafChromic EBT QD+ films and it was also calculated by simulation. The discrepancies found did not exceed 5.9% up to the depth of 1.8 mm, where the percentage depth dose drops to 40% of the maximum. The maximum non-uniformity and asymmetry are 1.7% and 5.3% for the first applicator and 22.7% and 25.9% for the second applicator, respectively. Both applicators meet the specification for the maximum non-uniformity established by the adopted protocol, whose limit is 30%. As for the asymmetry the limit is 20% and the second applicator exceeded it in about 5.9%.

  3. Study On The Preparation Of 90Y-DTPA-Rituximab For Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yttrium is one of the most useful radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications, especially labelling with monoclonal antibodies. Rituximab was bound to the DTPA chelating agent using Hnatowich methods. Cyclic anhydride DTPA (cDTPAa, 0.1 mg/ml) was dissolved in chloroform and was degassed under a stream of nitrogen for 30 minutes. Rituximab solution in 0.05 M bicarbonate buffer was immediately added and mixed for one minute at room temperature. The antibody Rituximab at different concentration (5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml) was coupled with the cDTPAa, at molar ratios (cDTPAa : Rituximab) of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, 10:1 and 20:1. The conjugation of DTPA-Rituximab mixture was labelled with Y-90, then using Sephadex G25 in order to determine coupling efficiency. Coupling efficiency at a 3:1 mole ratio was 70%. After purification, the conjugation DTPA-Rituximab was labeled with Y-90 in 0.5 M acetate buffer, pH 5, at room temperature. The labeling yield was about 99%. The radiochemical purity of 90Y-DTPA-Rituximab was more than 98 % which determined by ITLC in 0.1 M acetate at pH 6 as mobile phase. The radiopharmaceuticals have been test for sterility, apyrogenicity and biodistribution. This is a potential radiopharmaceutical for clinical application in therapeutic Non Hodgkin Lymphoma treatments. (author)

  4. A complete dosimetric characterization of two {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y dermatologic applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Antonio, P.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-11

    A complete dosimetric characterization of two Amershan {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y dermatologic applicators is described in this present work. The dosimetric parameters analyzed are: percentage depth dose curve, radial dose distribution, non-uniformity and asymmetry. Both applicators are planar-circular having 22.57 and 9.0 mm diameters. In the range where the percentage depth dose goes from 100% down to 20%, the measured percentage depth dose and that obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation have shown maximum discrepancy of 5.3% for both applicators. The radial dose distribution has been measured at several depths using a GafChromic EBT QD+ films and it was also calculated by simulation. The discrepancies found did not exceed 5.9% up to the depth of 1.8 mm, where the percentage depth dose drops to 40% of the maximum. The maximum non-uniformity and asymmetry are 1.7% and 5.3% for the first applicator and 22.7% and 25.9% for the second applicator, respectively. Both applicators meet the specification for the maximum non-uniformity established by the adopted protocol, whose limit is 30%. As for the asymmetry the limit is 20% and the second applicator exceeded it in about 5.9%.

  5. (90)Y microspheres prepared by sol-gel method, promising medical material for radioembolization of liver malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łada, Wiesława; Iller, Edward; Wawszczak, Danuta; Konior, Marcin; Dziel, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    A new technology for the production of radiopharmaceutical (90)Y microspheres in the form of spherical yttrium oxide grains obtained by sol-gel method has been described. The authors present and discuss the results of investigations performed in the development of new production technology of yttrium microspheres and determination of their physic-chemical properties. The final product has the structure of spherical yttrium oxide grains with a diameter 25-100μm, is stable and free from contaminants. Irradiation of 20mg samples of grains with diameter of 20-50μm in the thermal neutron flux of 1.7×10(14)cm(-2)s(-1) at the core of MARIA research nuclear reactor allowed to obtain microspheres labelled with the (90)Y isotope on the way of the nuclear reaction (89)Y(n, ɤ)(90)Y. Specific activity of irradiated microspheres has been determined by application of absolute triple to double coincidence ratio method (TDCR) and has been evaluated at 190MBq/mg Y. (90)Y microspheres prepared by the proposed technique can be regarded as a promising medical material for radioembolization of liver malignancies. PMID:27287162

  6. Receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in association with amino acid infusion: a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of 90Y-DOTATOC per cycle administered in association with amino acid solution as kidney protection in patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Forty patients in eight groups received two cycles of 90Y-DOTATOC, with activity increased by 0.37 GBq per group, starting at 2.96 and terminating at 5.55 GBq. All patients received lysine ± arginine infusion immediately before and after therapy. Forty-eight percent developed acute grade I-II gastrointestinal toxicity (nausea and vomiting) after amino acid infusion whereas no acute adverse reactions occurred after 90Y-DOTATOC injection up to 5.55 GBq/cycle. Grade III haematological toxicity occurred in three of seven (43%) patients receiving 5.18 GBq, which was defined as the maximum tolerable activity per cycle. Objective therapeutic responses occurred. Five GBq per cycle is the recommended dosage of 90Y-DOTATOC when amino acids are given to protect the kidneys. Although no patients developed acute kidney toxicity, delayed kidney toxicity remains a major concern, limiting the cumulative dose to 25 Gy. The way forward with this treatment would seem to be to identify more effective renal protective agents, in order to be able to increase the cumulative injectable activity and hence tumour dose. (orig.)

  7. Feasibility of bremsstrahlung dosimetry for direct dose estimation in patients undergoing treatment with {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrichiello, C.; Aloj, L.; Mormile, M.; D' Ambrosio, L.; Caraco, C.; De Martinis, F. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Nuclear Medicine Department, Napoli (Italy); Frigeri, F.; Arcamone, M.; Pinto, A. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Hematology-Oncology, Napoli (Italy); Stem Cells Transplantation Unit, Department of Hematology, Napoli (Italy); Lastoria, S. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Nuclear Medicine Department, Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , IRCCS, Napoli (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan has been used successfully used in the treatment of CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Pretherapy imaging with {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan has been used in provisional dosimetry studies. Posttherapy imaging of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan for clinical use is appealing as it would simplify the data acquisition process and allow measurements of actual doses absorbed during treatment. The study included 29 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, of whom 16 (group I) received a pretherapy {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan diagnostic study and {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan treatment 1 week later, and 13 (group II) received only {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan treatment. Planar imaging and blood sampling were performed in all patients. The doses absorbed by organs at risk were calculated using a whole-body average attenuation correction factor (relative dosimetry approach) and, in the case of the {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan image sets, also using organ-specific attenuation correction factors (absolute dosimetry method). Red marrow absorbed doses were based on gamma counting of blood samples. The estimated red marrow absorbed doses from {sup 111}In and {sup 90}Y data were equivalent. In all cases, the doses absorbed by organs at risk were found to be within prescribed limits. The relative dosimetry approach applied to both the {sup 90}Y and {sup 111}In data significantly underestimated the doses relative to those obtained with the {sup 111}In absolute dosimetry method which is generally accepted as the reference method (MIRD 16). In the case of {sup 111}In, the relative dosimetry approach values were highly correlated (R {sup 2} = 0.61) with the reference method values. Relative dosimetry estimates may be adjusted multiplying by a correction factor of 2.8. The {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan relative dosimetry data correlated poorly with the reference method values (R {sup 2} = 0.02). Based

  8. Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

  9. Gastric injury from {sup 90}Y to left hepatic lobe tumors adjacent to the stomach: fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Vanessa L.; Hickey, Ryan; Marshall, Karen; Williams, Melissa; Salzig, Krystina; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Salem, Riad [Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y microspheres is a locoregional radiation therapy for unresectable hepatic neoplasm. Non-target delivery of {sup 90}Y microspheres resulting in gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is a recognized complication; there is minimal knowledge regarding the radiation effect to the gastric wall from left hepatic lobe {sup 90}Y treatments. Our aim was to study the incidence of GI complications when the target tissue (hepatic parenchyma ± tumor) is in close proximity to the gastric wall. We hypothesized that liver (tumor) to stomach proximity does not correlate with increased toxicity. Between November 2011 and September 2013, we studied all patients who underwent left lobe radioembolization with {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, we retrospectively reviewed MRI/CT images of these patients, identifying a subset of patients with the left hepatic lobe <1 cm from the gastric wall. Patients were seen in clinic 1 month posttreatment and subsequently at 3-month intervals. Short- and long-term gastric adverse events were tabulated. Ninety-seven patients successfully underwent left hepatic lobe {sup 90}Y microsphere radioembolization in which the average distance from the liver to the stomach wall was 1.0 ± 2.8 mm. The average dose for patients who received radioembolization to the left hepatic lobe was 109 ± 57 Gy. Fifty patients had tumor within 1 cm of the gastric wall. The average dose for patients who received radioembolization to the left hepatic lobe with tumor within 1 cm of the gastric wall was 121 ± 41 Gy. There were no reportable or recordable medical events. Of the patients, 34 % reported abdominal pain that was grade 1-2; 65 % of the patients reported no abdominal pain. None of the 97 patients developed a clinically evident GI ulcer. Patients with left lobe tumors adjacent to or abutting the stomach do not exhibit acute or chronic radiation effects following radioembolization with glass

  10. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  11. Hepatectomy After Yttrium-90 (Y90) Radioembolization-Induced Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; August, Carey; Maker, Vijay K; Weisenberg, Elliot

    2016-04-01

    An obese 55-year-old woman with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presented 7 years after resection of a T3N1 ileal carcinoid tumor with an elevated chromogranin A, multifocal metastatic disease to the liver, and carcinoid syndrome. She underwent right hepatic artery yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization, followed a month later by selective Y90 treatment to segment IV. She then presented to our clinic 10 months later, remaining symptomatic with flushing, diarrhea, anxiety, myalgia, pain, and persistent night sweats despite Sandostatin administration. At least 11 tumors were identified in the right lobe of the liver and three in segment IV on liver-specific imaging. These lesions were stable over a year with no new lesions. At exploration, there was marked hypertrophy of the left lateral segment due to the yttrium-90 treatment of segments IV-VIII, corresponding with preoperative volumetrics predicting a functional liver remnant (FLR) of 40% after extended right hepatectomy. The right lobe and segment IV were fibrotic, hard, and visibly damaged. The gland had a thick, fibrotic capsule, and the parenchyma was dense, inflexible, and difficult to dissect, consistent with the previously reported morbidity of these operations. Extended right hepatectomy was performed. Final pathology demonstrated 15 foci of metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma that were negative for necrosis, as was expected given her continued symptoms despite radioembolization. Numerous amorphous spheres, frequently in clusters, were present in segments IV-VIII in vessels and approximating tumors consistent with prior Y90 radioembolization. The patient had an uneventful post-operative recovery and remains symptom free on follow-up. Treatment options for metastatic tumors to the liver have increased in recent years and currently include radioembolization in selected patients. Surgical cytoreduction and complete metastasectomy continue to offer improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and

  12. Investigation on the chirality of electrons from /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y beta-decay and their asymmetrical interactions with D- and L-alanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, E.

    1985-12-16

    An investigation on the chirality of the electrons from /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y beta decay and on their asymmetrical interactions with D- and L-alanines was carried out. By using ESR measurements, the asymmetrical yields were proved to be induced in /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y-beta-irradiated alanines, with a distinguishably asymmetrical effect.

  13. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of {sup 89,90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in {sup 89,90}Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of {sup 90}Y compared to {sup 89}Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 89}Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  14. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of 89,90Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-09-01

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in 89,90Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of 90Y compared to 89Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus 89Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  15. A multicentre comparison of quantitative (90)Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willowson, Kathy P; Tapner, Michael; Bailey, Dale L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the quantitative accuracy of (90)Y imaging across different generation PET/CT scanners, for the purpose of dosimetry after radioembolization with resin microspheres. METHODS: A strict experimental and imaging protocol was followed by 47 international sites usin...... investigated, comparable performance between GE Healthcare and Siemens ToF systems suggests suitability for quantitative analysis in a scenario analogous to that of postradioembolization imaging for treatment of liver cancer....

  16. Development of anthropomorphic hand phantoms for personal dosimetry in 90Y-Zevalin preparation and patient delivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolini, R; d'Errico, F; Traino, A C; Paternostro, E; Laganà, A; Romei, C; Pazzagli, F; Del Gratta, A

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphic tissue-equivalent hand phantoms were achieved to measure the extremity dose involved in Zevalin (90)Y-labelling and patient delivering procedure for radioimmunotherapy treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The extremity doses to hands and wrists of operators were measured by using thermoluminescent detectors mounted on the developed phantoms. Measurements of chest- and lens-equivalent doses performed on a Rando phantom are also reported. PMID:23960242

  17. Development of anthropomorphic hand phantoms for personal dosimetry in 90Y-Zevalin preparation and patient delivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolini, R; d'Errico, F; Traino, A C; Paternostro, E; Laganà, A; Romei, C; Pazzagli, F; Del Gratta, A

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphic tissue-equivalent hand phantoms were achieved to measure the extremity dose involved in Zevalin (90)Y-labelling and patient delivering procedure for radioimmunotherapy treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The extremity doses to hands and wrists of operators were measured by using thermoluminescent detectors mounted on the developed phantoms. Measurements of chest- and lens-equivalent doses performed on a Rando phantom are also reported.

  18. Dosimetric comparison of electron beam and 9{sup 0}Sr+{sup 90}Y applicator for keloids treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Tada, Ariane; Antonio, Patricia L.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: tasallesc@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marco@cetea.com.b [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia Rubiao Junior

    2009-07-01

    Studies have been shown that among several methods that have been used for the treatment of keloids the surgical excision followed by the adjuvant radiotherapy presents the lowest relapsed rate of the injury. In this work a comparative dosimetric study has been performed using a 4 MeV electron beam from a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator at the radiotherapy service of the Hospital das Clinicas of UNESP-HC, Botucatu-SP and an Amershan {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y brachytherapy applicator with 1491 MBq of activity. Percentage depth dose curves from ionization chamber measurements and through Monte Carlo simulation have been obtained and compared. Dose measurements have been obtained using parallel plates ionization chamber (Esradin A12) and extrapolation mini-chamber developed at IPEN. The dose calculations have been obtained using the well-known Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C. Maximum dose differences obtained between measured/calculated values for {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y applicator and for the electron beam were, respectively: 7.8 % and 8.0%. The profiles of the depth and superficial tissue dose distribution produced by the electron beam revealed themselves flatter and more homogeneous than those produced by the {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y applicator, especially to wider fields, which cannot be obtained with beta therapy applicators because of their geometric limitations. In conclusion this present work has shown that {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y applicators could be efficient for small and very superficial lesions but in most cases electron beam sources are more adequate especially for large and deeper lesions. (author)

  19. Production of glass microspheres comprising 90Y and 177Lu for treating of hepatic tumors with SPECT imaging capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to determine if glass microspheres impregnated with two radionuclides,90Y as source of therapeutic beta emissions and 177Lu as source of diagnostic gamma emissions can be useful for SPECT imaging during or after application of the 90Y microspheres for treating of hepatic tumors. The glass-based microspheres labeled with 89Y and lutetium (YAS (Lu)) or 89Y and ytterbium (YAS (Yb)) were prepared by the sol-gel process where sol droplets directly were formed to gel microspheres. Results of the neutron activation indicate that such a combination of glass, microspheres allow bio-distribution studies by SPECT imaging with high resolution. - Highlights: → A radioactive microsphere composed of glass was impregnated with two radionuclide 90Y and 177Lu. 177Lu is as a dopant for diagnostic gamma emissions. → The glass-based microspheres labeled with 89Y and lutetium (YAS (Lu)) or 89Y and ytterbium (YAS (Yb)) were prepared by the sol-gel process where gel microspheres directly were formed from sol droplets. → After neutron activation, such a combination of glass, allows SPECT imaging so bio-distribution is possible with better resolution.

  20. Update on the rational use of (90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in the treatment of follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lehnert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Martina Lehnert, Heinz Ludwig, Niklas Zojer 1st Department of Medicine, Center for Oncology and Hematology, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: The development of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20 has facilitated targeted treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL. By using 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®, a radionuclide (yttrium-90, linked by the chelator tiuxetan to the antibody ibritumomab is brought into the vicinity of lymphoma cells. By the so-called cross-fire effect, this beta emitter has the capacity to destroy not only the lymphoma cells having bound the antibody, but also neighboring lymphoma cells. Currently this antibody is licensed in the European Union for use in relapsed or refractory FL. It is anticipated that this drug will also be approved for use as consolidation therapy after successful first-line treatment. Here we first will review the published literature supporting the use of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in the aforementioned indications and emerging data showing applicability of ibritumomab tiuxetan as sole first-line therapy for FL, as well as in the transplant setting. Possible strategies of incorporating ibritumomab tiuxetan into the treatment algorithm of FL are discussed.Keywords: follicular lymphoma, 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan

  1. Fractionated Radioimmunotherapy With 90Y-Clivatuzumab Tetraxetan and Low-Dose Gemcitabine Is Active in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean, Allyson J.; Pennington, Kenneth L.; Guarino, Michael J.; Sheikh, Arif; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Serafini, Aldo N.; Lee, Daniel; Sung, Max W.; Gulec, Seza A.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Manzone, Timothy; Holt, Michael; O’Neil, Bert H.; Hall, Nathan; Montero, Alberto J.; Kauh, John; Gold, David V.; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been demonstrated that the humanized clivatuzumab tetraxetan (hPAM4) antibody targets pancreatic ductal carcinoma selectively. After a trial of radioimmunotherapy that determined the maximum tolerated dose of single-dose yttrium-90-labeled hPAM4 (90Y-hPAM4) and produced objective responses in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma, the authors studied fractionated radioimmunotherapy combined with low-dose gemcitabine in this disease. METHODS Thirty-eight previously untreated patients (33 patients with stage IV disease and 5 patients with stage III disease) received gemcitabine 200 mg/m2 weekly for 4 weeks with 90Y-hPAM4 given weekly in Weeks 2, 3, and 4 (cycle 1), and the same cycle was repeated in 13 patients (cycles 2–4). In the first part of the study, 19 patients received escalating weekly 90Y doses of 6.5 mCi/m2, 9.0 mCi/m2, 12.0 mCi/m2, and 15.0 mCi/m2. In the second portion, 19 additional patients received weekly doses of 9.0 mCi/m2 or 12.0 mCi/m2. RESULTS Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia or neutropenia (according to version 3.0 of the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) developed in 28 of 38 patients after cycle 1 and in all retreated patients; no grade >3 nonhematologic toxicities occurred. Fractionated dosing of cycle 1 allowed almost twice the radiation dose compared with single-dose radioimmunotherapy. The maximum tolerated dose of 90Y-hPAM4 was 12.0 mCi/m2 weekly for 3 weeks for cycle 1, with ≤9.0 mCi/m2 weekly for 3 weeks for subsequent cycles, and that dose will be used in future trials. Six patients (16%) had partial responses according to computed tomography-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and 16 patients (42%) had stabilization as their best response (58% disease control). The median overall survival was 7.7 months for all 38 patients, including 11.8 months for those who received repeated cycles (46% [6 of 13 patients] ≥1 year), with improved efficacy at

  2. A modified method for synthesis of [γ-32P] labelled adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of [γ-32P]-ATP using three glycolysis enzymatic reaction i.e. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglyceric phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase has been conducted. dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate and H332PO4 was used as precursors for this reaction. Purification of [γ-32P]-ATP was performed by using DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The result suggested that this simple method could be used for producing [γ-32P]-ATP to support the provision of radiolabeled nucleotide for biotechnology research in Indonesia. (author)

  3. Study on the dynamics in absorption of 32P by hybrid wheat at elongate stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of absorbing 32P of hybrid wheat at elongate stage is studied under pot culture conditions. The results show that the absorption capacity of hybrid wheat to 32P is in agreement with regression equation. The increased extent of absorption for them is greater than that for parent with time, and the reduction rate of absorption is lower than the parent significantly. Their root activity is much higher than that of the parent, too. The overall heterotic vigor of hybrid wheat on the absorption capacity to 32P is the sum of that of all organs

  4. Investigation on the influence of metal ion impurities on the complexation behavior of generator produced {sup 90}Y with different bifunctional chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.

    2014-07-01

    While the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator is the exclusive source of obtaining 'no carrier added' {sup 90}Y for targeted therapy, the presence of trace metals in the radiolabeling solutions poses a serious challenge owing to their ability to diminish the {sup 90}Y complexation yields with bifunctional chelators (BFCs). p-SCN-Bn-PCTA is a novel ligand having faster complexation kinetics with a number of radiometals. In this work, a systematic investigation was performed to evaluate the chelating ability of p-SCN-Bn-PCTA for {sup 90}Y and the influence of trace metal ions on it's complexation with {sup 90}Y in comparison to p-SCN-Bn-DTPA and p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using {sup 90}YCl{sub 3} obtained from an electrochemical generator. Results from our study indicate that while p-SCN-Bn-PCTA gave very good radiolabeling yields with {sup 90}Y when the reaction was carried out by heating for few minutes, it was most sensitive to the presence of trace metals, especially Fe(III). An independent and useful observation is that p-SCN-Bn-PCTA could be considered as the ligand of choice for assessing the chemical purity of generator derived {sup 90}Y.

  5. Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

  6. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  7. Uptake and distribution of 32P in the budded and self-rooted grape varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the self-rooted and budded varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the total P and 32P contents were high in 'Anabee-Shahi', but low in in 'Muscat'. The growing shoots contained more P than old stems and roots in all the varieties. In the budded plants, 'Kali Sahebi' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shani showed the maximum 32P and total P in the shoots, but 'Muscat' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shahi' accumulated more P in the roots and very low 32P in the growing shoots. Auto-radiographs of shoots also showed that 'Kali Sahebi' budded on 'Anab-e-Shani' rootstock accumulated more 32P in the shoots. (author)

  8. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy with 90Y but not 177Lu is effective treatment in a syngeneic murine leukemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie J Orozco

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy (RIT for treatment of hematologic malignancies has primarily employed monoclonal antibodies (Ab labeled with 131I or 90Y which have limitations, and alternative radionuclides are needed to facilitate wider adoption of RIT. We therefore compared the relative therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT employing 90Y and 177Lu in a syngeneic, disseminated murine myeloid leukemia (B6SJLF1/J model. Biodistribution studies showed that both 90Y- and 177Lu-anti-murine CD45 Ab conjugates (DOTA-30F11 targeted hematologic tissues, as at 24 hours 48.8 ± 21.2 and 156 ± 14.6% injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g of 90Y-DOTA-30F11 and 54.2 ± 9.5 and 199 ± 11.7% ID/g of 177Lu-DOTA-30F11 accumulated in bone marrow (BM and spleen, respectively. However, 90Y-DOTA-30F11 RIT demonstrated a dose-dependent survival benefit: 60% of mice treated with 300 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 lived over 180 days after therapy, and mice treated with 100 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 had a median survival 66 days. 90Y-anti-CD45 RIT was associated with transient, mild myelotoxicity without hepatic or renal toxicity. Conversely, 177Lu- anti-CD45 RIT yielded no long-term survivors. Thus, 90Y was more effective than 177Lu for anti-CD45 RIT of AML in this murine leukemia model.

  9. New modalities (setting, fractionation) of radioimmunotherapy by 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (90Y zevalin) in first line treatment of follicular type non Hodgkin malignant lymphomas: efficiency, toxicity and personalized dosimetry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale: radioimmunotherapy (R.I.T.) with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan ([90Y] Zevalin ) is a new treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory non Hodgkin follicular lymphoma (F.L.). Efficacy increases when Zevalin is used earlier in the disease course. Currently, Zevalin dosage is based on weight and not dosimetry. This most likely results in a wide range of absorbed dose to critical organs and tumor, which in turn translates in unpredictable efficacy and toxicity. Optimizing R.I.T. with [90Y] Zevalin will require its use as part of first-line therapy and implementation of patient-specific dosimetry methods in clinical trials. Objectives and methods: we have consecutively studied 2 new modalities of using Zevalin in first line therapy of F.L.. First, we conducted an international, randomized, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of consolidation with Zevalin(15 MBq/Kg) in patients with advanced-stage F.L. achieving at least a partial response after induction immuno chemotherapy. A second approach consisted of evaluating a fractionated schedule with 2 doses of Zevalin (11.1 MBq/kg each), 9 to 13 weeks apart, as front line therapy in F.L. patients with high tumor burden. As part of this second approach, we designed a refined imaging-based (planar and 3-dimensional) dosimetry protocol to improve prediction of dose efficacy and toxicity after each dose of zevalin. Data acquisition was performed in 3 centers (Lille, Nantes and Manchester) while data treatment and specific dose calculations for major organ, tumor masses and bone marrow were centralized. Conclusion: Consolidation of first remission with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in advanced-stage follicular lymphoma is highly effective with no unexpected toxicities, prolonging P.F.S. by 2 years and resulting in high P.R.-to-C.R. conversion rates regardless of type of first-line induction treatment. Preliminary data show the feasibility of front line fractionated R.I.T. with Zevalin in patient with high

  10. Optimising conditions for radiolabelling of DOTA-peptides with 90Y, 111In and 177Lu at high specific activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTA-conjugated peptides, such as [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide (DOTATOC) and [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTA-tate), can be labelled with radionuclides such as 90Y, 111In and 177Lu. These radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Radioligands for PRRT require high specific activities. However, although these radionuclides are produced without addition of carrier, contaminants are introduced during production and as decay products. In this study, parameters influencing the kinetics of labelling of DOTA-peptides were investigated and conditions were optimised to obtain the highest achievable specific activity. The effects of contaminants were systematically investigated, concentration dependently, in a test model mimicking conditions for labelling with minimal molar excess of DOTA-peptides over radionuclide. Kinetics of labelling of DOTA-peptides were optimal at pH 4-4.5; pH 90Y and 177Lu was completed after 20 min at 80 C, while labelling with 111In was completed after 30 min at 100 C. The effects of contaminants were systematically categorised, e.g. Cd2+ is the target and decay product of 111In, and it was found to be a strong competitor with 111In for incorporation in DOTA. In contrast, Zr4+ and Hf4+, decay products of 90Y and 177Lu, respectively, did not interfere with the incorporation of these radionuclides. The following conclusions are drawn: (a) DOTA-peptides can be radiolabelled at high specific activity; (b) reaction kinetics differ for each radionuclide; and (c) reactions can be hampered by contaminants, such as target material and decay products. (orig.)

  11. Clinical and laboratory toxicity after intra-arterial radioembolization with (90y-microspheres for unresectable liver metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten L J Smits

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical and laboratory toxicity in patients with unresectable liver metastases, treated with yttrium-90 radioembolization ((90Y-RE. METHODS: Patients with liver metastases treated with (90Y-RE, between February 1(st 2009 and March 31(st 2012, were included in this study. Clinical toxicity assessment was based on the reporting in patient's charts. Laboratory investigations at baseline and during a four-month follow-up were used to assess laboratory toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. The occurrence of grade 3-4 laboratory toxicity was stratified according to treatment strategy (whole liver treatment in one session versus sequential sessions. Response assessment was performed at the level of target lesions, whole liver and overall response in accordance with RECIST 1.1 at 3- and 6 months post-treatment. Median time to progression (TTP and overall survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients, with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (n = 30, neuroendocrine tumors (NET (n = 6 and other primary tumors (n = 23 were included. Clinical toxicity after (90Y-RE treatment was confined to grade 1-2 events, predominantly post-embolization symptoms. No grade 3-4 clinical toxicity was observed, whereas laboratory toxicity grade 3-4 was observed in 38% of patients. Whole liver treatment in one session was not associated with increased laboratory toxicity. Three-months disease control rates for target lesions, whole liver and overall response were 35%, 21% and 19% respectively. Median TTP was 6.2 months for target lesions, 3.3 months for the whole liver and 3.0 months for overall response. Median overall survival was 8.9 months. CONCLUSION: The risk of severe complications or grade 3-4 clinical toxicity in patients with liver metastases of various primary tumors undergoing (90Y-RE is low. In contrast, laboratory toxicity grade 3

  12. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using ZrO{sub 2}: Eu; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2}: Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera S, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (TL) of the doped zirconium oxide with europium (ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}) before beta radiations of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y are presented. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} were obtained by means of the sol-gel technique and they were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+}, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/ {sup 90}Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 204 and 292 C respectively. The TL response of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} as function of the absorbed dose was lineal from 2 Gy up to 90 Gy. The fading of the information of the ZrO{sub 2}: Eu{sup 3+} was of 10% the first 2 hours remaining almost constant the information by the following 30 days. The ZrO{sub 2} doped with the (Eu{sup 3+}) ion it was found more sensitive to the beta radiation that the one of zirconium oxide without doping (ZrO{sub 2}) obtained by the same method. Those studied characteristics allow to propose to the doped zirconium oxide with europium like thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of the beta radiation. (Author)

  13. Development of a dosimetric system for {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y betatherapy applicators; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de dosimetria para aplicadores de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita Salles

    2010-07-01

    The {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y applicators, used in betatherapy for prevention of keloids and pterigium, are imported and many times their dosimetric features are shown only in an illustrated form by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents the development of a methodology for the dosimetry of {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y betatherapy applicators. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves and dose distribution profiles produced by these applicators. The experimental measurements of the radial and axial radiation attenuation, have been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic films. The experimental results have been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage depth dose curves and the radial dose profiles, the theoretical and the experimental ones, have presented good agreement, which may validate the use of the MCNP5 for these simulations, confirming the viability of the usage of this method in procedures of beta emitter sources dosimetry. (author)

  14. Methodology development for dosimetry of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators;Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para dosimetria de aplicadores de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia

    2009-07-01

    The {sup 9}0Sr+{sup 9}0Y applicators, used in beta therapy for prevention of keloids and pterigio, are imported and its dosimetric features are only illustrated by the manufacturers. The exhaustive routine of the medical physicists in the clinic do not make possible the accomplishment of procedures for the confirmation of these parameters. This work presents a methodology development for dosimetry in two {sup 9}0Sr+{sup 9}0Y beta therapy applicators of the Amersham brand. The Monte Carlo code MCNP 4 C was used for the simulation of the percentage depth dose curves. The experimental measurements of the radiation attenuation had been done with a mini-extrapolation chamber. The results of the experimental measures had been compared with the simulated values. Both percentage deep dose curves, the theoretical and the experimental ones, had presented similar behavior, which may validate the use of the MCNP 4 C for these simulations, strengthening the usage of this method at procedures of dosimetry of these beta radiation sources. (author)

  15. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y using amorphous ZrO{sub 2}; Dosimetria termoluminiscente de radiaciones beta de {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y usando ZrO{sub 2} amorfo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [CICATA-Legaria, IPN, Legaria Num. 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Barrera R, M.; Soto E, A.M. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) of the zirconium oxide in its amorphous state (ZrO{sub 2}-a) before beta radiations of {sup 90} Sr/ {sup 90} Y are presented. The amorphous powders of the zirconium oxide were synthesized by means of the sol-gel technique. The sol-gel process using alkoxides like precursors, is an efficient method to prepare a matrix of zirconium oxide by hydrolysis - condensation of the precursor to form chains of Zr-H{sub 3} and Zr-O{sub 2}. One of the advantages of this technique is the obtention of gels at low temperatures with very high purity and homogeneity. The powders were characterized by means of thermal analysis and by X-ray diffraction. The powders of ZrO{sub 2}-a, previously irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90} Sr/{sup 90} Y, presented a thermoluminescent curve with two peaks at 150 and 257 C. The dissipation of the information of the one ZrO{sub 2}-a was of 40% the first 2 hours remaining constant the information for the following 30 days. The reproducibility of the information was of {+-} 2.5% in standard deviation. The studied characteristics allow to propose to the amorphous zirconium oxide as thermoluminescent dosemeter for the detection of beta radiation. (Author)

  16. Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

  17. Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity (32P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

  18. Acetylcholine increases the breakdown of triphosphoinositide of rabbit iris muscle prelabelled with [32P] phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, A A; Akhtar, R A; Hawthorne, J N

    1977-01-15

    1. Paired iris smooth muscles from rabbits were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in an iso-osmotic salt medium containg glucose, inositol, cytidine and [32P]phosphate. 2. One of the pair was then incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 min in unlabelled medium containing 10mM-2-deoxyglucose and the other was incubated in the presence of acetylcholine plus eserine (0.05mM each). 2-Deoxyglucose, which was included in the incubation medium to minimize the biosynthesis of triphosphoinositide from ATP and diphosphoinositide, decreased the amount of labelled ATP by 71% and inhibited further 32P incorporation from ATP into triphosphoinositide by almost 30%. 3. Acetylcholine (0.05mM) increased significantly the loss of 32P from triphosphoinositide (the 'triphosphoinositide effect') in 32P-labelled iris muscle. This effect was measured both chemically and radiochemically. It was also observed when 32Pi was replaced by myo-[3H]inositol in the incubation medium. 4. The triphosphoinositide effect was blocked by atropine but not by D-tubocurarine. Further, muscarinic but not nicotinic agonists were found to provoke this effect. 5. Acetylcholine decreased by 28% the 32P incorporation into triphosphoinositide, presumably by stimulating its breakdown. This decrement in triphosphoinositide was blocked by atropine, but not by D-tubocurarine. 6. The triphosphoinositide effect was accompanied by a significant increase in 32P labelling, but not tissue concentration, of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid. The possible relationship between the loss of 32P label from triphosphoinositide in response to acetylcholine and the concomitant increase in that of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid is discussed. 7. The presence of triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase, the enzyme that might be stimulated in the iris smooth muscle by the neurotransmitter, was demonstrated, and, under our methods of homogenization and assay, more than 80% of its activity was localized in the

  19. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

    OpenAIRE

    Marincek Nicolas; Jörg Ann-Catherine; Brunner Philippe; Schindler Christian; Koller Michael T; Rochlitz Christoph; Müller-Brand Jan; Maecke Helmut R; Briel Matthias; Walter Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Methods In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Results Overall, 359 patie...

  20. Attenuation of bremsstrahlung from 90Sr-90Y, 147Pm and 204Tl in thick target compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.

    2014-11-01

    The external bremsstrahlung (EB) produced by beta particles such as from 90Sr-90Y, 147Pm and 204Tl in PbCl2, PbF2, Pb(NO3)2 and CdO were measured using NaI(Tl) crystal. The beta stopper technique is employed to measure the integral intensities above 100 keV energy in different absorber thicknesses. Attenuation of the external bremsstrahlung, excited by 90Sr-90Y, 147Pm and 204Tl beta-emitters in the same compounds has also been studied. The measured attenuation parameter is not constant with absorber thickness and it increases with increasing Zmod of the absorber. Whereas, the mass attenuation coefficient of gamma rays of equivalent energy is independent of the absorber thickness. This confirms that the attenuation of EB in an absorber does not conform to a single exponential law, unlike the absorption of monoenergetic gamma rays. Rather it may be a combination of a large number of exponential terms.

