WorldWideScience

Sample records for 32-element head array

  1. A 189 MHz, 2400 square degree polarization survey with the Murchison Widefield Array 32-element prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, G; Mitchell, D A; Ord, S M; Hazelton, B J; Gaensler, B M; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Morales, M F; Shankar, R Udaya; Subrahmanyan, R; Wayth, R B; Lenc, E; Williams, C L; Arcus, W; Balwinder, S A; Barnes, D G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F H; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A; deSouza, L; Emrich, D; Goeke, R; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Johnston-Hollitt1, M; Kaplan, D; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Pathikulangara, J; Prabu, T; Remillard, R A; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Tingay, S J; Waterson11, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Wyithe, J S B

    2013-01-01

    We present a Stokes I, Q and U survey at 189 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array 32-element prototype covering 2400 square degrees. The survey has a 15.6 arcmin angular resolution and achieves a noise level of 15 mJy/beam. We demonstrate a novel interferometric data analysis that involves calibration of drift scan data, integration through the co-addition of warped snapshot images and deconvolution of the point spread function through forward modeling. We present a point source catalogue down to a flux limit of 4 Jy. We detect polarization from only one of the sources, PMN J0351-2744, at a level of 1.8 \\pm 0.4%, whereas the remaining sources have a polarization fraction below 2%. Compared to a reported average value of 7% at 1.4 GHz, the polarization fraction of compact sources significantly decreases at low frequencies. We find a wealth of diffuse polarized emission across a large area of the survey with a maximum peak of ~13 K, primarily with positive rotation measure values smaller than +10 rad/m^2. The...

  2. Low-Frequency Imaging of Fields at High Galactic Latitude with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 Element Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christopher Leigh; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Levine, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency, wide-field-of-view radio interferometer under development at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. We have used a 32 element MWA prototype interferometer (MWA-32T) to observe two 50° diameter fields in the southern sky, covering a total of ~2700 deg[superscript 2], in order to evaluate the performance of the MWA-32T, to develop techniques for epoch of reionization experiments, and to make measurements of ast...

  3. Low Frequency Imaging of Fields at High Galactic Latitude with the Murchison Widefield Array 32-Element Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christopher L; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Levine, Alan M.; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, Frank H.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hernquist, Lars L.; Morales, Miguel F.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Sadler, Elaine M.; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David G.; Bernardi, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency, wide field-of-view radio interferometer under development at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia. We have used a 32-element MWA prototype interferometer (MWA-32T) to observe two 50-degree diameter fields in the southern sky in the 110 MHz to 200 MHz band in order to evaluate the performance of the MWA-32T, to develop techniques for epoch of reionization experiments, and to make measurements of astrono...

  4. Interferometric Imaging with the 32 Element Murchison Wide-Field Array

    OpenAIRE

    Ord, S. M.; Mitchell, D. A.; Wayth, R. B.; Greenhill, L. J.; Bernardi, G.; Gleadow, S.; Edgar, R. G.; Clark, M. A.; Allen, G; Arcus, W.; Benkevitch, L.; Bowman, J.D.; Briggs, F. H.; Bunton, J. D.; Burns, S

    2010-01-01

    The Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) is a low frequency radio telescope, currently under construction, intended to search for the spectral signature of the epoch of re-ionisation (EOR) and to probe the structure of the solar corona. Sited in Western Australia, the full MWA will comprise 8192 dipoles grouped into 512 tiles, and be capable of imaging the sky south of 40 degree declination, from 80 MHz to 300 MHz with an instantaneous field of view that is tens of degrees wide and a resolution o...

  5. Interferometric imaging with the 32 element Murchison Wide-field Array

    CERN Document Server

    Ord, S M; Wayth, R B; Greenhill, L J; Bernardi, G; Gleadow, S; Edgar, R G; Clark, M A; Allen, G; Arcus, W; Benkevitch, L; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F H; Bunton, J D; Burns, S; Cappallo, R J; Coles, W A; Corey, B E; deSouza, L; Doeleman, S S; Derome, M; Deshpande, A; Emrich, D; Goeke, R; Gopalakrishna, M R; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Kamini, P A; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Kocz, J; Kowald, E; Kratzenberg, E; Kumar, D; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Madhavi, S; Matejek, M; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Pathikulangara, J; Prabu, T; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Schinkel, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Tingay, S J; Vaccarella, A; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C

    2010-01-01

    The Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) is a low frequency radio telescope, currently under construction, intended to search for the spectral signature of the epoch of re-ionisation (EOR) and to probe the structure of the solar corona. Sited in Western Australia, the full MWA will comprise 8192 dipoles grouped into 512 tiles, and be capable of imaging the sky south of 40 degree declination, from 80 MHz to 300 MHz with an instantaneous field of view that is tens of degrees wide and a resolution of a few arcminutes. A 32-station prototype of the MWA has been recently commissioned and a set of observations taken that exercise the whole acquisition and processing pipeline. We present Stokes I, Q, and U images from two ~4 hour integrations of a field 20 degrees wide centered on Pictoris A. These images demonstrate the capacity and stability of a real-time calibration and imaging technique employing the weighted addition of warped snapshots to counter extreme wide field imaging distortions.

  6. Low Frequency Imaging of Fields at High Galactic Latitude with the Murchison Widefield Array 32-Element Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Christopher L; Levine, Alan M; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Bowman, Judd D; Briggs, Frank H; Gaensler, B M; Hernquist, Lars L; Mitchell, Daniel A; Morales, Miguel F; Sethi, Shiv K; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Sadler, Elaine M; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David G; Bernardi, Gianni; Bunton, John D; Cappallo, Roger C; Crosse, Brian W; Corey, Brian E; Deshpande, Avinash; deSouza, Ludi; Emrich, David; Goeke, Robert F; Greenhill, Lincoln J; Hazelton, Bryna J; Herne, David; Kaplan, David L; Kasper, Justin C; Kincaid, Barton B; Koenig, Ronald; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin J; Lynch, Mervyn J; McWhirter, S Russell; Mitchell, %Daniel A; Morales, %Miguel F; Morgan, Edward H; Oberoi, Divya; Ord, Stephen M; Pathikulangara, Joseph; Prabu, Thiagaraj; Remillard, Ronald A; Rogers, Alan E E; Roshi, Anish A; Salah, Joseph E; Sault, Robert J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, Jamie B; Tingay, Steven J; Wayth, Randall B; Waterson, Mark; Webster, Rachel L; Whitney, Alan R; Williams, Andrew J; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2012-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency, wide field-of-view radio interferometer under development at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia. We have used a 32-element MWA prototype interferometer (MWA-32T) to observe two 50-degree diameter fields in the southern sky in the 110 MHz to 200 MHz band in order to evaluate the performance of the MWA-32T, to develop techniques for epoch of reionization experiments, and to make measurements of astronomical foregrounds. We developed a calibration and imaging pipeline for the MWA-32T, and used it to produce ~15' angular resolution maps of the two fields. We perform a blind source extraction using these confusion-limited images, and detect 655 sources at high significance with an additional 871 lower significance source candidates. We compare these sources with existing low-frequency radio surveys in order to assess the MWA-32T system performance, wide field analysis algorithms, and catalog quality. Our source catalog is...

  7. Low-frequency Imaging of Fields at High Galactic Latitude with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 Element Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher L.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Levine, Alan M.; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, Frank H.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hernquist, Lars L.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Morales, Miguel F.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Sadler, Elaine M.; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David G.; Bernardi, Gianni; Bunton, John D.; Cappallo, Roger C.; Crosse, Brian W.; Corey, Brian E.; Deshpande, Avinash; deSouza, Ludi; Emrich, David; Goeke, Robert F.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Herne, David; Kaplan, David L.; Kasper, Justin C.; Kincaid, Barton B.; Koenig, Ronald; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lynch, Mervyn J.; McWhirter, S. Russell; Morgan, Edward H.; Oberoi, Divya; Ord, Stephen M.; Pathikulangara, Joseph; Prabu, Thiagaraj; Remillard, Ronald A.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Anish Roshi, D.; Salah, Joseph E.; Sault, Robert J.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Stevens, Jamie B.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.; Waterson, Mark; Webster, Rachel L.; Whitney, Alan R.; Williams, Andrew J.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2012-08-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency, wide-field-of-view radio interferometer under development at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. We have used a 32 element MWA prototype interferometer (MWA-32T) to observe two 50° diameter fields in the southern sky, covering a total of ~2700 deg2, in order to evaluate the performance of the MWA-32T, to develop techniques for epoch of reionization experiments, and to make measurements of astronomical foregrounds. We developed a calibration and imaging pipeline for the MWA-32T, and used it to produce ~15' angular resolution maps of the two fields in the 110-200 MHz band. We perform a blind source extraction using these confusion-limited images, and detect 655 sources at high significance with an additional 871 lower significance source candidates. We compare these sources with existing low-frequency radio surveys in order to assess the MWA-32T system performance, wide-field analysis algorithms, and catalog quality. Our source catalog is found to agree well with existing low-frequency surveys in these regions of the sky and with statistical distributions of point sources derived from Northern Hemisphere surveys; it represents one of the deepest surveys to date of this sky field in the 110-200 MHz band.

  8. A 189 MHz, 2400 deg{sup 2} POLARIZATION SURVEY WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 32-ELEMENT PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, G.; Greenhill, L. J.; De Oliveira-Costa, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Garden Street 60, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mitchell, D. A. [The University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Ord, S. M.; Arcus, W.; Arora, B. S. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Gaensler, B. M.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Wayth, R. B.; Lenc, E.; Briggs, F. H. [CAASTRO, 44 Rosenhill Street, Redfern, NSW 2016 (Australia); Shankar, N. Udaya [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Williams, C. L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Barnes, D. G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Bowman, J. D. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Bunton, J. D. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, NSW (Australia); Cappallo, R. J., E-mail: gbernardi@cfa.harvard.edu [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (United States); and others

    2013-07-10

    We present a Stokes I, Q and U survey at 189 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 element prototype covering 2400 deg{sup 2}. The survey has a 15.6 arcmin angular resolution and achieves a noise level of 15 mJy beam{sup -1}. We demonstrate a novel interferometric data analysis that involves calibration of drift scan data, integration through the co-addition of warped snapshot images, and deconvolution of the point-spread function through forward modeling. We present a point source catalog down to a flux limit of 4 Jy. We detect polarization from only one of the sources, PMN J0351-2744, at a level of 1.8% {+-} 0.4%, whereas the remaining sources have a polarization fraction below 2%. Compared to a reported average value of 7% at 1.4 GHz, the polarization fraction of compact sources significantly decreases at low frequencies. We find a wealth of diffuse polarized emission across a large area of the survey with a maximum peak of {approx}13 K, primarily with positive rotation measure values smaller than +10 rad m{sup -2}. The small values observed indicate that the emission is likely to have a local origin (closer than a few hundred parsecs). There is a large sky area at {alpha} {>=} 2{sup h}30{sup m} where the diffuse polarized emission rms is fainter than 1 K. Within this area of low Galactic polarization we characterize the foreground properties in a cold sky patch at ({alpha}, {delta}) = (4{sup h}, -27. Degree-Sign 6) in terms of three-dimensional power spectra.

  9. A head and neck hyperthermia applicator: Theoretical antenna array design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, M.M.; Bakker, J.F.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Rhoon, G.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation into the feasibility of a circular array of dipole antennas to deposit RF-energy centrally in the neck as a function of: 1) patient positioning, 2) antenna ring radius, 3) number of antenna rings, 4) number of antennas per ring and 5) distance between antenna rings. Materials

  10. A head and neck hyperthermia applicator: Theoretical antenna array design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Paulides (Margarethus); J.F. Bakker (Jurriaan); A.P.M. Zwamborn; G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Investigation into the feasibility of a circular array of dipole antennas to deposit RF-energy centrally in the neck as a function of: (1) patient positioning, (2) antenna ring radius, (3) number of antenna rings, (4) number of antennas per ring and (5) distance between antenna

  11. Study of the Interaction User Head-Ultrawideband MIMO Antenna Array for Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Franek, Ondrej;

    2016-01-01

    aspects of the interaction are considered: 1) the influence of the user head on the antenna operation, and 2) the exposure of the human head tissue to antenna electromagnetic radiation. The first aspect is related to the degradation of the antenna performance in a proximity to the user which is evaluated......This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the user head and MIMO antenna array for mobile phones. The antenna array is composed of two identical antennas and covers the frequency ranges 698-990 MHz and 1710-5530 MHz with a good radiation efficiency in free space. The two...... by the reduction of the antenna radiation efficiency. The second aspect refers to the antenna operation effect on the human and the exposure of the user head is studied by Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR)....

  12. Hybrid monopole/loop coil array for human head MR imaging at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinqiang; Wei, Long; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    The monopole coil and loop coil have orthogonal radiofrequency (RF) fields and thus are intrinsically decoupled electromagnetically if they are laid out appropriately. In this study, we proposed a hybrid monopole/loop technique which could combine the advantages of both loop arrays and monopole arrays. To investigate this technique, a hybrid RF coil array containing 4 monopole channels and 4 loop channels was developed for human head MR imaging at 7T. In vivo MR imaging and g-factor results using monopole-only channels, loop-only channels and all channels of the hybrid array were acquired and evaluated. Compared with the monopole-only and loop-only channels, the proposed hybrid array has higher SNR and better parallel imaging performance. Sufficient electromagnetic decoupling and diverse RF magnetic field (B1) distributions of monopole channels and loop channels may contribute to this performance improvement. From experimental results, the hybrid monopole/loop array has low g-factor and excellent SNR at both periphery and center of the brain, which is valuable for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields. PMID:26120252

  13. Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays

    OpenAIRE

    Hedili, M. Kıvanç; Ürey, Hakan; Freeman, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays M. Kivanc Hedili,1 Mark O. Freeman,2 and Hakan Urey1,* 1Optical Microsystems Laboratory, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sarıyer, İstanbul 34450, Turkey 2Lost Lake Technology LLC, 21623 W. Lost Lake Rd., Snohomish, Washington 98296, USA *Corresponding author: Received 2 October 2012; revised 28 December 2012; accepted 29 December 2012; posted 18 January 2013 (Doc. ID 17...

  14. 32-element beta detector developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Yakushev, Alexander; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kłos, Helena; Panas, Andrzej; Słysz, Wojciech; Stolarski, Maciej; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Zaborowski, Michał

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the design, technology and parameters of a new .silicon detector for detection of electrons (below named as beta detector) developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The detector will be used for research on transactinide elements at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (GSI). The detector consists of a monolithic 32-element array with an active area diameter of 90 mm and a thickness of 0.9 mm. The starting material is a high-resistivity ν silicon wafer (5 kΩcm resistivity). 32 planar p+-ν junctions are formed by boron diffusion on the top side of the wafer. On the bottom side, an n+ region, which forms a common cathode, is formed on the entire surface by phosphorus diffusion. The array is mounted on a special epoxy-glass laminate substrate, copper-clad on both sides. Two model detectors have been fabricated and studied. Very good electrical parameters have been achieved. For the first array, with supply voltage VR = 20 V, the minimum dark current was 8 nA, the maximum dark current 97.1 nA, and the average dark current 25.1 nA. For the second array, it was 11.5 nA, 378.8 nA and 40.0 nA respectively.

  15. Phased array UT application for boiling water reactor vessel bottom head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) on welds of reactor internals is one of the most important issues in nuclear plants since 1990's. Demands to inspect the reactor internals are increasing. This paper focuses on the development and the application of the phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) for the reactor internals located in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) vessel bottom head (e.g., shroud support). The Toshiba PAUT technologies and technique has been developed and applied to in-Vessel inspections (IVIs) as our universal nondestructive testing (NDT) technologies. Though it was difficult to detect and size cracks in Alloy 182 welds (i.e. weld metal of the shroud support and a CRD stub tube), the efficiency of the PAUT techniques is shown in recent IVI activities. For example the PAUT techniques are applied to crack depth sizing in the weld between the CRD stub tube and RPV bottom build-up in recent years. An immersion technique by the PAUT enables to perform the UT examination on a complex geometric surface to be inspected. The PAUT techniques are developed to detect and size flaws on the shroud support Alloy 182 welds. The techniques include detection from the outside and the inside of RPV. These techniques are applied to the simulated shroud support mockups with SCC-simulated flaws. The examination result is proven to have a good agreement with their actual. As a result, the efficiency of the PAUT techniques is confirmed. (author)

  16. Critical head, thickness of fine-grained deposit, and skeletal elastic storage arrays of the SUB package of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the SUB package arrays for the model grid, critical head, thickness of fine-grained deposits, and skeletal-elastic-storage used in the...

  17. A single administration of the peptide NAP induces long-term protective changes against the consequences of head injury: gene Atlas array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Jacob; Beni-Adani, Liana; Nissenbaum, Orlev Levy; Brenneman, Douglas E; Shohami, Esther; Gozes, Illana

    2002-01-01

    The femtomolar-acting eight-amino-acid peptide (NAP), derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), provides long-term protection against the deleterious effects of closed head injury (CHI) in mice. Fifteen minutes after injury, mice were divided into two groups, control and NAP-treated and a single subcutaneous injection of NAP or vehicle was administered. A third group served as sham-treated (not subjected to head trauma). Each mouse was assessed for its clinical function, using neurological severity score, at various time intervals following CHI, up to 30-45 d. Total cerebral cortex RNA was prepared from the site of injury of CHI mice, and from parallel regions in peptide-treated and sham brains. RNA was then reversed transcribed to yield radioactive cDNA preparations that were hybridized to Atlas array membranes containing 1200 cDNAs spots. Comparison of sham-treated individual mice showed differential expression levels of at least 15 mRNA species. Furthermore, results indicated that one of the genes that did not change among individuals but specifically increased after CHI and decreased after NAP treatment was the cell surface glycoprotein Mac-1 (CD11B antigen). Thus, Mac-1 is suggested as a marker for the long-term outcome of head injury and as a potential target for NAP protective actions.

  18. Head-to-Head Comparison of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection versus Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for the Quantitative Analysis of the Silymarin Complex in Silybum marianum Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheilari, Antigoni; Sturm, Sonja; Intelmann, Daniel; Seger, Christoph; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-02-24

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is known as an excellent alternative to chromatography-based mixture analysis. NMR spectroscopy is a non-destructive method, needs only limited sample preparation, and can be readily automated. A head-to-head comparison of qNMR to an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (uHPLC-DAD)-based quantitative analysis of six flavonolignan congeners (silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B) of the Silybum marianum silymarin complex is presented. Both assays showed similar performance characteristics (linear range, accuracy, precision, and limits of quantitation) with analysis times below 30 min/sample. The assays were applied to industrial S. marianum extracts (AC samples) and to extracts locally prepared from S. marianum fruits (PL samples). An assay comparison by Bland-Altman plots (relative method bias AC samples, -0.1%; 2SD range, ±5.1%; relative method bias PL samples, -0.3%; 2SD range, ±7.8%) and Passing-Bablok regression analysis (slope and intercept for AC and PL samples not significantly different from 1.00 and 0.00, respectively; Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, >0.99) did show that qNMR and uHPLC-DAD can be used interchangeably to quantitate flavonolignans in the silymarin complex. PMID:26806429

  19. Head-to-Head Comparison of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection versus Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for the Quantitative Analysis of the Silymarin Complex in Silybum marianum Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheilari, Antigoni; Sturm, Sonja; Intelmann, Daniel; Seger, Christoph; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-02-24

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is known as an excellent alternative to chromatography-based mixture analysis. NMR spectroscopy is a non-destructive method, needs only limited sample preparation, and can be readily automated. A head-to-head comparison of qNMR to an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (uHPLC-DAD)-based quantitative analysis of six flavonolignan congeners (silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B) of the Silybum marianum silymarin complex is presented. Both assays showed similar performance characteristics (linear range, accuracy, precision, and limits of quantitation) with analysis times below 30 min/sample. The assays were applied to industrial S. marianum extracts (AC samples) and to extracts locally prepared from S. marianum fruits (PL samples). An assay comparison by Bland-Altman plots (relative method bias AC samples, -0.1%; 2SD range, ±5.1%; relative method bias PL samples, -0.3%; 2SD range, ±7.8%) and Passing-Bablok regression analysis (slope and intercept for AC and PL samples not significantly different from 1.00 and 0.00, respectively; Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, >0.99) did show that qNMR and uHPLC-DAD can be used interchangeably to quantitate flavonolignans in the silymarin complex.

  20. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Levet, Carla S; Betts, Guy N J; Harris, Adrian L; Homer, Jarrod J; West, Catharine M L; Miller, Crispin J

    2009-11-01

    The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the splicing index and a new metric based on the variation of reliability weighted fold changes to detect changes in the splicing patterns. The approach was validated on a cancer/normal sample dataset in which alternative splicing events had been confirmed using RT-PCR. We then analysed ten head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using exon arrays and identified differentially expressed splice variants in five samples with high versus five with low levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The analysis identified a splice variant of LAMA3 (Laminin alpha 3), LAMA3-A, known to be involved in tumour cell invasion and progression. The full-length transcript of the gene (LAMA3-B) did not appear to be hypoxia-associated. The results were confirmed using qualitative RT-PCR. In a series of 59 prospectively collected head and neck tumours, expression of LAMA3-A had prognostic significance whereas LAMA3-B did not. This work illustrates the potential for alternatively spliced transcripts to act as biomarkers of disease prognosis with improved specificity for particular tissues or conditions over assays which do not discriminate between splice variants. PMID:19936049

  1. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S Moller-Levet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the splicing index and a new metric based on the variation of reliability weighted fold changes to detect changes in the splicing patterns. The approach was validated on a cancer/normal sample dataset in which alternative splicing events had been confirmed using RT-PCR. We then analysed ten head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using exon arrays and identified differentially expressed splice variants in five samples with high versus five with low levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The analysis identified a splice variant of LAMA3 (Laminin alpha 3, LAMA3-A, known to be involved in tumour cell invasion and progression. The full-length transcript of the gene (LAMA3-B did not appear to be hypoxia-associated. The results were confirmed using qualitative RT-PCR. In a series of 59 prospectively collected head and neck tumours, expression of LAMA3-A had prognostic significance whereas LAMA3-B did not. This work illustrates the potential for alternatively spliced transcripts to act as biomarkers of disease prognosis with improved specificity for particular tissues or conditions over assays which do not discriminate between splice variants.

  2. Dosimetric verification of brain and head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment using EDR2 films and 2D ion chamber array matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatharaj C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of the agreement between measured and calculated dose plays an essential role in the quality assurance (QA procedures of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare performances of the two dosimetric systems (EDR2 and I′matriXX in the verification of the dose distributions calculated by the TPS for brain and head and neck dynamic IMRT cases. Materials and Methods: The comparison of cumulative fluence by using Kodak extended dose rate (EDR2 and I′matriXX detectors has been done for the evaluation of 10 brain, 10 head and neck IMRT cases treated with 6 MV beams. The parameter used to assess the quality of dose calculation is the gamma-index (g -index method. The acceptance limits for g calculation we have used are 3% and 3 mm respectively for dose agreement and distance to agreement parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by using the paired, two-tailed Student t-test, and P< 0.01 is kept as a threshold for the significance level. Results: The qualitative dose distribution comparison was performed using composite dose distribution in the measurement plane and profiles along various axes for TPS vs. EDR2 film and TPS Vs I′matriXX. The quantitative analysis between the calculated and measured dose distribution was evaluated using DTA and g-index. The percentage of pixels matching with the set DTA and g values are comparable for both with EDR2 film and I′matriXX array detectors. Statistically there was no significant variation observed between EDR2 film and I′matriXX in terms of the mean percentage of pixel passing g for brain cases (98.77 ± 1.03 vs 97.62 ± 1.66, P = 0.0218 and for head and neck cases (97.39 ± 2.13 vs 97.17 ± 1.52%, P = 0.7404. Conclusion: Due to simplicity and fast evaluation process of array detectors, it can be routinely used in busy departments without compromising the measurement accuracy.

  3. Genomic Alteration in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cell Lines Inferred from Karyotyping, Molecular Cytogenetics, and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singchat, Worapong; Hitakomate, Ekarat; Rerkarmnuaychoke, Budsaba; Suntronpong, Aorarat; Fu, Beiyuan; Bodhisuwan, Winai; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Yang, Fengtang; Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-01-01

    Genomic alteration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was studied in two cell line pairs (HN30-HN31 and HN4-HN12) using conventional C-banding, multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). HN30 and HN4 were derived from primary lesions in the pharynx and base of tongue, respectively, and HN31 and HN12 were derived from lymph-node metastatic lesions belonging to the same patients. Gain of chromosome 1, 7, and 11 were shared in almost all cell lines. Hierarchical clustering revealed that HN31 was closely related to HN4, which shared eight chromosome alteration cases. Large C-positive heterochromatins were found in the centromeric region of chromosome 9 in HN31 and HN4, which suggests complex structural amplification of the repetitive sequence. Array CGH revealed amplification of 7p22.3p11.2, 8q11.23q12.1, and 14q32.33 in all cell lines involved with tumorigenesis and inflammation genes. The amplification of 2p21 (SIX3), 11p15.5 (H19), and 11q21q22.3 (MAML2, PGR, TRPC6, and MMP family) regions, and deletion of 9p23 (PTPRD) and 16q23.1 (WWOX) regions were identified in HN31 and HN12. Interestingly, partial loss of PTPRD (9p23) and WWOX (16q23.1) genes was identified in HN31 and HN12, and the level of gene expression tended to be the down-regulation of PTPRD, with no detectable expression of the WWOX gene. This suggests that the scarcity of PTPRD and WWOX genes might have played an important role in progression of HNSCC, and could be considered as a target for cancer therapy or a biomarker in molecular pathology. PMID:27501229

  4. Genomic Alteration in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cell Lines Inferred from Karyotyping, Molecular Cytogenetics, and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerkarmnuaychoke, Budsaba; Suntronpong, Aorarat; Fu, Beiyuan; Bodhisuwan, Winai; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Yang, Fengtang; Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-01-01

    Genomic alteration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was studied in two cell line pairs (HN30-HN31 and HN4-HN12) using conventional C-banding, multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). HN30 and HN4 were derived from primary lesions in the pharynx and base of tongue, respectively, and HN31 and HN12 were derived from lymph-node metastatic lesions belonging to the same patients. Gain of chromosome 1, 7, and 11 were shared in almost all cell lines. Hierarchical clustering revealed that HN31 was closely related to HN4, which shared eight chromosome alteration cases. Large C-positive heterochromatins were found in the centromeric region of chromosome 9 in HN31 and HN4, which suggests complex structural amplification of the repetitive sequence. Array CGH revealed amplification of 7p22.3p11.2, 8q11.23q12.1, and 14q32.33 in all cell lines involved with tumorigenesis and inflammation genes. The amplification of 2p21 (SIX3), 11p15.5 (H19), and 11q21q22.3 (MAML2, PGR, TRPC6, and MMP family) regions, and deletion of 9p23 (PTPRD) and 16q23.1 (WWOX) regions were identified in HN31 and HN12. Interestingly, partial loss of PTPRD (9p23) and WWOX (16q23.1) genes was identified in HN31 and HN12, and the level of gene expression tended to be the down-regulation of PTPRD, with no detectable expression of the WWOX gene. This suggests that the scarcity of PTPRD and WWOX genes might have played an important role in progression of HNSCC, and could be considered as a target for cancer therapy or a biomarker in molecular pathology. PMID:27501229

  5. 3-D Ultrasound Imaging Performance of a Row-Column Addressed 2-D Array Transducer: A Measurement Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A real-time 3-D ultrasound measurement using only 32 elements and 32 emissions is presented. The imaging quality is compared to a conventionally fully addressed array using 1024 elements and 256 emissions. The main-lobe of the measured line spread function is almost identical, but the side...... is 510% larger than when row-column addressing the array. The cyst radius needed to achieve -20 dB intensity in the cyst is 396% larger for the fully addressed array compared to the row-column addressed array. The measurements were made using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS and a 32x32 element...