  1. Radioembolisation with {sup 90}Y-labelled resin microspheres in the treatment of liver metastasis from breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianni, R.; Pelle, G.; Notarianni, E.; Saltarelli, A.; Rabuffi, P. [Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Latina (Italy); Bagni, O.; Filippi, L. [Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Latina (Italy); Cortesi, E. [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Oncology, Rome (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Metastatic breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, commonly affecting the liver. We report our experience with {sup 90}Y radioembolisation (RE) and its effects on the survival of patients with treatment-refractory breast cancer liver metastases. A total of 77 female patients affected by breast cancer were accepted into our department for RE. Inclusion criteria were inoperable and chemotherapy-refractory hepatic metastases, acceptable performance status, sufficient residual liver, no significant hepato-pulmonary shunts. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 (29 patients) included those with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score 0, liver involvement (0-25 %) and no extrahepatic disease (EHD); group 2 (23 patient) included patients with ECOG score 1-2, liver involvement (26-50 %) and evidence of EHD. A total of 25 patients were considered ineligible. The median age of the remaining 52 patients was 57.5 years. The median overall survival was 11.5 months and better in those whose performance status and liver function were preserved (14.3 versus 8.2 months). According to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST), partial response (PR) was achieved in 29 patients (56 %), stable disease (SD) was achieved in a further 18 patients (35 %) and 5 patients showed progressive disease (PD) (10 %). {sup 90}Y RE is effective in the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer. We demonstrated a relevant survival and encouragingly high response rate in patients with treatment-refractory disease. (orig.)

  2. The exploration of nursing care for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated using 90Sr-90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploration of nursing care for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated using 90Sr-90Y through the rectum was carried out . The treatment result and nursing experience in 90 cases were reported in this paper. Before the therapy nurses explained the method and principle of this treatment to the patients for the sake of increasing their confidence and to help them complete the treatment course successfully. During the radiotherapy, nurses practiced strictly radiation protection principles and operating instructions. They assisted the patients to have a healthy life style and good diet . The result of treatment indicated that the total effectiveness rate was 96.7%. The symptoms of lower urinary obstruction were improved evidently and the life quality of the patients elevated. Observation of clinical system confirmed that 90Sr-90Y may be a new treatment method of BPH with benefits of safe irradiation dos, easy operation, non-traumatization, painlessness, and remarkable curative effects. However, it should be stressed that nursing care plays a pivotal role in the treatment result. (authors)

  3. A new approach for dose calculation in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) based on collapsed cone superposition: validation with 90Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Gardin, Isabelle; Lebtahi, Rachida; Dieudonné, Arnaud

    2014-09-01

    To speed-up the absorbed dose (AD) computation while accounting for tissue heterogeneities, a Collapsed Cone (CC) superposition algorithm was developed and validated for 90Y. The superposition was implemented with an Energy Deposition Kernel scaled with the radiological distance, along with CC acceleration. The validation relative to Monte Carlo simulations was performed on 6 phantoms involving soft tissue, lung and bone, a radioembolisation treatment and a simulated bone metastasis treatment. As a figure of merit, the relative AD difference (ΔAD) in low gradient regions (LGR), distance to agreement (DTA) in high gradient regions and the γ(1%,1 mm) criterion were used for the phantoms. Mean organ doses and γ(3%,3 mm) were used for the patient data. For the semi-infinite sources, ΔAD in LGR was below 1%. DTA was below 0.6 mm. All profiles verified the γ(1%,1 mm) criterion. For both clinical cases, mean doses differed by less than 1% for the considered organs and all profiles verified the γ(3%,3 mm). The calculation time was below 4 min on a single processor for CC superposition and 40 h on a 40 nodes cluster for MCNP (108 histories). Our results show that the CC superposition is a very promising alternative to MC for 90Y dosimetry, while significantly reducing computation time.

  4. Organ doses from hepatic radioembolization with 90Y, 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu: A Monte Carlo simulation study using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikin, N. A. A.; Yeong, C. H.; Guatelli, S.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Ng, K. H.; Malaroda, A.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Perkins, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    90Y-radioembolization is a palliative treatment for liver cancer. 90Y decays via beta emission, making imaging difficult due to absence of gamma radiation. Since post-procedure imaging is crucial, several theranostic radionuclides have been explored as alternatives. However, exposures to gamma radiation throughout the treatment caused concern for the organs near the liver. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation using MIRD Pamphlet 5 reference phantom was carried out. A spherical tumour with 4.3cm radius was modelled within the liver. 1.82GBq of 90Y sources were isotropically distributed within the tumour, with no extrahepatic shunting. The simulation was repeated with 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu. The estimated tumour doses for all radionuclides were 262.9Gy. Tumour dose equivalent to 1.82GBq 90Y can be achieved with 8.32, 5.83, and 4.44GBq for 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu, respectively. Normal liver doses by the other radionuclides were lower than 90Y, hence beneficial for normal tissue sparing. The organ doses from 153Sm and 177Lu were relatively higher due to higher gamma energy, but were still well below 1Gy. 166Ho, 177Lu and 153Sm offer useful gamma emission for post-procedure imaging. They show potential as 90Y substitutes, delivering comparable tumour doses, lower normal liver doses and other organs doses far below the tolerance limit.

  5. The early history of (32) P as a radioactive tracer in biochemical research: A personal memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Howard

    2005-05-01

    The concept of using radioactive isotopes as "tracers" of chemical conversions was conceived and developed by inorganic chemist Georg de Hevesy (Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1943). In 1935, he began to apply the technique to various biological processes using (32) P, and his experiments revealed the dynamic character of physiology and metabolism. Following de Hevesy's lead, Samuel Ruben (University of California, Berkeley) exploited (32) P in 1937-38 for investigation of phospholipid metabolism. Between 1937 and 1940, Ruben and colleague Martin Kamen spearheaded tracer studies in various biological systems using (32) P, short-lived (11) C, and other radioactive isotopes. During this period, Kamen was responsible for cyclotron-produced radioactive tracers and was able to sustain de Hevesy's research by supplying him with (32) P. In 1940, Ruben and Kamen discovered long-lived (14) C, which later proved to be a very powerful tool for analysis of complex biochemical processes, such as the path of carbon in photosynthesis. Between 1946 and 1950, (32) P was used in studies of bacteriophage replication and photosynthetic metabolism. This memoir surveys the history of these early investigations. PMID:21638569

  6. Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

  7. Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure β- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

  8. Changes of decay rates of radioactive 111In and 32P induced by mechanic motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The changes of decay rates of radionuclide 111In(electron capture) and 32P(β decay) induced by exter-nal mechanic motion are studied. The results indicate that,in the external circular rotation in clockwise and anticlockwise centrifuge on Northern Hemisphere(radius 8 cm,2000 r/min) ,the half life of 111In compared with the referred(2.83 d) is decreased at 2.83% and increased at 1.77%,respectively;the half life of 32P compared with the referred(14.29 d) is decreased at 3.78% and increased at 1.75%,respec-tively. When the clockwise and anticlockwise rotations increase to 4000 r/min,the half life of 111In is decreased at 11.31% and increased at 6.36%,respectively;the half life of 32P is decreased at 10.08% and increased at 4.34%,respectively. When the circular rotation is removed,the decay rates of 111In and 32P return back to the referred,respectively. It is found that the external circular rotations in clockwise and anticlockwise centrifuge selectively increased and decreased the decay rates of 111In and 32P,respec-tively,and the effects are strongly dependent on the strength of circular rotation. It is suggested that these effects may be caused by the chiral interaction.

  9. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte A, C

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation

  10. Development of Technology for the Preparation of 90Sr/90Y Generators at the Radiopharmacy Directory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Y (T/2 = 2,67 d; Eβmax = 2,28 MeV) is a radionuclide with efficacy established for various cancer therapies, labeling biomolecules and treating of radiosinovectomy. Due to its nuclear properties, is obtained through the decay of 90Sr T/2 = 28 y in the form of a generator. Several types of 90Sr/90Y generators were developed, and the most employed are the cation exchange resins, where Sr and Y are adsorbed and 90Y is selectively eluted with acetate or EDTA. The disadvantage of this type of generator is the radiolysis, which degrades its use. The electrochemical generator is a proposed solution because there is no significant effect of radiation. In this concept, the difference between the electrochemical potentials of the elements Sr and Y is used to obtain a rapid separation of 90Y from 90Sr. The production of 90Y via colloid formation is the simplest method for the separation, based on the colloid formation of Y in high alkaline pH, which can be filtered and separated from Sr, and subsequently dissolved in HCl. The objective of this work was the development of technologies for the preparation of 90Sr/90Y generators, and three technologies were developed: generators using cation resins columns, generators through colloid formation and electrochemical generators. Radionuclidic quality control of 90Y was also evaluated by liquid scintillation, radionuclide identity, extraction paper chromatography (EPC) using complexing agents for 90Y and by Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The results showed that generators using cation resins have the best results related to the elution efficiency (∼83%), the reproducibility and radionuclidic purity. The electrochemical generator showed a potential for development, having the advantage of not suffering the effects of radiolysis of the pair 90Sr/90Y as the resin. A comparison and evaluation of the methods of the radionuclidic quality control showed that the EPC is very sensitive and allows

  11. The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

  12. Lower biological efficacy of 90Y-loaded glass microspheres results from microspheres transport in the arterial hepatic tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: 90Y resin and glass microspheres liver radio-embolization delivering liver dose of 40 and of 120 Gy, respectively, display similar hepatic toxicity risk than 40 Gy fractionated EBRT. We investigated why. Materials and methods: the microscopic dose distribution was assessed in the realistic liver model developed by Gulec et al., but using the Russels dose deposition kernel: D(r) = 0.989*A*(1-r/8)*r2 (1) where r: radial distance in mm, D: dose in Gy and A: microsphere activity in kBq. A lattice of hexagonal prisms represented the hepatic lobules. The central vein and the six portal tracts were located in the hexagon centre and corners, respectively. Each branch segment of the arterial tree was assumed to split in two smaller branch daughters owing different curvatures which results in a 40-60% microspheres distribution as derived by Kennedy et al. from computer modelling. We performed four 120 Gy to liver simulations. Two uniform: 1 and 6 glass microspheres trapped in all and in only 1 portal tract per lobule, respectively. Two random: glass microspheres trapping assuming an equal probability for all the portal tracts or a variable probability depending on the successions of artery connections leading to the portal tract. Results: Eq. 1 fitted well the 90Y dose kernel obtained from Monte Carlo simulation by Gulec et al. For the two uniform simulations all hepatic structures received at least 110 Gy. The fast decrease of the 90Y kernel (eq. 1) as the inverse of the square distance r is counter-balanced by the number of contributing microspheres that increases as the square of this distance r. The major part of a dose everywhere in a lobule does not arise from the microsphere tapped in the portal tracts of this lobule, but arises from the farther lobules (75%) as already pointed out by Gulec et al. The Russels law clearly explains this observation. The first random simulation gave for the less irradiated tissue a dose distribution

  13. 188Re标记叶酸偶联白蛋白纳米微球对SKOV3人卵巢癌生长抑制作用研究*%The Inhibitory Effects of 188Re-Labeled Folate Coupling with Magnetic Albumin Nanoparticles on SKOV3 Ovarian Cancer in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秋莎; 陈道桢; 臧嘉; 郭彩琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of isotope labeled folate targeting albumin nanoparticles (188Re-fo-late-CDDP/HAS MNP) on human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells in vivo. Methods The human SKOV3 ovarian cancer model was established in mice. Sixty-four tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into eight groups:(A) negative control group, (B) chemotherapy group, (C) radiotherapy alone group, (D) hyperthermia alone group, (E) chemotherapy combined with radio-therapy group, (F) chemotherapy combined with hyperthermia therapy group, (G) radiotherapy combined with hyperthermia therapy group and (H) hyperthermia, chemotherapy and radiotherapy combined treatment group. After treatment, the cell pro-liferation and tumor growth were observed. The inhibitory rate of tumor mass was measured. The histopathological changes of tumor were observed in all groups. Results The quality of tumor was significantly lower in treatment groups than that of control group (P<0.05). There was the lowest quality of tumor in hyperthermia, chemotherapy and radiotherapy combined treatment group than that of other treatment groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The combination of magnetic induction hyper-thermia, chemotherapy, targeted radionuclide of radiation exposure can effectively inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer, which has the potential application for ovarian cancer treatment.%目的观察核素标记叶酸靶向白蛋白纳米微球(188Re-folate-CDDP/HAS MNP)对SKOV3人卵巢癌细胞生长作用的影响。方法建立人卵巢癌细胞SKOV3裸鼠模型,并将64只荷瘤鼠随机分成8组,每组8只,分别为(A)阴性对照组;(B)采用CDDP方案化疗的单纯化疗组;(C)核素靶向内照射的单纯放疗组;(D)磁感应热疗的单纯热疗组;(E)化疗联合放疗组;(F)化疗联合热疗治疗组;(G)放疗联合热疗治疗组;(H)热疗、化疗、放疗联合治疗组。各组经治疗后,观察肿瘤生长增殖情况,计算肿瘤质量抑

  14. Somatostatin-based radiopeptide therapy with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC versus [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, A.; Seiler, D.; Brunner, P.; Ng, Q.K.T.; Mueller-Brand, J. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Marincek, N.; Walter, M.A. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Koller, M.T. [University Hospital Basel, Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Basel (Switzerland); Maecke, H.R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiochemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Rochlitz, C. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Oncology, Basel (Switzerland); Briel, M. [University Hospital Bern, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Basel (Switzerland); McMaster University, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Hamilton (Canada); Schindler, C. [University of Basel, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Somatostatin-based radiopeptide treatment is generally performed using the β-emitting radionuclides {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The present study aimed at comparing benefits and harms of both therapeutic approaches. In a comparative cohort study, patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours underwent repeated cycles of [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC or [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC until progression of disease or permanent adverse events. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risks regression were employed to examine predictors of survival and adverse events for both treatment groups. Overall, 910 patients underwent 1,804 cycles of [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC and 141 patients underwent 259 cycles of [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC. The median survival after [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC and after [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC was comparable (45.5 months versus 35.9 months, hazard ratio 0.91, 95 % confidence interval 0.63-1.30, p = 0.49). Subgroup analyses revealed a significantly longer survival for [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC over [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with low tumour uptake, solitary lesions and extra-hepatic lesions. The rate of severe transient haematotoxicities was lower after [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC treatment (1.4 vs 10.1 %, p = 0.001), while the rate of severe permanent renal toxicities was similar in both treatment groups (9.2 vs 7.8 %, p = 0.32). The present results revealed no difference in median overall survival after [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC and [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC. Furthermore, [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA]-TOC was less haematotoxic than [{sup 90}Y-DOTA]-TOC. (orig.)

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of [90Y]-Bz-DTPA-oct: a yttrium-90-labelled octreotide analogue for radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation into the in vitro behaviour of two yttrium-90-labelled somatostatin analogues was performed. Further in vivo characterisation was performed with the most promising agent. A new DTPA-octreotide analogue (Bz-DTPA-oct) was synthesised by coupling a bifunctional DTPA chelator to the N-terminal amine of the D-Phe1 of Tyr3-octreotide. This new SRIF analogue and DTPA-octreotide (OctreoScan) were radiolabelled with 90Y prior to serum stability being evaluated. Receptor binding assays were also performed on the two radioligands using rat cortex membranes. The [90Y]-Bz-DTPA-oct was further evaluated in vivo using tumour-bearing rats. The first conjugate (DTPA-octreotide) bound with a high affinity to SRIF receptors and the 90Y complex was relatively stable in human serum (t 1/2 3.8 d for 90Y lost to serum proteins). The second conjugate (Bz-DTPA-oct) also exhibited a high binding affinity to SRIF receptors, but it demonstrated an even slower loss of 90Y to serum proteins (t1/2 12.1 d). The in vivo evaluation of the more stable [90Y]-Bz-DTPA-oct showed a very rapid and high accumulation in somatostatin receptor-positive tumours, which after 1 h resulted in tumour/nontumour ratios of 3.8, 21, and 4.9 (for blood, muscle, and liver, respectively). These tumour/nontumour ratios increased, and were by 24 h postinjection 138, 285, and 6.1 (for blood, muscle, and liver). Yttrium-90-labelled Bz-DTPa-oct is rapidly and selectively accumulated in somatostatin receptor-positive tissue. Octadentate Bz-DTPA-oct could be ligand for 90Y radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours and their metastases

  16. Comparison of 90Y/177Lu labeled DOTA-Bz-RGD tetramer and DOTA-RGD tetramer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Y/177Lu labeled DOTA-Bz-RGD tetramer and DOTA-RGD tetramer were prepared, and the effect of Bz-DOTA and DOTA on labeling conditions and in vitro stability of radiolabeled compounds was compared. The labeling conditions, including reaction pH, reaction temperature and reaction time, were investigated. ITLC and HPLC show that the labeling yields of four radiolabeled compounds are more than 95% under optimal conditions (pH=6.0, reacting at 100 degree C for 15-20 min); the four radiolabeled compounds show pretty good stability in saline and fetal bovine serum. Although introducing of Bz has no effect on labeling conditions and in vitro stability of radiolabeled compounds, it brings a little change on molecule polarity. HPLC analysis and lg P values reveal that introducing of Bz increases the lipophilicity of radiolabeled compounds. (authors)

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography for analysis of 32P-Postlabeled DNA adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisig, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Analysis of 32P-Postlabeled DNA Adducts Magnus Zeisig Center for Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Bioscience at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, S-141 57 Huddinge, SwedenThe formation of DNA adducts, i.e. the covalent binding of chemicals and chemical groups to DNA,isbelieved to be an important step in chemical carciwg...

  18. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  19. Labeling of specific proteins in rat ovarian plasma membranes with [γ-32P]GTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report evidence that [γ-32P]GTP preferentially labels two proteins in rat ovary and parotid membranes that differ structurally from the proteins that are substrates for ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin and which are thought to be involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP. (Auth.)

  20. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. /sup 32/P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

    1978-08-01

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi /sup 32/P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of /sup 32/P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to /sup 32/P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of /sup 32/P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P (14 32.361S, 168 09.430W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  5. Comparison of 131I- and 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibody 17-1A for treatment of human colon cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of radionuclide remains an important question in clinical radioimmunotherapy. Therefore, a study was initiated, using an in vivo model system, to assess the relative merits of 131I- and 90Y-labeled 17-1A monoclonal antibody as therapeutic agents in the treatment of colon cancer. 131I- and 90Y-labeled 17-1A were assessed in animal therapy trials using athymic nude mice bearing LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. 131I-labeled 17-1A decreased tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion without lethality. In contrast, the doses of 90Y-labeled 17-1A which were required to produce a significant increase in tumor doubling time also caused marked toxicity. Although similar tumor growth inhibition was produced by 250 μCi 90Y- and 150 μCi 131I-labeled 17-1A, Medical Internal Radiation Dose calculations based on biodistribution data estimated that the dose delivered by 90Y was greater than that delivered by 131I. To investigate this discrepancy, 3-dimensional dose distributions within LS174T tumors were assessed using autoradiography and 3-dimensional calculational techniques. It was found that a greater fraction of the dose was deposited in the tumor after treatment with 131I- compared to 90Y-labeled 17-1A. When the Medical Internal Radiation Dose calculations were adjusted using the 3-dimensional dose distributions, 250 μCi of 90Y- and 150 μCi of 131I-labeled 17-1A were found to deliver similar tumor doses. These studies suggest that 131I-labeled 17-1A is superior to 90Y-labeled 17-1A, since 131I-labeled antibody produced less hematological and animal toxicity and was more effective at inhibiting LS174T tumor growth than 90Y-labeled antibody across the range of radionuclide doses tested. Furthermore, they suggest that it will be necessary to perform 3-dimensional dose calculations. 33 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 ± 19.5 (x-bar ± s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

  7. Molecular response assessed by {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC and survival after {sup 90}Y microsphere therapy in patients with liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Luca; Salvatori, Rita; Bagni, Oreste [Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Latina (Italy); Scopinaro, Francesco [Sant' Andrea Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Pelle, Giuseppe; Cianni, Roberto [Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology, Latina (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We investigated the prognostic role of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC in patients affected by hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NET) undergoing {sup 90}Y radioembolization ({sup 90}Y-RE). A group of 15 consecutive patients with unresectable NET liver metastases underwent {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET at baseline and 6 weeks after {sup 90}Y-RE. Molecular response was defined as a reduction of >50 % in the tumour-to-spleen ratio (ΔT/S). The patients were divided into two groups (responders with ΔT/S >50 % and nonresponders with ΔT/S <50 %) Patients were followed up by imaging and laboratory tests every 3 months until death or for at least 36 months following {sup 90}Y-RE. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors predicting overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A decrease in T/S ratio was seen in all patients on {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET scans performed after {sup 90}Y-RE. Nine patients were classified as responders and six as nonresponders. The mean OS in all patients was 31.0 months. Responders had a significantly (p < 0.001) longer OS (mean 36.0 ± 2.5 months) and PFS (mean 29.7 ± 3.4 months) than nonresponders. In a multivariate analysis, none of the other examined variables including age, unilobar vs. bilobar locations, bilirubin levels, radiological response or the presence of extrahepatic disease significantly predicted patient outcome. Molecular response assessed with {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET might be a useful predictor of survival in patients affected by NET liver metastases treated with {sup 90}Y-RE. (orig.)

  8. Molecular response assessed by 68Ga-DOTANOC and survival after 90Y microsphere therapy in patients with liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the prognostic role of 68Ga-DOTANOC in patients affected by hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NET) undergoing 90Y radioembolization (90Y-RE). A group of 15 consecutive patients with unresectable NET liver metastases underwent 68Ga-DOTANOC PET at baseline and 6 weeks after 90Y-RE. Molecular response was defined as a reduction of >50 % in the tumour-to-spleen ratio (ΔT/S). The patients were divided into two groups (responders with ΔT/S >50 % and nonresponders with ΔT/S <50 %) Patients were followed up by imaging and laboratory tests every 3 months until death or for at least 36 months following 90Y-RE. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors predicting overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A decrease in T/S ratio was seen in all patients on 68Ga-DOTANOC PET scans performed after 90Y-RE. Nine patients were classified as responders and six as nonresponders. The mean OS in all patients was 31.0 months. Responders had a significantly (p < 0.001) longer OS (mean 36.0 ± 2.5 months) and PFS (mean 29.7 ± 3.4 months) than nonresponders. In a multivariate analysis, none of the other examined variables including age, unilobar vs. bilobar locations, bilirubin levels, radiological response or the presence of extrahepatic disease significantly predicted patient outcome. Molecular response assessed with 68Ga-DOTANOC PET might be a useful predictor of survival in patients affected by NET liver metastases treated with 90Y-RE. (orig.)

  9. Rapid determination of {sup 90}Sr impurities in freshly 'generator eluted'{sup 90}Y for radiopharmaceutical preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonardi, Mauro L. [LASA, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milano (Italy); Martano, Luigi [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, via G. Ripamonti 435, I-20141 Milano (Italy); Groppi, Flavia [LASA, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate, Milano (Italy); Chinol, Marco [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, via G. Ripamonti 435, I-20141 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: marco.chinol@ieo.it

    2009-10-15

    {sup 90}Y is one of the most useful radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications and has a half-life (t{sub 1/2}=64.14 h) suitable for most therapeutic applications, beta particles of high energy and decays to a stable daughter. It is significant that {sup 90}Y is available conveniently and inexpensively from a radionuclide 'generator' by decay of its parent, {sup 90}Sr. Nevertheless, current and planned clinical applications with [{sup 90}Y] labelled compounds employ activity levels that cannot be readily obtained from an in-house generator, but from commercial sources. We have evaluated Eichrom's Sr-resin, either as an 'in-house' generator or as a fast QC method for analysis of {sup 90}Y solutions. In particular, for the development as a generator, we investigated the percentage of the radio-Sr in the first 8 M HNO{sub 3} eluate: in this fraction the concentration of {sup 90}Sr must be smaller than 10{sup -5}% (recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection). For evaluation as a rapid QC method, we analyzed the concentration of {sup 90}Y in all the fractions containing 'only' radio-Sr: {sup 90}Y should not be present in these eluates. After the collection of {beta}{sup -} and {gamma} spectra and analysis of them, we concluded that commercial Sr-resin minicolumn cannot give us the results expected; we developed an in-house system loaded with 4 mL of Sr-resin which gave better results as a generator and a rapid QC method.

  10. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between

  11. Radioembolization of hepatocarcinoma with 90Y glass microspheres: development of an individualized treatment planning strategy based on dosimetry and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere registered treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden < 50 % and without obstruction of the main portal vein trunk. Response was monitored with the densitometric radiological criterion (European Association for the Study of the Liver) and treatment-related liver decompensation was defined ad hoc with a time cut-off of 6 months. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment. Voxel dosimetry was performed with the local deposition method on 99mTc-MAA SPECT images. The reconstruction protocol was optimized. Concordance of 99mTc-MAA and 90Y bremsstrahlung microsphere biodistributions was studied in 35 sequential patients. Two segmentation methods were used, based on SPECT alone (home-made code) or on coregistered SPECT/CT images (IMALYTICS trademark by Philips). STRATOS trademark absorbed dose calculation was validated for 90Y with a single time point. Radiobiology was used introducing other dosimetric variables besides the mean absorbed dose D: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), biologically effective dose averaged over voxel values (BEDave) and equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). Two sets of radiobiological parameters, the first derived from microsphere irradiation and the second from external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were used. A total of 16 possible methodologies were compared. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were derived. The area under the curve (AUC

  12. Electrochemical separation of 90-yttrium in the electrochemical 90Sr/90Y generator and its use for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0, Tyr3] octreotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Đorđe Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiopharmaceuticals based on 90Y are widely used in the treatment of malignant deseases. In order to meet the requirements for their future application, a 90Sr/90Y generator was developed and 90Y eluted from this locally produced generator was used for the radiolabelling of the DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analog [DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate and the preparation of [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3] octreotate (90Y-DOTATATE for peptide receptore radionuclide therapy. 90Sr/90Y generator was based on the electrochemical separation of 90Y from 90Sr in a two-cycle electrolysis procedure. Three electrode cells were used to perform both electrolyses. In both cycles, working electrodes were kept on constant potential. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 2.7 of the value before the electrolyses. The radionuclidic purity of the 90Y solution was analysed by ITLC and extraction paper chromatography. The labelling of peptide (100 mg DOTATATE with 90YCl3 was performed at 95°C for 30 minutes. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and chromatographic separation, using a solid SepPak C-18 column. Results obtained confirmed the efficiency of our electrochemical separation technique and quality control methods for 90Y. The achieved efficiency of the 90Sr/90Y generator above 96% of the theoretical value represents a good basis for the further development of this generator. The labelling of the DOTATATE with 90Y exhibited a high efficiency, too: there was less than 1% of 90Y3+in the 90Y-DOTATATE.

  13. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-12-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  14. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Single-Well Technique using 32P for Determining Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic method for determining the direction, ∅, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ∅. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

  16. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1981-12-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

  17. DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([α- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

  18. Chemical digestion and radionuclidic assay of TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very quantitative, destructive assay procedure was devised for accurately measuring the 32P activity content of TiNi-encapsulated intravascular brachytherapy sources and was applied to four different sources (termed 'seeds') which were developed and provided by Guidant Intravascular Intervention (formerly NeoCardia). These seeds are intended for use in the prophylactic treatment of restenosis following balloon angioplasty in heart-disease patients. The assays involved the dissolution of the TiNi jacket, extraction of the activity from the internal 32P-containing source material, quantitative solution transfers, and a gravimetrically-based dilution; followed by liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry of the resulting master solution with 3H-standard efficiency tracing using composition-matched LS cocktails. The LS spectrometry utilized a previously-developed method for resolving the always-present 33P impurity. The protocol included provisions for accounting for all possible losses of 32P in the digestion procedure (based on radiochemical tracing experiments), for any unrecovered activity in the remaining source material, and for any residual activity in the solution-transfer and containing vessels. Sections of the TiNi jackets adjacent to the cut-off active seed portions were also assayed for any contained activity. Such destructive assays were required for relating measurements of the absorbed dose spatial distribution for the seeds to theoretic dose modelling and for establishing calibration factors for subsequent non-destructive radionuclidic measurements on the seeds

  19. Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

  20. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

  1. Pulmonary tissue and surfactant changes in Syrian hamsters after inhalation of 90Y in fused clay particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrian hamsters received an average of 6900 rads to lung following inhalation of an aerosol of 90Y in fused clay. Animals were sacrificed in groups of four from 2 to 33 weeks post-inhalation. Controls were exposed to stable Zr in fused clay. By 8 weeks post-inhalation, total lung lipids were significantly increased (28 mg/100 g Body Weight) above the mean of the control group (21 mg/100 g B.W.) but decreased toward control levels for the remainder of the experiment. Lipid content of lung surfactant obtained by pulmonary lavage decreased from 0.93 mg/100 g B.W. to an average of 0.63 mg/100 g B.W. but more importantly, the highly surface active acetone precipitable phospholipids decreased from 0.57 +- 0.12 mg/100 g B.W. to 0.33 +- 0.09 mg/100 g B.W. during the experimental period. This change in surfactant lipid content was reflected in alterations in the surface tension properties of the pulmonary surfactant system which is intimately involved in pulmonary dynamics and alveolar stability. (U.S.)

  2. Internal radiotherapy. 2. Treatment of non-hodgkin's lymphoma with 90Y-labeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes recent trends of radioimmunotherapy using specific monoclonal antibodies against tumors, its principle and outcomes, with major emphasis on the title. When the antibodies like rituximab (rit), anti-CD20 antibody against B-cell malignant lymphoma, are labeled by a certain radioisotope, they become more active in specifically killing malignant cells by their immune cytotoxicity following binding plus lethal effect of radiation (beta ray). In Western areas, 90Y-labeled (ibritumomab, ibrit) or 131I-labeled rit is now available for the purpose. The efficacy of the former ibrit in the phase III trial has been reported to be 83%, in contrast to that of rit alone, 56%, with the similar safety to rit, in out-patients with the tumor. The protocol for the therapy is consisted from the first therapy with intravenous rit and imaging by 111In-labeled rit on day 1 and the second with the rit and ibrit (0.4 mCi/kg) on day 8. Patients are excluded from the latter therapy when the image by 111In shows the abnormal distribution in the liver and bone marrow. In Japan, phase I/II clinical trials of ibrit have been conducted to confirm its efficacy and safety and the agent is to be approved within this year. The radioimmunotherapy is thought to become more popular. (T.I.)

  3. The experimental study of 32P-colloid perfusion therapy in the animal-models of chronic maxillary sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To search for the mechanism of 32P-colloid perfusion therapy in the animal models of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Methods: 32P-colloid were injected into the male sheep maxillary sinuses of the animal-models of chronic maxillary sinusitis in different dosage group. The changes of bacteria and mucosael pathomorphology were observed by periodic germiculture and pathology in 1,3,6 months after injection. Results: After 32P-colloid perfusion therapy, the amounts of bacterial species and chronic phlogistic cells were remarkable reduced, and the structure of cilia cells did not change. The curable rate was 83.3% in 6 months. There were remarkable difference in groups. Conclusions: 32P-colloid was provided with antibiosis and reducing chronic phlogistic responses. The authors had found the optimal dose of 32P-colloid perfusion in the maxillary sinuses through the study. The curable rate of single dose of 32P-colloid perfusion in the maxillary sinuses was higher than other therapy, 32P-colloid perfusion was simple and convenient. There was high selectivity of 32P in the target organ, when there was no effect on other important organs through radiobiological measurement. (authors)

  4. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S α with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and

  5. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincek Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Methods In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Results Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle, 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1–4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1–158 months, 34 (range: 1–118 months and 29 (range: 1–113 months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59 vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03 and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79 vs. low dose, p = 0.03. Conclusions Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00978211.

  6. Comparison of yttrium and indium complexes of DOTA-BA and DOTA-MBA: models for (90)Y- and (111)In-labeled DOTA-biomolecule conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Pietryka, John; Ellars, Charles E; Edwards, D Scott

    2002-01-01

    Yttrium and indium complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraaza-4,7,10-tris(carboxymethyl)-1-cyclododecylacetylbenzylamine (DOTA-BA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraaza-4,7,10-tris(carboxymethyl)-1-cyclododecylacetyl-R-(+)-alpha-methylbenzylamine (DOTA-MBA) were prepared in order to study solution structures of (90)Y- and (111)In-labeled DOTA-biomolecule conjugates. (90)Y and (111)In complexes M(L) (M = (90)Y and (111)In; L = DOTA-BA and DOTA-MBA) were prepared from the reaction of MCl(3) with DOTA-BA and DOTA-MBA, respectively, in ammonium acetate buffer. A reverse phase HPLC method revealed that both (90)Y and (111)In complexes show only one radiometric peak in their radio-HPLC chromatograms. It was also found that (111)In(DOTA-BA) and (111)In(DOTA-MBA) are more hydrophilic than their corresponding (90)Y analogues, suggesting different coordination spheres in (111)In and (90)Y complexes of the same DOTA conjugate. Complexes M(L) (M = Y and In; L = DOTA-BA and DOTA-MBA) were prepared and characterized by HPLC, LC-MS, and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) methods. The HPLC concordance experiments for (90)Y(DOTA-MBA)/Y(DOTA-MBA) and (111)In(DOTA-MBA)/In(DOTA-MBA) show that the same complex is prepared at both tracer and macroscopic levels. The NMR data ((1)H and (13)C) clearly demonstrates that Y(DOTA-BA) and Y(DOTA-MBA) exist in solution as one predominant isomer. VT NMR data ((1)H and (13)C) show that In(DOTA-BA) and In(DOTA-MBA) are fluxional at room temperature while Y(DOTA-BA) and Y(DOTA-MBA) become fluxional only at elevated temperatures. The fluxionality of these complexes is due to rapid rotation of acetate/acetamide chelating arms and inversion of ethylenic groups of the macrocyclic ring.