  6. Application of the FD-TD method to the electromagnetic modeling of patch antenna arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasik, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aguirre, G.; Cangellaris, A.C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Eengineering, Center for Electronic Packaging Research

    1996-01-10

    FD-TD method and the Berenger Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) absorbing condition are applied to the modeling of a 32-element patch array. Numerical results for the return loss at the array feed are presented and compared to measured results for the purpose of model validation.

  7. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moller-Levet, Carla S.; Guy N J Betts; Harris, Adrian L; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine M. L.; Miller, Crispin J.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the spl...

  8. miRNA array analysis determines miR-205 is overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and enhances cellular proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in cell cycle and pro-survival signal regulation. Consequently, their deregulation can enhance tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In the current investigation, we determined whether cancer- or human papillomavirus (HPV-specific miRNA deregulation could further elucidate signal transduction events unique to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Twenty-nine newly diagnosed HNSCC tumors (HPV-positive: 14, HPV-negative: 15 and four normal mucosa samples were analyzed for global miRNA expression. Differential miRNA expression analysis concluded HNSCC is characterized by a general upregulation of miRNAs compared to normal mucosa. Additionally, miR-449a and miR-129-3p were statistically significant miRNAs differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. The upregulation of miR-449a was also validated within an independent dataset obtained from TCGA containing 279 HNSCCs and 39 normal adjacent mucosa samples. To gain a better understanding of miRNA-mediated cell cycle deregulation in HNSCC, we functionally evaluated miR-205, a transcript upregulated in our cancer-specific analysis and a putative regulator of E2F1. Modulation of miR-205 with a miRNA mimic and inhibitor revealed miR-205 is capable of regulating E2F1 expression in HNSCC and overexpression of this transcript enhances proliferation. This study demonstrates miRNA expression is highly deregulated in HNSCC and functional evaluations of these miRNAs may reveal novel HPV context dependent mechanisms in this disease.

  9. Optimization of Transverse Oscillating Fields for Vector Velocity Estimation with Convex Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    ) at a depth of 40 mm. Measurements have been made using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner and a BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer. Sixty-four elements was used in transmit and 2 x 32 elements in receive for creating a color flow map image of a flow rig phantom with a laminar, parabolic flow......A method for making Vector Flow Images using the transverse oscillation (TO) approach on a convex array is presented. The paper presents optimization schemes for TO fields for convex probes and evaluates their performance using Field II simulations and measurements using the SARUS experimental...... scanner. A 3 MHz 192 elements convex array probe (pitch 0.33 mm) is used in both simulations and measurements. An F-number of 5 is used in transmit and two 32 element wide peaks are used in receive separated by 96 elements between peaks. Parabolic velocity profiles are simulated at beam-to-flow angles...

  10. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  11. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  12. Head MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain ( arteriovenous malformations of the head ) Acoustic neuroma Bleeding in the brain Brain abscess Brain aneurysms ... 2014:chap 5. Read More Absence seizure Acoustic neuroma Alzheimer disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Aneurysm in the ...

  13. A Two-Dimensional, Semiconducting Bolometer Array for HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Schidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Dowell, C. Darren; Dotson, Jessie; Harper, D. Al; Moseley, Harvey; Rennick, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy's (SOFIA's) High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) will use an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC Pop-Up Detectors (PUDs) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32 element closepacked array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95%. The HAWC detector uses a resistive metal film on silicon to provide frequency independent, approx. 50% absorption over the 40 - 300 micron band. The silicon bolometers are manufactured in 32-element rows within silicon frames using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) silicon etching techniques. The frames are then cut, "folded", and glued onto a metallized, ceramic, thermal bus "bar". Optical alignment using micrometer jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked side-by-side to create the final 12 x 32 element array. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometer cold stage from the rest of the 4K detector housing. GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) preamplifiers for all the signal channels operate at 120 K, yet they are electrically connected and located in close proximity to the bolometers. The JFET module design provides sufficient thermal isolation and heat sinking for these, so that their heat is not detected by the bolometers. Preliminary engineering results from the flight detector dark test run are expected to be available in July 2004. This paper describes the array assembly and mechanical and thermal design of the HAWC detector and the JFET module.

  14. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Head lice public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  15. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  16. Design and Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Superconducting Pop-up Bolometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chervenak, James A.; Allen, Christine A.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Irwin, Kent D.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Page, Lyman A.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing an architecture for producing large format, two dimensional arrays of close-packed bolometers, which will enable submillimeter cameras and spectrometers to obtain images and spectra orders of magnitude faster than present instruments. The low backgrounds achieved in these instruments require very sensitive detectors with NEPs of order 5 x 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. Superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers can be close-packed using the Pop-up Detector (PUD) format, and SQUID multiplexers operating at the detector base temperature can be intimately coupled to them. The array unit cell is 8 x 32 pixels, using 32- element detector and multiplexer components. We have fabricated an engineering model array with this technology which features a very compact, modular approach for large format arrays. We report on the production of the 32-element components for the arrays. Planned instruments using this array architecture include the Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory, the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) for the AST/RO observatory, the Millimeter Bolometer Camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (MBC/ACT), and the Redshift (Z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS j.

  17. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  18. Micro-Machined High-Frequency (80 MHz) PZT Thick Film Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a micro-machined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT solgel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (−6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of −41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of −21 dB were found at the center frequency. PMID:20889407

  19. Testing and assembly of the detectors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on ACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, T. A.; Chervenak, J. A.; Doriese, W. B.

    2006-04-01

    The Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC) for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope consists of three Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays to make simultaneous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background in three frequency bands. MBAC TESs are NASA Goddard Pop-Up Detectors (PUD) which are read-out by NIST time-domain multiplexers. MBAC is constructed by stacking 1×32 TES columns to form the 32×32 element arrays. The arrays are modular (connectorized) at the 1×32 column level such that array assembly is reversible and camera repair possible. Prior to assembly, each column is tested in a quick (2h) cycling 4He/3He adsorption refrigerator. Tests include measurements of TES current voltage curves and TES complex impedance.

  20. Testing and assembly of the detectors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on ACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC) for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope consists of three Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays to make simultaneous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background in three frequency bands. MBAC TESs are NASA Goddard Pop-Up Detectors (PUD) which are read-out by NIST time-domain multiplexers. MBAC is constructed by stacking 1x32 TES columns to form the 32x32 element arrays. The arrays are modular (connectorized) at the 1x32 column level such that array assembly is reversible and camera repair possible. Prior to assembly, each column is tested in a quick (2h) cycling 4He/3He adsorption refrigerator. Tests include measurements of TES current-voltage curves and TES complex impedance

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the head is typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ...

  2. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  3. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  4. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated. PMID:21041399

  5. Array tomography: production of arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time consuming and require some practice to perfect. This protocol describes the sectioning of embedded tissues and the mounting of the serial arrays. The procedures require some familiarity with the techniques used for ultramicrotome sectioning for electron microscopy. PMID:21041397

  6. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  7. Airborne ultrasonic phased arrays using ferroelectrets: a new fabrication approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Joao L; Camacho, Jorge J; Fritsch, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    In this work, a novel procedure that considerably simplifies the fabrication process of ferroelectret-based multielement array transducers is proposed and evaluated. Also, the potential of ferroelectrets being used as active material for air-coupled ultrasonic transducer design is demonstrated. The new construction method of multi-element transducers introduces 2 distinctive improvements. First, active ferroelectret material is not discretized into elements, and second, the need of structuring upper and/or lower electrodes in advance of the permanent polarization of the film is removed. The aperture discretization and the mechanical connection are achieved in one step using a through-thickness conductive tape. To validate the procedure, 2 linear array prototypes of 32 elements, with a pitch of 3.43 mm and a wide usable frequency range from 30 to 300 kHz, were built and evaluated using a commercial phased-array system. A low crosstalk among elements, below -30 dB, was measured by interferometry. Likewise, a homogeneous response of the array elements, with a maximum deviation of +/-1.8 dB, was obtained. Acoustic beam steering measurements were accomplished at different deflection angles using a calibrated microphone. The ultrasonic beam parameters, namely, lateral resolution, side lobe level, grating lobes, and focus depth, were congruent with theory. Acoustic images of a single reflector were obtained using one of the array elements as the receiver. Resulting images are also in accordance with numerical simulation, demonstrating the feasibility of using these arrays in pulse-echo mode. The proposed procedure simplifies the manufacturing of multidimensional arrays with arbitrary shape elements and not uniformly distributed. Furthermore, this concept can be extended to nonflat arrays as long as the transducer substrate conforms to a developable surface. PMID:19406714

  8. Visible and infrared linear detector arrays for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument uses four separate focal plane assemblies consisting of line array detectors that are multiplexed to a common J-FET preamp using a FET switch multiplexing (MUX) technique. A 32-element silicon line array covers the spectral range from 0.41 to 0.70 microns. Three additional 64-element indium antimonide (InSb) line arrays cover the spectral range from 0.68 to 2.45 microns. The spectral sampling interval per detector element is nominally 9.8 nm, giving a total of 224 spectral channels. All focal planes operate at liquid nitrogen temperature and are housed in separate dewars. Electrical performance characteristics include a read noise of less than 1000 e(-) in all channels, response and dark nonuniformity of 5 percent peak to peak, and quantum efficiency of greater than 60 percent

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  10. Thermal-independent properties of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal linear-array ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruimin; Wu, Jinchuan; Ho Lam, Kwok; Yao, Liheng; Zhou, Qifa; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, low-frequency 32-element linear-array ultrasonic transducers were designed and fabricated using both ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) and binary Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))-PbTiO(3) (PMNPT) single crystals. Performance of the array transducers was characterized as a function of temperature ranging from room temperature to 160°C. It was found that the array transducers fabricated using the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were capable of satisfactory performance at 160°C, having a -6-dB bandwidth of 66% and an insertion loss of 37 dB. The results suggest that the potential of PIN-PMN-PT linear-array ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature ultrasonic transducer applications is promising. PMID:23221227

  11. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  12. Development of CdZnTe energy selective arrays for industrial and medical radiation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichar, Raulf; Schirato, Richard; Reed, John

    1994-12-01

    Recent advances in the production of CdZnTe using the high pressure Bridgman growth process now make it possible to design and fabricate complex X-ray sensor arrays on large monolithic substrates. These solid state ionization devices have the advantages of improved spatial and energy resolution, and produce significantly higher signals than competitive scintillator-photodiode systems. We have fabricated a number of linear and areal monolithic arrays in our laboratory using vacuum deposited contacts on such material with good success. These arrays operate in a pulse counting mode using hybrid and surface mount circuitry mounted in close proximity to the arrays. Linear devices with pitches of less than 0.8 mm and with 32 elements per substrate have been used for very wide dynamic range radioscopy with excellent results. Images are presented which demonstrate dynamic range in excess of 500:1 and Nyquist limited resolution at diagnostic X-ray energies for a wide variety of samples. Preliminary results demonstrate that the arrays can be used for energy selective radioscopy permitting the identification of differing materials within the image by approximate atomic number. Systems using areal arrays also have been evaluated as radiation cameras and demonstrate good spatial and energy resolution. Examples of data taken with a pin-hole collimator show the ability to distinguish source distributions by energy as well as location and intensity. Ongoing work in the improvement of spatial and energy resolution and the fabrication of larger arrays is discussed.

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  14. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  15. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Ami; Lu, Yijiang; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH4, NH3, SO2, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA). A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1–30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system. PMID:27463716

  16. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Ami; Lu, Yijiang; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M

    2016-07-25

    We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH₄, NH₃, SO₂, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA). A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1-30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system.

  17. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Ami; Lu, Yijiang; Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M

    2016-01-01

    We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH₄, NH₃, SO₂, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA). A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1-30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system. PMID:27463716

  18. Thermal-Independent Properties of PIN-PMN-PT Single-Crystal Linear-Array Ultrasonic Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruimin; Wu, Jinchuan; Lam, Kwok Ho; Yao, Liheng; Zhou, Qifa; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, low-frequency 32-element linear-array ultrasonic transducers were designed and fabricated using both ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)–PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) and binary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals. Performance of the array transducers was characterized as a function of temperature ranging from room temperature to 160°C. It was found that the array transducers fabricated using the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were capable of satisfactory performance at 160°C, ha...

  19. PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency kerfless phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruimin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor E; Lam, Kwok Ho; Hsu, Hsiu-sheng; Zheng, Fan; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniature high-frequency kerfless phased array prepared from a PMN-PT single crystal for forward-looking intravascular or endoscopic imaging applications. After lapping down to around 40 μm, the PMN-PT material was utilized to fabricate 32-element kerfless phased arrays using micromachining techniques. The aperture size of the active area was only 1.0 × 1.0 mm. The measured results showed that the array had a center frequency of 40 MHz, a bandwidth of 34% at -6 dB with a polymer matching layer, and an insertion loss of 20 dB at the center frequency. Phantom images were acquired and compared with simulated images. The results suggest that the feasibility of developing a phased array mounted at the tip of a forward-looking intravascular catheter or endoscope. The fabricated array exhibits much higher sensitivity than PZT ceramic-based arrays and demonstrates that PMN-PT is well suited for this application. PMID:24859667

  20. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  2. Foreign heading machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, E.P.; Chernomaz, O.L.

    1983-12-01

    A general review is presented of heading machines currently produced, divided into pointed arm, drilling and impact types. Pointed arm machines described include models manufactured by Thyssen Titan, Dosco, Anderson Strathclyde and Anderson Meyvor (UK), Mannesman Demag, Eikchoff, Paurat and Westfalia-Luenen (FRG), Jeffrey Machinery, Joy Manufacturing, Lee Norse and National Mine Service (USA), Voest-Alpine (Austria and under licence in Poland), Kawasaki and Nippon Koki (Japan). Drilling heading machines include models manufactured by Atlas Copco-Jarva (USA-Sweden), Robbins (USA), Demag (FRG; TVM model) and others. Impact heading machines are described generally, giving basic parameter ranges, with mention of their advantages: such as light weight, low dust emission, small preliminary preparation requirements, etc. Further developments in and wider use of heading machines are predicted, and mention is made of research into cutting methods using very high pressure jets in combination with mechanical cutting (USA, FRG, Japan).