  7. Preparation of highly concentrated super-hot (γ-32P)ATP using small-scale ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain a highly concentrated, pure and super-hot [γ-32P]ATP, we improved the purification method of super-hot [γ-32P]ATP which was synthesized by the method of Johnson and Walseth (1979). The super-hot [γ-32P]ATP was synthesized in a relatively large volume (2 ml) of reaction mixture and purified using semi-micro scale anion exchange chromatography (Dowex 1 x 2, 60 - 70 μl column volume). In combination with washing the reaction product with certain organic solvents, this chromatography technique makes it possible to obtain a highly concentrated and pure super-hot [γ-32P]ATP (approx. 7000 Ci/mmol; 20 - 30 mCi/ml) from [32P]Pi of any commercial source in a good yield. (author)

  8. Treatment with tandem [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE of neuroendocrine tumours refractory to conventional therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregni, E.; Maccauro, M.; Chiesa, C.; Pascali, C.; Lorenzoni, A.; Bogni, A.; Coliva, A.; Bombardieri, E. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Mariani, L.; Vullo, S.Lo [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Statistics and Biometry Unit, Milan (Italy); Mazzaferro, V. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Milan (Italy); De Braud, F.; Buzzoni, R. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Milione, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Pathology Department, Milan (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic option in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Treatment with tandem [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE may improve the efficacy of PRRT without increasing the toxicity. In a phase II study we evaluated the feasibility of combined PPRT with a high-energy beta emitter ({sup 90}Y) and a medium-energy beta/gamma emitter ({sup 177}Lu) in patients with metastatic NET refractory to conventional therapy. A group of 26 patients with metastatic NET were treated with four therapeutic cycles of alternating [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE (5.55 GBq) and [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE (2.6 GBq). A dosimetric evaluation was carried out after administration of [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE to calculate the absorbed doses in healthy organs. The acute and long-term toxicities of repeated treatment were analysed. PRRT efficacy was evaluated according to RECIST. Administration of tandem [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE induced objective responses in 42.3 % of patients with metastatic NET with a median progression-free survival longer than 24 months. Of patients with pretreatment carcinoid syndrome, 90 % showed a symptomatic response or a reduction in tumour-associated pain. The cumulative biologically effective doses (BED) were below the toxicity limit in the majority of patients, in the absence of renal function impairment The results of our study indicates that combined [{sup 90}Y]DOTA-TATE and [{sup 177}Lu]DOTA-TATE therapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic option in NET refractory to conventional therapy. Furthermore, the absence of kidney damage and the evaluated cumulative BEDs suggest that increasing the number of tandem administrations is an interesting approach. (orig.)

  9. Treatment with tandem [90Y]DOTA-TATE and [177Lu]DOTA-TATE of neuroendocrine tumours refractory to conventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic option in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Treatment with tandem [90Y]DOTA-TATE and [177Lu]DOTA-TATE may improve the efficacy of PRRT without increasing the toxicity. In a phase II study we evaluated the feasibility of combined PPRT with a high-energy beta emitter (90Y) and a medium-energy beta/gamma emitter (177Lu) in patients with metastatic NET refractory to conventional therapy. A group of 26 patients with metastatic NET were treated with four therapeutic cycles of alternating [177Lu]DOTA-TATE (5.55 GBq) and [90Y]DOTA-TATE (2.6 GBq). A dosimetric evaluation was carried out after administration of [177Lu]DOTA-TATE to calculate the absorbed doses in healthy organs. The acute and long-term toxicities of repeated treatment were analysed. PRRT efficacy was evaluated according to RECIST. Administration of tandem [90Y]DOTA-TATE and [177Lu]DOTA-TATE induced objective responses in 42.3 % of patients with metastatic NET with a median progression-free survival longer than 24 months. Of patients with pretreatment carcinoid syndrome, 90 % showed a symptomatic response or a reduction in tumour-associated pain. The cumulative biologically effective doses (BED) were below the toxicity limit in the majority of patients, in the absence of renal function impairment The results of our study indicates that combined [90Y]DOTA-TATE and [177Lu]DOTA-TATE therapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic option in NET refractory to conventional therapy. Furthermore, the absence of kidney damage and the evaluated cumulative BEDs suggest that increasing the number of tandem administrations is an interesting approach. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of EGS4/PRESTA multiple-scattering algorithms for 90Sr/90Y intravascular brachytherapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Li, X A; Yu, C X

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the EGS4/PRESTA electron multiple-scattering (MS) algorithms for dose calculation in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) using a 90Sr/90Y source. The small source size and the small volume of interest in IVBT require very fine spatial resolution, which may break down the constraints of Molière's MS theory as implemented in EGS4. The theory is accurate only when the electron step sizes are large enough to allow the number of collisions omega0 to be much greater than e = 2.7183. When step sizes are too small to allow at least 2.7183 collisions, as may be necessitated by the fine geometry, the algorithm may switch off MS, producing dosimetric artefacts. This study showed that switching off MS could produce a dose deviation of up to 6% when the half-thickness (d/2) of the dose scoring region is comparable with the Moliere minimum step size (t(min) = 2.7183). The effect of switching off MS is negligible if d/2 > t(min) For the case of omega0 > e, if the electron step sizes are chosen to allow five to 40 collisions, with increasing step size, the doses surrounding the source increase and the error decreases. On the other hand, when larger step sizes are chosen, the dose calculation voxel size must also be increased in order for the calculations to converge. A good compromise between accuracy and applicability for IVBT simulation can be made, if the thickness of the scoring region is 0.1 mm and the electron step sizes are in the range allowing 10 to 30 collisions.

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin (MAA) scintigraphy for planning treatment with {sup 90}Y microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Bieke; Mertens, Jeroen; Stienaers, Steven; D' Asseler, Yves [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Sturm, Emiel J.; Defreyne, Luc [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    {sup 90}Y microspheres are used for intra-arterial treatment of liver tumours. In the patient preparation, a hepatic angiogram is performed and all arteries that could transport microspheres from the targeted liver vasculature to extrahepatic organs are blocked. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin (MAA) is injected intra-arterially to simulate the treatment and whole-body scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the abdomen are performed. Various aspects of lung shunt fraction (LSF) estimation were studied: interobserver and intrapatient variability, influence of scan quality and underlying disease. Secondly, the interobserver variability in reading the MAA SPECT of the abdomen was investigated. We reviewed 90 whole-body scans and 20 SPECT scans performed at our institution. Readers were blinded to each other's findings. Scoring the scan quality was based on the visualization of tracer degradation. The mean difference in LSF between the readers was 1%. In 1 of 23 patients who underwent repeated MAA injections a marked change in LSF was observed. No significant differences in LSF were recorded for primary versus secondary liver tumours. There was a correlation between scan quality and LSF, suggesting that low scan quality leads to overestimation of the LSF. Concordant results in ruling out the presence of extrahepatic tracer deposition were reached in 17 of 20 scans (85%). Interobserver and intrapatient variability in LSF calculation was limited. LSF was clearly dependent on scan quality. The underlying disease had no significant impact on the LSF. Interobserver variability for reading the MAA SPECT scans was acceptable. (orig.)

  12. Radioactive sputter cathodes for {sup 32}P plasma-based ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, M.A. [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)]. E-mail: fortin@bms.uu.se; Paynter, R.W. [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sarkissian, A. [Plasmionique Inc., 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Stansfield, B.L. [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes ({sup 32}P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribution of {sup 32}P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in {sup 32}P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils.

  13. A rehabilitated greenhouse for 32P radioisotope studies and training in Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two major activities of the Soil Science Unit in Seibersdorf are to develop and test isotope methodologies and guidelines to support CRPs and TCPs, and to conduct training to strengthen the analytical and professional capabilities of Member States. This is achieved through regional, interregional and laboratory training. Whereas development of methodologies and guidelines for stable isotopes such as (13C, 15N, 18O) in the Unit has advanced in the area of soil-water-nutrient plant continuum, the use of isotopes of phosphorus (32P, 33P) has received little attention in the Unit during the last ten years. The main reason for this has been the lack of a greenhouse and laboratories, that conform to the required safety standards for conducting experiments because of the radioactive nature of the phosphorus isotopes. In most of the developing countries where P bio-availability in the soil is low, the use of 32P and 33P is crucial to understanding P dynamics in soil, and to quantify P pools that can be mobilized by crop genotypes with superior nutrient resource recovery. In response to a demand from Member States to train fellows in the use of P isotopes, and the need to conduct research to support the on-going CRP on Selection and Evaluation of Food (Cereal and Legume) Crop Genotypes Tolerant to Low Nitrogen and Phosphorus Soils through the Use of Isotopic and Nuclear-related Techniques (D1.50.10), the Soil Science Unit has refurbished an old glasshouse (new ventilation and cooling systems, floor renovation etc) and a laboratory to a Type B radiation standard. Fellowship training in the use of 32P and 33P radio-isotopes for soil P dynamics and P nutrition experiments, safety precautions, sample preparation, measurements using a liquid scintillation counter and calculations, will now be conducted at the Soil Science Unit in Seibersdorf. (author)

  14. Comparative study on DOTA-derivatized bombesin analog labeled with 90Y and 177Lu: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare in vitro and in vivo a novel DOTA-chelated bombesin (BN) analog of the amino acid sequence, QRLGNQWAVGHLM-CONH2 (BN[2-14]NH2), labeled with 90Y and 177Lu, for its potential use in targeted radiotherapy of tumors expressing gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. The same amino acid sequence, but with different chelator, referred as BN1.1 (Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-QRLGNQWAVGHLM-CONH2), has already been studied and reported; however, the DOTA-chelated one, suitable for labeling with M+3 type radiometals, was not yet described. Methods: The conditions for labeling of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 with noncarrier added 90Y and with 177Lu [specific activity (SA), 15 Ci/mg Lu] were investigated and optimized to provide 90Y-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 177Lu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 of high SA. The stability of the radiolabeled compounds in human serum was evaluated over a period of 24 h. The human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, known to express GRP receptors, was used for in vitro evaluation of radiolabeled peptide affinity to GRP receptors and for assessment of cytotoxicity of both nonlabeled and radiolabeled peptide. Biodistribution accompanied by receptor blocking was studied in normal Swiss mice. Results: 90Y-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and 177Lu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 were obtained with radiochemical yield >98% and high SA (67.3 GBq 90Y/μmol and 33.6 GBq 177Lu/μmol, respectively). They were stable when incubated in human serum for up to 24 h. The binding affinities of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 and both natY- and natLu-labeled analogs to GRP receptors were high (IC50=1.78, 1.99, and 1.34 nM, respectively), especially for the natLu-DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 complex. The cytotoxicity study of DOTA-BN[2-14]NH2 to PC-3 cells revealed an IC50=6300 nM after 72 h of exposition, while the labeled derivatives showed no significant cytotoxic effect. The internalization rate to PC-3 cells was more rapid for 177Lu-labeled peptide (84.87%) than for the 90Y-labeled one (80.79%), while the efflux

  15. Detection of irradiation induced modifications in foodstuff DNA using 32p post-labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA post-labelling has been used successfully to detect damage to DNA caused by a range of damaging agents. The assay results in a fingerprint of changes induced in DNA which might, in principle, be useful as a test for the detection of the irradiation of foods. The authors present their DNA extraction and 32p post-labelling methods from chicken or cooked prawn samples and their analysis method (High Performance liquid chromatography). It's hoped that these results could form the basis of a test to detect if foods have been irradiated

  16. Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

  17. Activity measurement of /sup 33/P and /sup 32/P radionuclide mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, I.; Kansky, Z.

    1984-04-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of measuring mixtures of /sup 33/P and /sup 32/P with special regard to the method of simultaneous determination of both radionuclides in a liquid scintillator. This method was experimentally tested for special detection sensitivity and intended special applications in plant physiology and biochemistry using a dioxane scintillator (SLD-31, Spolana Neratovice, CSSR) and a Packard Tri-Carb 300 C, USA. The method gave erroneous results. The main cause of the errors in measurements of the /sup 33/P and /sup 32/P mixture in the SLD-31 was the adsorption of radionuclides on the inner wall of glass tubes. This phenomenon is not accompanied by changes in the quenching index. However, the effectiveness of measurement dropped and the relative contribution of the spectra of the two radionuclides changed with the time following sample preparation. The said effects were removed by adding 0.4% silicon dioxide (Cab-O-Sil M5, Serva) to the liquid scintillator.

  18. Multiple DNA adducts in lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers determined by 32P-postlabeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes could serve as a means of monitoring human exposure to potential genotoxic agents. In the study, DNA from peripheral lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers was examined for adducts by the P1 nuclease 32P-post-labeling technique. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) maps from both groups revealed multiple DNA adducts which ranged from no adducts for one individual to six adducts for a different individual. The total DNA adduct concentrations were approximately one adduct in 10 to the seventh-10 to the eighth power normal nucleotides. Comparison of the adduct TLC profiles revealed individual variation in both pattern and level of DNA adducts. The type and amount of adduct was not influenced by smoking history and remained unchanged in four out of six subjects who were resampled after a one month interval. One adduct detected in lymphocyte DNA co-migrated on TLC with an adduct derived by in vitro incubation of lymphocytes with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The 3H-nucloside values were consistent with values obtained by 32P-postlabeling of the same sample (correlation coefficient of 0.88). No relationship was apparent between the capacity of lymphocytes to form a (3H)-B(a)P-derived adduct in vitro and the concentration of the adduct, or total adducts present in untreated lymphocytes

  19. Intraperitoneal distribution of 32P-chromic phosphate suspension in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraperitoneal administration of radioactive chromic phosphate suspension is receiving renewed attention as a therapeutic treatment to limit metastatic dissemination of ovarian carcinoma. Our study utilized mongrel dogs to approximate the uptake and distribution of 3.0 millicuries 32P-chromic phosphate suspension administered intraperitoneally (IP). Lymph nodes, omentum, retroperitoneum, peritoneum, diaphragm, abdominal wall muscle, pleura, spleen, liver, kidneys, lung, small intestine, and blood were sampled for liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography. Whole blood showed the least activity (1800 cpm/100 lambda at day one, declining to 2800 cpm/100 lambda by day 16). Omentum and diaphragm maintained the greatest concentrations (183 x 106 dpm/g and 4 x 106 dpm/g respectively). These initial high values were 100 times greater than the highest values found for the small intestine, abdominal wall muscle, mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes and pleura. The peritoneum increased in specific activity until day three (5.9 x 106 dpm/g) and then rapidly declined. Our results show that following IP administration to the dog, 32P suspension is associated with the serous membranes of the peritoneal cavity (most notably omentum, diaphragm, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum). This distribution could be valuable in adjuvant tumor therapy since serosal surfaces of the peritoneum (both visceral and parietal) and the omentum are the most common sites of tumor metastases associated with ovarian carcinoma

  20. Histological study of the early stage of 32P-induced experimental osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of 32P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

  1. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  2. Selective intraarterial radionuclide therapy with Yttrium-90 (Y-90 microspheres for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Elgin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of selective intraarterial radionuclide therapy (SIRT with Yttrium-90 (Y-90 microspheres in liver metastases of different tumors. We also interpreted the contribution of SIRT to survival times according to responder- non responder and hepatic- extra hepatic disease. Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 124 patients who were referred to our department for SIRT between June 2006 and October 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. SIRT has been applied to 78 patients who were suitable for treatment. All the patients had primary liver tumor or unresectable liver metastasis of different malignancies. The treatment was repeated at least one more time in 5 patients to the same or other lobes. Metabolic treatment response evaluated by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in the 6th week after treatment. F18-FDG PET/CT was repeated in per six weeks periods. The response criterion had been described as at least 20% decrease of SUV value. Also in patients with neuroendocrine tumor serial Gallium-68 (Ga-68 PET/CT was used for evaluation of response. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their treatment response. Results 68 patients received treatment for the right lobe, seven patients received treatment for the left lobe and 3 patients for both lobes. The mean treatment dose was estimated at 1.62 GBq. In the evaluation of treatment response; 43(55% patients were responder (R and 35 (45% patients were non-responder (NR in the sixth week F18-FDG PET/CT. Mean pretreatment SUVmax value of R group was 11.6 and NR group was 10.7. While only 11 (31% out of 35 NR patients had H disease, 30 (69% out of 43 R patients had H disease (p Conclusions SIRT is a useful treatment method which can contribute to the lengthening of survival times in patients with primary or metastatic unresectable liver malignancies. Also F18-FDG PET

  3. Optimization of energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Xing; Ghaly, Michael; Frey, Eric C. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287-0859 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a

  4. Optimization of energy window for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging for detection tasks using the ideal observer with model-mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere brachytherapy (radioembolization) of unresectable liver cancer, posttherapy 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been used to document the distribution of microspheres in the patient and to help predict potential side effects. The energy window used during projection acquisition can have a significant effect on image quality. Thus, using an optimal energy window is desirable. However, there has been great variability in the choice of energy window due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of 90Y bremsstrahlung photons. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the ideal observer (IO) is a widely used figure of merit (FOM) for optimizing the imaging system for detection tasks. The IO implicitly assumes a perfect model of the image formation process. However, for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT there can be substantial model-mismatch (i.e., difference between the actual image formation process and the model of it assumed in reconstruction), and the amount of the model-mismatch depends on the energy window. It is thus important to account for the degradation of the observer performance due to model-mismatch in the optimization of the energy window. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the energy window for 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for a detection task while taking into account the effects of the model-mismatch. Methods: An observer, termed the ideal observer with model-mismatch (IO-MM), has been proposed previously to account for the effects of the model-mismatch on IO performance. In this work, the AUC for the IO-MM was used as the FOM for the optimization. To provide a clinically realistic object model and imaging simulation, the authors used a background-known-statistically and signal-known-statistically task. The background was modeled as multiple compartments in the liver with activity parameters independently following a Gaussian distribution; the

  5. 32P-adduct assay: Comparative recoveries of structurally diverse DNA adducts in the various enhancement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A (32)P-adduct assay for the measurement of low levels (1 adduct per 10(sup 7) nucleotides) of binding of carcinogens to DNA has been reported previously. In this procedure, DNA is enzymatically hydrolyzed to 3'-monophosphates of normal nucleosides and adducts, which are 5'-(32)P-labeled by T4 polynucleotide kinase and (lambda(32)P)ATP. Labeled adducts are resolved by TLC. Enrichment of adducts by extraction in 1-butanol or digestion with nuclease P1 prior to (32)P-labeling, however, increased the sensitivity of detection for many adducts to a level of 1 per 10(sup 9-10) nucleotides, although adduct recovery particularly in the latter assay depended on the chemical nature of adducts. The observation that chemical structure of an adduct may be detrimental in its recovery in the enzyme- and extraction-mediated enrichment procedures may serve as a probe in the structural characterization of adducts of unknown carcinogens

  6. Co-isolation of in vivo 32P-labeled specific transcripts and DNA without phenol extraction of nuclease digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for isolation and quantitation of specific intact transcripts, for which a hybridization probe is available, from 32P-labeled bacterial cells. The RNA is extracted in the absence of R Nase activity by incorporating an inert, physically removable R Nase inhibitor throughout the spheroplasting, cell lysis, and pronase digestion steps. [/sup 32/P]RNA is separated from [32P]DNA, without recourse to phenol extraction of DNase treatment, on a Cs2SO/sub 4-/HCONH2 step gradient in which the precipitated RNA forms a sharp band. Specific transcripts are purified from [32P]RNA by physical separation of the transcript and hybridization probe using gel-exclusion chromatography. The gentleness of this technique enables the co-isolation of DNA and can facilitate the analysis of covalently joined RNA-DNA replication intermediates

  7. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard 90Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without an increase

  8. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Minocha, Jeet; Memon, Khairuddin; Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard {sup 90}Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the

  9. A novel method for the preparation of large-area 90Sr/90Y sources for the calibration of hand contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for the preparation of large-area 90Sr/90Y polymer film sources for the calibration of hand contamination monitors. The process consists of solvent extraction of predictable quantity of 90Sr into an organic solvent containing di-tert-butyl-cyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6), formation of a polymeric solution of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), pouring the 90Sr-embedded polymer solution over a surface of a defined area followed by evaporation to create a thin film and peeling-off of the radioactive PMMA film. Quality control tests of the radioactive films were carried out to ensure nonleachability, uniform distribution of activity and stability. Sources having 5 kBq±428 Bq were prepared using this method and routinely used for calibration of contamination monitors. - Highlights: • Preparation of large-area 90Sr/90Y sources for the calibration of hand contamination monitors. • Extraction of 90Sr/90Y activity followed by preparation of a polymeric solution. • Pouring the radioactive polymer solution on a surface of a defined area. • Quality evaluation of the sources

  10. Comparison of 32P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium 32P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with 32P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with 32P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with 32P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while 32P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or 32P treatment

  11. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  12. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  13. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the 32P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

  14. Separation of phosphorous by liquid-liquid extraction for the measurement of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorous containing radioisotope waste was separated and determined by liquid-liquid extraction method through liquid scintillation counter (LSC). In this process, ammonium phosphate was converted to phosphomolybdate (PMo) by the reaction of ammonium molybdate (Mo) in HCl solution (0.02 M) and maximum UV/VIS absorbance (λmax) 218 nm was observed. The PMo solution was extracted with TOA (Tri-n-Octylamine)/xylene mixture and λmax 290 nm was found for this organic layer. Absorbance of aqueous and organic layer was linear through concentration. The impurities such as Co, Cr, Gd, etc. remain in aqueous layer by treating with Mo which was determined by ICP-AES and AAS. The quenching correction curve for 32P was calculated using LSC results. No counting change was observed as the volume of quenchers increased. The recovery was 98% and 81% for the extraction and separation process from the test using H332PO4 as standard tracer. (author)

  15. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated Sα. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the Sα in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  16. 32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides

  17. Effect of fasting on 32P translocations in pre-labelled pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid, short-lived efflux of inorganic 32P-orthophosphate that occurs when pre-labelled pancreatic islets are exposed to nutrient insulin secretagogues (the ''phosphate flush'') has been proposed to reflect some early step in β-cell secretory activation. In the present study, glucose-initiated phosphate efflux was studied during fasting.Pancreatic islets were isolated from fed and 48-h fasted rats by collagenase digestion. After pre-labelling with 32P-orthophosphate and basal perifusion with 0.5 mg/ml glucose, tissue analyses disclosed similar stores of radioactivity in the two groups of islets. Stimulatory perfusion with glucose at this time failed to promote insulin release from islets which had been secured from fasted donors although the ''phosphate flush'' was preserved. However, the characteristics of phosphate efflux were altered. Maximal glucose-induced phosphate release was greater with islets from fasted animals whereas phosphate release in response to low level stimulation with glucose was diminished. Accordingly, the dose-response curve for glucose-initiated phosphate efflux in islets from fasted rats was displaced to the right and compatible with a decreased sensitivity to glucose at the activation site for the ''phosphate flush.'' Thus, while glucose is unable to enhance insulin release in vitro after fasting, glucose still elicits increased phosphate efflux. However, the phenomenon appears to be attended by an impaired responsiveness to activation by glucose, supporting the contention that some early step in the sequence of stimulus secretion coupling in the β-cell may be obtunded after food deprivation. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Efficacy of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-Labeled Fully Human Anti-Transferrin Receptor Monoclonal Antibody in Pancreatic Cancer Mouse Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sugyo

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive tumor and the prognosis remains poor. Therefore, development of more effective therapy is needed. We previously reported that 89Zr-labeled TSP-A01, an antibody against transferrin receptor (TfR, is highly accumulated in a pancreatic cancer xenograft, but not in major normal organs. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT with 90Y-TSP-A01 in pancreatic cancer mouse models.TfR expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, MIAPaCa-2 was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. 111In-labeled anti-TfR antibodies (TSP-A01, TSP-A02 were evaluated in vitro by cell binding assay with the three cell lines and by competitive inhibition assay with MIAPaCa-2. In vivo biodistribution was evaluated in mice bearing BxPC-3 and MIAPaCa-2 xenografts. Tumor volumes of BxPC-3 and MIAPaCa-2 were sequentially measured after 90Y-TSP-A01 injection and histological analysis of tumors was conducted.MIAPaCa-2 cells showed the highest TfR expression, followed by AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. 111In-TSP-A01 and 111In-TSP-A02 bound specifically to the three cell lines according to TfR expression. The dissociation constants for TSP-A01, DOTA-TSP-A01, TSP-A02, and DOTA-TSP-A02 were 0.22, 0.28, 0.17, and 0.22 nM, respectively. 111In-TSP-A01 was highly accumulated in tumors, especially in MIAPaCa-2, but this was not true of 111In-TSP-A02. The absorbed dose for 90Y-TSP-A01 was estimated to be 8.3 Gy/MBq to BxPC-3 and 12.4 Gy/MBq to MIAPaCa-2. MIAPaCa-2 tumors treated with 3.7 MBq of 90Y-TSP-A01 had almost completely disappeared around 3 weeks after injection and regrowth was not observed. Growth of BxPC-3 tumors was inhibited by 3.7 MBq of 90Y-TSP-A01, but the tumor size was not reduced.90Y-TSP-A01 treatment achieved an almost complete response in MIAPaCa-2 tumors, whereas it merely inhibited the growth of BxPC-3 tumors. 90Y-TSP-A01 is a promising RIT agent for pancreatic cancer, although further

  19. Depth dose distribution in the water for clinical applicators of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, with a extrapolation mini chamber; Distribuicao de dose em profundidade na agua para aplicadores clinicos de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, com uma mini-camara de extrapolacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia de Lara; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Mercia L., E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determines the depth dose in the water for clinical applicators of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, using a extrapolation mini chamber developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and different thickness acrylic plates. The obtained results were compared with the international recommendations and were considered satisfactory

  20. Cross-fire doses from {beta}-emitting radionuclides in targeted radiotherapy. A theoretical study based on experimentally measured tumor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enger, S A; Carlsson, J; Lundqvist, H [Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Hartman, T [Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: shirin.enger@bms.uu.se

    2008-04-07

    A mathematical model based upon histological findings of cell cluster distributions in primary breast cancers and lymph node metastases was developed. The model is unique because it accounts for tumor cell cluster formations within both primary tumors and metastases. The importance of inter-cell cluster cross-fire radiation dose for {beta}-emitting radionuclides of different energies was studied. The cell clusters were simulated as spheres with 15, 25 and 50 {mu}m radii having a homogeneous radioactivity distribution. The self-dose as well as the dose distribution around the spheres was calculated for seven radionuclides, {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re, {sup 32}P, {sup 186}Re, {sup 159}Gd, {sup 131}I and {sup 177}Lu using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. Generally, the self-dose was decreasing with increasing energy of the emitted beta particles. An exception was {sup 188}Re which, compared to {sup 32}P, had higher beta energy as well as higher self-dose. This was due to the higher emission of conversion and Auger electrons in the {sup 188}Re-decay. When the cell clusters had a mean distance that was shorter than the maximum range of {beta}-particles, then the inter-cluster cross-fire radiation contributed significantly to the absorbed dose. Thus, high-energy {beta}-particles may, in spite of a low self-dose to single clusters, still be favorable to use due to the contribution of inter-cluster cross-fire radiation.

  1. Determination of surface dose rate of indigenous 32P patch brachytherapy source by experimental and Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope production and Application Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center developed 32P patch sources for treatment of superficial tumors. Surface dose rate of a newly developed 32P patch source of nominal diameter 25 mm was measured experimentally using standard extrapolation ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT film. Monte Carlo model of the 32P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed to estimate the surface dose rates from these sources. The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films are 82.03±4.18 (k=2) and 79.13±2.53 (k=2) respectively. The two values of the surface dose rates measured using the two independent experimental methods are in good agreement to each other within a variation of 3.5%. The surface dose rate to tissue (cGy/min) estimated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code works out to be 77.78±1.16 (k=2). The maximum deviation between the surface dose rates to tissue obtained by Monte Carlo and the extrapolation chamber method is 5.2% whereas the difference between the surface dose rates obtained by radiochromic film measurement and the Monte Carlo simulation is 1.7%. The three values of the surface dose rates of the 32P patch source obtained by three independent methods are in good agreement to one another within the uncertainties associated with their measurements and calculation. This work has demonstrated that MCNP based electron transport simulations are accurate enough for determining the dosimetry parameters of the indigenously developed 32P patch sources for contact brachytherapy applications. - Highlights: • Surface dose rates of 25 mm nominal diameter newly developed 32P patch sources were measured experimentally using extrapolation chamber and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Monte Carlo model of the 32P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed. • The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and

  2. New modalities (setting, fractionation) of radioimmunotherapy by {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan ({sup 90}Y zevalin) in first line treatment of follicular type non Hodgkin malignant lymphomas: efficiency, toxicity and personalized dosimetry approach; Nouvelles modalites (consolidation, fractionnement) de radioimmunotherapie par {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) en traitement de premiere ligne des lymphomes malin non hodgkiniens de type folliculaire: efficacite, toxicite et approche dosimetrique personnalisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morschhauser, F

    2008-12-15

    Rationale: radioimmunotherapy (R.I.T.) with {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan ([{sup 90}Y] Zevalin ) is a new treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory non Hodgkin follicular lymphoma (F.L.). Efficacy increases when Zevalin is used earlier in the disease course. Currently, Zevalin dosage is based on weight and not dosimetry. This most likely results in a wide range of absorbed dose to critical organs and tumor, which in turn translates in unpredictable efficacy and toxicity. Optimizing R.I.T. with [{sup 90}Y] Zevalin will require its use as part of first-line therapy and implementation of patient-specific dosimetry methods in clinical trials. Objectives and methods: we have consecutively studied 2 new modalities of using Zevalin in first line therapy of F.L.. First, we conducted an international, randomized, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of consolidation with Zevalin(15 MBq/Kg) in patients with advanced-stage F.L. achieving at least a partial response after induction immuno chemotherapy. A second approach consisted of evaluating a fractionated schedule with 2 doses of Zevalin (11.1 MBq/kg each), 9 to 13 weeks apart, as front line therapy in F.L. patients with high tumor burden. As part of this second approach, we designed a refined imaging-based (planar and 3-dimensional) dosimetry protocol to improve prediction of dose efficacy and toxicity after each dose of zevalin. Data acquisition was performed in 3 centers (Lille, Nantes and Manchester) while data treatment and specific dose calculations for major organ, tumor masses and bone marrow were centralized. Conclusion: Consolidation of first remission with {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in advanced-stage follicular lymphoma is highly effective with no unexpected toxicities, prolonging P.F.S. by 2 years and resulting in high P.R.-to-C.R. conversion rates regardless of type of first-line induction treatment. Preliminary data show the feasibility of front line fractionated R.I.T. with

  3. Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  4. Preparation and radiolabeling of a lyophilized (kit) formulation of DOTA-rituximab with 90Y and 111In for domestic radioimmunotherapy and radioscintigraphy of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Nazila; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Khalaj, Ali; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Yavari, Kamal; Sabzevari, Omid; Khanchi, Ali Reza; AKHLAGHI, MEHDI

    2014-01-01

    Background On the basis of results of our previous investigations on 90Y-DTPA-rituximab and in order to fulfil national demands to radioimmunoconjugates for radioscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL), preparation and radiolabeling of a lyophilized formulation (kit) of DOTA-rituximab with 111In and 90Y was investigated. Methods 111In and 90Y with high radiochemical and radionuclide purity were prepared by 112Cd (p,2n)111In nuclear reaction and a locally developed ...

  5. PET/CT-Based Dosimetry in 90Y-Microsphere Selective Internal Radiation Therapy: Single Cohort Comparison With Pretreatment Planning on 99mTc-MAA Imaging and Correlation With Treatment Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yoo Sung; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 90Y PET/CT can be acquired after 90Y-microsphere selective radiation internal therapy (SIRT) to describe radioactivity distribution. We performed dosimetry using 90Y-microsphere PET/CT data to evaluate treatment efficacy and appropriateness of activity planning from 99mTc-MAA scan and SPECT/CT. Twenty-three patients with liver malignancy were included in the study. 99mTc-MAA was injected during planning angiography and whole body 99mTc-MAA scan and liver SPECT/CT were acquired. After...

  6. Growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Gut, Paweł; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Liebert, Włodzimierz; Gryczyńska, Maria; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Blanco-Gangoo, Al Ricardo; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Pituitary tumors causing acromegaly are usually macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, and they can grow aggressively, infiltrating surrounding tissues. Difficulty in achieving complete tumor removal at surgery can lead toward a strong tendency for recurrence, making it necessary to consider a means of treatment other than those currently used such as somatostatin analogs (SSAs), growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, surgical removal, and radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient diagnosed with an aggressive, giant GH-secreting tumor refractory to medical therapy but ultimately treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE. A 26-year-old male with an invasive macroadenoma of the pituitary gland (5.6 × 2.5 × 3.6 cm) and biochemically confirmed acromegaly underwent 2 partial tumor resections: the first used the transsphenoidal approach and the second used the transcranial method. The patient received SSAs pre- and postoperatively. Because of the progression in pituitary tumor size, he underwent classic irradiation of the tumor (50 Gy). One and a half years later, the patient presented with clinically and biochemically active disease, and the tumor size was still 52 mm in diameter (height). Two neurosurgeons disqualified him from further surgical procedures. After confirming the presence of somatostatin receptors in the pituitary tumor by using (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, we treated the patient 4 times with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE. After this treatment, the patient attained partial biochemical remission and a reduction in the tumor mass for the first time. Treatment with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE may be a promising option for some aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenomas when other methods have failed. PMID:26636388

  7. Intraoperative avidination for radionuclide treatment as a radiotherapy boost in breast cancer: results of a phase II study with 90Y-labeled biotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after conservative surgery for early breast cancer requires 5-7 weeks. For elderly patients and those distant from an RT center, attending for EBRT may be difficult or impossible. We investigated local toxicity, cosmetic outcomes, and quality of life in a new breast irradiation technique - intraoperative avidination for radionuclide therapy (IART) - in which avidin is administered to the tumor bed and 90Y-labelled biotin later administered intravenously to bind the avidin and provide irradiation. Reduced duration EBRT (40 Gy) is given subsequently. After surgery, 50 (ten patients), 100 (15 patients) or 150 mg (ten patients) of avidin was injected into the tumor bed. After 12-24 h, 3.7 GBq 90Y-biotin (beta source for therapeutic effect) plus 185 MBq 111In-biotin (gamma source for imaging and dosimetry) was infused slowly. Whole-body scintigraphy and SPECT/CT images were taken for up to 30 h. Shortened EBRT started 4 weeks later. Local toxicity was assessed by RTOG scale; quality of life was assessed by EORTC QOL-30. Of 35 patients recruited (mean age 63 years; range 42-74) 32 received IART plus EBRT. 100 mg avidin provided 19.5 ± 4.0 Gy to the tumor bed and was considered the optimum dose. No side-effects of avidin or 90Y-biotin occurred, with no hematological or local toxicity. Local G3 toxicity occurred in 3/32 patients during EBRT. IART plus EBRT was well accepted, with good cosmetic outcomes and maintained quality of life. IART plus reduced EBRT can accelerate irradiation after conservative breast surgery. (orig.)

  8. Carcinoid crisis induced by receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in a case of liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, M V; Bodei, L; Francia, G; Bartolomei, M; Oliani, C; Scilanga, L; Reghellin, D; Falconi, M; Paganelli, G; Lo Cascio, V; Ferdeghini, M

    2006-06-01

    SS receptors are overexpressed in many tumors, mainly of neuroendocrine origin, thus enabling the treatment with SS analogs. The clinical experience of receptor radionuclide therapy with the new analog [90Y-DOTA0-Tyr3 ]-octreotide [90Y-DOTATOC] has been developed over the last decade and is gaining a pivotal role in the therapeutic workout of these tumors. It is well known that some procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic management of endocrine tumors, such as agobiopsy and hepatic chemoembolization, can be associated with the occurrence of symptoms related to the release of vasoactive amines and/or hormonal peptides from tumor cell lysis. This is the first report of a severe carcinoid crisis developed after receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC administered in a patient affected by liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid). Despite protection with H1 receptor antagonists, octreotide and corticosteroids, few days after the therapy the patient complained of persistent flushing of the face and upper trunk, severe labial and periocular oedema, diarrhoea and loss of appetite. These symptoms increased and required new hospitalisation. The patient received iv infusion of octreotide associated with H1 and H2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroid therapy, which induced symptom remission within few days. The case here reported confirms that radionuclide therapy is highly effective in determining early rupture of metastatic tissue and also suggests that pre-medication should be implemented before the radiopeptide administration associated with a close monitoring of the patient in the following days. PMID:16840837

  9. Intraoperative avidination for radionuclide treatment as a radiotherapy boost in breast cancer: results of a phase II study with {sup 90}Y-labeled biotin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Giovanni; De Cicco, Concetta; Carbone, Giuseppe; Pacifici, Monica [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Mahila E.; Cremonesi, Marta; Di Dia, Amalia [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Pagani, Gianmatteo; Galimberti, Viviana; Luini, Alberto [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Senology, Milan (Italy); Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Ferrari, Annamaria; Orecchia, Roberto [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Radiotherapy, Milan (Italy); De Santis, Rita [Sigma-Tau SpA R and D, Rome (Italy); Zurrida, Stefano [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Senology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Umberto [European Institute of Oncology, Scientific Director, Milan (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after conservative surgery for early breast cancer requires 5-7 weeks. For elderly patients and those distant from an RT center, attending for EBRT may be difficult or impossible. We investigated local toxicity, cosmetic outcomes, and quality of life in a new breast irradiation technique - intraoperative avidination for radionuclide therapy (IART) - in which avidin is administered to the tumor bed and {sup 90}Y-labelled biotin later administered intravenously to bind the avidin and provide irradiation. Reduced duration EBRT (40 Gy) is given subsequently. After surgery, 50 (ten patients), 100 (15 patients) or 150 mg (ten patients) of avidin was injected into the tumor bed. After 12-24 h, 3.7 GBq {sup 90}Y-biotin (beta source for therapeutic effect) plus 185 MBq {sup 111}In-biotin (gamma source for imaging and dosimetry) was infused slowly. Whole-body scintigraphy and SPECT/CT images were taken for up to 30 h. Shortened EBRT started 4 weeks later. Local toxicity was assessed by RTOG scale; quality of life was assessed by EORTC QOL-30. Of 35 patients recruited (mean age 63 years; range 42-74) 32 received IART plus EBRT. 100 mg avidin provided 19.5 {+-} 4.0 Gy to the tumor bed and was considered the optimum dose. No side-effects of avidin or {sup 90}Y-biotin occurred, with no hematological or local toxicity. Local G3 toxicity occurred in 3/32 patients during EBRT. IART plus EBRT was well accepted, with good cosmetic outcomes and maintained quality of life. IART plus reduced EBRT can accelerate irradiation after conservative breast surgery. (orig.)

  10. {sup 90}Y microsphere treatment of unresectable liver metastases: changes in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and tumour size on PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, Maren [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Charite-University Medicine Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); McCook, Barry; Sheetz, Mike; Tutor, Cecilia; Amesur, Nikhil; Avril, Norbert [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Carr, Brian I.; Geller, David A. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), Department of Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The intra-arterial administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres is a new palliative treatment option for unresectable liver metastases. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess changes in FDG uptake and tumour size following {sup 90}Y microsphere treatment (SIR-Spheres) using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Five patients with unresectable liver metastases who had failed multiple prior chemotherapy regimens received seven {sup 90}Y microsphere treatments to a single liver lobe. All patients underwent a baseline PET/CT scan prior to treatment, as well as up to four follow-up PET/CT scans. The tumour area of 30 liver metastases was measured on CT and the FDG uptake was semiquantitatively assessed by calculation of standardised uptake values (SUVs). A total of 18 FDG-PET/CT scans were performed. The SUVs in the 30 treated liver metastases decreased from 6.5{+-}2.3 at baseline to 4.2{+-}1.8 after the first follow-up PET/CT scan (p=0.001). In contrast, the SUVs of untreated metastases increased slightly from 7.2{+-}2.3 to 8.0{+-}0.8. There was no difference in FDG uptake in treated versus untreated normal liver tissue. Using a previously defined threshold of 20% decrease in SUV from baseline to determine response, 20 out of 30 liver metastases were considered to have responded at the first follow-up PET/CT scan approximately 1 month after treatment. In these metastases, the SUV decreased by 47{+-}12%, compared with a slight increase by 5.9{+-}19% in ten non-responding metastases (p=0.0001). The changes in tumour size did not correlate with changes in FDG uptake. On the first follow-up PET/CT scan, the tumour area on CT increased by 3.1{+-}57% in treated metastases compared with 23.3{+-}32% in untreated metastases. A wide range of post-treatment changes of target lesions was observed on CT, including an increase in the size of hypodense lesions, necrotic features and complete resolution of CT abnormalities. The metabolic information obtained from

  11. Pyclen Tri-n-butylphosphonate Ester as Potential Chelator for Targeted Radiotherapy: From Yttrium(III) Complexation to (90)Y Radiolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fur, Mariane; Beyler, Maryline; Lepareur, Nicolas; Fougère, Olivier; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rousseaux, Olivier; Tripier, Raphaël

    2016-08-15

    The Y(3+) complex of PCTMB, the tri-n-butyl phosphonate ester of pyclen (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene), was synthesized as well as its Ho(3+) and Lu(3+) analogues. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed isomorphous dimeric M2(PCTMB)2·9H2O (M = Y, Ho, Lu) structures that crystallize in the centrosymmetric P1̅ triclinic space group. (1)H NMR and UV studies in aqueous solutions indicated that Y(3+) complexation is fast, being quantitative in 167 min at pH 3.8 and in 13 min at pH 5.5 (25 °C, acetate buffer, I = 0.150 M, [Y(3+)] = [PCTMB] = 0.2 mM). (1)H NMR DOSY and photon correlation spectroscopy experiments evidenced the formation of aggregates in chloroform with a bimodal distribution that changes slightly with concentration (11-24 and 240-258 nm). The behavior of the acid-assisted dissociation of the complex of Y(3+) with PCTMB was studied under pseudo-first-order conditions, and the half-life of the [Y(PCTMB)] complex in 0.5 M HCl at 25 °C was found to be 37 min, a value that decreases to 2.6 min in 5 M HCl. The Y(3+) complex of PCTMB is thermodynamically very stable, with a stability constant of log KY-PCTMB = 19.49 and pY = 16.7 measured by potentiometry. (90)Y complexation studies revealed fast radiolabeling kinetics; optimal radiolabeling conditions were obtained for (90)Y in acetate medium, PCTMB at 10(-4) to 10(-2) M in acetate buffer pH = 4.75, 15 min at 45-60 °C. In vitro stability studies in human serum showed that [(90)Y(PCTMB)] is quite stable, with about 90% of the activity still in the form of the radiotracer at 24 h and 80% from 48 h to 72 h. A comparison with other ligands such as PCTA, DOTA, and DTPA already used for in vivo application shows that [(90)Y(PCTMB)] is an interesting lipophilic and neutral analogue of these reference chelates for therapeutic applications in aqueous and nonaqueous media.

  12. Pyclen Tri-n-butylphosphonate Ester as Potential Chelator for Targeted Radiotherapy: From Yttrium(III) Complexation to (90)Y Radiolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fur, Mariane; Beyler, Maryline; Lepareur, Nicolas; Fougère, Olivier; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rousseaux, Olivier; Tripier, Raphaël

    2016-08-15

    The Y(3+) complex of PCTMB, the tri-n-butyl phosphonate ester of pyclen (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene), was synthesized as well as its Ho(3+) and Lu(3+) analogues. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed isomorphous dimeric M2(PCTMB)2·9H2O (M = Y, Ho, Lu) structures that crystallize in the centrosymmetric P1̅ triclinic space group. (1)H NMR and UV studies in aqueous solutions indicated that Y(3+) complexation is fast, being quantitative in 167 min at pH 3.8 and in 13 min at pH 5.5 (25 °C, acetate buffer, I = 0.150 M, [Y(3+)] = [PCTMB] = 0.2 mM). (1)H NMR DOSY and photon correlation spectroscopy experiments evidenced the formation of aggregates in chloroform with a bimodal distribution that changes slightly with concentration (11-24 and 240-258 nm). The behavior of the acid-assisted dissociation of the complex of Y(3+) with PCTMB was studied under pseudo-first-order conditions, and the half-life of the [Y(PCTMB)] complex in 0.5 M HCl at 25 °C was found to be 37 min, a value that decreases to 2.6 min in 5 M HCl. The Y(3+) complex of PCTMB is thermodynamically very stable, with a stability constant of log KY-PCTMB = 19.49 and pY = 16.7 measured by potentiometry. (90)Y complexation studies revealed fast radiolabeling kinetics; optimal radiolabeling conditions were obtained for (90)Y in acetate medium, PCTMB at 10(-4) to 10(-2) M in acetate buffer pH = 4.75, 15 min at 45-60 °C. In vitro stability studies in human serum showed that [(90)Y(PCTMB)] is quite stable, with about 90% of the activity still in the form of the radiotracer at 24 h and 80% from 48 h to 72 h. A comparison with other ligands such as PCTA, DOTA, and DTPA already used for in vivo application shows that [(90)Y(PCTMB)] is an interesting lipophilic and neutral analogue of these reference chelates for therapeutic applications in aqueous and nonaqueous media. PMID:27486673

  13. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducted with urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1990-08-01

    In order to characterize the tobacco-derived mutagens excreted in the urine of tobacco smokers, 32P-postlabelling techniques were used to examine DNA adducts formed from these mutagens with calf thymus DNA in the presence of a metabolic activation system (rat liver S9, Aroclor 1254-induced, with or without acetyl coenzyme A). Using either nuclease P1 or butanol extraction procedures, four-six and three spots, respectively, were reproducibly found on the autoradiograms in the case of the urine extract from two smokers of black tobacco. Using the urinary extract from a non-smoker, only three faint spots were detected after nuclease P1 enrichment. DNA adducts produced in smokers' urine were then compared with those formed by four N-hydroxyarylamines, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine and N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl. Visual inspection revealed that none of the reference aromatic amines contributed to the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagen(s). However, primary aromatic amines are mainly implicated as urinary mutagens because: (i) they produce frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, (ii) they are easily extractable with blue cotton and (iii) their mutagenicity is abolished by a nitrite treatment procedure for deamination. PMID:2387016

  14. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  15. Application a {sup 32}P bioassay for P-fertilization of citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jun; U, Zang Kual [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Uptake of phosphorus (as {sup 32}P) by excised root samples from Citrus trees growing in the soil with originally less than 30 mg kg{sup -1} available P was significantly lowered after P-fertilization. This effect became more prominent in the 2nd and 3rd year of the experiment. High concentration of available P in the soil (80mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a higher P-content in the excised roots and therefore decreased P-uptake. Application of phosphate fertilizer to such soil increased the content of available P but P concentration in Citrus leaves was not significantly changed. Branch length, fruit yield, and Brix sugar in fruit juice were also not influenced. These data show that response to P-fertilization can be tested by leaf analysis, growth or yield measurement. P-uptake of excised roots harvested from the soil with available P above 150 mg kg{sup -1} reached a level of 400 {approx} 500 pg P/mg root, which indicates that P-fertilization is unnecessary at the soil of P-content above this limit.

  16. Synoviorthesis with colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, G.E.; Girard, M.; Lamarre, C.; Jutras, M.; Danais, S.; Guay, J.P.; Belanger, R.D.

    1985-11-01

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done.

  17. Radioimmunotherapy with {sup 131}I-Rituximab in a Patient with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Relapsed After Treatment with {sup 90}Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Geon Wook; Kang, Hye Jin; Shin, Dongyeop; Gu, Ha Ra; Choi, Hong Seok; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We report a case that demonstrates the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with radioiodinated rituximab ({sup 131}I-rituximab) for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 79-year-old male patient with DLBCL initially achieved a complete response (CR) after six cycles of RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) therapy. However, the lymphoma relapsed 20 months later. Although the patient had achieved a second and a third CR after two cycles of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, he experienced a third relapse approximately 3 years later. Between March and June 2011, the patient received three cycles of {sup 131}I-rituximab. Although he had achieved partial response after the second cycle, the disease progressed after the third cycle, and the total progression. Free survival was thus 5 months. The patient suffered only relatively mild toxicity (grade 1 thrombocytopenia) during treatment. RIT with {sup 131}I-rituximab is therefore potentially effective in patients with relapsed DLBCL, even after the failure of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy.

  18. Mechanism and energetics for complexation of 90Y with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a model for cancer radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising cancer therapy involves the use of the macrocyclic polyaminoacetate DOTA (1,4,6,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) attached to a tumor-targeting antibody complexed with the β emitter 90Y3+. However, incorporation of the 90Y into the DOTA conjugate is too slow. To identify the origins of this problem, ab initio quantum chemistry methods (B3LYP/:ACVP* and HF/LACVP*) were used to predict structures and energetics. The authors find that the initial complex YH2(DOTA)+ is 4-coordinate (the four equivalent carboxylate oxygens), which transforms to YH(DOTA) (5-coordinate with one ring N and four carboxylate oxygens), and finally to Y(DOTA)-, which is 8-coordinate (four oxygens and four nitrogens). The rate-determining step is the conversion of YH(DOTA) to Y(DOTA)-, which was calculated to have an activation free energy (aqueous phase) of 8.4 kcal/mol, in agreement with experimental results (8.1--9.3 kcal/mol) for various metals to DOTA [Kumar, K.; Tweedle, M.F. Inorg. Chem. 1993, 32, 4193--4199; Wu, S.L.; Horrocks, W.D., Jr., Inorg. Chem. 1995, 34, 3724--2732]. On the basis of this mechanism the authors propose a modified chelate, DO3AlPr, which has calculated at a much faster rate of incorporation

  19. Dosimetry analysis of distributions radials dose profiles of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films; Analise dosimetrica de perfis de distribuicoes radias de doses relativas de um aplicador de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y utilizando o codigo MCNP-4C e filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Talita S.; Yoriyaz, Helio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: tasallesc@gmail.co [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia; Louzada, Mario J.Q. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2011-07-01

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been re calibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radio chromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radio chromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  20. Dosimetry analysis of distribution radial dose profiles of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta therapy applicators using the MCNP-4C code and radio chromium films; Analise dosimetrica de perfis de distribuicoes radiais de doses relativas de um aplicador de betaterapia de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y utilizando o codigo MCNP-4C e filmes radiocromicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, T.S.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, M.A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia; Louzada, M.J.Q. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Although they are no longer manufactured, the applicators of {sup 90}Sr +{sup 90}Y acquired in the decades of 1990 are still in use, by having half-life of 28.5 years. These applicators have calibration certificate given by their manufacturers, where few have been recalibrated. Thus it becomes necessary to accomplish thorough dosimetry of these applicators. This paper presents a dosimetric analysis distribution radial dose profiles for emitted by an {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y beta therapy applicator, using the MCNP-4C code to simulate the distribution radial dose profiles and radiochromium films to get them experimentally . The results with the simulated values were compared with the results of experimental measurements, where both curves show similar behavior, which may validate the use of MCNP-4C and radiochromium films for this type of dosimetry. (author)

  1. Calibration of {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y chemical applicators using a mini extrapolation chamber as reference system;Calibracao de aplicadores clinicos de {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y utilizando uma mini-camera de extrapolacao como sistema de referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y clinical applicators are beta radiation sources utilized in several radiotherapy Brazilian clinics, although don't be more manufactured. These sources are employed in brachytherapy procedures for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and eyes. International recommendations and previous works determine that dermatological and ophthalmic applicators shall be calibrated periodically, and one of the methods for their calibration consists of the use of an extrapolation chamber. In this work, a method of calibration of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y clinical applicators was applied using a mini-extrapolation chamber of plane window, developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN, as a reference system. The results obtained were considered satisfactory, when compared with the results given in the calibration certificates of the sources. (author)

  2. 32P-incorporation PCR for the detection of rearrangements at the TCR-gamma locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, M A; Evans, P A; Shiach, C R; Jack, A; Richards, S; Morgan, G J

    1996-03-01

    We have adapted and developed a PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based technique for the T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma chain gene, which has subsequently been used for routine diagnosis. Variable-region oligonucleotide primers were chosen from subgroups I and II, and the joining region primer was from the J2 segment. The primers were used to perform a 32P-incorporation PCR, and the products were then separated on an 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel. In our hands, this technique is more reliable than cold methods, when separation is performed on either agarose or nondenaturing polyacrylamide. The radioactive technique was used to look at 102 T-cell proliferations, of which eight of eight T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 24 of 34 T-non-Hodgkin's leukemia (NHL), and 35 of 60 large granular lymphocyte (LGL) expansions were clonal. Of 122 B-cell proliferations investigated, including 72 cases of B-cell lineage ALL, 36 demonstrated a T-cell rearrangement (33 ALLs and three myelomas). Samples from nonlymphoid tumors were tested and produced a normal distribution ladder of PCR products after autoradiography, a pattern also observed with antenatal and preoperative patients. The radiolabel-incorporation method detected an abnormal pattern of a ladder with prominent dark bands in 29 of 122 B-cell and 27 of 102 T-cell cases and in 0 of 49 of the nonlymphoid and normal samples. The abnormal banding patterns obtained in a proportion of the B- and T-cell cases was not readily discernible by nondenaturing-acrylamide or agarose-separation methods.

  3. Experimental dosimetry of a {sup 32}P catheter-based endovascular brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piermattei, A [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Fidanzio, A [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Perrone, F [Azienda Ospedaliera Pisana, UO Fisica Sanitaria, Pisa (Italy); Azario, L [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Grimaldi, L [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Viola, P [Istituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica S Cuore, Rome (Italy); Capote, R [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan 4, E41009 Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-08-07

    The experimental dosimetry in a water phantom of a {sup 32}P linear source, 20 mm in length, used for the brachytherapy of coronary vessels is reported. The source content activity, A, was determined by means of a calibrated well ion-chamber and the value was compared with the contained activity reported in the manufacturer's certification. In this field of brachytherapy dosimetry, radiochromic film supplies a high enough spatial resolution. A highly sensitive radiochromic film, that presents only one active layer, was used in this work for the source dosimetry in a water phantom. The radiochromic film was characterized by electron beams produced by a clinical linac. A Monte Carlo calculation of beta spectra in water at different distances along the source transverse bisector axis allowed to take into account the low dependence of film response from the electron beam energy. The adopted experimental set-up, with the source in its catheter positioned on the film plane inside the water phantom, supplies accurate dosimetric information. The measured dose rate to water per unit of source activity at reference distance, D-dot (r{sub 0}, {theta}{sub 0})/A, in units of cGy s{sup -1} GBq{sup -1}, was in agreement with the value reported in the manufacturer's certification within the experimental uncertainty. The radial dose function, g(r), is in good agreement with the literature data. The anisotropy function F(r, {theta}) is also reported. The analysis of the dose profile obtained at 2 mm from the source longitudinal axis shows that the uniformity is within 10% along 75% of the 20 mm treatment length. The adopted experimental set-up seems to be adequate for the quality control procedure of the dose homogeneity distribution in the water medium.

  4. Ovarian 32P uptake in the homoplastic hypophysectomized catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis as an end point for gonadotropin bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian 32P incorporation in hypophysectomized Heteropneustes fossilis in response to pituitary gland extract pooled from same species and mammalian gonadotropic preparations were studied. Maximum 32P uptake by ovary was obtained when a tracer dose of radiophosphorus was given 30 minutes after LH injection and fish were sacrificed 12 hours after the tracer shot. A log-dose response was observed between ovarian 32P uptake and gonadotropic content of pituitary extract or LH in hypophysectomized H. fossilis. This response was specific because FSH, TSH, prolactin and growth hormone injections failed to induce dose dependent and significant 32P uptake by ovary in similar assay recipients. However, FSH along with LH at higher dosage yielded an additive response. Also a parallelism of log-dose response was obtained between fish pituitary gonadotropin and ovine LH. Index of precision (Λ) was less than 0.214. Since donors and recipients were of the same species this bioassay of 12.5 hours for estimation of total gonadotropic potency seems to be rapid, reliable, sensitive and free from phylogenetic species specificity interaction between hormone and its receptor. (author)

  5. Effect of 32P-colloid interstitial irradiation on the treatment of occult lymphatic metastasis during lung cancer resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of interstitial irradiation by 32P-colloid on the occult metastasis during lung cancer resection. Methods: Seventy-three patients with lung cancer underwent resection of the tumor and interstitial administration of 32P-colloid. At the same period, 58 matched patients underwent surgical therapy only and served as the control group. After operation the dynamic distribution of body surface 32P-colloid activity, incidence of complications, rates of supra-clavicular lymph node (SCL) metastasis in different pathologic patterns, and survival rates at 1, 3, 5 years after treatment were studied. Results: No operative death occurred in these two groups. The incidences of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of major complications after operation were of no prominent differences between these two groups (χ2=0.012, 2.082, 0.003, P>0.05; χ2=0.021-0.144, P>0.05). The incidence of post-operative SCL metastasis in surgery plus 32P-colloid group was prominently lower than that in control group (χ2=4.507-5.348, P2=0.659, P>0.05), but the differences of the 3-, 5-year survial rates between the groups were prominent (χ2=4.207, 3.997, P32P-colloid during resection of lung cancer is a safe and effective procedure for controlling the occult lymphatic metastatic lesions and diminishing the focal relapse and distant metastasis, and it is bound to prolong the survival time of the patients. (authors)

  6. A multicentre comparison of quantitative {sup 90}Y PET/CT for dosimetric purposes after radioembolization with resin microspheres. The QUEST phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willowson, Kathy P. [University of Sydney, Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Tapner, Michael [Sirtex, North Sydney, NSW (Australia); Bailey, Dale L. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Lidcombe (Australia); Collaboration: The QUEST Investigator Team

    2015-07-15

    To investigate and compare the quantitative accuracy of {sup 90}Y imaging across different generation PET/CT scanners, for the purpose of dosimetry after radioembolization with resin microspheres. A strict experimental and imaging protocol was followed by 47 international sites using the NEMA 2007/IEC 2008 PET body phantom with an 8-to-1 sphere-to-background ratio of {sup 90}Y solution. The phantom was imaged over a 7-day period (activity ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 GBq) and all reconstructed data were analysed at a core laboratory for consistent processing. Quantitative accuracy was assessed through measures of total phantom activity, activity concentration in background and hot spheres, misplaced counts in a nonradioactive insert, and background variability. Of the 69 scanners assessed, 37 had both time-of-flight (ToF) and resolution recovery (RR) capability. These current generation scanners from GE, Philips and Siemens could reconstruct background concentration measures to within 10 % of true values over the evaluated range, with greater deviations on the Philips systems at low count rates, and demonstrated typical partial volume effects on hot sphere recovery, which dominated spheres of diameter <20 mm. For spheres >20 mm in diameter, activity concentrations were consistently underestimated by about 20 %. Non-ToF scanners from GE Healthcare and Siemens were capable of producing accurate measures, but with inferior quantitative recovery compared with ToF systems. Current generation ToF scanners can consistently reconstruct {sup 90}Y activity concentrations, but they underestimate activity concentrations in small structures (≤37 mm diameter) within a warm background due to partial volume effects and constraints of the reconstruction algorithm. At the highest count rates investigated, measures of background concentration (about 300 kBq/ml) could be estimated on average to within 1 %, 5 % and 2 % for GE Healthcare (all-pass filter, RR + ToF), Philips (4i8s ToF) and

  7. The prognostic value of functional tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases undergoing {sup 90}Y selective internal radiation therapy plus chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Seza A.; Suthar, Rekha R.; Barot, Tushar C. [Jackson North Medical Center, Florida International University College of Medicine, North Miami Beach, FL (United States); Pennington, Kenneth [Center for Cancer Care, Goshen, IN (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Functional tumor volume (FTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are measures of metabolic activity of tumors determined by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images. These parameters could potentially have clinical value in response to treatment evaluation and disease prognostication. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between functional tumor parameters (FTV and TLG) and clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) undergoing {sup 90}Y-resin microsphere selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) (SIR-Spheres {sup registered}, Sirtex Medical Limited, Lane Cove, NSW, Australia). FDG PET/CT studies of 20 patients with unresectable CRCLM who underwent {sup 90}Y SIRT under a phase II clinical trial were analyzed. FTV and TLG were calculated using PET VCAR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) on pretreatment and 4-week posttreatment scans. The effects of pretreatment and posttreatment functional tumor activity on patient survival were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The median survival in the study group was 14.8 months (range 2.0-27.7 months). The median survival for patients with pretreatment FTV values of above and below 200 cc were 11.2 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The median survival for patients with 4-week posttreatment FTV values of above and below 30 cc were 10.9 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The median survival for patients with pretreatment TLG values of above and below 600 g were 11.2 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The median survival for patients with 4-week posttreatment TLG values of above and below 100 g were 10.9 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). Pretreatment and posttreatment FTV and TLG showed very strong association with survival. These values can be useful quantitative criteria for patient selection and disease prognostication when {sup 90}Y SIRT is contemplated in patients with CRCLM. (orig.)

  8. Matched pairs dosimetry: {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I metaiodobenzylguanidine and {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi and University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Pepe, Giovanna; Antunovic, Lidija [IRCCS Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Castellani, Maria Rita; Bombardieri, Emilio [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The technological advances in imaging and production of radiopharmaceuticals are driving an innovative way of evaluating the targets for antineoplastic therapies. Besides the use of imaging to better delineate the volume of external beam radiation therapy in oncology, modern imaging techniques are able to identify targets for highly specific medical therapies, using chemotherapeutic drugs and antiangiogenesis molecules. Moreover, radionuclide imaging is able to select targets for radionuclide therapy and to give the way to in vivo dose calculation to target tissues and to critical organs. This contribution reports the main studies published on matched pairs dosimetry with {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I- and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, with an emphasis on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and monoclonal antibodies. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of 68Ga-DOTATOC and [18F]FDG in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours scheduled for 90Y-DOTATOC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare, by means of dynamic PET, the pharmacokinetics of 68Ga-DOTATOC, a tracer which reflects the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), and of [18F]FDG, a marker of tumour viability, in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) in whom 90Y-DOTATOC therapy was planned. Fifteen patients (63 lesions) with confirmed metastatic NETs were enrolled in this study. Dynamic [18F]FDG and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET scans were performed on two different days in the same week. The data analysis was based on qualitative and quantitative analysis using a two-tissue compartment model with a blood compartment and a non-compartment model based on the fractal dimension (FD). Multivariate analysis was used for evaluation of the kinetic data. Enhanced [18F]FDG uptake was observed in 43/63 lesions. 68Ga-DOTATOC showed pathologically enhanced uptake in all evaluated patients and in 57/63 lesions. Discordant scintigraphic results for [18F]FDG and 68Ga-DOTATOC were observed in 6/15 patients. Global SUV was defined as the SUV measured in the last frame (55-60 min p.i.) of the dynamic series, for each tracer. The median global SUV uptake was 7.9 for 68Ga-DOTATOC and 4.6 for [18F]FDG. The selection of patients for 90Y-DOTATOC therapy was based on the uptake of 68Ga-DOTATOC. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the effect of each kinetic parameter (K1-k4, VB) on the global SUV of both tracers. The highest positive t-ratio was found for K1 (receptor binding), followed by k3 (cellular internalisation) and VB (fractional blood volume), when using the global 68Ga-DOTATOC uptake (SUV) as a target variable. Analysis of the [18F]FDG data revealed the highest positive t-ratio for VB, followed by k3 (phosphorylation) and K1 (influx). The comparison of global SUV, K1-k4 and the FD for [18F]FDG and 68Ga-DOTATOC did not show any statistically significant correlation. The only parameter that demonstrated a significant linear

  10. Magnetic Microstructures of PryFe90-yB10 (y = 8-11.76) Nanocrystalline Ribbons Using Magnetic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞智勇; 方以坤; 张晃伟; 韩圣浩; 韩宝善; 张文成

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic microstructure of melt-spun PryFe90-yB10(y = 8,8.5,9,9.5,10 and 11.76)nanocrystalline ribbons in an as-grown state has been studied using a magnetic force microscope.The magnetic domains are characterized by dark areas adjacent to bright areas in a sub-micron scale and in random distribution.By comparing with the size of the micro-crystals measured from the TEM image,the exchange coupling effect was confirmed to exist in all the ribbons.Using the roughness analysis,the variation of the root mean-square values of the phase shifts obtained from the magnetic force images versus the content y of Pr were measured,which is very consistent with the curve of the residualinduction Brversus the content y.

  11. The 90Sr +90Y kinetics investigation exchange and absorbed doses formation after acute internal irradiation of the rats in model experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the camera model theory application for the description of metabolic processes in the living organisms has been analyzed. The type of transport matrix of the model has been determined according to physical and biological limits for the system. It has been shown that camera model is stable. It is able to describe uniquely the processes in the living organisms. Model of 10 cameral has been proposed in order to describe 90Sr + 90Y exchange in the laboratory rats organism. The functions of isotope retention and kinetic constants needed for the practical application of the camera model theory have been determined for each camera. The doses of exposure of the experimental animals' organs ant tissues have been calculated

  12. EANM procedure guideline for radio-immunotherapy for B-cell lymphoma with {sup 90}Y-radiolabelled ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennvall, Jan [Lund University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Lund (Sweden); Fischer, Manfred; Brans, Boudewijn [University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Service Medecine Nucleaire, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bombardieri, Emilio [Direzione Medicina Nucleare-Centro PET, Istituto Nazionale per la Cura e lo Studio dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Bodei, Lisa [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Giammarile, Francesco [Centre Leon Berard, Service Medecine Nucleaire, Lyon (France); Lassmann, Michael [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany); Oyen, Wim [Radboud University, Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2007-04-15

    In January 2004, EMEA approved {sup 90}Y-radiolabelled ibritumomab tiuxetan, Zevalin, in Europe for the treatment of adult patients with rituximab-relapsed or -refractory CD20+ follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The number of European nuclear medicine departments using Zevalin is continuously increasing, since the therapy is often considered successful. The Therapy, Oncology and Dosimetry Committees have worked together in order to define some EANM guidelines on the use of Zevalin, paying particular attention to the problems related to nuclear medicine. The purpose of this guideline is to assist the nuclear medicine physician in treating and managing patients who may be candidates for radio-immunotherapy. The guideline also stresses the need for close collaboration with the physician(s) treating the patient for the underlying disease. (orig.)

  13. Individualized dosimetry-based activity reduction of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC prevents severe and rapid kidney function deterioration from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, Sofie van; Baete, Kristof; Vanbilloen, Bert; Terwinghe, Christelle; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Clement, Paul M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Medical Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, Eric van; Verslype, Chris [KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, Kris [KU Leuven, Division of Public Health and Primary Care (I-Biostat), Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); UZ Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Assessment of kidney function evolution after {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with capped activity administration based on a 37-Gy threshold of biological effective dose (BED) to the kidney. In a prospective phase II study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours were evaluated for therapy using 185 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreotide with amino acid coinfusion. Planar whole-body images were acquired at four time-points after injection and kidney volumes were measured using CT/MRI. BED to the kidneys was estimated using an extended BED formula and biexponential renal clearance. Based on published BED dose-toxicity relationships, we allowed a maximal kidney BED of 37 Gy; if the calculated BED exceeded 37 Gy, treatment activity was reduced accordingly. Kidney function was assessed at baseline and at 18 months, predominantly using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The rate of renal function decline was expressed as annual glomerular filtration rate loss (aGFRL). Only 22 of 50 patients reached the 18-months time-point, with most missing patients having died due to disease progression. In the 22 patients who reached 18 months, no rapid kidney function deterioration was observed over the 18 months, aGFRL >33 % was not seen, and only three patients showed an increase of one toxicity grade and one patient an increase of two grades. No significant correlations between kidney volume (p = 0.35), baseline GFR (p = 0.18), risk factors for renal function loss (p = 0.74) and aGFRL were observed. Among the 28 patients who did not reach 18 months, one developed grade 4 kidney toxicity at 15 months after PRRT. Prospective dosimetry using a 37 Gy BED as the threshold for kidney toxicity is a good guide for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC PRRT and is associated with a low risk of rapid renal function deterioration and evolution to severe nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  14. Detection of human cytomegalovirus by slot-blot hybridization assay employing oligo-primed 32P-labelled probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P-labelled Hind III-0 DNA fragment (nine Kilobases; Kb) from human cytomegalovirus AD-169 (HCMV) was used in slot-blot hybridization assay for the detection of HCMV in clinical samples. The results obtained with DNA hybridization assay (DNA HA) were compared with virus isolation using conventional tube cell culture (CTC) and centrifugation vial culture (CVC), immunofluorescence (IF), and complement fixation test (CFT). Of 15 CTC-positive samples, 13 were positive with DNA HA (sensitivity 86.7%). Also, 14 additional samples were DNA HA-positive but CTC-negative. CVC and/or IF confirmed the diagnosis in nine of 14; the remaining five samples were from three patients who showed fourfold rising antibody titre by CFT. Although DNA HA using 32P-labelled probes is relatively cumbersome and expensive, it is a valuable test for quantitation of viral shedding in patients with HCMV infections who may benefit from antiviral therapy

  15. Preparation of biologically active 32P-labeled human relaxin. Displaceable binding to rat uterus, cervix, and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relaxin is a member of the insulin family of polypeptide hormones and is known to exert its biological effects on various parts of the mammalian reproductive system. Biologically active human relaxin has been chemically synthesized based on the nucleotide sequence obtained from an ovarian cDNA clone. In the present study synthetic human relaxin was radiolabled by phosphorylation with cAMP-dependent protein kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP to a specific activity of 5000 Ci/mmol. The phosphorylated relaxin was purified on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography and was shown to co-migrate with relaxin on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry revealed a single phosphorylated site on the B chain of relaxin. The 32P-relaxin was able to bind to a goat anti-relaxin antibody, and this binding could be displaced by unlabeled relaxin in a concentration-dependent manner. A comparison of the concentration responses of cellular cAMP production stimulated by relaxin and phosphorylated relaxin in a primary human uterine cell line showed that phosphorylation did not affect the in vitro biological efficacy of relaxin. This made it suitable for in situ autoradiographic localization of relaxin binding sites in rat uterine, cervical, and brain tissue sections. Displacement of the binding of 100 pM 32P-relaxin by 100, 10, and 3 nM unlabeled relaxin, but not by 100 nM insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and an insulin-like growth factor-I analog, demonstrated the high affinity and specificity of such binding. We conclude that 32P-labeled human relaxin is biologically and immunologically active and that this novel probe binds reversibly and with high affinity to classical (e.g. uterus) and unpredicted (e.g. brain) tissues

  16. Injection of sup 32 P colloid into squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus for local disease control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perakos, P.G.; Scheer, T.F. (Memorial Hospital of Laramie County and Wyoming College of Human Medicine, Wyoming (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Local treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is only modestly successful. To increase local control, we have developed a procedure to inject a boost dose of radiation into the tumor bed after completion of external beam radiotherapy. The boost dose is given with {sup 32}P, a readily available radiocolloid. {sup 32}P is a pure emitter and poses no significant radiation hazards. It can penetrate 10approx15 mm into the tumor mass and has a half-life of 14.3 days. After determination of the volume to be treated, the colloid is injected with endoscopic guidance using the same technique as used in injection scierotherapy of esophageal varices. We use the Pentax FG 34 JA operating gastroscope and a Bard disposable 0.5 cm 25 Ga retractable injection sclerotherapy needle. We deliver 150approx200 microCurie of {sup 32}P colloid diluted to 20 ml with normal saline at 10 to 20 injection sites. This boosts the radiotherapy dose of 5,500approx6,000 cGy to the range of 7,500approx8,000 cGy. We have treated five patients so far, with length of follow-up ranging from 8approx28 months. Local control and survival results have been excellent and no complications have been associated with the procedure. A combination of external beam radiotherapy and interstitial boost treatment with colloidal {sup 32}P appears to be a safe and effective method of managing squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. (author).