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  4. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  6. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  8. Standard integrated head package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated head package for a standard-type nuclear reactor is described which consolidates many components and subassemblies of the upper reactor structure into a single unit which may be removed from the reactor vessel in a single lift. Included among the consolidated elements are a pressure vessel head, a cooling shroud, control rod drive mechanisms, a missile shield, a lifting rig, a hoist assembly, and a cable tray assembly. (author)

  9. Head and neck teratomas

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ajaz; Latoo, Suhail; Ahmed, Irshad; Malik, Altaf H

    2009-01-01

    Teratomas are complex lesions composed of diverse tissues from all 3 germinal cell layers and may exhibit variable levels of maturity. Head and neck teratomas are most commonly cervical with the oropharynx (epignathus) being the second commonest location. In this article, clinical presentation, behaviour and associated significance of head and neck teratomas have been highlightened. Because of their obscure origin, bizarre microscopic appearance, unpredictable behaviour and often dramatic cli...

  10. Surrogate Head Forms for the Evaluation of Head Injury Risk

    OpenAIRE

    MacAlister, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of surrogate head forms in biomechanical research pertaining to head injury and, more specifically, mild traumatic brain injury. Because cadavers are limited and controlled studies of brain injury using live human subjects would be unethical, surrogate head forms are used to study the response of the human head to impact. Different head forms have been developed and optimized for different purposes. The Hybrid III 50th percentile male crash test dummy was develop...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  12. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  15. Economics of head injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manmohan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Head injuries account for significant proportion of neurosurgical admissions and bed occupancy. Patients with head injuries also consume significant proportions of neurosurgical resources. A prospective 6-month study has been carried out to evaluate the expenditure incurred on head injury patients in a modern neurosurgical center equipped with state of the art infrastructure. Costing areas included wages / salaries of health care personnel, cost of medicines / surgical items / crystalloids, general store items, stationary, all investigation charges, equipment cost, overhead building cost, maintenance cost, electricity and water charges and cost of medical gases, air conditioning and operation theatre expenses. Expenditure in each area was calculated and apportioned to each bed. The statistical analysis was done using X2 test. The cost of stay in ward was found to be Rs. 1062 / bed / day and in neurosurgical ICU Rs. 3082 / bed / day. The operation theatre cost for each surgery was Rs. 11948. The cost of hospital stay per day for minor, moderate and severe head injury group was found to be Rs. 1921, Rs. 2569 and Rs. 2713 respectively. The patients who developed complications, the cost of stay per day in the hospital were Rs. 2867. In the operative group, the cost of hospital stay per day was Rs. 3804. The total expenditure in minor head injury was Rs. 7800 per patient, in moderate head injury was Rs. 22172 per patient, whereas in severe head injury, it was found to be Rs. 32852 per patient. Patients who underwent surgery, the total cost incurred was Rs. 33100 per operated patient.

  16. Nonterminating Rewritings with Head Boundedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈意云

    1993-01-01

    We define here the concept of head boundedness,head normal form and head confluence of term rewriting systems that allow infinite derivation.Head confluence iw weaker than confluence,but sufficient to guarantee the correctness of lazy implementations of equational logic programming languages.Then we prove several results.First,if a left-linear system is locally confluent and head-bounded.then it is head-confluent.Second,head-confluent and head-bounded systems have the heau Church-Rosser property.Last,if an orthogonal system is head-terminating,then it is head-bounded.These results can be applied to generalize equational logic programming languages.

  17. 96-Channel Receive-Only Head Coil for 3 Tesla: Design Optimization and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, Graham C.; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Potthast, Andreas; Schmitt, Melanie; Alagappan, Vijay; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of highly parallel array coils for head imaging were investigated through the development of a 3T receive-only phased-array head coil with 96 receive elements constructed on a close-fitting helmet-shaped former. We evaluated several designs for the coil elements and matching circuitry, with particular attention to sources of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss, including various sources of coil loading and coupling between the array elements. The SNR and noise amplifi...

  18. Multilayer Array Transducer for Nonlinear Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neil R.; Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Li, Tong; Gross, Dan; Postlewait, Steven M.; Curra, Francesco P.

    2011-09-01

    The properties of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation are known to be able to improve the resolution of ultrasound imaging, and could be used to dynamically estimate the physical properties of tissue. However, transducers capable of launching a wave that becomes nonlinear through propagation do not typically have the necessary bandwidth to detect the higher harmonics. Here we present the design and characterization of a novel multilayer transducer for high intensity transmit and broadband receive. The transmit layer was made from a narrow-band, high-power piezoceramic (PZT), with nominal frequency of 2.0 MHz, that was diced into an array of 32 elements. Each element was 0.300 mm wide and 6.3 mm in elevation, and with a pitch of 0.400 mm the overall aperture width was 12.7 mm. A quarter-wave matching layer was attached to the PZT substrate to improve transmit efficiency and bandwidth. The overlaid receive layer was made from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) that had gold metalization on one side. A custom two-sided flex circuit routed electrical connections to the PZT elements and patterned the PVDF elements; the PZT and PVDF elements had identical apertures. A low viscosity and electrically nonconductive epoxy was used for all adhesion layers. Characterization of electrical parameters and acoustic output were performed per standard methods, where transmit and receive events were driven by a software-controlled ultrasound engine. Echo data, collected from ex vivo tissue and digitized at 45 MS/s, exhibited frequency content up to the 4th harmonic of the 2 MHz transmit frequency.

  19. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  20. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  1. Rocket injector head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A high number of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen orifices per unit area are provided in an injector head designed to give intimate mixing and more thorough combustion. The injector head comprises a main body portion, a cooperating plate member as a flow chamber for one propellant, a cooperating manifold portion for the second propellant, and an annular end plate for enclosing an annular propellant groove formed around the outer edge of the body. All the openings for one propellant are located at the same angle with respect to a radial plane to permit a short combustion chamber.

  2. EPL rikkus head ajakirjandustava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Pressinõukogu leidis, et Eesti Päevaleht on rikkunud head ajakirjandustava, avaldades Kai Kalamehe ja Anneli Ammase art. "Reps nõuab trahviga ähvardades haridusministeeriumi ülistamist" 1. veebr. Eesti Päevalehes. Artikkel peab põhinema tõestataval ja tõenditega tagatud faktilisel infol

  3. Head space analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, G.J. van; Koorevaar, G.

    1971-01-01

    Additional analytical information is given about the method of head space analysis. From the data presented it can be concluded that this technique may be advantageous for enzyme kinetic studies in turbid solutions, provided a volatile organic substance is involved in the chemical reaction. Also som

  4. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  5. Absorbed Power Minimization in Cellular Users with Circular Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilakis, Vasilis; Votis, Constantinos; Tatsis, Giorgos; Raptis, Vasilis; Kostarakis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic pollution of non ionizing radiation generated by cellular phones concerns millions of people. In this paper the use of circular antenna array as a means of minimizing the absorbed power by cellular phone users is introduced. In particular, the different characteristics of radiation patterns produced by a helical conventional antenna used in mobile phones operating at 900 MHz and those produced by a circular antenna array, hypothetically used in the same mobile phones, are in detail examined. Furthermore, the percentage of decrement of the power absorbed in the head as a function of direction of arrival is estimated for the circular antenna array.

  6. Head Lice (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The head louse is a tiny, grayish-white insect. Female head lice typically live for about one ... you can use a nonprescription lice treatment (see 'Insecticides' below). Examine family members and close contacts at ...

  7. Recreation-Related Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation-Related Head Injuries American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852  ... and follow instructions on product packaging. Top 15 Recreation/Leisure-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category ...

  8. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the procedure performed? Head Ultrasound A head ultrasound is performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the infant's bedside. The infant is positioned lying face-up. A clear, water-based gel is applied ...

  9. Sofic one head machines

    OpenAIRE

    Gajardo, Anahi

    2008-01-01

    There are several systems consisting in an object that moves on the plane by following a given rule. It is frequently observed that these systems eventually fall into an unexplained repetitive movement. The general framework of k-dimensional Turing machines with only one head is adopted. A subshift is associated to each Turing machine, and its properties are studied. The subshift consists in the set of sequences of symbols that the machine reads together with the states that it has through ea...

  10. Where are we heading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  11. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  12. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  13. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  14. Telescope Array Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, H.; Yoshida, S. [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshii, H. [Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Hiroshinma City University, 3-4-1 Ozuka-Higashi, Asa-Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 731-3194 (Japan); Cohen, F.; Fukushima, M.; Hayashida, N.; Hiyama, K.; Ikeda, D.; Kido, E.; Kondo, Y.; Nonaka, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Ozawa, S.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Takeda, M. [ICRR, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)] (and others)

    2008-01-15

    The TA observatory is a hybrid detector system consisting of both a surface detector array as well as a set of fluorescence detectors. The observatory will measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The surface detectors are being deployed and the array should be complete by the end of February, 2007. We will soon be collecting hybrid data at the Telecope Array.

  15. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  16. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  17. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  18. Detector support head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support head of detectors for densitometric measurements of the regional function of lungs using gamma radiation consists of a group of detectors placed in a common rack. The detectors are placed on holders with adjustable height which allow side movement. The holders are slidably connected to the converging quide rail on the frame via arms. Between the holders and the rack is fitted the drive mechanism consisting of a screw. The design allows the stable adjustment of detectors on the lung field during examination and thereby allows the comparison of results of measurements carried out at different times. (J.B.). 2 figs

  19. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  20. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  1. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  2. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  3. Micromachined electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  4. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  5. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  6. NASA head sworn in

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in on May 12, 1986, as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At a news conference after he was sworn in, Fletcher said that NASA would deal with both its technical problems and its procedural problems before the shuttle will fly again. According to press accounts, he stressed that funds should be made available to replace the Challenger orbiter, which was lost in an explosion on January 28.Fletcher, who had also headed the agency from 1971 to 1977, succeeds James M. Beggs, who was indicted in December 1985 for conspiring to defraud the federal government while serving as a senior executive at the General Dynamics Corporation.

  7. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  9. P systems with array objects and array rewriting rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Subramanian; R. Saravanan; M. Geethalakshmi; P. Helen Chandra; M. Margenstern

    2007-01-01

    Array P systems were introduced by Pǎun Gh. which is linking the two areas of membrane computing and picture grammars. Puzzle grammars were introduced by us for generating connected picture arrays in the two-dimensional plane, motivated by the problem of tiling the plane. On the other hand, incorporating into arrays the developmental type of generation used in the well-known biologically motivated L systems, Siromoney and Siromoney proposed a very general rectangular array generating model, called extended controlled tabled L array system (ECTLAS). In this paper we introduce two variations of the array P system, called BPG array P system and parallel array P system. The former has in the regions array objects and basic puzzle grammar rules (BPG), which are a specific kind of puzzle grammar rules. In the latter, the regions have rectangular array objects and tables of context-free rules. We examine these two types of P systems for their array generative power.

  10. Magnetization reversal in arrays of Co rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, U.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Hiller, J. M.; Zaluzec, N. J.; Metlushko, V.; Ilic, B.

    2003-08-01

    The magnetization behavior of arrays of individual and coupled Co rings has been studied using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, magneto-optical imaging, and Lorentz transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The transition from the polarized into the vortex state of isolated rings is shown to occur through the motion and annihilation of head-to-head domain boundaries. The chirality of the vortex state is fixed on subsequent magnetization cycles, indicating that it is predetermined by structural imperfections of the rings. The effect of interactions between the rings has been investigated in arrays of chains of touching rings. For fields applied parallel to the chains rings in extended sections of the chains are found to switch simultaneously. Neighboring rings in these sections can display alternating chirality as well as the same chirality accompanied by a 180° boundary on the nodes. For fields perpendicular to the chain direction the switching occurs pairwise. This coupling introduces a broad distribution of switching fields and correspondingly a magnetization curve that is significantly broader than that for the parallel orientation.

  11. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  12. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  13. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  14. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  15. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  16. Flexible transceiver array for ultrahigh field human MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunsheng; Li, Ye; Pang, Yong; Lu, Jonathan; Xu, Duan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Nelson, Sarah J; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2012-10-01

    A flexible transceiver array, capable of multiple-purpose imaging applications in vivo at ultrahigh magnetic fields was designed, implemented and tested on a 7 T MR scanner. By alternately placing coil elements with primary and secondary harmonics, improved decoupling among coil elements was accomplished without requiring decoupling circuitry between resonant elements, which is commonly required in high-frequency transceiver arrays to achieve sufficient element-isolation during radiofrequency excitation. This flexible array design is capable of maintaining the required decoupling among resonant elements in different array size and geometry and is scalable in coil size and number of resonant elements (i.e., number of channels), yielding improved filling factors for various body parts with different geometry and size. To investigate design feasibility, flexibility, and array performance, a multichannel, 16-element transceiver array was designed and constructed, and in vivo images of the human head, knee, and hand were acquired using a whole-body 7 T MR system. Seven Tesla parallel imaging with generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) performed using this flexible transceiver array was also presented. PMID:22246803

  17. Visual head motion monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá určením polohy a natočení hlavy v reálném čase ze snímků pořízených webovou kamerou vůči pevným ramenům. Dále poukazuje na výhody využití Open CV. Zahrnut je též podrobnější popis užitých funkcí Open CV, jako například optický tok, hledání korespondujících dvojic 3D-2D bodů a mimo jiné také operace s rotační maticí. V závěru jsou zhodnoceny dosažené výsledky a navržen další možný postup. This bachelor thesis is based on finding of head rotation and position again...

  18. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  19. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS "Heads ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety ORDER FREE PRINT ...

  20. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  1. Heads Up to High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats ...

  2. Resonant Inductive Decoupling (RID) for Transceiver Arrays to Compensate for both Reactive and Resistive Components of the Mutual Impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Avdievich, Nikolai I.; Pan, Jullie W; Hetherington, Hoby P.

    2013-01-01

    Transceiver surface coil arrays improve transmit performance (B1/√kW) and B1 homogeneity for head imaging up to 9.4 T. To further improve reception performance and parallel imaging the number of array elements has to be increased with correspondent decrease of their size. With a large number of small interacting antennas decoupling is one of the most challenging aspects in the design and construction of transceiver arrays. Previously described decoupling techniques using geometric overlap, in...

  3. Exploring Functional Connectivity Networks with Multichannel Brain Array Coils

    OpenAIRE

    Anteraper, Sheeba Arnold; Keil, Boris; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, Susan; Shannon, Steven P.; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multichannel array head coils in functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), higher sensitivity, and parallel imaging capabilities. However, their benefits remain to be systematically explored in the context of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI). In this study, we compare signal detectability within and between commercially available multichannel brain coils, a 32-Channel (32Ch), and a 12-Channel (12Ch) a...

  4. Dense Array EEG Source Estimation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    MadokaYamazaki; DonTucker

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Dense array EEG (dEEG) evenly covers the whole head surface with over 100 channels contributing to more accurate electrical source imaging due to the higher spatial and temporal resolution. Several studies have shown the clinical utility of dEEG in presurgical clinical evaluation of epilepsy. However validation studies measuring the accuracy of dEEG source imaging are still needed. This can be achieved through simultaneously recording both scalp dEEG with intracranial electrodes (i...

  5. Optimizing Chemical Sensor Array Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal selection of array sensors for a chemical sensing application is a nontrivial task. It is commonly believed that ''more is better'' when choosing the number of sensors required to achieve good chemical selectivity. However, cost and system complexity issues point towards the choice of small arrays. A quantitative array optimization is carried out to explore the selectivity of arrays of partially-selective chemical sensors as a function of array size. It is shown that modest numbers (dozens) of target analytes are completely distinguished with a range of arrays sizes. However, the array selectivity and the robustness against sensor sensitivity variability are significantly degraded if the array size is increased above a certain number of sensors, so that relatively small arrays provide the best performance. The results also suggest that data analyses for very large arrays of partially-selective sensors will be optimized by separately anal yzing small sensor subsets

  6. Imaging antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, D. B.; Muha, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Many millimeter and far-infrared imaging systems are limited in sensitivity and speed because they depend on a single scanned element. Because of recent advances in planar detectors such as Schottky diodes, superconducting tunnel junctions, and microbolometers, an attractive approach to this problem is a planar antenna array with integrated detectors. A planar line antenna array and optical system for imaging has been developed. The significant advances are a 'reverse-microscope' optical configuration and a modified bow-tie antenna design. In the 'reverse-microscope' configuration, a lens is attached to the bottom of the substrate containing the antennas. Imaging is done through the substrate. This configuration eliminates the troublesome effects of substrate surface waves. The substrate lens has only a single refracting surface, making possible a virtually aplanatic system, with little spherical aberration or coma. The array is characterized by an optical transfer function that is easily measured. An array with 19 dB crosstalk levels between adjacent antennas has been tested and it was found that the array captured 50 percent of the available power. This imaging system was diffraction limited.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging of the head is performed for a number of abrupt onset or long-standing symptoms. It ... women should not have this exam in the first trimester of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces within the brain ( ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common ... acutely injured; however, this decision is based on clinical judgment. This is because traction devices and many ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat ...

  13. New Russian science head named

    CERN Multimedia

    Levitin, C

    2000-01-01

    Ilya Klebanov, a deputy prime minister, has been appointed the country's new head of industrial and scientific policy. He will control the new Ministry for Industry, Science and Technologies (4 paragraphs).

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page What does the equipment look like? The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in patients with very poor kidney function. Careful assessment of kidney function before considering a contrast injection ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  17. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical ... CD. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine ...

  19. Tensile Tests of Round-head, Flat-head, and Brazier-head Rivets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Evan H; Bartone, Leonard M; Mandel, Merven W

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the tensile strength of round-head (AN43C), flat-head(AN442), and brazier-head (AN4556) aluminum-alloy rivets because of the scarcity of information on the tensile strength of rivets. The results of the investigation are presented as curves that show the variation of the ratio of the tensile strength of the rivet to the tensile strength of the rivet crank with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter for the different types of rivet.

  20. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, J

    2004-01-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal....

  1. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zahari Taha; Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan; Iskandar Hasanuddin

    2015-08-01

    Heading occur frequently in soccer games and studies have shown that repetitive heading of the soccer ball could result in degeneration of brain cells and lead to mild traumatic brain injury. This study proposes a two degree-of-freedom linear mathematical model to study the impact of the soccer ball on the brain. The model consists of a mass–spring–damper system, in which the skull, the brain and the soccer ball are modelled as a mass and the neck modelled as a spring–damper system. The proposed model was compared with previous dynamic model for soccer ball-to-head impact. Moreover, it was also validated against drop ball experiment on an instrumented dummy skull and also compared with head acceleration data from previous studies. Comparison shows that our proposed model is capable of describing both the skull and brain accelerations qualitatively and quantitatively. This study shows that a simple linear mathematical model can be useful in giving a preliminary insight on the kinematics of human skull and brain during a ball-to-head impact. The model can be used to investigate the important parameters during soccer heading that affect the brain displacement and acceleration, thus providing better understanding of the mechanics behind it.

  2. FEL phased array configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellan, Jeffrey B.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various phased array and shared aperture concepts for FEL configurations are discussed. Consideration is given to the characteristics of intra- and inter-micropulse phasing; intra-macropulse phasing; an internal coupled resonator configuration; and an injection locked oscillator array. The use of a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration with multiple or single master oscillators for FELs is examined. The venetian blind, rotating plate, single grating, and grating rhomb shared aperture concepts are analyzed. It is noted that the shared aperture approach using a grating rhomb and the MOPA concept with a single master oscillator and a coupled resonator are useful for FEL phased array configurations; and the MOPA concept is most applicable.

  3. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  4. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  5. Si Radial p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Arrays with Built-In Light Concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Campbell, Ian H; Dayeh, Shadi A; Schuele, Paul; Evans, David; Picraux, S Tom

    2015-05-26

    High-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices require strong light absorption, low reflection and efficient photogenerated carrier collection for high quantum efficiency. Previous optical studies of vertical wires arrays have revealed that extremely efficient light absorption in the visible wavelengths is achievable. Photovoltaic studies have further advanced the wire approach by employing radial p-n junction architectures to achieve more efficient carrier collection. While radial p-n junction formation and optimized light absorption have independently been considered, PV efficiencies have further opportunities for enhancement by exploiting the radial p-n junction fabrication procedures to form arrays that simultaneously enhance both light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Here we report a concept of morphology control to improve PV performance, light absorption and quantum efficiency of silicon radial p-i-n junction arrays. Surface energy minimization during vapor phase epitaxy is exploited to form match-head structures at the tips of the wires. The match-head structure acts as a built-in light concentrator and enhances optical absorptance and external quantum efficiencies by 30 to 40%, and PV efficiency under AM 1.5G illumination by 20% compared to cylindrical structures without match-heads. The design rules for these improvements with match-head arrays are systematically studied. This approach of process-enhanced control of three-dimensional Si morphologies provides a fab-compatible way to enhance the PV performance of Si radial p-n junction wire arrays. PMID:25961330

  6. The Submillimeter Array

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, P T P; Lo, K Y; Ho, Paul T.P.; Moran, James M.; Lo, Kwok Yung

    2004-01-01

    The Submillimeter Array (SMA), a collaborative project of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), has begun operation on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. A total of eight 6-m telescopes comprise the array, which will cover the frequency range of 180-900 GHz. All eight telescopes have been deployed and are operational. First scientific results utilizing the three receiver bands at 230, 345, and 690 GHz have been obtained and are presented in the accompanying papers.

  7. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  8. Soldered solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, H. C.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of soldered interconnects to withstand a combination of long life and severe environmental conditions was investigated. Improvements in joint life from the use of solder mixes appropriate to low temperature conditons were studied. Solder samples were placed in a 150 C oven for 5 weeks (= 12 yr at 80 C, or 24 at 70 C according to Arrhenius's rule). Conventional and high solder melting point array samples underwent 1000 thermal cycles between -186 and 100 C. Results show that conventional and lead rich soldered arrays can survive 10 yr geostationary orbit missions.

  9. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  10. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL ... Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety ORDER ...

  11. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries ... in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries ...

  12. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The head shall be tested per procedure specified in 49 CFR § 572.112(a). (c) Performance criteria. (1... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the...

  13. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and parents “Heads Up” for school nurses, parents, teachers, counselors, and other school professionals “Heads Up” for ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS "Heads ...

  14. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose pri...

  15. The Murchison Widefield Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Daniel A.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Ord, Stephen M.; Bernardi, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the excellent Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory site allows the Murchison Widefield Array to employ a simple RFI blanking scheme and still calibrate visibilities and form images in the FM radio band. The techniques described are running autonomously in our calibration and imagin

  16. Cantilever array sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Lang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized microfabricated sensors have enormous potential in gas detection, biochemical analysis, medical applications, quality and process control, and product authenticity issues. Here, we highlight an ultrasensitive mechanical way of converting (bio-chemical or physical processes into a recordable signal using microfabricated cantilever arrays.

  17. Bandwidth Reconfigurable Metamaterial Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial structures provide innovative ways to manipulate electromagnetic wave responses to realize new applications. This paper presents a conformal wideband metamaterial array that achieves as much as 10 : 1 continuous bandwidth. This was done by using interelement coupling to concurrently achieve significant wave slow-down and cancel the inductance stemming from the ground plane. The corresponding equivalent circuit of the resulting array is the same as that of classic metamaterial structures. In this paper, we present a wideband Marchand-type balun with validation measurements demonstrating the metamaterial (MTM array’s bandwidth from 280 MHz to 2800 MHz. Bandwidth reconfiguration of this class of array is then demonstrated achieving a variety of band-pass or band-rejection responses within its original bandwidth. In contrast with previous bandwidth and frequency response reconfigurations, our approach does not change the aperture’s or ground plane’s geometry, nor does it introduce external filtering structures. Instead, the new responses are realized by making simple circuit changes into the balanced feed integrated with the wideband MTM array. A variety of circuit changes can be employed using MEMS switches or variable lumped loads within the feed and 5 example band-pass and band-rejection responses are presented. These demonstrate the potential of the MTM array’s reconfiguration to address a variety of responses.

  18. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  19. The Allen Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2010-01-01

    The ATA is a 42-element centimeter wavelength array located in Hat Creek, California and jointly operated by UC Berkeley Radio Astronomy Laboratory and the SETI Institute. Since the ATA dedication in Fall 2007, activities have been focused on commissioning the array, retrofitting a handful of components including the feed, developing an operations model, creation of pipeline processing for correlator imaging data, early science observations, and launching of the major surveys for which the telescope was built. The retrofit of the feed improves feed mechanical robustness as well as high frequency performance. Science programs launched include imaging radio transient and static sky surveys (ATATS and PiGSS), commensal SETI and transient surveys of the Galactic Center, targeted SETI observations of nearby stars, the Fly's Eye transient survey, broadband spectra of nearby star-forming galaxies, polarimetric observations of bright radio sources, observations of hydrogen in nearby galaxies and galaxy groups, molecular line observations in the Galaxy, and observations of Jupiter and the Moon. The baseline Square Kilometer Array (SKA) design, a large-N-small-diameter (LNSD) array with wide-band single-pixel feeds and an offset Gregorian antenna, bears a strong resemblance to the ATA. Additional ATA contributions to the SKA include configuration studies for LNSD arrays, the use of fiber optics for broadband data transmission, the use of flexible FPGA-based digital electronics, passive cooling of antennas, and implementation of commensal observing modes. The ATA is currently used for exploration of calibration and imaging algorithms necessary for the SKA. I will summarize current technical status and performance, the results from early science and surveys, and ATA contributions to SKA development.

  20. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  1. Efficient Dual Head Nd:YAG 100mJ Oscillator for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Donald B.; Stysley, Paul R.; Kay, Richard b.; Poulios, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    A diode pumped, Nd:YAG laser producing 100 mJ Q-switched pulses and employing a dual-pump head scheme in an unstable resonator configuration is described. Each head contains a side pumped zig-zag slab and four 6-bar QCW 808 nm diodes arrays which are de-rated 23%. Denoting 'z' as the lasing axis, the pump directions were along the x-axis in one head and the y-axis in the other, producing a circularized thermal lens, more typical in laser rod-based cavities. The dual head design's effective thermal lens is now corrected with a proper HR mirror curvature selection. This laser has demonstrated over 100 mJ output with high optical efficiency (24%), good TEM(sub 00) beam quality, and high pointing stability.

  2. Towards Truly Boolean Arrays in Data-Parallel Array Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Grelck; H. Luyat

    2013-01-01

    We investigate several dense bit-wise implementations of Boolean arrays in the context of the functional data-parallel array programming language SAC. A particular problem arises in compiler or directive based parallelisation as the scheduling of loops over Boolean arrays is unaware of the restricte

  3. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  4. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format. In...... order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events is...... dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy....

  5. Concurrent array-based queue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  6. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  7. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  8. Head kinematics during shaking associated with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, T O; Puhulwelle Gamage, N T; Bloomfield, F H; Kelly, P; Finch, M C; Taberner, A J; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F

    2015-09-18

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse but the mechanisms of injury are controversial. To address the hypothesis that shaking alone is sufficient to elicit the injuries observed, effective computational and experimental models are necessary. This paper investigates the use of a coupled rigid-body computational modelling framework to reproduce in vivo shaking kinematics in AHT. A sagittal plane OpenSim computational model of a lamb was developed and used to interpret biomechanical data from in vivo shaking experiments. The acceleration of the head during shaking was used to provide in vivo validation of the associated computational model. Results of this study demonstrated that peak accelerations occurred when the head impacted the torso and produced acceleration magnitudes exceeding 200ms(-)(2). The computational model demonstrated good agreement with the experimental measurements and was shown to be able to reproduce the high accelerations that occur during impact. The biomechanical results obtained with the computational model demonstrate the utility of using a coupled rigid-body modelling framework to describe infant head kinematics in AHT. PMID:26256822

  9. Head kinematics during shaking associated with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, T O; Puhulwelle Gamage, N T; Bloomfield, F H; Kelly, P; Finch, M C; Taberner, A J; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F

    2015-09-18

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse but the mechanisms of injury are controversial. To address the hypothesis that shaking alone is sufficient to elicit the injuries observed, effective computational and experimental models are necessary. This paper investigates the use of a coupled rigid-body computational modelling framework to reproduce in vivo shaking kinematics in AHT. A sagittal plane OpenSim computational model of a lamb was developed and used to interpret biomechanical data from in vivo shaking experiments. The acceleration of the head during shaking was used to provide in vivo validation of the associated computational model. Results of this study demonstrated that peak accelerations occurred when the head impacted the torso and produced acceleration magnitudes exceeding 200ms(-)(2). The computational model demonstrated good agreement with the experimental measurements and was shown to be able to reproduce the high accelerations that occur during impact. The biomechanical results obtained with the computational model demonstrate the utility of using a coupled rigid-body modelling framework to describe infant head kinematics in AHT.