  17. Determination of lactic acid bacteria viability in the small intestine of catfish (Pangasius Djambal) by using the 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotics potency in the small intestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish. The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal) was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. (author)

  18. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. Received: 04 October 2014 Revised: 26 March 2015; Accepted: 05 April 2015

  19. Radioembolization of hepatocarcinoma with {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: development of an individualized treatment planning strategy based on dosimetry and radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, C.; Maccauro, M.; Aliberti, G.; Padovano, B.; Seregni, E.; Crippa, F. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Mira, M.; Negri, A. [University of Milan, Postgraduate Health Physics School, Milan (Italy); Spreafico, C.; Morosi, C.; Civelli, E.; Lanocita, R.; Marchiano, A. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Radiology 2, Milan (Italy); Romito, R.; Sposito, C.; Bhoori, S.; Facciorusso, A.; Mazzaferro, V. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Surgery 1, Milan (Italy); Camerini, T. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Scientific Direction, Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Health Physics, Milan (Italy); Pellizzari, S. [University La Sapienza, Engineering Faculty, Rome (Italy); Migliorisi, M. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Clinical Engineering, Milan (Italy); De Nile, M.C. [University of Pavia, Physics Faculty, Pavia, Lombardy (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere registered treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden < 50 % and without obstruction of the main portal vein trunk. Response was monitored with the densitometric radiological criterion (European Association for the Study of the Liver) and treatment-related liver decompensation was defined ad hoc with a time cut-off of 6 months. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment. Voxel dosimetry was performed with the local deposition method on {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT images. The reconstruction protocol was optimized. Concordance of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA and {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung microsphere biodistributions was studied in 35 sequential patients. Two segmentation methods were used, based on SPECT alone (home-made code) or on coregistered SPECT/CT images (IMALYTICS trademark by Philips). STRATOS trademark absorbed dose calculation was validated for {sup 90}Y with a single time point. Radiobiology was used introducing other dosimetric variables besides the mean absorbed dose D: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), biologically effective dose averaged over voxel values (BED{sub ave}) and equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). Two sets of radiobiological parameters, the first derived from microsphere irradiation and the second from external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were used. A total of 16 possible methodologies were compared. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were

  20. Use of an external source (60Co) for 32P detection efficiency determination by the Cerenkov effect, in soil extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of 32P in aqueous extracts is usually made with the aid of a Geiger-Muller detector, with thin window and sample on a planchet. Presently the technique is being developed of detection of high energy beta particles emitters (32P, 42K, 86Rb) through the Cerenkov effect, using a commercial liquid scintillation system. This technique, despite being approximately 30 times more sensitive, has the inconvenience of varying the detection efficiency, mainly for color samples (soil extracts, for instance). From this stems the need for determining the detection efficiency for each sample. The internal standardization and channels ratio methods show a series of drawbacks, mainly the non-reutilization of the samples (1st method) and statistical uncertainty for low activity samples (2nd method). The elimination of these dreawbacks can be achieved through the utilization of the external standardization method. A 60Co source with 1,4 μCi activity has been adapted to the sample elevator of the detector system, and a comparison was made with the channels ratio method to evaluate the efficiency of 32P detection in soil extracts (P extraction and fractionation). The external standardization method showed to be more accurate, besides being influenced to a lesser degree by high voltage variation, sample volume and vial types. In the case of large samples, it is advisable to carry out detection in vials filled up to their full capacity; in the case of small samples, the whole volume should be transferred to the vials and completed up to 9 ml for nylon vials,10 ml for glass vials and 11 to 14 ml for polyethilene vials. On the other hand, plastic vials showed higher detection efficiency than ones. As to background radiation, the lowest rates were given by nylon vials and the highest by Beckman glass vials

  1. Thermoluminescent characteristics (TL) of K2F5: Y0.99 Tb0.01 irradiated with beta particles of 90Sr/90 Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent characteristics of the K2F5: Y0.99 Tb0.01 are presented. The material was characterized irradiating samples of K2F5: Y0.99Tb0.01 in powder with beta radiation of 90Sr/90Y. The studied characteristics were TL curve, response reproducibility, TL response in function of the dose and fading of the information. The samples exhibited a thermoluminescent curve (TL) with two very defined peaks centered respectively in 167 and 307 C. The TL response of the samples under the action of the beta radiation after 10 cycles (thermal erased, irradiation and reading of the samples) presented a standard deviation of 3.09%. The TL response of K2F5: Y0.99 Tb0.01 in function of the absorbed dose of beta radiation resulted lineal in the interval of 3 mGy to 1.29 Gy. The fading of the information contained in the samples of K2F5: Y0.99 Tb0.01 was of 40% in the first 10 minutes, which is due to the first peak. The obtained results suggest that the TL material resulted as promissory for its possible use as thermoluminescent dosemeter of beta radiation using the second peak of its TL curve like dosimetric peak. (Author)

  2. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LOS EFECTOS AGUDOS DE SESIONES DE ENTRENAMIENTO DE FUERZA CON CARGAS DEL 90 Y 30% 1 RM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Dopico Calvo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En una medición inicial (Pretest se obtuvo la 1RM de 23 sujetos masculinos en el ejercicio press banca, así como la potencia y fuerza media aplicada al 90 y 30% de 1RM (PMED90, FMED90, PMED30, FMED 30. Posteriormente 11 sujetos (Gr90 llevaron a cabo 2 sesiones de entrenamiento con cargas del 90%, mientras los 12 sujetos restantes (Gr30 lo hacían con cargas del 30%. Inmediatamente finalizada cada una de las sesiones se valoraba nuevamente PMED90, FMED90, PMED30, FMED30. Una semana después de la finalización de los entrenamientos se efectuó un Postest. Los resultados mostraron una mejora estadísticamente significativa del rendimiento de Gr30 al final de cada una de las sesiones de entrenamiento, respecto a Pretest y Postest, con el 90% de 1RM, mientras que Gr90 obtuvo mejoras significativas con el 30% respecto a Pretest, pero no respecto a Postest.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: fuerza, potencia, medición, efecto agudo.

  3. A comparative study of preliminary dosimetry for human based on distribution data in rats with 111In, 90Y, 153Sm, and 177Lu labeled rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radfar Edalat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio immunotherapy is one of the most important and effective therapies for B-cell non Hoddgkin’s lymphoma treatment. Today, anti CD-20 antibodies labeled with beta emitter radionuclides are used in radio immunotherapy. Various radionuclides for labeling anti CD-20 antibodies have been studied and developed for the treatment and diagnosis of malignancies. This paper describes the preparation, bio-distribution and absorbed dose rate of 111In, 90Y, 177Lu, and 153Sm labeled anti CD-20 antibodies (rituximab in human organs, after injection to rats. The macro cyclic bifunctional chelating agent, N-succinimidyl-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-NHS for conjugation to antibody, was used to prepare DOTA-rituximab. The conjugates were purified by molecular filtration, the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb was calculated and total concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. Radio-labeling was performed at 40 °C for 24 hours. After the quality control studies, the final radioactive solution was injected intravenously into rats through their tail vein. The tissue uptakes of each injection were measured. Then we calculated S values for 177Lu and 153Sm by using specific absorbed fractions and data used in the manner of radio-labeled analysis and dosimetry for humans. The absorbed dose rate of each organ was calculated in the specific time by medical internal radiation dose method with linear approximation in the activity measurements.

  4. Preliminary Study on Hydrogen Permeation and Stability of BaCe0.90Y0.10O3-δ Membrane under Asymmetric Atm osphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@High-temperature proton conductors (HTPC) have been extensively studied since I wahara et al?1? reported protonic conduction in SrCeO3-based oxid es. Later, the BaCeO3-based oxides, such as BaCe0.90Yb0.10O3- d (BCYb10) and BaCe0.90Y0.10-O3-d (BCY10), we re fou nd to show higher conductivity?2?. High electronic and protonic conducti vity makes BCY10 a potential membrane for hydrogen separation?3?. Thin f ilms with high density, most probably made by sequential coating on porous subst rates, are imperative in order to promote hydrogen permeation flux?4?. T his makes it more necessary for such membranes to be kept stable and unspoilt un der asymmetric hydrogen-permeation atmosphere at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the stability and hydrogen permeation ability of BCY10 membrane are stud ied by XRD, SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, H2-TPR process and hydrogen permeation experiment. The results showed that hydrogen cannot permeate through the BCY10 membrane without surface modification, and its surface cannot keep a uniform perovskite structure in the asymmetric atmosphere.

  5. Development of a flow-sheet for the radiochemical processing of irradiated sulphate targets for the production of carrier-free 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free 32P was produced in KAlpakkam MINI reactor (KAMINI) via 32S (n, p) 32P using its small fast flux component. This method has established the flow-sheet for the production of 32P from sulphate targets such as magnesium sulphate and strontium sulphate which can withstand high temperatures of fast reactors unlike the conventionally used sulphur powder. The chemical processing involved (i) struvite precipitation method for magnesium sulphate and (ii) co-precipitation with ferric hydroxide method for strontium sulphate. (author)

  6. Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and scouting of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy in patients with relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, Saiyada N.F.; Lingen, Arthur van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Otto J.; Zijlstra, Josee M.; Huijgens, Peter C. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Haematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lubberink, Mark [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uppsala University, and Medical Physics, Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan can be used to monitor biodistribution of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan as shown in mice. The aim of this study was to assess biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in humans on the basis of {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan imaging, to evaluate whether co-injection of a therapeutic amount of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan influences biodistribution of {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan and whether pre-therapy scout scans with {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan can be used to predict biodistribution of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and the dose-limiting organ during therapy. Seven patients with relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma scheduled for autologous stem cell transplantation underwent PET scans at 1, 72 and 144 h after injection of {proportional_to}70 MBq {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan and again 2 weeks later after co-injection of 15 MBq/kg or 30 MBq/kg {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. Volumes of interest were drawn over liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen and tumours. Ibritumomab tiuxetan organ absorbed doses were calculated using OLINDA. Red marrow dosimetry was based on blood samples. Absorbed doses to tumours were calculated using exponential fits to the measured data. The highest {sup 90}Y absorbed dose was observed in liver (3.2 {+-} 1.8 mGy/MBq) and spleen (2.9 {+-} 0.7 mGy/MBq) followed by kidneys and lungs. The red marrow dose was 0.52 {+-} 0.04 mGy/MBq, and the effective dose was 0.87 {+-} 0.14 mSv/MBq. Tumour absorbed doses ranged from 8.6 to 28.6 mGy/MBq. Correlation between predicted pre-therapy and therapy organ absorbed doses as based on {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan images was high (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.97). No significant difference between pre-therapy and therapy tumour absorbed doses was found, but correlation was lower (r = 0.75). Biodistribution of {sup 89}Zr-ibritumomab tiuxetan is not influenced by simultaneous

  7. Phosphatase activity in commercial spleen exonuclease decreases the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene and N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S P; Laws, G M; Selden, J R; Nichols, W W

    1994-05-15

    Spleen exonuclease, which degrades nucleic acids into single 3'-nucleotides, is used in the detection of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Contamination of the exonuclease with phosphatase activity can reduce the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene and N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Four preparations of spleen exonuclease containing varying levels of phosphatase activity (2-naphthylamine DNA adducts. Surprisingly, recovery of these DNA adducts was nearly 10 times greater using nuclease P1 than when using 1-butanol extraction for adduct enrichment, since arylamine DNA adducts have previously been reported to be poorly detected by 32P-postlabeling after nuclease P1 treatment. Our data indicate that the hydrolysis of DNA by spleen exonuclease may be an important source of variability in both qualitative and quantitative analysis of adducts by 32P-postlabeling. PMID:8059938

  8. Clinical impact of 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT-based dosimetry in the radioembolization of liver malignancies with 90Y-loaded microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioembolization with 90Y-loaded microspheres is increasingly used in the treatment of primary and secondary liver cancer. Technetium-99 m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) scintigraphy is used as a surrogate of microsphere distribution to assess lung or digestive shunting prior to therapy, based on tumoral targeting and dosimetry. To date, this has been the sole pre-therapeutic tool available for such evaluation. Several dosimetric approaches have been described using both glass and resin microspheres in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastasis. Given that each product offers different specific activities and numbers of spheres injected, their radiobiological properties are believed to lightly differ. This paper summarizes and discusses the available studies focused on MAA-based dosimetry, particularly concentrating on potential confounding factors like clinical context, tumor size, cirrhosis, previous or concomitant therapy, and product used. In terms of the impact of tumoral dose in HCC, the results were concordant and a response relationship and tumoral threshold dose was clearly identified, especially in studies using glass microspheres. Tumoral dose has also been found to influence survival. The concept of treatment intensification has recently been introduced, yet despite several studies publishing interesting findings on the tumor dose-metastasis relationship, no consensus has been reached, and further clarification is thus required. Nor has the maximal tolerated dose to the liver been well documented, requiring more accurate evaluation. Lung dose was well described, despite recently identified factors influencing its evaluation, requiring further assessment. MAA SPECT/CT dosimetry is accurate in HCC and can now be used in order to achieve a fully customized approach, including treatment intensification. Yet further studies are warranted for the metastasis setting and evaluating the maximal tolerated liver dose. (orig.)

  9. Boosted selective internal radiation therapy with 90Y-loaded glass microspheres (B-SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a new personalized promising concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of dosimetry based on MAA SPECT/CT for the prediction of response, toxicity and survival, and for treatment planning in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with 90Y-loaded glass microspheres (TheraSphere registered). TheraSphere registered was administered to 71 patients with inoperable HCC. MAA SPECT/CT quantitative analysis was used for the calculation of the tumour dose (TD), healthy injected liver dose (HILD), and total injected liver dose. Response was evaluated at 3 months using EASL criteria. Time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with liver toxicity were combined to construct a liver toxicity score (LTS). The response rate was 78.8 %. Median TD were 342 Gy for responding lesions and 191 Gy for nonresponding lesions (p 205 Gy (p = 0.0015 and not significant). Among patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (n = 33), the median TTP and OS were 4.5 months (2-7 months) and 5 months (2-8 months), respectively, in patients with TD 205 Gy (p = 0.039 and 0.005). The median OS was 24.5 months (18-28.5 months) in PVT patients with TD >205 Gy and good PVT targeting on MAA SPECT/CT. The LTS was able to detect severe liver toxicity (n = 6) with a sensitivity of 83 % and overall accuracy of 97 %. Dosimetry based on MAA SPECT/CT was able to accurately predict response and survival in patients treated with glass microspheres. This method can be used to adapt the injected activity without increasing liver toxicity, thus defining a new concept of boosted selective internal radiation therapy (B-SIRT). This new concept and LTS enable fully personalized treatment planning with glass microspheres to be achieved. (orig.)

  10. Early post-treatment FDG PET predicts survival after {sup 90}Y microsphere radioembolization in liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Aouf, Anas; Sabet, Amin; Ghamari, Shahab; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Carsten; Pieper, Claus C. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Mayer, Karin [University Hospital, Department of Medicine and Oncology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2014-10-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of early metabolic response 4 weeks post-treatment using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in patients with unresectable hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing radioembolization (RE) with {sup 90}Y-labelled microspheres. A total of 51 consecutive patients with liver-dominant metastases of CRC were treated with RE and underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at baseline and 4 weeks after RE. In each patient, three hepatic metastases with the highest maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) were selected as target lesions. Metabolic response was defined as >50 % reduction of tumour to liver ratios. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Investigated baseline characteristics included age (>60 years), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group >1), bilirubin (>1.0 mg/dl), hepatic tumour burden (>25 %) and presence of extrahepatic disease. The median OS after RE was 7 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 5-8]; early metabolic responders (n = 33) survived longer than non-responders (p < 0.001) with a median OS of 10 months (95 % CI 3-16) versus 4 months (95 % CI 2-6). Hepatic tumour burden also had significant impact on treatment outcome (p < 0.001) with a median OS of 5 months (95 % CI, 3-7) for patients with >25 % metastatic liver replacement vs 14 months (95 % CI 6-22) for the less advanced patients. Both factors (early metabolic response and low hepatic tumour burden) remained as independent predictors of improved survival on multivariate analysis. These are the first findings to show that molecular response assessment in CRC using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT appears feasible as early as 4 weeks post-RE, allowing risk stratification and potentially facilitating early response-adapted treatment strategies. (orig.)

  11. Feasibility and utility of re-treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE in GEP-NENs relapsed after treatment with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severi, Stefano; Sansovini, Maddalena; Ianniello, Annarita; Nicolini, Silvia; Caroli, Paola; Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Meldola, FC (Italy); Bodei, Lisa [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Ibrahim, Toni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Meldola (Italy); Di Iorio, Valentina [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Oncology Pharmacy Laboratory, Meldola (Italy); D' Errico, Vincenzo [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Medical Physics Unit, Meldola (Italy); Monti, Manuela [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Meldola (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a valid therapy for grade 1/2 gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Although a median progression-free survival (PFS) of more than 20 months is frequently observed, the majority of patients relapse after 2 - 3 years. In the present study, we investigated the use of low dosage re-treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE (Lu-PRRT) in patients with GEP-NENs who relapsed after treatment with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC (Y-PRRT). Upon tumour progression, 26 patients with a PFS of at least 12 months after Y-PRRT were consecutively enrolled in a phase II study of re-treatment with Lu-PRRT. All patients had preserved kidney and haematological parameters and received 14.8 - 18.5 GBq of Lu-PRRT in four or five cycles. The disease control rate (DCR), toxicity, PFS and prognostic factors were evaluated. Median total activity of Lu-PRRT was 16.5 GBq in five cycles. The DCR was 84.6 %, median PFS was 22 months (95 % CI 16 months - not reached) compared to 28 months (95 % CI 20 - 36 months) after Y-PRRT. Tumour burden and number of liver metastases were important prognostic factors. Toxicity was mild after Lu-PRRT re-treatment in the majority of patients, with only two patients with grade 2 and one with grade 3 bone marrow toxicity; one patient had grade 2 and one grade 3 renal toxicity. Patients with GEP-NEN who have previously responded to Y-PRRT are suitable candidates for Lu-PRRT re-treatment on progression. Although our sample size was limited, low-dosage Lu-PRRT was safe, and led to DCR and PFS rates comparable with those observed when Y-PRRT was used as primary treatment. (orig.)

  12. Experimental facts supporting a red marrow uptake due to radiometal transchelation in {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC therapy and relationship to the decrease of platelet counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walrand, Stephan; Barone, Raffaella; Pauwels, Stanislas; Jamar, Francois [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether the red marrow (RM) takes up {sup 111}In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC and to assess the correlation between the RM absorbed doses and platelet count reduction as a biological dose estimate. Data from 12 patients who underwent at 24 h p.i. high statistics {sup 111}In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 86}Y positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions of the chest were analysed. Uptake was measured on >7 cm spine length and converted to total RM uptake using standard RM distribution in man. RM absorbed doses were calculated assuming specific RM uptake and using the plasma and remainder of the body models. RM doses were correlated with the platelet count reduction at 4 weeks. In vitro experiments explored the metabolism of {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in plasma. The correlation between the uptake of both tracers was excellent (R = 0.80), indicating that RM uptake of {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC reflects a real physiological process and not reconstruction artefacts. The kinetics of {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC RM activity was different than that in blood and tumours, with no activity at 4 h p.i. indicating that the uptake is not somatostatin receptor dependent. In vitro experiments showed a transchelation of both radiometals to free transferrin that could explain the RM uptake. In patients without chemotherapy and with a normal platelet count recovery, a good correlation (R = 0.96) was found between the RM doses and the platelet count reduction at the nadir. These experimental facts support the existence of a true RM uptake likely related to transchelation of the radiometal to transferrin. RM uptake correlates well with the observed acute RM toxicity. (orig.)

  13. Clinical impact of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT-based dosimetry in the radioembolization of liver malignancies with {sup 90}Y-loaded microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, Etienne [Cancer Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rennes (France); University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan [Cancer Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Imaging, Rennes (France); Laffont, Sophie [University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Edeline, Julien [University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Cancer Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, Rennes (France)

    2016-03-15

    Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-loaded microspheres is increasingly used in the treatment of primary and secondary liver cancer. Technetium-99 m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) scintigraphy is used as a surrogate of microsphere distribution to assess lung or digestive shunting prior to therapy, based on tumoral targeting and dosimetry. To date, this has been the sole pre-therapeutic tool available for such evaluation. Several dosimetric approaches have been described using both glass and resin microspheres in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastasis. Given that each product offers different specific activities and numbers of spheres injected, their radiobiological properties are believed to lightly differ. This paper summarizes and discusses the available studies focused on MAA-based dosimetry, particularly concentrating on potential confounding factors like clinical context, tumor size, cirrhosis, previous or concomitant therapy, and product used. In terms of the impact of tumoral dose in HCC, the results were concordant and a response relationship and tumoral threshold dose was clearly identified, especially in studies using glass microspheres. Tumoral dose has also been found to influence survival. The concept of treatment intensification has recently been introduced, yet despite several studies publishing interesting findings on the tumor dose-metastasis relationship, no consensus has been reached, and further clarification is thus required. Nor has the maximal tolerated dose to the liver been well documented, requiring more accurate evaluation. Lung dose was well described, despite recently identified factors influencing its evaluation, requiring further assessment. MAA SPECT/CT dosimetry is accurate in HCC and can now be used in order to achieve a fully customized approach, including treatment intensification. Yet further studies are warranted for the metastasis setting and evaluating the maximal tolerated liver dose. (orig.)

  14. Structural rearrangement at the yttrium-depleted surface of HCl-processed yttrium aluminosilicate glass for 90Y-microsphere brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Y-leaching effects in yttrium alumino-silicates are analyzed at the micrometer scale. ► A high degree of structural reconstruction is driven by non-bridging oxygens. ► Core–shell engineered glass microspheres are obtained after Y-leaching in HCl. - Abstract: The design of a process to create yttrium aluminosilicate microspheres with a core–shell structure is of interest in the field of cancer brachytherapy. Glass microspheres with yttrium-depleted shell may indeed reduce the risk of 90Y release into the organism. Here we show – by means of confocal micro-Raman scattering, microfluorescence, X-ray-fluorescence analysis, and IR spectroscopy – that yttrium depletion may be achieved by etching in HCl solution (pH 2) at a rate of 1 μm day−1 in bulk glass and 3 μm day−1 in glass microsphere (35 μm of diameter). Importantly, the spectroscopic results – collected in confocal configuration along the processed layer – indicate a high degree of structural reconstruction of the glass network, with the formation of an interconnected silicate-rich glass that surrounds a core of unmodified yttrium aluminosilicate. We also demonstrate that the process is driven by non-bridging oxygen sites, which regulate the hydroxylation and structural reconstruction of the glass within the Y-depleted layer. The analysis gives also some insight into open fundamental questions about the short-range structure and the chemical stability of this kind of glass, which is also important in photonics and nuclear waste disposal.

  15. The radioanalytical determination of cosmogenic 32P in marine samples for the study of the phosphate ion turnover in the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its peculiar half life (14.3 d), cosmogenic 32P can be used for the determination of the phosphate turnover in the oceans. This paper reports the sampling techniques used to collect phytoplankton, zooplankton, particulate matter and to concentrate the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) from large volumes of sea water. Moreover the radioanalytical procedures to isolate 32P and to count the final sources are described. The preliminary results obtained during three different campaignes are finally reported. (orig.)

  16. Design and characterization of a 32P-patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Studies of its application as a betatherapeutic agent for modulated brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a 32P-patch for contact brachytherapy of skin diseases. [32P]-chromic phosphate in combination with silicone was employed to produce the designed 32P patch. Radiopharmaceutical production was carried out in accordance with radiological safety issues. To verify the safety of the 32P-patch, stability studies in vitro and in vivo were carried out to evaluate the leakage of radioactivity and autoradiographic studies were performed to evaluate the dose homogeneity and shielding. Therapeutic efficacy in animal models of skin cancer as well as in cats with squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. These results showed that independently of the considered model, tumor growth was arrested and complete regressions were achieved in some other cases. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme and compared with Monte Carlo β doses. Some advantages of the designed 32P-patch allow its use for conformal and modulated radiotherapy such as the possibility of modifying the activity concentration of the patch, the limited range of β- radiation, dose deep distribution and combination with bolus. This 32P-patch which is easy to prepare and control may be used in the treatment of skin diseases alone or in combination with other treatment modalities. (author)

  17. Application of biotinylated and 32P probes for detection of P-fimbriae in urinary E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusková, E; Ciznár, I

    1993-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the common causative agent of urinary tract infections. Twenty-six strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from children with pyelonephritis, symptomatic urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Biotinylated and 32P-DNA probes were prepared for detection of P-fimbriae in the isolates. Of the 13 strains isolated from patients with pyelonephritis 11 were positive for the presence of the P gene by both probes. Strains isolated from cases of symptomatic urinary tract infections revealed the presence of P gene only in three samples of the total of nine isolated. None of the isolated E. coli strains from asymptomatic bacteriuria was found positive for the presence of the P gene. The biotinylated probe was simple and easily applicable in standard laboratory conditions and therefore the authors recommend it for use in diagnostic laboratories.

  18. Formation and persistence of sterigmatocystin-DNA adducts in rat liver determined via 32P-postlabeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P-postlabeling method has been employed to detect the in vitro and in vivo modification of DNA by the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST). Dose-dependent ST-DNA adduct formation was detected in the liver of male Fischer 344 rats over a 27-fold range of ST administered. In addition, ST-DNA adducts, formed in rats given a 9 mg/kg dose, were found to persist up to 105 days after treatment at a level of 0.5% of the 2-h value. Loss of these adducts from liver DNA was observed to exhibit a triphasic profile: rapid loss during the first 24 h followed by a slower decline from 1 to 14 days post dosing and an extremely slow decline from day 14 to 105 post treatment. This experimental approach to the study of mycotoxin-DNA interactions permits the quantitative description of DNA modification in ST-treated animals. (Auth.)

  19. Efficiency of phosphate fertilization to maize crop in high phosphorus content soil, evaluated by {sup 32}P tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizam, Anderson R.; Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe C.; Silva, Maria Ligia de S.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do Solo]. E-mails: trevizam@cena.usp.br; falvarez@cena.usp.br; mlsousi@hotmail.com; muraoka@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Application of high dosis of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils is justified by its intense fixation by the soil clays, which reduce availability to crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of maize crops to five rates of triple superphosphate in a soil with high available phosphorus content. Portions of 2 dm{sup 3} of soil (Typic Quartzipisamment) with 75 mg kg{sup -1} of available phosphorus and pH 7.00, collected from the upper 0-20 cm layer, were placed in plastic pots, received solution containing 5.55 MBq (150 {mu}Ci) of {sup 32}P and incubated for 7 days. Then 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg P kg{sup -1} as triple superphosphate was added to soil in the respective pots and incubated for 15 days keeping the soil moisture to 60 % of the field capacity. Maize (Zea mays L.) plants, single hybrid P30F80, were grown for 50 days (after germination), collected, oven dried, weighed and ground in a Wiley mill for analysis of total P content and {sup 32}P radioactivity. The maize dry matter increased with triple superphosphate rates. The phosphorus content and accumulation in the maize plants increased with triple superphosphate rate up to 4000 mg kg{sup -1}. The percentage of phosphorus derived from the fertilizer ranged from 79 to 97% and consequently the phosphorus derived from soil decreased with increasing application of triple superphosphate. In spite of soil high P available content, maize plants responded to applied phosphorus rates. (author)

  20. 32P-postlabelling analysis of dibenz[a,j]acridine-DNA adducts in mice: identification of proximate metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, G; Roh, J; Schamer, M; Reilman, R; Xue, W; Warshawsky, D

    1995-03-30

    N-Heterocyclic polynuclear aromatics are widely-occurring environmental pollutants formed during the pyrolysis of nitrogen-containing organic chemicals. Dibenz[a,j]acridine (DBA), a member of this class, has been shown to be a skin carcinogen in mice. We undertook studies to determine the organ distribution of DBA-DNA adducts and to identify the DBA metabolites which lead to the formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vivo. DBA and its metabolites, trans-DBA-1,2-dihydrodiol (DBA-1,2-DHD) trans-DBA-3,4-dihydrodiol (DBA-3,4-DHD) and trans-DBA-5,6-dihydrodiol (DBA-5,6-DHD), were topically applied on mice. DNA was isolated using enzyme-solvent extraction methods, and analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts using 32P-postlabelling. In skin, DBA produced two distinct adducts (Adducts 1 and 2). The same two adducts were seen when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied. In addition, the total adduct level elicited by DBA-3,4-DHD was twice that of the parent compound. Two adducts (Adducts 3 and 4) were also seen in mouse skin when DBA-5,6-DHD was applied, but these differed chromatographically from adducts seen with DBA. However, when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied and analyzed using sensitive nuclease P1 32P-postlabelling, all four adducts could be detected. These results suggest that the major route of DBA activation to DNA-binding species in skin is through formation of DBA-3,4-DHD and subsequent metabolism of this compound to a bay-region diol-epoxide. However, we postulate that another activation pathway may proceed through a bis-dihydrodiol-epoxide.

  1. Preliminary study on preparation, release velocity and intracorporeal physical distribution of 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactide) delayed release panicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to prepare the 32P-chromic phosphate-poly(L-lac-tide) (32P-CP-PLLA) particles with different ratio of the materials and further examine their performance in-dex in vivo and in vitro and their intracorporeal distribution. Methods: The erosion, degrading rates, delayed release velocity and radioactivity self-absorption coefficient (RSAC) of 32P-CP-PLLA particles made from different materials were investigated and compared. After the implantation of 32P-CP-PLLA particles and the injection of 32P-CP colloids in the muscular tissues, the weight loss rate and the radioactivity release rate (RRR) of the particles were calculated. The intracorporeal distribution, radioactive half-life and bio-logical effect of 32P in the targeting sites were further studied. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 12.0, and one-way analysis of variance and t-test were used. Results: 32P-CP-PLLA particles were of green cylinder, with regular shape and radionuclide distribution. The RSAC of the particles was of little relation with molecular weight of PLLA and proportional to the ratio of PLLA to CP. The extracorporeal release rate increased with the reduction of molecular weight of PLLA and with the increase of the ratio of PLLA to CP. The RRR reached peak when PLLA was 3 times of CP. The 32P-CP, released with the degradation and corrosion of the particle distributed mainly in the surrounding muscles of the particle. And the peak of percentage activity of injection dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) in liver, spleen and bone were 1. 7887, 1. 6401 and 1. 9470 respectively, much lower than that in the 32P-CP group (4.7523, 3.9712 and 4.3174 ; all t > 2.7, all P 32P-CP-PLLA, which can increase the targeting radioactive dosage and effective half-life in the implanting sites, can be served as an potential implanting agent for onco-therapy with a better perspective. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of 68Ga-DOTATOC in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours scheduled for 90Y-DOTATOC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ) and Vb (fractional blood volume). Pharmacokinetic data analysis can help to separate blood background activity (Vb) from the receptor binding (k1), which may help to optimise planning of 90Y-DOTATOC therapy. (orig.)

  3. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-labelled peptides for inoperable head and neck paragangliomas (glomus tumours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Singh, Aviral; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, THERANOSTICS Centre for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging, ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare tumours arising from autonomic nervous system ganglia. Although surgery offers the best chance of complete cure, there is associated morbidity due to the crucial location of these tumours. Radiotherapy arrests tumour growth and provides symptomatic improvement, but has long-term consequences. These tumours express somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and hence peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is now a treatment option. We assessed the molecular, morphological and clinical responses of inoperable HNPGLs to PRRT. Nine patients with inoperable HNPGL assessed between June 2006 and June 2014 were included. Four patients had a solitary lesion, four had multifocal involvement and one had distant metastases (bone and lungs). The patients were treated with PRRT using {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-labelled peptides after positive confirmation of SSTR expression on {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. All patients received two to four courses of PRRT. Subsequent serial imaging with {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT was carried out every 6 months to assess response to treatment. Clinical (symptomatic) response was also assessed. Based on molecular response (EORTC) criteria, four of the nine patients showed a partial molecular response to treatment seen as significant decreases in SUV{sub max}, accompanied by a reduction in tumour size. Five patients showed stable disease on both molecular and morphological criteria. Six out of nine patients were symptomatic at presentation with manifestations of cranial nerve involvement, bone destruction at the primary site and metastatic bone pain. Molecular responses were correlated with symptomatic improvement in four out of these six patients; while two patients showed small reductions in tumour size and SUV{sub max}. The three asymptomatic patients showed no new lesions or symptomatic worsening. PRRT was effective in all patients, with no disease worsening seen, either in the form of neurological symptoms or

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a novel acryl amide-based yttrium imprinted sorbent via the ATRP approach for the preparation of medical-grade {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedi, Mahvash [Nuclear Schience and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht; Bahrami-Samani, Ali [Nuclear Schience and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nabid, Mohammad Reza [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-05-01

    Because of its favorable radionuclidic properties (pure beta emitter, E{sub βmax} = 2.28 MeV, T{sub 1/2} = 64.1 h), the preparation of carrier free {sup 90}Y is of a great importance in radiopharmacy. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and application of a novel yttrium sorbent prepared on the basis of the ion-imprinting concept. The ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) was prepared by atom transfer radical copolymerization of acryl amide (AAm, functional monomer) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAAm) crosslinking agent in the presence of a complex of yttrium ions (template ions) with a homemade chelator, i.e., 2,2-bis(2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate)propane-1,3-disuccinate (also as initiator). For elimination of yttrium ions, which act as the template, the prepared particles were treated with 50% v:v HCl: H{sub 2}O to produce yttrium-imprinted polymeric sorbent. To control the imprinting effect, corresponding non-imprinted particles (NIP) were prepared in a similar manner except that yttrium ions were not used. The synthesized chemicals for the preparation of the chelator-initiator compound and the product itself were assessed in every step using {sup 1}H-NMR analysis. NIP and YIP were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy (IR) and BET surface area analysis for characterization studies. Sorption/desorption studies were conducted, and the effects of potentially interfering ions, such as Sr{sup 2+} (α = 119.69) and Zr{sup 4+} (α = 73.01) in presence of radio-yttrium, were investigated (particle size: 50-100 μm, resultant recovery of > 99% within 60 min and a capacity of 33.33 mg Y(III) per gram of sorbent). The results showed that amounts of radio-yttrium as low as 250 μg could be extracted effectively with high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity from macro-gram amounts of strontium.

  5. IART® (Intra-Operative Avidination for Radionuclide Therapy) for accelerated radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Technical aspects and preliminary results of a phase II study with 90Y-labelled biotin

    OpenAIRE

    Paganelli, G.; De Cicco, C; M. E. Ferrari; McVie, G.; Pagani, G; Leonardi, M C; Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, A.; Pacifici, M.; Di Dia, A; Botta, F; De Santis, R; Galimberti, V.; Luini, A.; Orecchia, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is considered the standard treatment for early breast cancer. We have investigated the possibility of irradiating the residual gland, using an innovative nuclear medicine approach named IART® (Intra-operative Avidination for Radionuclide Therapy). Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal dose of avidin with a fixed activity (3.7 GBq) of 90Y-biotin, in order to provide a boost of 20 Gy, foll...

  6. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer; Melhorando a disponibilidade de fosforo da rocha fosforica de Patos para eucalipto: um estudo com radiotracador 32P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agriculturea Tropical (INIFAT), Santiago de las Vegas, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: falvarez@cena.usp.br; Muraoka, Takashi; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do Solo; Franzini, Vinicius Ide [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Solos e Nutricao de Plantas; Rocha, Alexandre Prado [Escola de Engenharia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  7. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Procedimiento para realizar prueba de fuga en fuentes selladas de radiacion beta emisoras de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w}; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  8. Effect of parathion and aldrin on survival, ovarian 32P-uptake and gonadotrophic potency in a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of insecticides containing either an organophosphate parathion (Paramar M 50) or an organochlorine aldrin on the survival, ovarian 32P uptake and the gonadotrophic potency of the pituitary gland and blood serum in Heteropneustes fossilis were studied for 4 weeks. Aldrin was found to be more toxic than Paramar M 50. Reduced ovarian 32P uptake and a significantly decreased level of total gonadotropin in the pituitary gland and blood serum were seen when fish were kept either in safe concentration or in a concentration that had been found to kill half the fish in 96 h of Aldrin and Paramar M 50. The data suggest that these insecticides retarded gonadotropin secretion which in turn reduced ovarian 32P uptake

  9. A practical process for the preparation of [32P]S1P and binding assay for S1P receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are important regulators of vascular permeability, inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular maturation. Identifying a specific S1PR PET radioligand is imperative, but it is hindered by the complexity and variability of current for binding affinity measurement procedures. Herein, we report a streamlined protocol for radiosynthesis of [32P]S1P with good radiochemical yield (36–50%) and high radiochemical purity (>99%). We also report a reproducible procedure for determining the binding affinity for compounds targeting S1PRs in vitro. - Highlights: • Streamlined [32P]S1P production process with reproducible radiochemical yield. • Simplified assay of binding affinity for S1P receptors using [32P]S1P. • Reliable and repeatable IC50 values can be obtained by the reported method

  10. Differences in detection of DNA adducts in the 32P-postlabelling assay after either 1-butanol extraction or nuclease P1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J E; Jackson, M A; George, M H; Lewtas, J; Robertson, I G

    1989-04-01

    The use of nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. Although similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I (BPDE-I), nuclease P1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in detection of major adducts from 1-amino-6-nitropyrene (1-amino-6-NP), 1-amino-8-nitropyrene (1-amino-8-NP), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) modified DNAs, but not following the 32P-postlabelling analysis of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) modified DNA. These results suggest that, at least initially, both modifications of the 32P-postlabelling assay should be used for the detection of unknown adducts or for adducts derived from nitroaromatics and aromatic amines. PMID:2540901

  11. Differences in detection of DNA adducts in the 32P-postlabelling assay after either 1-butanol extraction or nuclease Pl treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. Although similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide I, nuclease P1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in detection of major adducts 1-amino-6-nitropyrene, 1-amino-8-nitropyrene, 2-aminofluorene, 2-naphthylamine and 4-aminobiphenyl modified DNAs, but not following the 32P-postlabelling analysis of 2-acetylaminofluorene modified DNA. These results suggest that at least initially, both modications of the 32P-postlabelling assay should be used for the detection of unknown adducts or for adducts derived from nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines

  12. Effects of very low dose-rate 90Sr/90Y exposure on the acute moist desquamation response of pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objectives: Previous data, predominantly involving high dose-rate fractionated irradiation with incomplete repair intervals, had indicated that the kinetics of repair of sublethal damage for acute radiation reactions in pig skin could best be defined by a biphasic repair model with half-times for repair of 0.2 and 5.4 h, partition coefficient 0.5. To further test the validity of this finding and obtain a better estimate of the repair rate of the slow component of repair, the acute response of pig skin to very low dose-rates (VLDR), originally estimated to be 0.0067-0.0244 Gy/min, was investigated as part of a 4 fraction irradiation protocol involving an overall treatment time of 90Sr/90Y plaques. Irradiation with a 4 fraction protocol included 3 equal, high dose-rate, fractions with full repair, followed by a fourth VLDR fraction. The total doses administered were originally planned to represent the dose associated with the predicted ED20, ED50 and ED80 (75% of total biological dose given at high dose-rate and 25% at VLDR) calculated on the basis of the repair kinetic parameters obtained from earlier studies. However, during the analysis a revision to the physical dosimetry was identified; this had been overlooked prior to the start of the study. Following completion of irradiation the irradiated sites were examined weekly and the presence or absence of moist desquamation recorded. Results: The incidence of moist desquamation was slightly higher than expected on the basis of the parameters used to calculate iso-effective doses, at least in part as a consequence of the change to the dosimetry. Using likelihood methods and the original dose estimates, the best model based estimate of the dose-rate correction factor for the LDR and VLDR plaques was 1.29. This was comparable with the physical calibration factor, median value 1.23. The VLDR fraction associated with a 50% incidence of moist desquamation, based on experimental observation, was 23.2 ± 0

  13. 胶体~(32) P-磷酸铬间质给药对犬累积损伤效应的研究%Cumulative damage effect of ~(32) P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial delivery on beagles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂琦; 刘璐; 刘志勇; 黄培林; 兰兴昊; 高海林; 吴清华; 孙晋; 黄鹰

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胶体~(32)P-磷酸铬(~(32)P-CP)在正常Beagle犬的肝叶或臀大肌行间质注射的安全性.方法 10只Beagle犬,随机分成间质给药不同剂量(185和370 MBq)、不同部位(臀大肌和肝脏)及冷胶体对照5组(n=2).术后不同时间点称量体重,行血液生化学检查,ECT轫致辐射显像,组织形态学动态观察及连续测量体表、血液、尿液和粪便放射性计数率值.计量数据以均数±标准差((x)±s)表示,采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计分析.结果 给药后ECT示肝脏组全肝显影,放射性分布呈团块状不均匀,肌肉组局部放射性持续浓聚,肝脏未见显影.术后第4组犬体重进行性减少,45 d时较术前减少2.7 kg,余组体重增值均数依序为3.0、1.6、0.8和3.1 kg.第4组血小板、红细胞术后有明显减少.分别于给药后23和45 d死亡,死亡前谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶均有急剧升高;其余组间血液和血生化学差异无统计学意义.术后体表分区测定以注射部位放射性计数率值为最高,其次为膀胱、脾.肝脏组血液峰时为5 rain,峰值分别为0.5×10~7/min和1.0×10~7/min;肌肉组持续在3×10~5/min左右.组织学表现肌肉组和肝脏185 MBq组4周内有充血水肿改变,8周后组织结构恢复正常;肝脏370 MBq组4周内部分肝细胞坏死,6周时见大量肝细胞气球样变,充血水肿明显,肝小叶结构不清.尿液、粪便中放射性计数率肌肉组峰时均数分别为13和12 d,峰值为(42.0 ±3.3)x 10~4/min和(29.6±4.5)×10~4/min;肝脏组峰时为5和9 d,峰值为(49.0±10.2)×10~4/min和(28.5±7.1)×10~4/min.至30 d肌肉组从尿液和粪便中累积排泄率为36.58%和10.62%,肝脏组为23.48%和8.76%.吸收剂量肝脏组肝脏为(30.6 ±2.3)、(55.6±4.4)Gy;肌肉组肌肉注射部位为(53.4±3.1)、(98.1±3.3)Gy,肝脏为(2.3±1.3)、(6.5±1.2)Gy.结论 Beagle犬肝脏间质注射794.39 MBq/m~2,肝脏吸收剂量为56 Gy时有较强肝毒性及全身毒副作用,

  14. Evaluation of Soil Labile Phosphorus Using a Double—Labeling (32P and 33P) Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGUANG-HUO

    1992-01-01

    Isotopic exchangeability of phosphorus in four Chinese soils with and without P application was studied by 32P and 33P double-labeling technique in relation to routine chemical extractions.The results showed that Bray-I and Bray-Ⅱ reagents could extract most of the fast exchangeable P.Not all of the Olsen-P belonged to fast exchangeable P,but it was about the same quantity of fast exchangeable P in a calcareous soil and a neutral soil without P application.Sequential fractionation of the soil phosphorus showed that most of the added radioisotopes in high P fixation red soils were tightly held by iron and aluminium oxides,which could be totally extracted only by 0.1M NaOH solution.In the neutral and calcareous soils most of the radioisotopes added were loosely held on the surface of soil particles and could be extracted by anion exchange resin.Phosphate application increased the resin-P fraction significantly for all the soils studied.

  15. /sup 32/P-Postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: Application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.; Randerath, E.; Randerath, K.

    1984-02-01

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by /sup 32/P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-/sup 32/P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)phosphate transfer from (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(/sup 8/) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(/sup 5/) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for /sup 32/P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity.

  16. 32P-Postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: Application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by 32P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-32P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(8) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(5) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for 32P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, 32P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity

  17. The mineral nutrition of millet (Pennisetum-typhoides): Migration of 32P and 35S - Similarities with the migration of photosynthetic assimilates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a study of the transport of 32P and 35S injected into leaves or of 14CO2 absorbed thereby. It is shown that the radioisotopes mostly travel towards the upper parts of the plant and towards the seeds when they originate from upper leaves after male flowering. The later fillers, however, do not play any role as a reserve in the mineral or carbon nutrition of adult fillers. No appreciable absorption of 35S or 32P by the roots is observed after male flowering. (author)

  18. Ratio and rate effects of 32P-triple superphosphate and phosphate rock mixtures on corn growth Proporções e doses das misturas de 32P-superfosfato triplo com fosfato natural no desenvolvimento do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Ide Franzini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of phosphorus (P from " Patos de Minas" phosphate rock (PR can be improved if it is applied mixed with a water-soluble P source. The objective of this study was to evaluate 32P as a tracer to quantify the effect of the ratio of mixtures of triple superphosphate (TSP with PR and the rates of application on P availability from PR. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse utilizing corn (Zea mays L. plants as test crop. In the first experiment, the P sources were applied at the rate of 90 mg P kg-1 soil either separately or as compacted mixtures in several TSP:PR ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 calculated on the basis of the total P content. In the second experiment, the TSP was applied alone or as 50:50 compacted mixtures with PR applied at four P rates (15, 30, 60 and 90 mg P kg-1 while the sole PR treatment was applied at the 90 mg kg-1 P rate . The mixture of PR with TSP improved the P recovery from PR in the corn plant and this effect increased proportionally to the TSP amounts in the mixture. When compared with the plant P recovery from TSP (10.52%, PR-P recovery (2.57% was much lower even when mixed together in the ratio of 80% TSP: 20% PR. There was no difference in PR-P utilization by the corn plants with increasing P rates in the mixture (1:1 proportion. Therefore, PR-P availability is affected by the proportions of the mixtures with water soluble P, but not by P rates.A disponibilidade de fósforo do fosfato natural de Patos de Minas (FN pode ser melhorada se aplicado junto com uma fonte de P solúvel em água. O objetivo desse estudo foi usar o 32P como traçador para quantificar o efeito das doses e das proporções das misturas de superfosfato triplo (SFT com FN no aumento da disponibilidade de P do FN. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa-de-vegetação com plantas de milho (Zea mays L. como cultura teste. No primeiro experimento as fontes de fósforo, na dose de 90 mg kg-1

  19. Ratio and rate effects of {sup 32}P-triple superphosphate and phosphate rock mixtures on corn growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, Vinicius Ide; Mendes, Fernanda Latanze [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Solos e Nutricao de Plantas; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The availability of phosphorus (P) from 'Patos de Minas' phosphate rock (PR) can be improved if it is applied mixed with a water-soluble P source. The objective of this study was to evaluate {sup 32}P as a tracer to quantify the effect of the ratio of mixtures of triple superphosphate (TSP) with PR and the rates of application on P availability from PR. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse utilizing corn (Zea mays L.) plants as test crop. In the first experiment, the P sources were applied at the rate of 90 mg P kg{sup -1} soil either separately or as compacted mixtures in several TSP:PR ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 calculated on the basis of the total P content). In the second experiment, the TSP was applied alone or as 50:50 compacted mixtures with PR applied at four P rates (15, 30, 60 and 90 mg P kg{sup -1}) while the sole PR treatment was applied at the 90 mg kg{sup -1}P rate . The mixture of PR with TSP improved the P recovery from PR in the corn plant and this effect increased proportionally to the TSP amounts in the mixture. When compared with the plant P recovery from TSP (10.52%), PR-P recovery (2.57%) was much lower even when mixed together in the ratio of 80% TSP: 20% PR. There was no difference in PR-P utilization by the corn plants with increasing P rates in the mixture (1:1 proportion). Therefore, PR-P availability is affected by the proportions of the mixtures with water soluble P, but not by P rates. (author)

  20. DIFFERENCES IN DETECTION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN THE 32P-POSTLABELING ASSAY AFTER EITHER 1-BUTANOL EXTRACTION OR NUCLEASE P1 TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of nuclease Pl treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabe1ling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. lthough similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide I, nucl...

  1. The use of 32P Method to Evaluate the Growth of Lowland Rice Cultivated in a System of Rice Intensification (SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Citraresmini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment has been conducted to evaluate the growth of the Dyah Suci, a lowland rice variety, in an SRI (System of Rice Intensification planting system. The phosphorus-32 (32P isotope technique was used to evaluate the growth of plants in relation with their phosphorus uptake. The uptake was assumed to vary in the same direction as the growth of the plant. The 32P uptake is assumed to vary in the opposite direction to the plant’s total phosphorus uptake. Here the 32P uptake is expressed in count per minutes (cpm which is then transformed to disintegration per minute (dpm. The results show that, in terms of promoting the plant’s uptake of phosphorus, the SRI planting system is superior to the conventional planting system, and it is manifested in the higher dry weight of straw and grain. From this experiment it is concluded that the 32P method can be used satisfactorily as a tool for explaining the relation between P-uptake and plant growth

  2. Computed tomography hepatic arteriography has a hepatic falciform artery detection rate that is much higher than that of digital subtraction angiography and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT: Implications for planning 90Y radioembolization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmans, M.C., E-mail: mburgmans@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Too, C.W., E-mail: too.chow.wei@singhealth.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Kao, Y.H., E-mail: yung.h.kao@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Goh, A.S.W., E-mail: anthony.goh.s.w@sgh.com.sg [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Chow, P.K.H., E-mail: gsupc@singnet.com.sg [Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857 (Singapore); Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Center Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169610 (Singapore); Tan, B.S., E-mail: tan.bien.soo@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tay, K.H., E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Lo, R.H.G., E-mail: richard.lo.h.g@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) detection rates of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) and to correlate HFA patency with complication rates of yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. Material and methods: From August 2008 to November 2010, 79 patients (range 23–83 years, mean 62.3 years; 67 male) underwent pre-treatment DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA scintigraphy (planar/SPECT/CT) to assess suitability for radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres. Thirty-seven patients were excluded from the study, because CTHA was performed with a catheter position that did not result in opacification of the liver parenchyma adjacent to the falciform ligament. DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT images and medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A patent HFA was detected in 22 of 42 patients (52.3%). The HFA detection rates of DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT were 11.9%, 52.3% and 13.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001). An origin from the segment 4 artery was seen in 51.7% of HFAs. Prophylactic HFA coil-embolization prior to 90Y microspheres infusion was performed in 2 patients. Of the patients who underwent radioembolization with a patent HFA, none developed supra-umbilical radiation dermatitis. One patient experienced epigastric pain attributed to post-embolization syndrome and was managed conservatively. Conclusion: The HFA detection rate of CTHA is superior to that of DSA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT. Complications related to non-target radiation of the HFA vascular territory rarely occur, even in patients undergoing radioembolization with a patent HFA.

  3. Evaluation of methods and levels of phosphorus application in F1 hybrid capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) using 32P-labelled superphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep placement of phosphatic fertilizer proximal to the dense distribution of roots has resulted in better absorption and utilization in many crops. The relative efficiency of various methods of fertilizer placement using 32P-labelled superphosphate has been evaluated in wheat, oats, France bean, okra, brinjal and tomato, cabbage and onion and chilli. In this paper, studies were undertaken to evaluate different methods of superphosphate placements to F1 hybrid capsicum applied at different levels of recommended P dose

  4. 32P-post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed in the upper gastrointestinal tissue of mice fed bracken extract or bracken spores.

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Povey; D. Potter; O'Connor, P J

    1996-01-01

    Bracken toxicity to both domestic and laboratory animals is well established and tumours are formed when rodents are treated with either bracken extracts or bracken spores. In this study we have administered bracken spores and extract to mice in order to investigate whether such exposure leads to the formation of DNA adducts. DNA, isolated from the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver, was digested to 3'-nucleotides. Adducts were extracted with butanol, 32P-post-labelled, separated by thin ...

  5. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  6. Changes of the blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions following /sup 131/I treatment for nodular goitre and /sup 32/P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, J.; Petrini, B.; Stedingk, L.-V. von; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.-O.; Lundell, G.

    1988-01-01

    The blood lymphocyte population was examined in 34 patients treated with /sup 131/I for toxic or atoxic nodular goitre. One to three doses of 300-550 MBq of /sup 131/I were administered at 1-week intervals. Results, with the exception of mitogen reactivity, were largely similar to those occurring following external radiation therapy for cancer. It is suggested that blood lymphocytes passing through the continuously irradiated gland are damaged mainly by ..beta..-rays. The effect of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patients with polycythemia vera. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P(150-305 MBq), which normalized the production of erythrocytes andor platelets, blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 weeks after treatment. Examination of subsets demonstrated the proportion of B-cells was decreased by the highest relative extent, but lymphocytes expressing the T cell markers were increased. /sup 32/P treatment markedly increased PHA reactivity but further reduced PWM-induced Ig secreation, in agreement with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced after treatment. (U.K.)

  7. Study on apoptosis of human non-small cell pulmonary carcinoma A549 cells induced by 32P-chromium phosphates in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the phasic change and apoptosis of A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells induced by 32P-chromium phosphate in vitro, and establish the dose-response and time-response relationship. Methods: Internal irradiation was conducted by adding 32P-colloid into A549 cell culture system. The initial radioactivities were 0, 93, 180, 278, 370, 463 MBq/L, respectively. Giemsa stain, transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL were used in assessing morphologic, ultra structural pathologic and biochemical characteristics, and the phasic changes and apoptotic rates of cells were studied by flow cytometry. Results: After irradiation of A549 cells, the cell ratio of S + G2-M phase tended to increase within 96 h, then decreased gradually. At 72 h after irradiation the A549 cells showed excited manifestation, and in each irradiation group apoptosis began from 96 h of irradiation, and attained the peak at 120 h. Conclusion: In the lower dosage range, 32P internal irradiation may induce human NSCLC A549 cells to present delayed onset of apoptosis, and the rate of cell apoptosis is positively correlated to the initial radioactivity concentration. (authors)

  8. Fine-tuning methodologies to determine phosphorus fractions in plant- and soil samples labelled with radioisotope 32P and/or 33P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In preparation for the 32P/ 33P work in the laboratory and greenhouse, selected methods for the determination of P fractions in plant and soil were tested and fine-tuned with non-labelled materials. Selected materials were validated against certified reference materials (NIST1547, NIST 1646, NIST 2709) where available or compared to analytical results provided by national soil-testing laboratories on an internal standard soil and/or tested soil samples. The tested methods were applied to fractionate the low -P soil, which has been selected for future 32P experiments in the newly refurbished greenhouse experiments. The following methods have been identified and validated: Total P in plant samples by wet digestion with concentrated sulphuric acid; Total P in soil samples by perchloric acid digestion; Available P in soil samples by the Bray-P2 extraction method; Fractionated extraction of Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P in low P soils (pH 5.9) by acetic acid, ammonia fluoride and sodium hydroxide extractants, respectively. The next step will be to use 32P labelled plant and soil- samples for the tests. (author)

  9. 32P-磷酸铬-聚L乳酸粒子植入肝癌H22移植瘤模型治疗淋巴道转移的潜能%Therapeutic potential of lymph metastasis after 32P-chromicphosphate-poly L-lactic acid seeds implanted into hepatoma H22 xenograft model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海林; 刘璐; 黄培林; 吴清华; 杨泽萱; 聂琦

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the therapeutic potential of 32P-chromicphosphate-poly L-lactic acid (32P-CP-PLLA) seeds on regional lymph nodes in the KM mice model of hepatoma H22 lymph metastasis after intratumoral implantation. Methods Ascitic hepatoma cells (H22) were injected into right fat pad to establish lymph metastasis model in KM mice. Fifty-five KM mouse models were randomly divided into different groups (n=5 each) through 32P-CP-PLLA implantion or colloid 32 P-chromicphosphate ( 32P-CP) intravenous injection. Different doses at 18. 5, 37. 0 or 74. 0 MBq per mouse were used immediately after establishing the tumor models. Different injection time points of 3, 7, 10 or 13 days were used as well at the dose of 37 MBq per mouse. Dynamic imaging was performed by γ camera. Thereafter, all of KM mice were sacririced to separate popliteal lymph node (PLN) and inguinal lymph nodes (ILN). The dose- and time-effect relation was observed by lymph node weight, light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results γ camera imaging demonstrated that the implantation points in 32P-CP-PLLA group had a limited and lasting radioactive uptake while the quality was the contrary, better than that in 32P-CP group. At the same dose the colloidal group had a higher radioactivity than the seed group. At the same dose, the PLN quality of seed group and colloidal group was not significantly different ( P > 0. 05 ) ; The ILN quality of colloidal group is less than seed group (P < 0.05 ). Seeds implanted at different times, PLN quality is significantly different ( F=31. 268 ,P <0. 01 ). Conclusion 32P-CP-PLLA seeds implanted into tumor targeting position is better than 32P-CP. There is a therapeutic effect to the lymph node metastasis as well as the treatment of tumor.%目的 观察32P-磷酸铬-聚L乳酸(32P-CP-PILA)粒子瘤体植入后对KM小鼠肝癌H22淋巴转移模型区域淋巴结(LN)治疗的潜能.方法 KM小鼠55只,建立右爪垫移植瘤淋巴道转移模型,随机分11

  10. Radiosynovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyunghee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Radiosynovectomy has been used as an effective treatment in patients with resistant synovitis after failure of long-term medication and intraarticular steroid injection. Although {sup 90}Y silicate/citrate, {sup 186}Re sulfide, and {sup 169}Er citrate were approved in Europe for the appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for radiosynovectomy, other radionuclides such as {sup 32}P-chromic phosphate, {sup 165}Dy-ferric hydroxide macroaggregate, {sup 188}Rh-microspheres, {sup 153}Sm-particulate, and {sup 166}Ho- ferric hydroxide macroaggregate have been used in many countries. Reported success rates range from 40% to 90% for the different joints and underlying disease. In Korea, {sup 188}Re-tin-colloid and {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex are now using as the major radionuclides in radiosynovectomy with good clinical results. A study on radiation synovectomy using {sup 188}Re-tin-colloid for patients with Korean rheumatoid arthritis shows the treatment resulted in the improvement of arthritis and well tolerated. In our study, the radiosynovectomy with {sup 166}Ho- chitosan complex in 53 hemophilic patients markedly decreased intra-articular bleeding frequency and need for coagulation factor. This review includes general principles in the application of radiosynovectomy and the clinical experience in Korea.

  11. Detection of KatG Gen Mutation on Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Means of PCR-Dot Blot Hybridization with 32P Labeled Oligonucleotide Probe Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handling and controlling of tuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is now complicated since there are many MTBs that are resistant against anti-tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid. The drug resistance could occurred due to the inadequate and un-regular drug utilization that cause gene mutation of the drug target such as katG gene for isoniazid. The molecular biology techniques such as the PCR- dot blot hybridization with radioisotope (32P) labeled oligonucleotide probe, has been reported as a technique that is more sensitive and rapid for detection of gene mutations related with drug resistances. Hence, the aim of this study was to apply the PCR- dot blot hybridization technique using 32P labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of single mutation at codon 315 of katG gene of MTBs that rise the isoniazid resistance. In this study, we used 89 sputum specimens and a standard MTB (MTB H37RV) as a control. DNA extractions were performed by the BOOM method and the phenol chloroform for sputum samples and standard MTB, respectively. Primers used for PCR technique were Pt8 and Pt9 and RTB59 and RTB36 for detecting tuberculosis causing Mycobacterium and the existence of katG gene, respectively. Both of the primers are specific for IS6110 region and katG gene, respectively. PCR products were detected by an agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Dot blot hybridization with 32P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu was performed to detect mutation at codon 315 of tested samples. Results of the PCR using primer Pt8 and Pt9 showed that all sputum specimens had positive results. Mutation detection by PCR- dot blot hybridization with 32P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu, revealed that 11 of 89 tested samples had a mutation at their codon 315 of katG gene. Based upon these results, it is concluded that PCR-dot blot hybridization with 32P-oligonucleotide probe is a technique that is rapid and highly specific and sensitive for detection of mutation at codon 315 of

  12. Radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) with anti-CD22 90Y-epratuzumab in adults with refractory or relapsed CD22+ ALL: preliminary results of a phase I/II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Objectives: the outcome is dismal for many adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and there remains a need for new therapeutic approaches. This study evaluated fractionated radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) using anti-CD22 90Y-epratuzumab in adults with refractory or relapsed CD22 + ALL. Methods: Patients initially received cold epratuzumab on days 1, 4, 8, and 11. 90Y-epratuzumab was administered on days 30 and 37, with 111In-epratuzumab on day 30 for serial SPECT-CT imaging and dosimetry. Injections were followed by weekly blood samples and bone marrow aspirates (BMA) 4 weeks later. For dose escalation, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined (NCI CTC v4.0) as: non-blastic (<5%) pancytopenia grade 4. 6 weeks or other toxicities. grade 3. Responses were assessed by Cheson 2003 criteria. Results: Eight patients have now been treated without infusion reactions, receiving 90Y doses of 92.5 MBq/m2 x 2 (N=5) and 185 MBq/m2 x 2 (N=3). 111In imaging showed bone marrow uptake but after the first 2 patients the cold epratuzumab was discontinued to avoid blocking tumour uptake of the radiolabeled epratuzumab. One month after RAIT, 7/8 patients showed blood and/or bone marrow evidence of disease progression (PD). However, one Philadelphia-positive patient in third relapse achieved a complete phenotypic and molecular response (CR) at the second dose level and is currently still in CR, after receiving a second cycle of RAIT as consolidation, waiting for allogeneic transplantation. In PD patients, hematologic decreases were attributed to disease progression while pancytopenia in the CR patient duration resolved within 6 weeks. No other toxicities were observed. Conclusions: this radioimmunotherapy approach was well tolerated and appears promising in advanced ALL with one refractory patient having achieved a CR at the current dose level. Dose escalation is continuing and additional dosimetric data will be available at the time of congress

  13. Tumour targeting and radiation dose of radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y-rituximab in CD20+ B-cell lymphoma as predicted by {sup 89}Zr-rituximab immuno-PET: impact of preloading with unlabelled rituximab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylle, Kristoff [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, MIMA Research Group, Brussels (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Flamen, Patrick; Guiot, Thomas; Ghanem, Ghanem; Meuleman, Nathalie; Bourgeois, Pierre; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Vaes, Melanie; Bron, Dominique [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Vugts, Danielle J.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Everaert, Hendrik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, MIMA Research Group, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To compare using immuno-PET/CT the distribution of {sup 89}Zr-labelled rituximab without and with a preload of unlabelled rituximab to assess the impact of preloading with unlabelled rituximab on tumour targeting and radiation dose of subsequent radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y-labelled rituximab in CD20+ B-cell lymphoma. Five patients with CD20+ B-cell lymphoma and progressive disease were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent three study phases: initial dosimetric phase with baseline {sup 89}Zr-rituximab PET/CT imaging without a cold preload, followed 3 weeks later by a second dosimetric phase with administration of a standard preload (250 mg/m{sup 2}) of unlabelled rituximab followed by injection of {sup 89}Zr-rituximab, and a therapeutic phase 1 week later with administration of unlabelled rituximab followed by {sup 90}Y-rituximab. PET/CT imaging and tracer uptake by organs and lesions were assessed. With a cold rituximab preload, the calculated whole-body dose of {sup 90}Y-rituximab was similar (mean 0.87 mSv/MBq, range 0.82-0.99 mSv/MBq) in all patients. Without a preload, an increase in whole-body dose of 59 % and 87 % was noted in two patients with preserved circulating CD20+ B cells. This increase in radiation dose was primarily due to a 12.4-fold to 15-fold higher dose to the spleen without a preload. No significant change in whole-body dose was noted in the three other patients with B-cell depletion. Without a preload, consistently higher tumour uptake was noticed in patients with B-cell depletion. Administration of the standard preload of unlabelled rituximab impairs radioconjugate tumour targeting in the majority of patients eligible for radioimmunotherapy, that is patients previously treated with rituximab-containing therapeutic regimens. This common practice may need to be reconsidered and further evaluated as the rationale for this high preload has its origin in the ''prerituximab era''. (orig.)

  14. Phase I/II {sup 90}Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) radioimmunotherapy dosimetry results in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, G.A.; Dunn, W.L. [Dept. Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); White, C.A.; Berlfein, J.R.; Ding, E.; Grillo-Lopez, A.J. [IDEC Pharmaceuticals Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Stabin, M.; Erwin, W.; Spies, S. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University and Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Il (United States); Dahlbom, M.; Silverman, D.H.S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Raubitschek, A. [City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States); Karvelis, K. [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Schultheiss, T. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Witzig, T.E. [Dept. of Internal Medicine Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Belanger, R. [Ryan Belanger Associates, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Dosimetry studies in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were performed to estimate the radiation absorbed dose to normal organs and bone marrow from {sup 90}Y-Zevalin (yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8) treatment in this phase I/II, multicenter trial. The trial was designed to determine the dose of Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20, Rituxan, IDEC-C2B8, MabThera), the unlabeled antibody given prior to the radioconjugate to clear peripheral blood B cells and optimize distribution, and to determine the maximum tolerated dose of {sup 90}Y-Zevalin [7.4, 11, or 15 MBq/kg (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mCi/kg)]. Patients received {sup 111}In-Zevalin (indium-111 ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-In2B8) on day 0 followed by a therapeutic dose of {sup 90}Y-Zevalin on day 7. Both doses were preceded by an infusion of the chimeric, unlabeled antibody Rituximab. Following administration of {sup 111}In-Zevalin, serial anterior/posterior whole-body scans were acquired. Major-organ radioactivity versus time estimates were calculated using regions of interest. Residence times were computed and entered into the MIRDOSE3 computer software program to calculate estimated radiation absorbed dose to each organ. Initial analyses of estimated radiation absorbed dose were completed at the clinical site. An additional, centralized dosimetry analysis was performed subsequently to provide a consistent analysis of data collected from the seven clinical sites. In all patients with dosimetry data (n=56), normal organ and red marrow radiation absorbed doses were estimated to be well under the protocol-defined upper limit of 20 Gy and 3 Gy, respectively. Median estimated radiation absorbed dose was 3.4 Gy to liver (range 1.2-7.8 Gy), 2.6 Gy to lungs (range 0.72-4.4 Gy), and 0.38 Gy to kidneys (range 0.07-0.61 Gy). Median estimated tumor radiation absorbed dose was 17 Gy (range 5.8-67 Gy). No correlation was noted between hematologic toxicity and the following variables: red marrow radiation absorbed dose

  15. Direct intratumoral application of radioactive substances (/sup 32/P-colloid) and chemotherapeutic agents (BCNU) as a multimodal treatment of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannek, H.W.; Brock, M.; Franke, A.

    1987-12-01

    The multimodal approach to the treatment of inoperable gliomas is exemplified by the report of a case of astrocytoma IV (WHO). This ist the first application of a liquid nucleid (/sup 32/P) in combination with a chemotherapeutic substance (BCNU). This treatment was performed on a comatose patient who had already been given up, and who was suffering from a right-sided cystic temporal glioblastoma. An improvement of the life quality and of neurological symptoms over a period of 2 1/2 months resulted.