  10. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  11. Microreactor Array Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Labaer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

  12. The Submillimeter Array Polarimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Marrone, Daniel P.; Rao, Ramprasad

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Submillimeter Array (SMA) Polarimeter, a polarization converter and feed multiplexer installed on the SMA. The polarimeter uses narrow-band quarter-wave plates to generate circular polarization sensitivity from the linearly-polarized SMA feeds. The wave plates are mounted in rotation stages under computer control so that the polarization handedness of each antenna is rapidly selectable. Positioning of the wave plates is found to be highly repeatable, better than 0.2 degrees. A...

  13. The Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Daniel A; Ord, Stephen M; Bernardi, Gianni; Wayth, Randall B; Edgar, Richard G; Clark, Michael A; Dal, Kevin; Pfister, Hanspeter; Gleadow, Stewart J; Arcus, W; Briggs, F H; Benkevitch, L; Bowman, J D; Bunton, J D; Burns, S; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Desouza, L; Doeleman, S S; Derome, M F; Emrich, D; Glossop, M; Goeke, R; Krishna, M R Gopala; Hazelton, B; Herne, D E; Hewitt, J N; Kamini, P A; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Kocz, J; Kowald, E; Kratzenberg, E; Kumar, D; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; Madhavi, S; Matejek, M; McWhirter, S R; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Pathikulangara, J; Prabu, T; Rogers, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Tingay, S J; Vaccarella, A; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the excellent Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory site allows the Murchison Widefield Array to employ a simple RFI blanking scheme and still calibrate visibilities and form images in the FM radio band. The techniques described are running autonomously in our calibration and imaging software, which is currently being used to process an FM-band survey of the entire southern sky.

  14. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indication...

  15. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  16. Supersymetric laser arrays

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Ramy; Ge, Li; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of supersymmetric laser arrays that consists of a main optical lattice and its superpartner structure, and we investigate the onset of their lasing oscillations. Due to the coupling of the two constituent lattices, their degenerate optical modes form doublets, while the extra mode associated with unbroken supersymmetry forms a singlet state. Singlet lasing can be achieved for a wide range of design parameters either by introducing stronger loss in the partner lattice ...

  17. The Square Kilometre Array

    OpenAIRE

    Lazio, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is intended as the next-generation radio telescope and will address fundamental questions in astrophysics, physics, and astrobiology. The international science community has developed a set of Key Science Programs: (1) Emerging from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization, (2) Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Dark Energy, (3) The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Magnetism, (4) Strong Field Tests of Gravity Using Pulsars and Black Holes, and (5) The Cradle of...

  18. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  19. The TALE Infill Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The TALE Infill Array in conjunction with the TALE Tower Detector will provide hybrid coverage of the cosmic ray energy spectrum down to 3x10^16 eV. It will consist of about 100, two square meter scintillators on the surface spaced at 400 m; and 24 buried twelve square meter scintillators. The combination of surface and underground detectors will allow for the determination of the muon content of showers and thus give a handle on cosmic ray composition.

  20. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  1. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  2. Firing Properties of Rat Lateral Mammillary Single Units: Head Direction, Head Pitch, and Angular Head Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Stackman, Robert W.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) and postsubiculum (PoS) fire selectively when the rat points its head in a specific direction in the horizontal plane, independent of the animal’s location and ongoing behavior. The lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) are interconnected with both the ADN and PoS and, therefore, are in a pivotal position to influence ADN/PoS neurophysiology. To further understand how the head direction (HD) cell signal is generated, we recorded single neurons fro...

  3. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  4. Head nurse or hotel manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlvanah, M

    1989-01-01

    The responsibility of making room assignments for patients can be both a challenging and frustrating experience for a head nurse. Many factors must be considered when making room assignments while consumer dissatisfaction with the process must be handled creatively and with understanding. PMID:2734042

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. top of page What are the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able to ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  7. The Animal Without A Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万钧

    2002-01-01

    Have you ever seen an animal with out a head?there is such an animal! it has no tail or legs ,its body is full of holes it eats and breathes but never moves,it lives under water,the water brings the animal air.

  8. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  9. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  10. Outcomes Following Radial Head Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, John R; Henry, Sarah E; Xu, Peter; Goitz, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    Most current series of radial head arthroplasty include small numbers of patients with short- to medium-term follow-up and significant heterogeneity in patients, treatments, and outcome measures. The purpose of this systematic review was to review outcomes for radial head arthroplasty based on injury chronicity, injury pattern, and type of implant used. The authors systematically searched electronic databases for studies containing radial head arthroplasty or radial head replacement and identified 19 studies for inclusion in the analysis. For each included study, a composite mean was obtained for Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) and range of motion. Outcomes were said to differ significantly if their confidence intervals did not overlap. The MEPS for acute treatment (90) was higher than that for delayed treatment (81). There was no difference in the pooled MEPS between the isolated (89) and complex injury pattern (87) groups or implant material. There was no difference in range of motion between the acute and delayed or isolated and complex groups, but the average degree of pronation was higher in patients treated with titanium implants (76°) compared with cobalt chromium implants (66°). This systematic review suggests that outcomes are improved following acute arthroplasty for treatment of radial head fractures compared with delayed treatment, based on MEPS. The lack of other significant differences detected is likely due to the significant heterogeneity and inadequate power in current studies. Further prospective studies isolating the different variables will be needed to determine their true effect on outcomes. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):153-160.]. PMID:27045484

  11. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Headache or "pressure" in head Nausea or vomiting Balance problems or dizziness Double or blurry vision Sensitivity ... pressure” in head 11 Nausea or vomiting 12 Balance problems or dizziness 13 Double or blurry vision ...

  12. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, G.H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  13. Process optimization in the head end area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measures to improve feed clarity and how they fit into the overall concept of the chemical head end are described as considerable changes in the head end. The effects which the conversion from the bundle shears to the individual rod shears has on the mechanical head end are also shown. The changes made, particularly in the chemical head end, are intended to increase the availability of the main process by improved feed clarity with a centrifuge, container and filter. (orig./DG)

  14. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson-Freyd, Philip; Downen, Paul; Ariola, Zena M.

    2016-01-01

    Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name $\\lambda$-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the $\\lambda$-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational ...

  15. The development and evaluation of head probes for optical imaging of the infant head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Gilberto

    The objective of this thesis was to develop and evaluate optical imaging probes for mapping oxygenation and haemodynamic changes in the newborn infant brain. Two imaging approaches are being developed at University College London (UCL): optical topography (surface mapping of the cortex) and optical tomography (volume imaging). Both have the potential to provide information about the function of the normal brain and about a variety of neurophysiologies! abnormalities. Both techniques require an array of optical fibres/fibre bundles to be held in contact with the head, for periods of time from tens of seconds to an hour or more. The design of suitable probes must ensure the comfort and safety of the subject, and provide measurements minimally sensitive to external sources of light and patient motion. A series of prototype adaptable helmets were developed for optical tomography of the premature infant brain using the UCL 32-channel time-resolved system. They were required to attach 32 optical fibre bundles over the infant scalp, and were designed to accommodate infants with a variety of head shapes and sizes, aged between 24-weeks gestational age and term. Continual improvements to the helmet design were introduced following the evaluation of each prototype on infants in the hospital. Data were acquired to generate images revealing the concentration and oxygenation of blood in the brain, and the response of the brain to sensory stimulation. This part of the project also involved designing and testing new methods of acquiring calibration data using reference phantoms. The second focus of the project was the development of probes for use with the UCL frequency-multiplexed near-infrared topography system. This is being used to image functional activation in the infant cortex. A series of probes were developed and experiments were conducted to evaluate their sensitivity to patient motion and to compression of the probe. The probes have been used for a variety of

  16. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TOOLS — CONCUSSION INFORMATION View CDC's “Heads Up” Concussion Educational Materials “Heads Up” for youth sports coaches, administrators, ... parents Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational Materials Materials on Concussion in Sports Materials for ...

  17. Resection indications of radius head fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Domanic, Unsal; Taser, Omer; Akalin, Yilmaz; Cakmak, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Boundaries of resection indication of radius head and timing of resection problems in radius head fractures are discussed on our cases with literature on the subject. In Mason type II. And type III., the best treatment is resection of the head. But it must be performed as soon as possible.

  18. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONCUSSION INFORMATION View CDC's “Heads Up” Concussion Educational Materials “Heads Up” for youth sports coaches, administrators, and ... Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational Materials Materials on Concussion in Sports Materials for Health ...

  19. Microplasma generating array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Chen; Hoskinson, Alan R.; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-10-04

    A microplasma generator includes first and second conductive resonators disposed on a first surface of a dielectric substrate. The first and second conductive resonators are arranged in line with one another with a gap defined between a first end of each resonator. A ground plane is disposed on a second surface of the dielectric substrate and a second end of each of the first and second resonators is coupled to the ground plane. A power input connector is coupled to the first resonator at a first predetermined distance from the second end chosen as a function of the impedance of the first conductive resonator. A microplasma generating array includes a number of resonators in a dielectric material substrate with one end of each resonator coupled to ground. A micro-plasma is generated at the non-grounded end of each resonator. The substrate includes a ground electrode and the microplasmas are generated between the non-grounded end of the resonator and the ground electrode. The coupling of each resonator to ground may be made through controlled switches in order to turn each resonator off or on and therefore control where and when a microplasma will be created in the array.

  20. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biceps brachii muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve of arm are frequent in their variations. A third head of biceps brachii was noted unilaterally during routine anatomy dissection. Variation in musculocutaneous nerve was also seen on the same arm. The evolutionary and functional basis of such variations are discussed. Such variations become relevant during surgical intervention of the arm, especially after humeral fracture with subsequent unusual bone displacements.

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Vilaas S; Reis, Martin N; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Broder, Joshua; Choudhri, Asim F; Kendi, A Tuba; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; Prall, J Adair; Raksin, Patricia B; Roth, Christopher J; Sharma, Aseem; West, O Clark; Wintermark, Max; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Neuroimaging plays an important role in the management of head trauma. Several guidelines have been published for identifying which patients can avoid neuroimaging. Noncontrast head CT is the most appropriate initial examination in patients with minor or mild acute closed head injury who require neuroimaging as well as patients with moderate to severe acute closed head injury. In short-term follow-up neuroimaging of acute traumatic brain injury, CT and MRI may have complementary roles. In subacute to chronic traumatic brain injury, MRI is the most appropriate initial examination, though CT may have a complementary role in select circumstances. Advanced neuroimaging techniques are areas of active research but are not considered routine clinical practice at this time. In suspected intracranial vascular injury, CT angiography or venography or MR angiography or venography is the most appropriate imaging study. In suspected posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid leak, high-resolution noncontrast skull base CT is the most appropriate initial imaging study to identify the source, with cisternography reserved for problem solving. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27262056

  2. Target position relative to the head is essential for predicting head movement during head-free gaze pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Pallus, Adam; G Freedman, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Gaze pursuit is the coordinated movement of the eyes and head that allows humans and other foveate animals to track moving objects. The control of smooth pursuit eye movements when the head is restrained is relatively well understood, but how the eyes coordinate with concurrent head movements when the head is free remains unresolved. In this study, we describe behavioral tasks that dissociate head and gaze velocity during head-free pursuit in monkeys. Existing models of gaze pursuit propose that both eye and head movements are driven only by the perceived velocity of the visual target and are therefore unable to account for these data. We show that in addition to target velocity, the positions of the eyes in the orbits and the retinal position of the target are important factors for predicting head movement during pursuit. When the eyes are already near their limits, further pursuit in that direction will be accompanied by more head movement than when the eyes are centered in the orbits, even when target velocity is the same. The step-ramp paradigm, often used in pursuit tasks, produces larger or smaller head movements, depending on the direction of the position step, while gaze pursuit velocity is insensitive to this manipulation. Using these tasks, we can reliably evoke head movements with peak velocities much faster than the target's velocity. Under these circumstances, the compensatory eye movements, which are often called counterproductive since they rotate the eyes in the opposite direction, are essential to maintaining accurate gaze velocity.

  3. Electrode array for neural stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Stein, David J. (Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Pin (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-16

    An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

  4. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    OpenAIRE

    Ord, S. M.; Crosse, B.; Emrich, D.; Pallot, D.; Wayth, R. B.; Clark, M. A.; Tremblay, S. E.; Arcus, W.; Barnes, D; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bowman, J.D.; Briggs, F.; Bunton, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio--astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia (WA). The MWA consists of 4096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Fiel...

  5. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  6. 3D Vector Velocity Estimation using a 2D Phased Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    A method to estimate the three dimensional (3D) velocity vector is presented is this paper. 3D velocity vector techniques are needed to measure the full velocity and characterize the complicated flow patterns in the human body. The Transverse Oscillation (TO) method introduces oscillations...... transverse to the ultrasound beam, which enables the estimation of the transverse velocity. To expand the method from 2D to 3D, it is proposed to decouple the velocity estimation into separate estimates of vx, vy, and vz in combination with a 2D phased matrix array. Through simulations the feasibility...... of using the TO method for estimation 3D velocity vectors, and the proposed decoupling is demonstrated. A 64x64 and a 32x32 elements transducer are emulated using Field II. Plug flow with a speed of 1 m/s in a small region is rotated in the XY -plane. A binary flow example with [vx,vy]=[1,0] and [0,1] m...