  16. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: description of beta shielding apparatus and semi-automatic spotting and washing devices that facilitate the handling of multiple samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of the 32P-postlabeling assay in combination with TLC for the sensitive detection and estimation of aromatic DNA adducts has been increasing. The procedure consists of 32P-labeling of carcinogen-adducted 3'-nucleotides in the DNA digests using γ-32P ATP and polynucleotide kinase, separation of 32P-labeled adducts by TLC, and their detection by autoradiography. During both 32P-labeling and initial phases of TLC, a relatively high amount of γ-32P ATP is handled when 30 samples are processed simultaneously. We describe the design of acrylic shielding apparatus, semi-automatic TLC spotting devices, and devices for development and washing of multiple TLC plates, which not only provide substantial protection from exposure to 32P beta radiation, but also allow quick and easy handling of a large number of samples. Specifically, the equipment includes: (i) a multi-tube carousel rack having 15 wells to hold capless Eppendorf tubes and a rotatable lid with an aperture to access individual tubes; (ii) a pipette shielder; (iii) two semi-automatic spotting devices to apply radioactive solutions to TLC plates; (iv) a multi-plate holder for TLC plates; and (v) a mechanical device for washing multiple TLC plates. Item (i) is small enough to be held in one-hand, vortexed, and centrifuged to mix the solutions in each tube while beta radiation is shielded. Items (iii) to (iv) aid in the automation of the assay. (author)

  17. Report of the 2. research coordination meeting on development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this CRP are to evaluate various generator and concentration technologies for 188W-188Re, 99Mo-99mTc and 90Sr-90Y generators, to optimize generator fabrication and use, to standardize quality control techniques for the eluted radionuclides and to provide standardized procedures to participating laboratories. The following issues will be addressed during the CRP. - Development of reproducible methodologies for the preparation of 188W-188Re, 99Mo-99mTc and 90Sr-90Y generators. - Development and evaluation of chromatography adsorbents (Zr/Ti composites) having higher binding capacities and demonstration of their utility in the preparation of column generators for 188Re and 99mTc. - Comparison and optimization of technologies for post elution concentration of 188Re and 99mTc in order to improve the radioactive concentration. - Development of quality control techniques and specifications for generator eluted therapeutic radionuclides

  18. Simultaneous extraction from clinical biopsies of high-molecular-weight DNA and RNA: comparative characterization by biotinylated and 32P-labeled probes on Southern and Northern blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for efficient simultaneous extraction of high-molecular-weight DNA and RNA from solid mammalian tissues including clinical biopsies is described. It is based on the disruption and subsequent melting of deep frozen tissue in the presence of frozen phenol and nucleic acid extraction buffer; this allows for simultaneous disruption of tissue and inactivation of nucleases. The yield is about 0.7-5.8 mg of DNA and 0.5-8.1 mg of total RNA/g of tissue depending upon the tissue type; this is higher than the yield of other methods tested. Analysis of total RNA by denaturing gel electrophoresis, and of DNA and poly(A)+ RNA by Southern and Northern blot hybridization using 32P and biotinylated probes, indicated that c-Ha-ras gene and its transcripts were undegraded. Biotinylated and 32P probes had approximately the same sensitivity in detecting nucleic acids on Southern and Northern blots. This extraction procedure is simple and, when used with biotinylated probes, is rapid, inexpensive, and nonhazardous. The methodology can be modified for use with other clinical samples and cells grown in culture

  19. Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with α-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with γ-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

  20. Semi-quantitative analysis of post-transarterial radioembolization {sup 90}Y Microsphere position emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) images in advance liver malignancy: Comparison with {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Seung Hong; Kim, Sung Eun; Cho, Jae Hyuk; Park, Ju Kyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Eun Sub [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment planning technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT images and posttreatment transarterial radioembolization (TARE) yttirum-90 ({sup 90}Y) PET/CT images by comparing the ratios of tumor-to-normal liver counts. Fifty-two patients with advanced hepatic malignancy who underwent {sup 90}Y microsphere radioembolization from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had undergone {sup 99}mTc MAA intraarterial injection SPECT for a pretreatment evaluation of microsphere distribution and therapy planning. After the administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres, the patients underwent posttreatment {sup 90}Y PET/CT within 24 h. For semiquantitative analysis, the tumor-to-normal uptake ratios in {sup 90}Y PET/CT (TNR-yp) and {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT (TNR-ms) as well as the tumor volumes measured in angiographic CT were obtained and analyzed. The relationship of TNR-yp and TNR-ms was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. In a total of 79 lesions of 52 patients, the distribution of microspheres was well demonstrated in both the SPECT and PET/CT images. A good correlation was observed of between TNR-ms and TNR-yp (rho value = 0.648, p < 0.001). The TNR-yp (median 2.78, interquartile range 2.43) tend to show significantly higher values than TNR-ms (median 2.49, interquartile range of 1.55) (p = 0.012). The TNR-yp showed weak correlation with tumor volume (rho = 0.230, p = 0.041). The 99mTc MAA SPECT showed a good correlation with {sup 90}Y PET/CT in TNR values, suggesting that {sup 99}mTc MAA can be used as an adequate pretreatment evaluation method. However, the {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT image consistently shows lower TNR values compared to 90Y PET/CT, which means the possibility of underestimation of tumorous uptake in the partition dosimetry model using {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT. Considering that

  1. Intrahepatic arterial {sup 99M}Technetium ({sup 99M}Tc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) scan prior to selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with {sup 90}Yttrium (90Y) microspheres for liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langan, P.; Alwan, M.H.; Stubbs, R.S. [Wakefield Hospital, Wellington (New Zealand). Department of Radiology and Gastroenterology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: {sup 90}Y-microspheres is a regional treatment modality that is used for patients with inoperable primary or secondary liver tumours. Success of treatment depends on the increased uptake and retention of the {sup 90}Y by the tumour relative to normal liver, and the absence of significant extrahepatic shunting. Between February and November 1997, 32 patients were treated with SIRT at Wakefield Gastroenterology Centre. A group of these patients received subsequent hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAI) using 5-Fluorouracil (5FU). {sup 99m}Tc-MAA in a median dose of 135 MBq (3.6 mCi) [range: 120-150 MBq, or 3.4- 4.1 mCi] with >90% of the particles 10 to 90 {mu}m in size and none greater than 150 {mu}n was injected through a subcutaneously implanted port inserted at laparotomy in the gastroduodenal artery which led to the common hepatic artery (26 patients), or through a transfemoral catheter positioned in the hepatic artery (6 patients). Scintigraphic images of the liver, lungs and gastroduodenal regions were taken with a GE Statcam 4000i gamma camera. The total count rate was computed from the digitised image, and the percentages of activity were calculated as the ratio of lung counts-to-total counts. A liver/lung shunt of < 15% was a prerequisite for treatment with SIRT. There were 18 males and 14 females with a median age of 60.5 years (range: 29 to 76). Twenty eight patients had secondary tumours (23 colorectal, 5 others) and 4 patients had hepatocellular cardnoma (HCC). The median liver/lung shunt was 0.6% (range: 0% to 9.3%). The median shunt for HCC was 0.7% (range: 0% to 2%) and for the secondary tumours 0.6% (<0.1% to 9.3%). No significant shunt was detected in the gastroduodenal region. Assessment of lung shunting of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA scan is useful for excluding patients who may be at risk of pulmonary irradiation, or significant systemic toxicity after regional chemotherapy

  2. Influence of soil phenolic constituents on plant uptake of 32P-labelled phosphate from an acid tea soil of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenols are believed to play a dominant role in the formation and composition of humus, a subject of fundamental importance to soil productivity. In the present study, greenhouse techniques were used to examine the comparative effects of phenol-rich and non-phenolic plant residues as soil amendments on uptake of 32P-labelled phosphate from a high P-fixing acid soil. The results indicate that: (i) incorporation of phenol-rich plant residues increases 'soil phenolic content'; (ii) this increase in soil phenolic content does not result in a corresponding decrease in P fixation capacity or an increase in plant uptake of labelled P; (iii) plant residues having low degradability are more effective in decreasing P fixation capacity of soil and thus increasing plant uptake of labelled P. (author)

  3. Polycythemia vera: diagnosis, different therapy modalities and clinical value of the treatment with radiophosphorus today; Polycythaemia vera: Diagnostik, Differenzialtherapie und Stellenwert der {sup 32}P-Behandlung heute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredow, J.; Pinkert, J.; Franke, W.G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin TU Dresden (Germany); Schuler, U. [Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitaetsklinikum ' ' Carl Gustav Carus' ' an der TU Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The definition, diagnostic criteria and clinical findings as well as the treatment with radioactive phosphorus is described more in detail. Today, the treatment with {sup 32}P is estimated to be an easy and safe method, especially for elderly patients (65 years or above), providing a cost-effective alternative to anti-proliferative drugs like hydroxyurea. (orig.) [German] Es wird auf das Krankheitsbild per se, die Diagnostikkriterien und klinischen Befunde eingegangen und die Radiophosphortherapie bei Patienten mit PCV beschrieben. Aus heutiger Sicht steht mit der Radiophosphortherapie der Polycythaemia vera ein einfaches und sicheres Verfahren zur Verfuegung, welches insbesondere bei aelteren (ueber 65-jaehrigen) Patienten eine praktikable und kostenguenstige Alternative zur medikamentoesen antiproliferativen Therapie mit Hydroxyharnstoff darstellt. (orig.)

  4. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with 32 P on an apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee's activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 μCi 32 P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author)

  5. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y); Patron Nacional para la realizacion de la unidad de la rapidez de dosis absorbida en aire para radiacion beta. (Metodo: Ionometrico, cavidad de Bragg-Gray implementada en una camara de extrapolacion con electrodos de separacion variable, expuesta a un campo de radiacion beta de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, M. T.; Morales P, J. R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-01-15

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Ophthalmic applicators {sup 9}0{sup S}r/{sup 90}Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  6. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper bacteria" promoting establishment of both the indigenous and the introduced AM endophytes despite a gradual decrease in bacterial population size, which dropped from 10(sup7) at planting to 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) of dry rhizosphere soil at harvest. Dual inoculation with G. intraradices and B. subtilis significantly increased biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Regardless of the rhizobacterium strain and of the addition of RP, AM plants displayed lower specific activity ((sup32)P/(sup31)P) than their comparable controls, suggesting that the plants used P sources not available in their absence. The inoculated rhizobacteria may have released phosphate ions ((sup31)P), either from the added RP or from the less-available indigenous P sources, which were effectively taken up by the external AM mycelium. Soluble Ca deficiency in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. At least 75% of the P in dually inoculated plants derived from the added RP. It appears that these mycorrhizosphere interactions between bacterial and fungal plant associates contributed to the biogeochemical P cycling, thus promoting a sustainable nutrient supply to plants. PMID:16535730

  7. Post-stenting Intravascular Brachytherapy Trials on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits Using 32P Liquid Sources: Implications for Prevention of In-Stent Restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Liquid sources of radiation delivered in angioplasty balloons may be a convenient self-centering device used for prevention of in-stent restenosis. To test the effectiveness of this method an intravascular brachytherapy study was performed using 32P liquid sources in an animal model. Methods: The radial dose distribution around angioplasty balloons filled with solutions of Na2H32PO4 was calibrated by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The animal experiments were performed in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. The balloons containing 32P were introduced into iliac arteries immediately after stent implantation. Estimated 7-49 Gy doses required 30-100 minirradiations. Radiation effects were evaluated by comparing the thickness of various components of the artery wall. Results:Doses of 7, 12, 16 or 49 Gy on the internal artery surface required 30-100 min of irradiation. The dose of 49 Gy at 'zero' distance corresponding to 16 Gy at 1.0 mm from the balloon surface reduced hypertrophy in every layer of the arterial wall: in the intima the cross-sectional areas were 0.13 versus 0.91 mm2, in the media were 0.5 versus 0.46 mm2 and in the adventitia were 0.04 versus 0.3 mm2 (p <0.05). A dose of 7 Gyat the balloon surface produced adverse irradiation effects: the intimal area of the artery was 2.087 versus 0.857 mm2, the medial area was 0.59 versus 0.282 mm2 and the adventitial area was 0.033 versus 0.209 mm2 in treated and control arteries, respectively.Conclusion: Application of a 49 Gy irradiation dose to the internal arterial surface effectively prevented in-stentrestenosis

  8. (5'-/sup 32/P)-8-azidoguanosine-3',5'-monophosphate. I. Synthesis and properties. II. Interaction with E. coli proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Under certain conditions of nutritional deprivation, microorganisms produce the magic spot nucleotides guanosine-3'-diphosphate-5'-triphosphate(pppGpp) and the tetraphosphate ppGpp. The latter is known to be a pleiotypic effector, i.e. it inhibits (and sometimes stimulates) many biological processes including transcription, translation, and metabolic pathways. It is unknown whether pppGpp, ppGp, pGpp, and pGp, other members of this family of guanosine-3',5'-phosphates, also have regulatory properties. To begin to investigate this question, a radioactive photoaffinity analog of pGp was prepared: (5'/sup 32/P)pN/sub 3/Gp. The interaction of this photoprobe with E. coli sonicates and a purified protein (RNA polymerase) was examined. At physiological salt concentrations two proteins (RNA polymerase) was examined. At physiological salt concentrations two proteins of 86,000 and 65,000 daltons (p86 and p65) were primarily photolabeled. Competition studies with guanosine and adenosine nucleotides indicated (5 /sup 32/P)pN/sub 3/Gp was labeling a ppGpp binding site on p86, and a pGp (or GMP) site on p65. ATP phosphorylation of p86 increased photoincorporation, while it decreased labeling of p65. The data also provide evidence of a different type of regulatory mechanism, i.e. phosphorylation modulates binding of an allosteric effector (ppGpp) to a protein(enzyme). Both ATP and GTP were found to phosphorylate the same proteins, although GTP was the preferred substrate in some cases.

  9. Does tumoral {sup 111}In-ibritumomab accumulation correlate with therapeutic effect and outcome in relapsed or refractory low-grade B-cell lymphoma patients undergoing {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab radioimmunotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Koichiro; Shinozaki, Kenji [National Kyushu Cancer Center, National Hospital Organization, Department of Radiology, Minami-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Choi, Ilseung; Uike, Naokuni [National Kyushu Cancer Center, National Hospital Organization, Division of Hematology, Minami-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, Makoto [PET Imaging Center, Koga Hospital 21, Kurume (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether tumoral {sup 111}In-ibritumomab accumulation on pre-treatment imaging correlates with therapeutic responses and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This was a retrospective study of 39 patients with low-grade B-cell NHL treated with RIT. We classified the patients into positive and negative groups according to the presence or absence of tumoral {sup 111}In-ibritumomab accumulation on pre-treatment {sup 111}In-ibritumomab examinations. We then determined the correlation between the {sup 111}In-ibritumomab imaging findings and the patients' therapeutic responses and PFS. Tumoral {sup 111}In-ibritumomab accumulation was positive in 64.1 % and negative in 35.9 % of the patients. The {sup 111}In-positive patients had a significantly higher overall response rate (ORR) compared to the {sup 111}In-negative patients (100.0 % vs. 78.6 %, p = 0.02). The {sup 111}In-negative patients with advanced disease (stages III/IV) had a significantly lower ORR (40 %) and a significantly higher rate of progressive disease (40.0 %) compared to those of the {sup 111}In-negative patients with limited disease (stages I/II) (100 % and 0 %, p = 0.009 each). However, these two groups had similar 2-year PFS rates (65.0 % vs. 50.0 %, p = 0.80). {sup 111}In-ibritumomab imaging findings seem to correlate with ORR and the progressive disease rate after RIT, but not with PFS. (orig.)

  10. Thermoluminescent characteristics (TL) of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90} Y; Caracteristicas termoluminiscentes (TL) de K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} irradiado con particulas beta de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90} Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillet, C.; Azorin, J.; Rivera, T. [Dep. de Fisica, UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent characteristics of the K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} are presented. The material was characterized irradiating samples of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99}Tb{sub 0.01} in powder with beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The studied characteristics were TL curve, response reproducibility, TL response in function of the dose and fading of the information. The samples exhibited a thermoluminescent curve (TL) with two very defined peaks centered respectively in 167 and 307 C. The TL response of the samples under the action of the beta radiation after 10 cycles (thermal erased, irradiation and reading of the samples) presented a standard deviation of 3.09%. The TL response of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} in function of the absorbed dose of beta radiation resulted lineal in the interval of 3 mGy to 1.29 Gy. The fading of the information contained in the samples of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} was of 40% in the first 10 minutes, which is due to the first peak. The obtained results suggest that the TL material resulted as promissory for its possible use as thermoluminescent dosemeter of beta radiation using the second peak of its TL curve like dosimetric peak. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of radiation packages type A from the center of isotopes in Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los bultos tipo A del centro de isotopos de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbona, Zayda Amador; Pijuan, Saul Perez, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba); Gual, Maritza Rodriguez, E-mail: mrgual@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), la Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba makes the transportation of its products mainly in packaged type A. To undertake the design of packages, packaging components from 6 producing firms (including those found Amersham, CISBIO and IZOTOP) are studied. From the applicable regulations, security features and requirements are established as well as the technical characteristics of the packaging components. This study evaluated according each radioisotope, product and specific activity, high activity that can be included in a Type A package with the limitation that the dose rate on their surfaces is less than or equal to 2 mSv/h. In addition, each package is characterized taking into account the value of the maximum dose rate at maximum contact and the transport index for the day of transport. For this, the Microshield code using version 5.0.3. The dose rate in contact with the package of {sup 90}Y is calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0. The maximum possible activity values are obtained for each shielding transport radionuclides CENTIS produced, namely {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y and 69 radioactive packages type A are evaluated.

  12. Uptake kinetics of the somatostatin receptor ligand [86Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide ([86Y]SMT487) using positron emission tomography in non-human primates and calculation of radiation doses of the 90Y-labelled analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [90Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide ([90Y]-SMT487) has been suggested as a promising radiotherapeutic agent for somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours. In order to quantify the in vivo parameters of this compound and the radiation doses delivered to healthy organs, the analogue [86Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide was synthesised and its uptake measured in baboons using positron emission tomography (PET). [86Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide was administered at two different peptide concentrations, namely 2 and 100 μg peptide per m2 body surface. The latter concentration corresponded to a radiotherapeutic dose. In a third protocol [86Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide was injected in conjunction with a simultaneous infusion of an amino acid solution that was high in l-lysine in order to lower the renal uptake of radioyttrium. Quantitative whole-body PET scans were recorded to measure the uptake kinetics for kidneys, liver, lung and bone. The individual absolute uptake kinetics were used to calculate the radiation doses for [90Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide according to the MIRD recommendations extrapolated to a 70-kg human. The highest radiation dose was received by the kidneys, with 2.1-3.3 mGy per MBq [90Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide injected. For the 100 μg/m2 SMT487 protocol with amino acid co-infusion this dose was about 20%-40% lower than for the other two treatment protocols. The liver and the red bone marrow received doses ranging from 0.32 to 0.53 mGy and 0.03 to 0.07 mGy per MBq [90Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide, respectively. The average effective dose equivalent amounted to 0.23-0.32 mSv/MBq. The comparatively low estimated radiation doses to normal organs support the initiation of clinical phase I trials with [90Y]DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours. (orig.)

  13. Effects of source distribution, dose, and linear energy transfer capacity on inactivation and mutation of mycobacteria after 2H, 35S, and 32P incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a selected model, the paper makes a contribution to the question whether the energy dose as a macroscopically-physically defined quantity can be usefully applied in cell ranges with linear dimensions of the order of 1 μm, i.e. whether there is still a correlation between the energy dose and quantitatively measurable biological radiation effects. The problem is investigated with the aid of the intracellular β decay of the 3H, 35S, and 32P nuclei on mycobacteria (BCG) in liquid media. Quantitative findings of radiobiological experiments are linked with model dose calculations to form dose-effect curves. The experimental principle consists in adding radioactively labelled compounds to the nutrient solution of bacteria at normal growth temperatures, thus obtaining an intracellular β source region caused by their uptake. The uptake conditions for the three radionuclides are varied by using different chemical bonds (2H) or carrier concentrations (3H, 35S). As biological reactions, inactivation in the form of growth inhibition and mutagenic induction of resistance to isonicotinic acid hydrazide are recorded. (orig./MG)

  14. Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

  15. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals

  16. {sup 32}P Brachytherapy Conformal Source Model RIC-100 for High-Dose-Rate Treatment of Superficial Disease: Monte Carlo Calculations, Diode Measurements, and Clinical Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Gil' ad N., E-mail: coheng@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Munro, John J. [Montrose Technology, Inc, North Andover, Massachusetts (United States); Kirov, Assen; Losasso, Thomas [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Williamson, Matthew; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Zaider, Marco [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: A novel {sup 32}P brachytherapy source has been in use at our institution intraoperatively for temporary radiation therapy of the spinal dura and other localized tumors. We describe the dosimetry and clinical implementation of the source. Methods and Materials: Dosimetric evaluation for the source was done with a complete set of MCNP5 Monte Carlo calculations preceding clinical implementation. In addition, the depth dose curve and dose rate were measured by use of an electron field diode to verify the Monte Carlo calculations. Calibration procedures using the diode in a custom-designed phantom to provide an absolute dose calibration and to check dose uniformity across the source area for each source before treatment were established. Results: Good agreement was established between the Monte Carlo calculations and diode measurements. Quality assurance measurements results are provided for about 100 sources used to date. Clinical source calibrations were usually within 10% of manufacturer specifications. Procedures for safe handling of the source are described. Discussion: Clinical considerations for using the source are discussed.

  17. Correlation of {sup 32}P-postlabelling-detection of DNA adducts in mouse skin in vivo with the polycyclic aromatic compound content and mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium of a range of oil products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, E.D.; Loose, R.W.; Watson, W.P. [Toxicology Department, Shell International Chemicals B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandt, H.C.A. [Product Development Department, Shell International Oil Products B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    The in vivo genotoxic activities in mouse skin of the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extracts of a range of oil products [residual aromatic extract; untreated heavy paraffinic distillate aromatic extract; mildly refined light naphthenic base oil; bitumen (vacuum residue); high viscosity index base oil obtained by catalytic hydrogenation] were evaluated by {sup 32}P-postlabelling DNA analysis. The results of quantitative {sup 32}P-postlabelling analyses of epidermal DNA from mice treated with the DMSO extracts showed linear relationships with the total polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) contents, determined by the Institute of Petroleum method IP 346 and also the 3-6 ring PAC contents, measured by on-line liquid-liquid extraction using flow injection analysis. The {sup 32}P-postlabelling data also showed a linear relationship with the mutagenicity indices of these oil products determined in S. typhimurium TA98 using the modified Ames Salmonella microsome test. The in vivo genotoxicity of the DMSO extracts from the oil products was low, judged by {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts measured in epidermal DNA of treated mouse skin, and ranging from 2 to 723 attomole/{mu}g DNA per mg oil product. The in vivo {sup 32}P-postlabelling data from this study are consistent with these materials expressing low genotoxicity in mouse skin in vivo. The DMSO extraction procedure coupled with {sup 32}P-postlabelling DNA analysis is useful for ranking the relative genotoxic potency in vivo of a wide range of oil products. In general the trend observed is similar to rankings based on physicochemical measurements of total PAC contents or 3-6 ring PAC contents of the oil products. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 44 refs.

  18. Correlation of 32P-postlabelling-detection of DNA adducts in mouse skin in vivo with the polycyclic aromatic compound content and mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium of a range of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo genotoxic activities in mouse skin of the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extracts of a range of oil products [residual aromatic extract; untreated heavy paraffinic distillate aromatic extract; mildly refined light naphthenic base oil; bitumen (vacuum residue); high viscosity index base oil obtained by catalytic hydrogenation] were evaluated by 32P-postlabelling DNA analysis. The results of quantitative 32P-postlabelling analyses of epidermal DNA from mice treated with the DMSO extracts showed linear relationships with the total polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) contents, determined by the Institute of Petroleum method IP 346 and also the 3-6 ring PAC contents, measured by on-line liquid-liquid extraction using flow injection analysis. The 32P-postlabelling data also showed a linear relationship with the mutagenicity indices of these oil products determined in S. typhimurium TA98 using the modified Ames Salmonella microsome test. The in vivo genotoxicity of the DMSO extracts from the oil products was low, judged by 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts measured in epidermal DNA of treated mouse skin, and ranging from 2 to 723 attomole/μg DNA per mg oil product. The in vivo 32P-postlabelling data from this study are consistent with these materials expressing low genotoxicity in mouse skin in vivo. The DMSO extraction procedure coupled with 32P-postlabelling DNA analysis is useful for ranking the relative genotoxic potency in vivo of a wide range of oil products. In general the trend observed is similar to rankings based on physicochemical measurements of total PAC contents or 3-6 ring PAC contents of the oil products. (orig.)

  19. National pattern for the realization of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for beta radiation. (Method: Ionometer, cavity of Bragg-Gray implemented in an extrapolation chamber with electrodes of variable separation, exposed to a field of beta radiation of 90Sr/90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the year of 1987 the Department of Metrology of the ININ, in their Secondary Laboratory of Calibration Dosimetric, has a patron group of sources of radiation beta and an extrapolation chamber of electrodes of variable separation.Their objective is to carry out of the unit of the dose speed absorbed in air for radiation beta. It uses the ionometric method, cavity Bragg-Gray in the extrapolation chamber with which it counts. The services that offers are: i) it Calibration : Radioactive Fuentes of radiation beta, isotopes: 90Sr/90Y; Ophthalmic applicators 90Sr/90Y; Instruments for detection of beta radiation with to the radiological protection: Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller, etc.; Personal Dosemeters. ii) Irradiation with beta radiation of materials to the investigation. (Author)

  20. Comparison of greenhouse and 32P isotopic laboratory methods for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified rock phosphates in some acid soils of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major constraints for normal plant growth and crop yields in the acid soils of Ghana and therefore addition of P inputs is required for sustainable crop production. This is often difficult, if not impossible for small-scale farmers due to the high cost of mineral P fertilizers and limited access to fertilizer supplies. Direct application of finely ground phosphate rocks (PRs) and their modified forms have been recommended as alternatives for P fertilization. The direct application of the natural and modified PRs to these acid soils implies the need to predict their agronomic effectiveness of the PRs in the simplest and most cost-effective manner. In this study the classical greenhouse pot experiment was compared to the 32P isotopic kinetics laboratory method for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified Togo PR in six highly weathered Oxisols from southwest Ghana. In the 32P isotopic kinetics laboratory experiment the six soil samples were each fertilised at the rate of 50 mg P kg-1 soil in the form of triple superphosphate (TSP), Togo PAPR-50%, and Togo PR, respectively. Controls without P amendment were also included. Isotopic exchange kinetics experiments were carried out on two sets of samples, immediately after P fertilizer additions (without incubation) and after 6 weeks of incubation under wet conditions and at a room temperature of 25 deg C. In the greenhouse pot experiment, P fertilizers in the form of Togo PR, Togo PAPR, Mali PR and TSP were each applied to the six soils at rates equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 120 kg P ha-1, respectively. The P fertilizers were mixed with the soils and maize (Zea mays L.) variety Obatanpa was grown for 42 days before harvest. The isotopic kinetics data of the control samples indicated that 5 of the studied soils had very low P fertility status as reflected by their low P concentrations in solution (CP-1) and low exchangeable P (E1min -1). The capacity factor and the

  1. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 ArtA-dependent modification of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the presence of [32P]NAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ikuo; Ishihara, Ryoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Hata, Eiji; Makino, Sou-ichi; Kanno, Toru; Hatama, Shinichi; Kishima, Masato; Akiba, Masato; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kubota, Takayuki

    2009-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) definitive phage type (DT) 104 has become a widespread cause of human and other animal infections worldwide. The severity of clinical illness in S. Typhimurium DT104 outbreaks suggests that this strain possesses enhanced virulence. ArtA and ArtB - encoded by a prophage in S. Typhimurium DT104 - are homologues of components of pertussis toxin (PTX), including its ADP-ribosyltransferase subunit. Here, we show that exposing DT104 to mitomycin C, a DNA-damaging agent, induced production of prophage-encoded ArtA/ArtB. Pertussis-sensitive G proteins were labelled in the presence of [(32)P]NAD and ArtA, and the label was released by HgCl(2), which is known to cleave cysteine-ADP-ribose bonds. ADP-dependent modification of G proteins was markedly reduced in in vitro-synthesized ArtA(6Arg-Ala) and ArtA(115Glu-Ala), in which alanine was substituted for the conserved arginine at position 6 (necessary for NAD binding) and the predicted catalytic glutamate at position 115, respectively. A cellular ADP-ribosylation assay and two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that ArtA- and PTX-induced ADP-ribosylation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells occur with the same type of G proteins. Furthermore, exposing CHO cells to the ArtA/ArtB-containing culture supernatant of DT104 resulted in a clustered growth pattern, as is observed in PTX-exposed CHO cells. Hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative stressor, also induced ArtA/ArtB production, suggesting that these agents induce in vivo synthesis of ArtA/ArtB. These results, taken together, suggest that ArtA/ArtB is an active toxin similar to PTX.

  2. Irradiation and postangioplasty restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Sugao; Robinson, K.; Chronos, N. [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Crocker, I.R.; King, S.B.III

    2000-09-01

    One of the most intriguing developments in recent years towards prevention of restenosis after angioplasty is the use of ionizing radiation. The background for the use of radiation treatment for this application is sound, since radiation is used not only to treat malignant cancerous growths but also is used for treatment of benign hyperplastic disorders such as post-surgical keloid formation and recurrence of pterygium after surgical removal. Restenosis can be considered a form of overexuberant wound healing triggered by angioplasty. Ionizing radiation inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation of many cell types including fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in vitro and also suppresses the synthesis of collagen by cultured fibroblasts. Liermann who showed inhibition of post-stent restenosis first used ionizing radiation for restenosis prevention clinically in iliac and iliofemoral arteries. Subsequently, extensive animal studies in various restenosis models have shown a profound inhibitory effect of catheter-based radiation (endovascular brachytherapy) on neointima formation and overall vessel shrinkage (negative remodeling). Based on these results clinical trials have been initiated with several types of devices and isotopes. Among these are {sup 192}Ir, {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Y, {sup 90}Sr/Y and {sup 188}Re. Additionally, radioactive stents have been developed; devices for clinical use are made radioactive at the {mu}Ci level by surface implantation of 32P ions. Results from early clinical trials are encouraging and brachytherapy appears safe for clinical use and at an appropriate dose, may be highly effective for restenosis prevention. (author)

  3. Field assessment of the relative agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock materials in a soybean - Maize crop rotation using 32P isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Phrabudhabart Field Crop Research Station, Lopbur Province during the period 1995-1997 to determine the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) in a soybean- maize crop rotation using 32P isotope techniques. The soil of the experimental site was the Pakchong soil series (Oxic Paleustults). Four PRs were applied at 120 kg P ha-1, namely Algerian PR (ARPR), North Carolina PR from USA (NCPR), Petchaburi PR from Thailand (PBPR) and Ratchaburi PR from Thailand (RBPR) and TSP was added at three rates (40, 60, 120 kg P ha-1). For the first year harvest, soybeans absorbed more P from TSP fertilizer (% FPU) applied at 40 kg P ha-1 than maize, but there was no yield response. Among four PRs, North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) gave the highest % Pdff as well as the highest RAE. Maize was planted after soybean to study the residual effect of TSP and PRs. The results were the same as in soybean. In the second year (1996) the grain yield of soybean was higher than in the first year (1995), and there was significant response to P from TSP. The RAE of NCPR was very high. Maize showed the opposite results. In this case Algerian PR (ARPR) had the highest RAE. In 1997, TSP and six PRs (same four used in 1995 and 1996, Morocco PR (MCPR), and Lumphun PR (LPPR)) were applied at 60 kg P ha-1 . Phosphate rocks were applied either alone or in combination with TSP (50:50). Application of TSP resulted in high yields of soybean. In terms of RAE the P sources ranked as follows: LPPR+TSP>ARPR>LPPR> MCPR>NCPR+TSP>NCPR. The residual effect of P on the following maize crop resulted in a high RAE for MCPR and LPPR. It was concluded that TSP should be applied to every crop. The reactivity of PRs in the first and the second year experiments were: ARPR>NCPR>RBPR>PBPR. Morocco PR and LPPR were also reactive PRs in the third experiment. The combination of PR and TSP resulted in better P uptake (%Pdff). (author)

  4. Comparison of greenhouse and {sup 32}P isotopic laboratory methods for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified rock phosphates in some acid soils of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Bennoah, E. [Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: F.Zapata@iaea.org; Fardeau, J.C. [Departement Environnement et Agronomie, INRA, Versailles (France)

    2002-05-15

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major constraints for normal plant growth and crop yields in the acid soils of Ghana and therefore addition of P inputs is required for sustainable crop production. This is often difficult, if not impossible for small-scale farmers due to the high cost of mineral P fertilizers and limited access to fertilizer supplies. Direct application of finely ground phosphate rocks (PRs) and their modified forms have been recommended as alternatives for P fertilization. The direct application of the natural and modified PRs to these acid soils implies the need to predict their agronomic effectiveness of the PRs in the simplest and most cost-effective manner. In this study the classical greenhouse pot experiment was compared to the {sup 32}P isotopic kinetics laboratory method for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified Togo PR in six highly weathered Oxisols from southwest Ghana. In the {sup 32}P isotopic kinetics laboratory experiment the six soil samples were each fertilised at the rate of 50 mg P kg{sup -1} soil in the form of triple superphosphate (TSP), Togo PAPR-50%, and Togo PR, respectively. Controls without P amendment were also included. Isotopic exchange kinetics experiments were carried out on two sets of samples, immediately after P fertilizer additions (without incubation) and after 6 weeks of incubation under wet conditions and at a room temperature of 25 deg C. In the greenhouse pot experiment, P fertilizers in the form of Togo PR, Togo PAPR, Mali PR and TSP were each applied to the six soils at rates equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 120 kg P ha{sup -1}, respectively. The P fertilizers were mixed with the soils and maize (Zea mays L.) variety Obatanpa was grown for 42 days before harvest. The isotopic kinetics data of the control samples indicated that 5 of the studied soils had very low P fertility status as reflected by their low P concentrations in solution (C{sub P}<0.02 mg P l{sup -1}) and low

  5. The clinical value of scar endo-ectomy combined ~(90)Sr-~(90)Y applicator brachytherapy for large patho-logical scar%~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴与联合瘢痕内切除术治疗大面积病理性瘢痕的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代学之; 李现军; 赵志华; 冯志徐; 李凤岐; 王燕华

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察对比单纯~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴和瘢痕内切除术后帅~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴治疗大面积病理性瘢痕的疗效.方法 选取临床确诊的大面积病理性瘢痕患者158例,共196块病理性瘢痕,按瘢痕厚度分为A、B、C 3组,每组患者再采用简单随机法分为两部分,分别接受单纯~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴治疗(102块)和瘢痕内切除术并~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴治疗(94块),治疗结束后2年评价疗效,行Ridit分析.结果 瘢痕内切除术并~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴的疗效明显优于单纯~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴治疗(R=0.428和0.578,F=92.6,P<0.01),前者疗效不受瘢痕厚度的影响,后者疗效则明显受瘢痕厚度影响.结论 对于瘢痕表面积和厚度较大的病理性瘢痕患者,宜采用瘢痕内切除术并~(90)Sr-~(90)Y敷贴治疗.%Objective Pathological scars including hypertophic scars and keloids were the results of excessive fibroblast proliferation and abundant collagen deposition.The aim of this study was to investigate the value of Scar endo-ectomy combined ~(90)Sr-~(90)Y applicator brachytherapy for large pathological scar.Methods A total of 158 large area pathological Scar patients with 196 pieces of scars were divided into 3 groups.There were A,B and C,based on the thickness of pathological Scar.Of these three groups,they were randomly divided into two subgroups.One was treated by ~(90)Sr-~(90)Y applicator brachytherapy alone (n=102)and the other(n=94)was treated by endo-ectomy combined ~(90)Sr-~(90)Y applicator brachytherapy.All had clinical follow-up for at least 2 years to monitor the therapeutic outcomes.Results were analyzed by ref-erence identical unit(Ridit).Results A significant better outcome was observed in patients with endo-ec-tomy combined ~(90)Sr-~(90)Y applicator brachytherapy than with ~(90)Sr-~(90)Y applicator brachytherapy alone (R=0.428 and 0.578,F=92.6,P<0.01).Thickness of pathological sears controlled the therapeutic effects for the later treatment but the former

  6. Improving phosphorus availability from patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer Melhorando a disponibilidade de fósforo da rocha fosfórica de patos para Eucalipto: um estudo com radiotraçador 32P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carlos Alvarez Villanueva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla ´ E. grandis was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP, phosphate rock (PR and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR. The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla ´ E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla ´ E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer.Como geralmente os solos usados para plantações de eucalipto no Brasil são de baixa fertilidade, a adubação fosfórica é indispensável, incrementando o custo da plantação. Espécies mais eficientes no uso de fósforo (P de fontes pouco solúveis poderiam ser uma opção interessante. Porém, pouco se conhece ainda sobre o comportamento de eucalipto em relação à capacidade de usar fósforo de fontes com diferente solubilidade em água. O uso de P por eucalipto (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla ´ E. grandis, foi estudado em experimento de casa de vegetação usando solo da Região de Cerrado, Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo hypodistrófico, e o método isotópico com 32P. As fontes de P usadas

  7. Experimental study on microSPECT-CT bremsstrahlung imaging in solid tumor mesenchymal implantation of 32 P-chromic phosphate-paclitaxel-poly-L-lactic acid sustained-release seeds%32 P-磷酸铬-紫杉醇-聚L乳酸缓释粒子实体瘤间质植入microSPECT-CT韧致辐射显像的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 邵国强; 孟庆乐; 杨瑞; 王峰; 王自正

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of single photon emission computed tomography (CT) imaging and transmis‐sion CT imaging (microSPECT‐CT ) bremsstrahlung imaging for the solid tumor mesenchymal implantaion of 32 P‐chromic phos‐phate‐paclitaxel‐poly‐L‐lactic acid (32 P‐CP‐PSP‐PLLA) sustained release seeds and to investigate the 32 P in vivo biodistribution and degradation sustained release churacteristics .Methods The animal model of prostate cancer subcutaneously transplanted tumor was established .32 P‐CP‐PSP‐PLLA sustained‐release seeds were intratumorally implanted by the mediation of microSPECT‐CT brems‐strahlung imaging and the 32 P distribution in bearing tumor mouse was verified by the imaging and biological distrubtion tests .The ultrastructural changes of 32 P seeds were observed by the scanning electron microscope .Results The MicroSPECT/CT brems‐strahlung imaging could effectively guide the intratumoral implantation operation of the 32 P sustained‐release seeds with clear visu‐alization .Partial sustained‐release 32 P was remained in the tumor tissues with little distribution in important organs of spleen and liver ,which was proved by the biodistribution results .The particle surface and inside micropores and tunnels formation ,their pro‐gressive increase ,fusion and connection were found by the electronic microscope after the 32 P sustained‐release seeds intratumoral implantation .Conclusion The MicroSPECT/CT bremsstrahlung imaging can effectively monitor the 32 P sustained‐release seeds and their in vivo biodistribution and lays a foundation for the sustained‐release seeds prostatic targeted implantation .%目的:以32 P‐磷酸铬‐紫杉醇微球‐聚L乳酸(32 P‐CP‐PSP‐PLLA)缓释粒子实体瘤间质靶向植入后,行小动物单光子发射计算机断层成像‐透射断层成像(microSPECT‐CT )韧致辐射显像,探讨其32 P体内生物学分布及其降解缓释特

  8. 放射性核素32P治疗肝癌19例临床探讨%Clinical discussion of treating 19 cases of liver cancer with radionuclide 32P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀芳; 何玉凡

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨32P治疗肝癌的临床疗效.方法由B超介导,经皮肝穿向瘤体内注射胶体32P,对癌细胞行内照射治疗.结果用32P放射性核素治疗肝癌后,经B超复查,病理证实,32P对肝癌治疗取得了满意的疗效.