  7. Expressiveness of multiple heads in CHR

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giusto, Cinzia; Meo, Maria Chiara

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are a committed-choice declarative language which has been designed for writing constraint solvers. A CHR program consists of multi-headed guarded rules which allow one to rewrite constraints into simpler ones until a solved form is reached. Many examples in the vast literature on the subject show that multiple heads are important in order to write programs which solve specific problems. On the other hand, the presence of multiples heads complicates considerably the semantics. Therefore, since restricting to single head rules does not affect the Turing completeness of the language, one can legitimately ask whether multiple heads do indeed augment the expressive power of the language. In this paper we answer positively to this question by showing that, under certain reasonable assumptions, it is not possible to encode the CHR language (with multi-headed rules) into a single head language while preserving the intended meaning of programs.

  8. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....

  9. GERmanium detector array, GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for 'neutrinoless double beta decay' (0ν2β) in 76Ge. The high-purity segmented Ge detectors will be directly submerged and operated in liquid N2 or Ar. The measurement of the half-life time of 0ν2β decay will provide information about the absolute neutrino mass scale and indirectly, the hierarchy. The design goal of GERDA is to reach a sensitivity of 0.2 eV on the effective Majorana neutrino mass (mββ). The GERDA experiment is located in hall A of the Grand Sasso national lab (LNGS) and the construction will start in 2006

  10. Solitons in optomechanical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-15

    We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261

  11. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  12. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg;

    2009-01-01

    -structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...

  13. Array tomography: semiautomated image alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. Successful array tomography requires that the captured images be properly stacked and aligned, and the software to achieve these ends is freely available. This protocol describes the construction of volumetric image stacks from images of fluorescently labeled arrays for three-dimensional image visualization, analysis, and archiving. PMID:21041400

  14. Tremor as observed by the Array of Arrays in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.; Creager, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    We are capturing the intimate details of tremor activity in Cascadia with 8 small-aperture seismic arrays in northwestern Washington. The Array of Arrays (AoA) focuses on the tremor-active megathrust, including the area we previously imaged with a solo seismic array in 2008 [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009, 2010]. Each array consists of 10 to 20 three-component sensors recording in continuous mode. Since it became operational in June 2009, the AoA has recorded several minor tremor episodes, and the recent episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event in August 2010. During the ETS event, each array was augmented by 10 additional single-channel, vertical-component sensors. We have already started to analyze seismic data for tremor episodes in July 2009, and March 2010. At each array, we apply a beamforming technique to stack the seismic energy at every 0.2 Hz from 2 to 15 Hz. During active tremor, the arrays show stable slowness, and azimuth over time, and up to 15 Hz energy on vertical channels, and 6 Hz on horizontals, with slowness consistent with the P and S waves respectively (Figure 1). Vidale et al. in this meeting provide a detailed description of a weeklong tremor episode in March 2010. The ETS started early second week of August about 60 km south of our arrays, and in a week or so, migrated along-strike to the north passing directly underneath the arrays. Strong tremor is still active about 50 km north of the arrays as we write this abstract. We will imminently analyze this data, and by the time of AGU, have preliminary results to present. Currently, we are developing an algorithm to focus as many arrays as possible to locate the tremor sources. With fine tremor detection capability and good azimuthal coverage, our AoA will better resolve the various confounding features of tremor spatiotemporal distribution (e.g., tremor patches, bands, streaks, rapid tremor reversals, low frequency earthquakes) that have been recently discovered in Cascadia. The AoA is poised to provide

  15. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  16. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher (Modesto, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  17. A device for continuous measurement of head position during PET brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.R.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Green, M.V. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Head motion during PET brain imaging can seriously degrade image quality. We have shown previously (1) that the effects of such movements can be eliminated if the position of the head relative to the scanner is accurately known throughout the study. To this end, we designed, built, and tested a tracking device (TD) and head attachment fixture. The TD consists of 3 miniature lamps, attached to a rigid wire frame, that are sequentially illuminated within the field of view of two positions of the lamps are computed every 5 sec and these values are used to compute the 3 rotational and 3 translational coordinates of the frame. The accuracy of the TD was evaluated by attaching the frame to a precision mechanical rotation-translation apparatus and comparing motions in all coordinate direction. The maximum error observed in the range {plus_minus}10 mm, {plus_minus}4 deg was 0.7 mm and 0.4 deg, with largest uncertainties in the azimuthal direction. The head attachment mechanism was evaluated in 8 subjects by connecting the rigid lamp wire frame to the top of a lightweight tubular structure fitted into the ears and attached by adhesive pads to the forehead. Simultaneously, the transducer of a commercially available tracking system was attached by adhesive to the forehead. With head position being monitored by both systems, each subject was first instructed to perform a set of controlled head movements in each of the coordinate directions and then to rest normally for 5 minutes. The largest angular difference observed between the two devices in these subjects was 2 deg (azimuthal), with most differences being less than 1 deg and less than 10%. These results suggest that the TD is capable of accurately measuring small rotational and translational displacements and that the head attachment mechanism to which the lamp array is fixed follows head movement within acceptable limits.

  18. Head Access Piping System Desing

    OpenAIRE

    中大路 道彦; 一宮 正和; 向坊 隆一; 前田 清彦; 永田 敬

    1994-01-01

    PNC made design studies on loop type FBR plants:a 600 MWe class in '91, and a 1300 MWe class in '93 both with the "head access" primary piping system. This paper focuses on the features of the smaller plant at first and afterwards on the extension to the larger one. The contents of the paper consist of R/V wall protection mechanism, primary piping circuit, secondary piping circuit, plant layout and then, discusses the extension of the applicability of the wall protection mechanism, primary pi...

  19. Head First jQuery

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Want to add more interactivity and polish to your websites? Discover how jQuery can help you build complex scripting functionality in just a few lines of code. With Head First jQuery, you'll quickly get up to speed on this amazing JavaScript library by learning how to navigate HTML documents while handling events, effects, callbacks, and animations. By the time you've completed the book, you'll be incorporating Ajax apps, working seamlessly with HTML and CSS, and handling data with PHP, MySQL and JSON. If you want to learn-and understand-how to create interactive web pages, unobtrusive scrip

  20. Resonance in a head massager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical structures such as pendula, bridges, or buildings always exhibit one (or more) natural oscillation frequency.1 If that structure is subjected to oscillatory forces of this same frequency, resonance occurs, with consequent increase of the structure oscillation amplitude. There is no shortage of simple experiments for demonstrating resonance in high school classes using a variety of materials, such as saw blades,2 guitars,3 pendulums,4 wine glasses,5 bottles,6 Ping-Pong balls,7 and pearl strings.8 We present here an experimental demonstration using only an inexpensive head (or scalp) massager, which can be purchased for less than a dollar.

  1. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  2. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  3. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  4. The Long Wavelength Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. B.

    2006-08-01

    The Long Wavelength Array (LWA) will be a new, open, user-oriented astronomical instrument operating in the poorly explored window from 20-80 MHz at arcsecond level resolution and mJy level sensitivity. Key science drivers include (1) acceleration, propagation, and turbulence in the ISM, including the space-distribution and spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays, supernova remnants, and pulsars; (2) the high redshift universe, including the most distant radio galaxies and clusters - tools for understanding the earliest black holes and the cosmological evolution of Dark Matter and Dark Energy; (3) planetary, solar, and space science, including space weather prediction and extra-solar planet searches; and (4) the radio transient universe: including the known (e.g., SNe, GRBs) and the unknown. Because the LWA will explore one of the last and least investigated regions of the spectrum, the potential for new discoveries, including new classes of physical phenomena, is high, and there is a strong synergy with exciting new X-ray and Gamma-ray measurements, e.g. for cosmic ray acceleration, transients, and galaxy clusters. Operated by the University of New Mexico on behalf of the South West Consortium (SWC) the LWA will also provide a unique training ground for the next generation of radio astronomers. Students may also put skills learned on the LWA to work in computer science, electrical engineering, and the communications industry, among others. The development of the LWA will follow a phased build, which benefits from lessons learned at each phase. Four university-based Scientific Testing and Evaluation (ST&E) teams with different areas of concentration (1. High resolution imaging and particle acceleration; 2. Wide field imaging and large scale structures; 3. Ionosphere, and 4. RFI suppression and transient detection) will provide the feedback needed to assure that science objectives are met as the build develops. Currently in its first year of construction funding, the LWA

  5. SYNTHESIS OF POLY(VINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) WITH LOW CONTENTS OF HEAD-TO-HEAD CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Youlu; YU Xiuying; XUE Ying; ZENG Miaoying; JI Shanrong

    1983-01-01

    The relations between polymerization conditions of vinylidene fluorideand contents of head-to-head chain in the polymer have been studied. It shows that the contents of head-to-head chain of the polymer are related to its polymerization temperature, but are not related with the kinds of initiators used. Therefore, poly(vinylidene fluoride) with low contents of head-to-head chain (ca. 3%)can be prepared under lower polymerization temperature. Plot of the contents of A chains against melting points of the polymer is linear, which can be expressed by an equation:A = 24.8 + 0.362 Tm(%).

  6. A Pre-Hispanic Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Jeziorska, Maria; Lallo, Rudy; Mattutino, Grazia; Massimelli, Massimo; Phillips, Genevieve; Appenzeller, Otto

    2008-01-01

    This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS) compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418–1491 AD, 95.4% probability). Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury) incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS). This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies. PMID:18446229

  7. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  8. Nano electrode arrays for in-situ identification and quantification of chemicals in water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurule, Natalia J.; Kelly, Michael James; Brevnov, Dmitri A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-12-01

    The nano electrode arrays for in-situ identification and quantification of chemicals in water progress in four major directions. (1) We developed and engineering three nanoelectrode array designs which operate in a portable field mode or as distributed sensor network for water systems. (2) To replace the fragile glass electrochemical cells using in the lab, we design and engineered field-ready sampling heads that combine the nanoelectrode arrays with a high-speed potentiostat. (3) To utilize these arrays in a portable system we design and engineered a light weight high-speed potentiostat with pulse widths from 2 psec. to 100 msec. or greater. (4) Finally, we developed the parameters for an analytical method in low-conductivity solutions for Pb(II) detection, with initial studies for the analysis of As(III) and As(V) analysis in natural water sources.

  9. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indications that the known sources represent only the tip of the iceberg. A major step in sensitivity is needed to increase the number of detected sources, observe short time-scale variability and improve morphological studies of extended sources. An extended energy coverage is advisable to observe far-away extragalactic objects and improve spectral analysis. CTA aims to increase the sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred o...

  10. The Square Kilometre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lazio, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is intended as the next-generation radio telescope and will address fundamental questions in astrophysics, physics, and astrobiology. The international science community has developed a set of Key Science Programs: (1) Emerging from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization, (2) Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, and Dark Energy, (3) The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Magnetism, (4) Strong Field Tests of Gravity Using Pulsars and Black Holes, and (5) The Cradle of Life/Astrobiology. In addition, there is a design philosophy of "exploration of the unknown," in which the objective is to keep the design as flexible as possible to allow for future discoveries. Both a significant challenge and opportunity for the SKA is to obtain a significantly wider field of view than has been obtained with radio telescopes traditionally. Given the breadth of coverage of cosmic magnetism and galaxy evolution in this conference, I highlight some of the opportunities that an expanded field of view will...

  11. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P.; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  12. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  13. Ultrasound Study of Femur Head Necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jinjiang; XIANG Jiabin; LIU Qiuying; WAN Ning; ZHAO Tong

    2002-01-01

    98 cases of femur head necrosis with age of 16 ~ 50 years underwent ultrasonography in this study. Through coronal and sagittal profiles, we analyzed the imaging characteristics of the structures of normal and abnormal hip joints and the blood flow of ischemic femur head necrosis. Doppler ultrasound could be used to undergo non - invasive and repeated observation on the structure of hip joints. So it has clinically applicable value for the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and follow - up of ischemic femur head necrosis.

  14. Tridimensional pose estimation of a person head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present a method for estimating 3-D motion parameters; this method provides an alternative way for 3D head pose estimation from image sequence in the current computer vision literature. This method is robust over extended sequences and large head motions and accurately extracts the orientation angles of head from a single view. Experimental results show that this tracking system works well for development a human-computer interface for people that possess severe motor incapacity

  15. Imaging Properties of Planar Microlens Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The planar microlens arrays is a two-dimensional array of optical component which is fabricated monolithically available. Imaging properties of planar microlens arrays are described, which provide both image multiplexer and erect, unit magnification images.

  16. CLAES focal plane array. [Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A. E.; Sterritt, L. W.; Kumer, J. B.; Callary, P. C.; Nielsen, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer for the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite uses solid-state focal plane arrays to detect emission from the earth's atmosphere over the IR wavelength range 3.5 to 13 microns. This paper discusses the design of the focal plane detector assembly and compares calculated performance with measurements. Measurements were made of focal plane noise and responsivity as functions of frequency (2 to 500 Hz) and temperature (12 to 19 K), pixel-to-pixel and across-array crosstalk, and linearity over a dynamic range of 100,000. The measurements demonstrate that the arrays satisfy the science requirements, and that, in general, there is reasonable agreement between the measurements and the analytical model.

  17. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I.; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. Methods The state‐of‐the‐art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7‐channel receive‐only...

  18. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  19. Research on genetics of rice heading date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heading date is one of the most important traits for rice adaptation to cultivation area and crop seasons, and it is mainly determined by photoperiod, basic vegetative growth, and temperature of cultivars. The diversity of combinations of photo-sensitive varieties and the basic vegetative, makes the heading date varied. On one hand, this supplies abundant resources for different ecotypes breeding; on the other hand, it complicates the inheritance of heading date. In recent years, transgression of late maturity has often been encountered, especially between indica and japonica subspecies, this had inhabited the use of hybrid vigor. Therefore, understanding the inheritance basis of heading date is very important for breeding practices.

  20. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  1. Antenna arrays a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of antenna array topics that are becoming increasingly important in wireless applications, particularly in design and computer modeling. Signal processing and numerical modeling algorithms are explored, and MATLAB computer codes are provided for many of the design examples. Pictures of antenna arrays and components provided by industry and government sources are presented with explanations of how they work. Antenna Arrays is a valuable reference for practicing engineers and scientists in wireless communications, radar, and remote sensing, and an excellent textbook for advanced antenna courses.