  9. Distribution of 32P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of 32P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of 32P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed

  10. Use of the /sup 32/P-postlabeling method to detect DNA adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazolo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) in monkeys fed IQ: identification of the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-IQ adduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyderwine, E.G.; Yamashita, K.; Adamson, R.H.; Sato, S.; Nagao, M.; Sugimura, T.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.

    1988-10-01

    Eight DNA adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazolo(4,5-f)-quinoline (IQ) were found by the standard /sup 32/P-postlabeling method in livers from male Cynomolgus monkeys fed IQ (5 days/week, 3 weeks, 20 mg/kg, nasal-gastric intubation). The IQ-DNA adduct fingerprints observed in monkeys were identical to those observed in rats that received IQ (0.03%) in the diet for 2 weeks. The C8-guanine-IQ adduct was identified by comigration with the synthetic 3',5'-bisphosphate derivative of N(-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-IQ. DNA modified in vitro with N-hydroxy-IQ showed seven adducts, including the C8-guanine-IQ adduct, that were identical to those found in monkeys and rats. Thus it appears that N-hydroxy-IQ, the reactive metabolite of IQ, was responsible for all adducts found in vivo, except one. In order to detect adducts in other organs that were present at lower levels, the intensification (ATP-deficient) method for /sup 32/P-postlabeling was used. Five of the adducts detected under standard conditions, including the C8-guanine-IQ adduct, were also detected under intensification conditions. The total level of DNA-IQ adducts was highest in the liver, followed by the kidney, colon and stomach, and bladder. The adduct patterns were identical in all organs examined. The results indicate that IQ is potentially genotoxic in primates and therefore a likely human carcinogen.

  11. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), 204TI (18.5 MBq) and 147Pm (518 MBq)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; α). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of 90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and 147Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; α) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  12. Feasibility of the $\\beta^-$ Radio-Guided Surgery with a Variety of Radio-Nuclides of Interest to Nuclear Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Bencivenga, Gaia; Bocci, Valerio; Cartoni, Antonella; Collamati, Francesco; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Giordano, Alessandro; Indovina, Luca; Marafini, Michela; Morganti, Silvio; Rotili, Dante; Russomando, Andrea; Scotognella, Teresa; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Venditti, Iole; Faccini, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery overcomes the corresponding $\\gamma$ technique in case the background from healthy tissues is relevant. It can be used only in case a radio-tracer marked with $^{90}$Y is available since the current probe prototype was optimized for the emission spectrum of this radio-nuclide. Here we study, with a set of laboratory tests and simulations, the prototype capability in case a different radio-nuclide is chosen among those used in nuclear medicine. As a result we estimate the probe efficiency on electrons and photons as a function of energy and we evaluate the feasibility of a radio-guided surgery exploiting the selected radio-nuclides. We conclude that requiring a 0.1~ml residue to be detected within 1~s by administering 3~MBq/Kg of radio-isotope, the current probe prototype would yield a significant signal in a vast range of values of SUV and TNR in case $^{31}$Si,$^{32}$P, $^{97}$Zr, and $^{188}$Re are used. Conversely, a tuning of the detector would be needed to efficie...

  13. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte II. Estudio de la respuesta angular de dosimetros personales TLD-100 en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;{alpha}). Since H' (O. 07;{alpha}) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm{sup -2}); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, {sup S}tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of {sup 60}Co{sup ,} J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass

  14. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}TI; Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en profundidad impartida por fuentes patrones secundarios de radiacion beta externos. Parte 1. Medicion de rapidez de dosis absorbida en la superficie de tejido blando para isotopos de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 147}Pm y {sup 204}TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-01-15

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern{sup s} four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); {sup 147}Pm, (518 MBq) and {sup 204}TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of {sup 147}Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, ({alpha} 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.027 mGy s{sup -1}, respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s{sup -1} and 0.002 mGy s{sup -1}, with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the {sup 147}Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} and 0.43 {mu}Gy s{sup -1}, with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the {sup 204}TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 {mu}Gy s{sup -1} with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with

  15. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with 177Lu- and 90Y-BR96 mAbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with 90Y- and 177Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for 177Lu and 12.5 Gy for 90Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from

  16. Dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labeled with therapeutic radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, G.; Dias, C.R.B.R.; Osso Junior, J.A., E-mail: gracielabarrio@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) makes use of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) labeled with alpha/beta radionuclides for therapeutical purposes, leading to tumor irradiation and destruction, preserving the normal organs on the radiation excess. The therapeutic activity to be injected in a specific patient is based on information obtained in dosimetric studies. Beta emitting radionuclides such as {sup 131}I, {sup 188}Re, {sup 90}Y, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 166}Ho are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Anti-CD20 (Rituximab) is a chimeric MAb directed against antigen surface CD20 on B-lymphocytes, used in non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (NHL). The association with beta radionuclides have shown greater therapeutic efficacy. Currently, two radiopharmaceuticals with Anti-CD20 for radioimmunotherapy have FDA approval for NHL treatment: {sup 131}I-AntiCD20 (Bexar) and {sup 90}Y-AntiCD20 (Zevalin). Techniques for the radiolabeling of {sup 188}Re-antiCD20 have been recently developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP in order to evaluate the clinical use of this radionuclide in particular. The use of {sup 188}Re (T{sub 1/2} 17h) produced by the decay of {sup 188}W (T{sub 1/2} 69d), from an {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator system, has represented an alternative to RIT. Beyond high energy beta emission for therapy, {sup 188}Re also emits gamma rays (155keV) suitable for image. The aim of this new project is to compare the labeling of anti-CD20 with {sup 188}Re with the same MAb labeled with {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y and even {sup 99m}Tc. The first step in this project is the review of the published data available concerning the labeling of this MAb with different radionuclides, along with data obtained at IPEN, taking into account labeling procedures, labeling yields, reaction time, level and kind of impurities and biodistribution studies. The pharmacokinetic code will be developed in Visual Studio.NET platform through VB.NET and C{sup ++} for biodistribution and dosimetric

  17. 32P敷贴治疗婴幼儿血管瘤1619例疗效分析%Curative effect of 32P applicator brachytherapy for infantile hemangiom: a report of 1619 casees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰平; 李宗良

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the curative effect of 32P applicator brachytherapy for infantile hemangioma.Methods A total of 1619 patients of infantile hemangioma were treated with the self-made 32p applicator and given following observation.The therapeutic schedule was adjusted according to the individual situation of patients,with the dose of 1.2 Gy/(cm2·d),8~9 days as one treatment course,for no more than 3 courses.Results The total cure rate was 87.8%,and the cure rate of infantile simple hemangioma was the highest (93.4%).The curative effect and age was negatively correlated,the younger,the better.Conclusion 31P applicator is an safe,simple,anodynia,effective method for infantile hemangioma,especially for infantile simple hemangioma.%目的 观察32P敷贴治疗婴幼儿血管瘤的疗效.方法 采用自制的32P敷贴器对1619例婴幼儿血管瘤患者进行治疗并随访观察,剂量为1.2 Gy/(cm2·d),8~9d为一个疗程,最多3个疗程,并根据患者的个体情况进行适当调整.结果 1619例婴幼儿血管瘤患者总治愈率为87.8%,其中单纯性血管瘤的治愈率达93.4%,且疗效与年龄呈负相关,年龄越小,疗效越好.结论 32P敷贴治疗婴幼儿皮肤血管瘤安全、简便、无痛、治愈率高,尤其适用于婴幼儿单纯性血管瘤的治疗.

  18. 32P Postlabelling analysis of urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco implicates 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) as a major DNA-damaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Friesen, M; Garren, L; Hautefeuille, A; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1991-04-01

    When mutagens extracted from the urine of two smokers of black tobacco were reacted with DNA in vitro in the presence of a metabolic activation system, several DNA adducts were detected by 32P-postlabelling analysis. Some of these adducts were also visible, but only faintly, on the autoradiogram for a non-smoker's urine. DNA adducts produced in vitro by 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[3,5-b]pyridine could not account for the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagens. However, three or four 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-related DNA adducts were present among the five or six adducts observed for smokers in the autoradiograms of urinary mutagen-adducted nucleotides. Mutagenicity testing combined with HPLC fractionation of urinary extracts also supported the postlabelling data which implicates PhIP as a mutagen in the urine of smokers of black tobacco. PMID:2013135

  19. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr / 90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;α). Since H' (O. 07;α) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm-2); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, Study of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of 60Co, J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of 90Sr/90Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of 90Sr/90Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass; four positions of irradiation is used: glass 1 (window of 171 mg cm-2

  20. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs.

  1. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  2. Drug distribution in intracystic 32P colloid radiotherapy for treatment of craniopharyngioma:a clinical study%32P胶体囊内放疗治疗颅咽管瘤药物分布的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常洪波; 高铭; 赵思源; 卢旺盛; 王亚明; 赵虎林; 田增民

    2014-01-01

    目的研究不同药量及颅咽管瘤囊腔容积对32P胶体囊内分布及脑脊液囊内渗漏的影响,为手术穿刺路径的选择及操作技术控制等提供临床指导。方法前瞻性研究分析40例初次发病或复发性囊性颅咽管瘤病人的临床资料,按治疗剂量毫居里(mCi)分为4组:0.5 mCi组、1.0 mCi组、1.5 mCi组、2.0 mCi组。术中将32P胶体用碘帕醇300注射液按1∶1稀释后,行囊内注射立体定向放射治疗,术后2 h内行头颅CT检查观察药物分布及渗漏情况,并比较组间差异是否有统计学意义。结果因脑内穿刺路径不能避开脑室导致药物分布不均匀和脑脊液囊内渗漏,在2.0 mCi组有6例,1.5 mCi组2例,1.0 mCi组1例;渗漏后囊腔体积无明显缩小。其余病人药物分布均匀、无脑脊液囊内渗漏,术后囊腔体积明显缩小。2.0 mCi组脑脊液的渗漏率与1.0 mCi组和0.5 mCi组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论颅咽管瘤囊腔容积越大,32P胶体剂量越高,越容易发生脑脊液囊内渗漏及药物分布不均匀。%Objective To research the influence of different doses and craniopharyngioma cavity volumes on the drug distribution inside the capsule and cerebrospinal fluid leakage of 32P colloid inside the capsule, so as to provide clinical guidance for the surgical puncture path selection and operation skills control. Methods Clinical data of 40 patients with first onset or recurrent cystic craniopharyngioma were analyzed prospectively, and the patients were divided into 4 groups according to the therapeutic dose (mCi): 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mCi groups. After 32P colloid diluted with iopamidol 300 injection by 1:1 proportion, the mixture was injected into the capsule for stereotactic radiotherapy, and the situation of drug distribution and leakage were observed by CT scan 2 h after the operation. The statistical differences were compared between the groups. Results There were 6 patients in 2.0 mCi group

  3. EANM'13 - Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine - Selection of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the abstracts of the session 'Radionuclide therapy and dosimetry'. The use and performance in therapy and imaging applications of radionuclides such as 188Re, 90Y, 131I, 177Lu, 111In, 124I, 99mTc are presented. Generally the results are based on either studies of small groups of patients at the scale of a hospital or trials on small animals

  4. The use of 32P radioisotope techniques for evaluating the relative agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock materials in a soybean-maize crop rotation in acid soils of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of greenhouse experiments was conducted over three years to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of phosphate rock materials in a soybean - maize crop sequence, using 32P isotope dilution techniques. For the first two years, the crops were grown in a pot experiment in four acid soils of Thailand. In the first year, four increasing rates of TSP and one rate of four phosphate rocks (PRs) were used. The PRs used were Algerian PR, North Carolina PR, Petchaburi PR, and Ratchaburi PR. Soybean did not respond to P application from TSP, while there was good response in maize which was planted after soybean (1st residual effect). The percent P derived from TSP or PR fertilizer (%Pdff) had the following order: Warin soil > Mae Tang soil > Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil for soybean and Warin soil > Pakchong soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang soil for maize. In the second year, the soybean - maize rotation was replanted to study the residual effect of TSP and PRs, both applied at 180 mg P kg-1 . No significant response of soybean and maize to TSP was found in terms of dry matter yield. In terms of %Pdff and %RAE the soils ranked as follows: Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil Mae Tang soil > Warin soil for soybean and Warin soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang > Pakchong soil for maize. Both crops absorbed more P from TSP than from PRs. The %RAE in the 2nd year experiment was higher than %RAE in the 1st year In the third year, TSP and two PRs were applied at one P rate to Pakchong and Warin soils. The applied PRs were North Carolina PR (NCPR) and Lamphun phosphate rock (LPPR). PRs were applied either alone or in combination with TSP (50:50). Soybean was planted first, followed by maize. The P-response in terms of dry matter yield and %Pdff was highly significant in both soils. The RAE ranked as follows: TSP > NCPR + TSP > LPPR + TSP > NCPR > LPPR. Maize showed the same trend in RAE as soybean in both soils. The RAE for both crops was highest in Warin soil. (author)

  5. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  6. Labelling techniques of biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant tumour disease accounts for approximately one third of deaths worldwide. Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, prostate and breast cancers are among the most frequently appearing tumours. Radiotherapy is an essential mode of treatment of all cancer patients either alone or in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. In most cases radiotherapy is given using external radiation sources. It is also possible to administer radiotherapy by specifically localizing radioisotopes emitting particulate radiation in the tumour tissue. This targeted therapy has proved to have several advantages over external beam therapy, notably the possibility of selectively delivering higher radiation doses to the targeted tumour cells and treating multiple metastases. Procedures for therapy of thyroid carcinoma and hyper-thyroidism using radioiodine (131I) introduced about five decades ago, have stood the test of time and are still widely used the world over. In addition to the therapeutic nuclides of the first generation 131I, 89Sr, 32P, 90Y, etc., which are still widely utilized and accepted by the medical community, many other beta emitting radionuclides with relatively short half-lives such as 153Sm, 186Re, 188Re, 166Ho, 165Dy, etc. have also been recently made available for therapy and used with promising good results. In spite of the potential of targeted radiotherapy to treat a wide range of malignant conditions, routine clinical use is mostly confined to therapy of thyroid carcinoma, hyperthyroidism, metastatic bone pain and synovectomy. In most of the cases, the limitation is obviously not the availability of suitable radionuclides but rather the lack of suitable carrier molecules that would adequately concentrate these radionuclides in target tissues of interest. Based on the above considerations, the scope of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has focused on the synthesis of the required BFCAs for MoAbs and peptide labelling, development and

  7. The ATM kinase signaling induced by the low-energy {beta}-particles emitted by {sup 33}P is essential for the suppression of chromosome aberrations and is greater than that induced by the energetic {beta}-particles emitted by {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jason S.; Yue Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion, Suite 2.6, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States); Hu Jing [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion, Suite 2.6, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States); Bakkenist, Christopher J., E-mail: bakkenistcj@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion, Suite 2.6, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion, Suite 2.6, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase whose activity is increased in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Here we examine ATM kinase activation in cells exposed to either {sup 32}P- or {sup 33}P-orthophosphate under conditions typically employed in metabolic labelling experiments. We calculate that the absorbed dose of IR delivered to a 5 cm x 5 cm monolayer of cells incubated in 2 ml media containing 1 mCi of the high-energy (1.70 MeV) {beta}-particle emitter {sup 32}P-orthophosphate for 30 min is {approx}1 Gy IR. The absorbed dose of IR following an otherwise identical exposure to the low-energy (0.24 MeV) {beta}-particle emitter {sup 33}P-orthophosphate is {approx}0.18 Gy IR. We show that low-energy {beta}-particles emitted by {sup 33}P induce a greater number of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) and greater ATM kinase signaling than energetic {beta}-particles emitted by {sup 32}P. Hence, we demonstrate that it is inappropriate to use {sup 33}P-orthophosphate as a negative control for {sup 32}P-orthophosphate in experiments investigating DNA damage responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Significantly, we show that ATM accumulates in the chromatin fraction when ATM kinase activity is inhibited during exposure to either radionuclide. Finally, we also show that chromosome aberrations accumulate in cells when ATM kinase activity is inhibited during exposure to {approx}0.36 Gy {beta}-particles emitted by {sup 33}P. We therefore propose that direct cellular exposure to {sup 33}P-orthophosphate is an excellent means to induce and label the IR-induced, ATM kinase-dependent phosphoproteome.

  8. Radiation dosimetry in developing a radioactive stent for therapeutic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Jang Hee; Chung, Wee Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Research Goal: A new radioation therapy protocol of the esophageal carcinoma has been proposed. A metal stent coated with beta-emitting radioisotope would be inserted into the lesion of malignant esophageal obstruction and irradiate it. In this study, dose to the esophageal wall is estimated to suggest the selection of radioisotope, total activity, and the activity distribution pattern over the stent. Result: Dose distribution of the esophageal wall is determined by the energy spectrum of beta particles emitted from the radioisotope used in the stent activation. The endpoint energy of the beta spectrum corresponds to a range in liquid water, which determines the depth into the esophageal wall where the dose is significant. With a stent of constant areal activity density, dose to the esophageal wall increases with an increasing stent height until reaching a saturation value. Dose is maximum at the esophageal wall surface. The degree of dose decreasing as the target moves into the esophageal wall varies among different radioisotopes. However, dose decreases by similar degree among different radioisotopes as the target moves from the stent central height toward the stent end. For a stent of 2 cm in diameter, more than 4 cm in heigh, and 10 {mu}Ci/cm{sup 2} in activity, dose at the esophageal wall surface and at the stent central height is {approx}70 Gy, {approx}60 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}50 Gy, {approx}25 Gy, and {approx}15 Gy for {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 32}P, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 192}Ir, respectively. Applications: Dose estimates provided in this study and the experimental results from the researchers at Yonsei University, who applied the radioactive stent to animals, will be used to analyze the relationship between the stent design and the corresponding therapeutic effect. This helps utilizing the new protocol of treating the esophageal carcinoma. 37 refs., 18 tabs., 27 figs. (author)

  9. Comparison of therapeutic effect of 32 p plaster and local injection of sodium morrhuate on skin hemangiomas%32P敷贴与鱼肝油酸钠局部注射治疗皮肤血管瘤疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜春; 余剑英; 肖满兰

    2004-01-01

    Objective :To compare the therapeutic effect of 32p plaster with that of sodium morrhuate on skin he mangiomas. Methods:In accordance with patients'age,32P plasters were placedon the surfaces of skin hemangiomas for 16 ~45 hours, once every 3 ~6 months with one or two therapeutic courses in common practice. The control group was treated by local injection of 5% sodium morrhuate and Triamcinolone Acetonide - A every 7 ~ 10 days, 2 ~ 10 times in all. Then the therapeutic effect and side effects of both groups were evaluated. Results:Positive effect of 32p plaster was observed in 159/164(97% ) cases. 116/164(70. 7% ) cases were completely recovered and 33/164(20.1% ) cases were recovered. But the total efficiency of the control group was only 91.2% ( 124/136), including 53.7% (73/136) of full recovery and 13.2% (18/136) of recovery. There was a significant difference in the therapeutic effect of both groups (χ2 = 27, P < 0.05 ). Conclusions: The therapeutic effect of 32p plaster on skin hemangiomas was better than that of sodium morrhuate, and no evident side effect was found.%目的比较32P敷贴与鱼肝油酸钠局部注射治疗皮肤血管瘤疗效.方法32P敷贴药片敷贴于血管瘤表面,根据年龄不同敷贴16~45h不等,3~6个月敷贴1次,常规1~2次;对照组用5%鱼肝油酸钠加曲安奈德-A瘤内注射,7~10 d 1次,共2~10次.最后进行疗效和副作用评判.结果:32P敷贴总有效率为97%(159/164例),痊愈70.7%(116/164),基本痊愈20.1%(33/164例).对照组总有效率91.2%(124/136例),痊愈53.7%(73/136),基本痊愈13.2%(18/136例).两组间差异有显著性(x2=27,P<0.05).结论32P敷贴治疗皮肤血管瘤疗效优于鱼肝油酸钠,且无明显副作用.

  10. 平阳霉素联合32P不同治疗方式对儿童血管瘤的疗效对照%Comparative effect on different treatment methods of Bleomycin and 32P in children with hemangiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of Bleomycin combined with 32P in the treatment of children with he-mangiomas, and to provide the effective reference for the clinical treatment of hemangiomas. Methods From May 2008 to May 2010 in our hospital, 82 cases of children with hemangiomas were selected as the object of clinical observation. The children were divided into two groups, with 42 cases of the observation group and 40 cases of the control group. The observation group was treated by Bleomycin combined with 32P Injection, the control group was treated by 32P for local injection and external application. The different ages, different types of hemangioma, gender and number of lesions and the incidence of adverse reactions of two groups were compared. Results The observation group had a significant curative effect on cavernous hemangioma and mixed hemangioma, the control group had a significant curative effect on capillary hemangioma and port wine stains; the age factor had significant influence for treatment approaches of children with hemangioma in two groups, the younger, the better application therapy's effect of 32P local injection and external application, Bleomycin combined with 32P has a better effect on children over the age of 2; the gender and number of lesions had no significant effect on the efficacy of two treatment methods; there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions of two groups, but there was a significant difference in the kinds of adverse reactions of two groups. Conclusion Bleomycin combined with 32P is a good way of treating elder children with hemangioma, which is worthy of promotion.%目的 探讨联用平阳霉素和32P治疗儿童血管瘤的临床效果,为临床血管瘤的治疗提供有效的借鉴.方法 选择2008年5月~2010年5月到我院接受治疗的82例血管瘤患儿作为临床观察对象.将患儿分为观察组和对照组,其中观察组42例,对照组40例.

  11. Radionuclide Colloid 32p Used for the Treatment of Stage Ⅱ Lung Cancer by Video Enhanced Minimal Access Muscle Sparing Thoracotomy%放射性核素胶体32p在胸壁小切口胸腔镜治疗Ⅱ期肺癌中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许栋生; 邹卫; 杨如松; 马国栋; 王科平

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of radionuclide colloid 32p used for the treatment of stage Ⅱ lung cancer by video enhanced minimal access muscle sparing thoracotomy (VEMAST). Methods:Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was carried out under general anesthesia. A double lumen endobronchial tube was intubated into trachea. One lung ventilation of the healthy side was done during operation. An incision of 8-10 cm long was made along the 4th or 5th intercostals. The lobectomy could be performed under VATS. Radionuclide colloid 32p was injected locally into the area where surgical cleaning of lymph node around was considered to be unsatisfactory or desection of the tumor was not completed. Results: The operation with VEMAST was successful in 29 patients. A conventional lobectomy by thoracotomy had to be done due to unusual bleeding from the pulmonary artery involved during VEMAST in one case and the procedure was interrupted because the pulmonary artery cloud not be separated from the tumor in another patient. There was no dead case or the patient who had any severe complication or adverse response to the radiant. Conclusion: Radionuclide therapy was performed to the treatment of stage Ⅱ lung cancer with VEMAST in case that surgical resection was considered not to be satisfactory. Minithoractomy assisted with VATS lobectomy and radionuclide colloid 32p therapy is a safe and effective technique for some selected stage Ⅱ lung cancer.%目的探讨放射性核素胶体32p在胸壁小切口辅助电视胸腔镜肺叶切除治疗Ⅱ期肺癌中应用的可能性.方法在双腔管气管插管常规全麻下实施电视胸腔镜手术.术中健侧肺单肺通气,第4或第5肋间8~10 cm切口,辅助胸腔镜下肺叶切除及清扫淋巴结,对手术中认为淋巴结清扫不彻底及淋巴结转移区域,局部注射放射性核素胶体32pMBq(5~10mCi).结果29例病人在VEMAST下完成肺叶切除,1例因肺动脉肿瘤包裹,术中出血改在常

  12. Optimization of labelling procedure of {sup 188}rE-DMSA(v)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Reis, Nicoli F.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is emerging as an important tool of nuclear medicine. Apart from the well established {sup 131}I, several other promising radionuclides have been identified, among them {sup 188}Re, {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu. {sup 188}Re has received a lot of attention in the past decade, due to its favourable nuclear characteristics [t{sub 1/2} 16.9 h, E{sub b}eta{sub m}ax 2.12 MeV and E{sub g}amma 155 keV (15%) suitable for imaging, including the fact that it is carrier-free and can be obtained cost-effectively through the generator {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma, bone metastases, soft tissue and others tumors. The aim of this work is to evaluate two labeling procedures for the preparation of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V). The first method was prepared using a commercial kit of DMSA(III) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc at high temperature (100 deg C). The second method was prepared in a vial containing 2.5 mg of DMSA, 1.00 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 10 mg of sodium oxalate, 10 mg of cyclodextrin, in a total volume of 2.0 mL. The pH was adjusted to 3 with 37% HCl. After labeling the solution was stirred and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined using TLC-SG developed with two different solvent systems: Acetone and glycine. Preliminary results for both methods of labeling {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) showed that the labeling yield was >95%. Further experiments are also necessary to optimize the labeling methodology of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V).author)

  13. High-resolution spectroscopy of 32P. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a magnetic spectrograph study of the 31P(d,p) reaction with 20 MeV polarized deuterons, an appreciable part of the transitions up to the neutron-emission threshold have been resolved. For positive-parity states, we obtain excellent agreement with shell-model calculations in the (s,d) shell. For the low-spin negative-parity states, unique assignments are obtained using additional information from a recent (n, γ) study. (orig.)

  14. Mitochondria with impaired phosphate transport: 32P uptake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G R; Orr, J L

    1976-02-01

    Rat liver mitochondria which have been exposed to 0.15 M NaC1 at 35 degrees C for 15 min subsequently take up 32Pi from an external medium only to about 5% of the extent of uptake by control mitochondria. The volume into which 32Pi distributes in a pellet of such "aged" mitochondia is less than that available to 3H2O but is greater than that available to [3H]sucrose. Mitochondria treated in this manner cannot therefore accumulate Pi although limited penetration of the inner membrane can occur. These results confirm earlier findings by indirect methods (Williams, G. R. & Orr, J. L.: Dynamics of energy-transducing membranes (Ernster, L., Estabrook, R. W. & Slater, E. C., eds), Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 497-508 (1974). PMID:1260498

  15. 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adduction in mice by synthetic metabolites of the environmental carcinogen, 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole: chromatographic evidence for 3-hydroxy-7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole being a proximate genotoxicant in liver but not skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurdak, M E; Stong, D B; Warshawsky, D; Randerath, K

    1987-04-01

    The DNA adduction by the environmental carcinogen 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and chemically synthesized 2-OH, 3-OH, and 4-OH metabolites of DBC was investigated in liver and skin of female CD-1 mice. After topical application to the skin of 37 mumol/kg of DBC or the phenolic metabolites, DNA adducts were measured by a 32P-post-labeling assay employing carrier-free [gamma-32P]ATP and ATP-deficient conditions. In liver, DBC produced four major and several minor chromatographically distinct adducts of as yet undetermined chemical structure. The adduct pattern elicited by 3-OH-DBC was qualitatively similar to the DBC adduct pattern, while this was not the case for 2-OH-DBC and 4-OH-DBC. On the basis of co-chromatography experiments under various conditions, the DBC and 3-OH-DBC adducts appeared identical, and the total of adduction elicited by these compounds in liver was substantial. Similar results were observed when DBC or 3-OH-DBC were administered i.p. As a major difference between the two compounds, one 3-OH-DBC adduct (no. 3) was 4.4- and 7.0-fold lower than the corresponding DBC adduct after i.p. and topical dosing, respectively. In skin, DBC produced two major adduct fractions after topical application, one of which could be chromatographically resolved into three subcomponents. Prominent adducts produced in skin DNA by each of the three metabolites were different from those elicited by DBC, and the level of adduction by the metabolites was significantly lower than that by DBC. Comparison of the skin and liver DBC-DNA adduct patterns after topical application of DBC showed that only one of the four major chromatographically resolved skin adducts corresponded to a major liver adduct (no. 3), and that total adduction in liver was 13.5-fold higher than in skin. These results suggested that activation of DBC to DNA-binding compounds in liver occurs through at least two pathways with 3-OH-DBC being a proximate carcinogen involved in the formation of most of the

  16. A method for the calibration of concave 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Amersham Laboratory (Amersham, UK) absorbed-dose rate in tissue at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 from curved ophthalmic applicators is measured with calibrated scintillator probes (Amersham International 1979, Sinclair and Trott 1956). The probes are approximately 3 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm thick and are covered with 7 mg cm-2 of aluminium. They are calibrated using standard sources whose dose rate has been determined using an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 3 mm diameter collecting electrode. Crucial to this technique is the availability of well calibrated sources of nearly the same geometry and dose rate as the source to be calibrated. A technique is presented here which yields accurate measurement of the surface absorbed-dose rate in a very simple and straightforward fashion. (author)

  17. Accounting for beta-particle energy loss to cortical bone via paired-image radiation transport (PIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amish P; Rajon, Didier A; Patton, Phillip W; Jokisch, Derek W; Bolch, Wesley E

    2005-05-01

    approximately 14% to 76% for high-energy beta emitters (32p, 188Re, and 90Y). The PIRT methodology allows for detailed modeling of the 3D macrostructure of individual marrow-containing bones within the skeleton thus permitting improved estimates of absorbed fractions and radionuclide S values for intermediate-to-high energy beta emitters.

  18. Ação comunicativa e ética no acesso e uso sustentável da água: a experiência do saneamento rural de Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n32p1571

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvori Ahlert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available TítuloAção comunicativa e ética no acesso e uso sustentável da água: a experiência do saneamento rural de Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR (Communicative action and ethics on the access and sustainable use of water: the experience of rural sanitation of Marechal Cândido Rondon – Paraná, Brazil. DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n32p1571 ResumoO texto apresenta um estudo/pesquisa sobre a ética e os recursos hídricos, problematizando a relação entre a ética e o uso sustentável da água, tendo como modelo referencial aproximações na experiência do saneamento rural de Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR que, através da organização dos próprios agricultores e com o apoio da autarquia municipal de água e esgoto, atingiu 100% de acesso à água potável na zona rural do município.  A discussão propõe uma sinergia entre comunidades, gestores de sistemas e pesquisadores, que possibilite a criação de contextos comunicativos nos quais se partilha e socializa informações para o debate dos temas e situações que defendam um acesso democrático aos recursos hídricos e ao uso sustentável da água. Os fundamentos para este debate se encontram na obra de Lord Selborne, A Ética do Uso da Água Doce: um levantamento. (2001, e no paradigma da Teoria da Ação Comunicativa de Jürguen Habermas (1989, como um instrumento para propor o debate público sobre o acesso democrático aos recursos hídricos e, assim, criar contextos comunicativos qu