  2. Magnetization reversal in arrays of Co-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetization behavior of arrays of individual and coupled Co rings has been studied using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, magneto-optical imaging, and Lorentz transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The transition from the polarized into the vortex state of isolated rings is shown to occur through the motion and annihilation of head-to-head domain boundaries. The chirality of the vortex state is fixed on subsequent magnetization cycles, indicating that it is predetermined by structural imperfections of the rings. The effect of interactions between the rings has been investigated in arrays of chains of touching rings. For fields applied parallel to the chains rings in extended sections of the chains are found to switch simultaneously. Neighboring rings in these sections can display alternating chirality as well as the same chirality accompanied by a 180o boundary on the nodes. For fields perpendicular to the chain direction the switching occurs pairwise. This coupling introduces a broad distribution of switching fields and correspondingly a magnetization curve that is significantly broader than that for the parallel orientation.

  3. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina; Bae, Kee Jeong

    2016-10-01

    "Buttonholing" of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. PMID:27502623

  4. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  5. On the Development of the SIMon Finite Element Head Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Eppinger, Rolf H; Campbell, J Quinn; Tannous, Rabih E; Power, Erik D; Shook, Lauren S

    2003-10-01

    The SIMon (Simulated Injury Monitor) software package is being developed to advance the interpretation of injury mechanisms based on kinematic and kinetic data measured in the advanced anthropomorphic test dummy (AATD) and applying the measured dummy response to the human mathematical models imbedded in SIMon. The human finite element head model (FEHM) within the SIMon environment is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional head kinematic data in the form of either a nine accelerometer array or three linear CG head accelerations combined with three angular velocities serves as an input to the model. Three injury metrics are calculated: Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) - a correlate for diffuse axonal injury (DAI); Dilatational damage measure (DDM) - to estimate the potential for contusions; and Relative motion damage measure (RMDM) - a correlate for acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). During the development, the SIMon FEHM was tuned using cadaveric neutral density targets (NDT) data and further validated against the other available cadaveric NDT data and animal brain injury experiments. The hourglass control methods, integration schemes, mesh density, and contact stiffness penalty coefficient were parametrically altered to investigate their effect on the model's response. A set of numerical and physical parameters was established that allowed a satisfactory prediction of the motion of the brain with respect to the skull, when compared with the NDT data, and a proper separation of injury/no injury cases, when compared with the brain injury data. Critical limits for each brain injury metric were also established. Finally, the SIMon FEHM performance was compared against HIC15 through the use of NHTSA frontal and side impact crash test data. It was found that the injury metrics in the current SIMon model predicted injury in all cases where HIC15 was greater than 700 and several cases from the side impact test data where HIC15 was relatively small. Side impact was

  6. Natural head position: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  7. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  8. Microphone array signal processing with application in three-dimensional spatial hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Lin, Chenpang

    2005-04-01

    Microphone arrays are known to enhance the directionality and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over single-channel sensors. This is considered beneficial in many applications such as video-conferencing systems and hearing aids. However, this advantage comes at the price of the sensation of spatial hearing. The spatial cues due to diffractions of the head and torso are lost if the array is not fitted in the ears. In this paper we present a system that incorporates binaural hearing synthesis into array signal processing, in an attempt to recover the three-dimensional sound image that a human listener would naturally perceive. In the system, the superdirective beamformer is exploited to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of the incoming sound. The spatial sound image is restored by steering the beam to the direction found in the DOA session and filtering the array output with the corresponding Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF). The algorithms have been implemented in real-time fashion using a digital signal processor. Objective and subjective experiments were performed to validate the proposed system. The experimental results showed that the accurate localization of the sound source is achievable using the array system. PMID:15898652

  9. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at http://www.scbit.org/h2h.

  10. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  11. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  12. Bolometric Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E.; Serrano, A.; Torres-Jácome, A.

    2009-11-01

    During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin films have been developed at INAOE, specifically boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible configurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit specifically designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  13. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Ord, S M; Emrich, D; Pallot, D; Wayth, R B; Clark, M A; Tremblay, S E; Arcus, W; Barnes, D; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, N D R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; deSouza, L; Ewell-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, H; Jacobs, D; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Pathikulangara, J; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Remillard, R A; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio--astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia (WA). The MWA consists of 4096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and others by Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 TFLOPS (Tera FLoating point Operations Per Second). The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB/day of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper we outline the correlator design, signal path, and proce...

  14. Light propagation in nanorod arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Rahachou, A I

    2006-01-01

    We study propagation of TM- and TE-polarized light in two-dimensional arrays of silver nanorods of various diameters in a gelatin background. We calculate the transmittance, reflectance and absorption of arranged and disordered nanorod arrays and compare the exact numerical results with the predictions of the Maxwell-Garnett effective-medium theory. We show that interactions between nanorods, multipole contributions and formations of photonic gaps affect strongly the transmittance spectra that cannot be accounted for in terms of the conventional effective-medium theory. We also demonstrate and explain the degradation of the transmittance in arrays with randomly located rods as well as weak influence of their fluctuating diameter. For TM modes we outline the importance of skin-effect, which causes the full reflection of the incoming light. We then illustrate the possibility of using periodic arrays of nanorods as high-quality polarizers.

  15. Integrated Spatial Filter Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel Integrated...

  16. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  17. Thermopile Area Array Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA/JPL thermopile detector linear arrays, wire bonded to Black Forest Engineering (BFE) CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs), have been utilized in NASA...

  18. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  19. Solar maximum: solar array degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment

  20. Single-element based ultra-wideband antenna array concepts for wireless high-precision 2-D local positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardill, M.; Fischer, G.; Weigel, R.; Koelpin, A.

    2013-07-01

    We generally categorize the approaches for ultra-wideband antenna array design, and consequently propose simplified concepts for antenna arrays for a high-precision, ultra-wideband FMCW radar 2-D local positioning system to obtain robustness against multi path interference, perform angle of arrival analysis, as well as instantaneous heading estimation. We focus on low-cost and mechanical robust, industrial-application ready antennas. The antenna arrays are optimized for operation in the 5 GHz to 8 GHz frequency range and are designed towards supporting full omnidirectional 360° as well as partial half-plane direction of arrival estimation. Two different concepts for vehicle- as well as wall-mounted antenna array systems are proposed and discussed. We propose a wideband unidirectional bow-tie antenna array element having 97% impedance and 37% pattern bandwidth and a robust vehicle mounted omnidirectional antenna element having more than 85% impedance and pattern bandwidth.

  1. The effect of scattering on sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    A recent study has shown that a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers makes it possible to achieve a sound field control that can generate a controlled field inside the array and reduce sound waves propagating outside the array. This is useful if it is desirable not to disturb people outsid...... of the system. This paper computationally examines the scattering effect based on the simple assumption that the listener‟s head is a rigid sphere. In addition, methods to solve the problem are discussed....... the array or to prevent the effect of reflections from the room. The study assumed free field condition, however in practice a listener will be located inside the array. The listener scatters sound waves, which propagate outward. Consequently, the scattering effect can be expected to degrade the performance...

  2. Mid-Range Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, S. E.; Tomasi, D.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2008-08-01

    The vast majority of articles on MRI RF coils over the past two decades have focused on large coils, where sample losses dominate, or on micro-coils, where sample and capacitor losses are negligible. Few have addressed the mid-range coils, seen in the majority of small-animal applications, where all the sources of loss are important, for example, mouse brain and body coils from 125 to 750 MHz. We developed a four-saddle coil array for magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. The saddle coil elements in the array were evenly distributed to cover the rat's head. The coil array was tuned to the resonant frequency of 170 MHz. Due to the close proximity of the coil elements, it was necessary to decouple the coil array using nonmagnetic trimmers and, it was operated in the transceiver mode and quadrature-driven. To test the coil array performance at high field, phantom images were acquired with our saddle coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Ex vivo brain images of a rat were also acquired, and proved the feasibility of the scaled version of a saddle coil array and, its compatibility with standard pulse sequences when used in a high field magnetic resonance imager.

  3. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... session will not be saved. DOWNLOADABLE TOOLS — CONCUSSION INFORMATION View CDC's “Heads Up” Concussion Educational Materials “Heads ... in Sports”) VIDEOS FROM EXPERTS AND FOR MORE INFORMATION Watch a Video or PSA on Concussion NFL ...

  4. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role o...

  5. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 572.112(a). (c) Performance criteria. (1) When the head assembly is dropped from either the right...) and a set of three (3) accelerometers in conformance with specifications in 49 CFR 572.200(d) and... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section...

  6. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes] Heads Up! [Podcast: 0:59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard ... minutes] Heads Up! [Podcast: 0:59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard ...

  7. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parents “Heads Up” for high school coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, and parents “Heads Up” for school ... Alliance Sarah Jane Brain Foundation Society of State Directors of Health, Physical Education & Recreation Sports Legacy Institute ...

  8. The Role of the Primary School Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lester

    1987-01-01

    This study uses Henry Mintzberg's structural observation method to examine British primary school head teachers' work patterns and determine the nature of their role. Head teachers' days were characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation similar to those discussed in findings of other empirical managerial studies. Leadership roles stressed…

  9. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent ... 59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent ...

  10. Heading Tuning in Macaque Area V6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Reuben H.; Liu, Sheng; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical areas, such as the dorsal subdivision of the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), have been shown to integrate visual and vestibular self-motion signals. Area V6 is interconnected with areas MSTd and VIP, allowing for the possibility that V6 also integrates visual and vestibular self-motion cues. An alternative hypothesis in the literature is that V6 does not use these sensory signals to compute heading but instead discounts self-motion signals to represent object motion. However, the responses of V6 neurons to visual and vestibular self-motion cues have never been studied, thus leaving the functional roles of V6 unclear. We used a virtual reality system to examine the 3D heading tuning of macaque V6 neurons in response to optic flow and inertial motion stimuli. We found that the majority of V6 neurons are selective for heading defined by optic flow. However, unlike areas MSTd and VIP, V6 neurons are almost universally unresponsive to inertial motion in the absence of optic flow. We also explored the spatial reference frames of heading signals in V6 by measuring heading tuning for different eye positions, and we found that the visual heading tuning of most V6 cells was eye-centered. Similar to areas MSTd and VIP, the population of V6 neurons was best able to discriminate small variations in heading around forward and backward headings. Our findings support the idea that V6 is involved primarily in processing visual motion signals and does not appear to play a role in visual–vestibular integration for self-motion perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand how we successfully navigate our world, it is important to understand which parts of the brain process cues used to perceive our direction of self-motion (i.e., heading). Cortical area V6 has been implicated in heading computations based on human neuroimaging data, but direct measurements of heading selectivity in individual V6 neurons have been lacking. We

  11. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  12. Tracking of human head with particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chao

    2009-01-01

    To cope with the problem of tracking a human head in a complicated scene, we propose a method that adopts human skin color and hair color integrated with a kind of particle filter named condensation algorithm. Firstly, a novel method is presented to set up human head color model using skin color and hair color separately based on region growing. Compared with traditional human face model, this method is more precise and works well when human turns around and the face disappears in the image. Then a novel method is presented to use color model in condensation algorithm more effectively. In this method, a combination of edge detection result, color segmentation result and color edge detection result in an Omega window is used to measure the scale and position of human head in condensation. Experiments show that this approach can track human head in complicated scene even when human turns around or the distance of tracking a human head changes quickly.

  13. Management of head injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchie, Henry; Palmer, Sarah; Fernando, Katalin; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-07-01

    Head injury is the most common cause of injury-related death and permanent disability in children. Minor head trauma is common in childhood and does not require any medical treatment. Although deficits can occur even after mild to moderate head injury, they are markedly greater and become clinically evident following severe head injury. It is important that emergency department clinicians are aware of the signs and symptoms that indicate severe traumatic brain injury and triage for urgent intervention in those children who present with these signs and symptoms. Clinicians also need to know when children can be sent home with reassurance and information, and when they require admission or transfer to a neurosurgical unit. This article examines the literature on head injuries in children, describes assessment, management and treatment, and provides a simple management algorithm. PMID:27384805

  14. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  15. Bobbling head in a young subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bobble-head Doll Syndrome is a rare and unique movement disorder found in children. Clinically, it is characterized by a to and fro or side to side movement of the head at the frequency of 2 to 3 Hz. It is mostly associated with cystic lesions around the third ventricle, choroid plexus papilloma, aqueductal stenosis and other rare disorders. An eleven year old child presented in the outpatient department with continuous to and fro movement of the head and declining vision for the last one month. MRI Scan showed a large contrast-enhanced lesion in the region of the third ventricle along with gross hydrocephalus. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted and the movements of the head disappeared completely. Bobble-head doll syndrome is a rare condition and therefore this case is presented and the literature reviewed.

  16. Public knowledge of head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T E

    2010-04-01

    Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public to assess their knowledge and awareness of Head & Neck Cancer. One hundred and forty (70%) of respondents had never encountered the term "Head & Neck Cancer". One hundred and forty six (73%) failed to identify excessive alcohol consumption as a risk factor. Less than 100 (50%) would have concern about persisting hoarseness or a prolonged oral ulcer. An urgent need exists to raise awareness of Head & Neck Cancer among the public in Ireland.

  17. Elbow dislocation with irreparable fracture radial head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Tanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of elbow dislocation with irreparable radial head fracture needs replacement of radial head to achieve stability of elbow. An alternate method in cases of elbow dislocation with radial head fracture can be resection of radial head with repair of medial collateral ligament. We report a retrospective analysis of cases of elbow dislocation with irreparable radial head treated by excision head of radius and repair of MCL. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of elbow dislocation with associated irreparable fractures of the head of the radius were included in this analysis (6 F:3 M, Age: 35-47 years. Radial head excision was done through the lateral approach and MCL was sutured using no 3 Ethibond using medial approach. Above elbow plaster was given for 6 weeks and gradual mobilization was done thereafter. All patients were assessed at final followup using Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS. Results: Mean followup was 19.55 ± 7.12 months (range 14-36 months. There was no extension deficit when compared to opposite side with mean range of flexion of 138.8° ± 6.97° (range 130 -145°. Mean pronation was 87.7° ± 4.4° (range 80-90° and mean supination was 87.7 ± 4.62° (range 80-90°. The mean MEPS was 98.8 ± 3.33 (range 90-100. No patient had pain, sensory complaints, subluxation or redislocation. All were able to carry out their daily activities without disability. Conclusion: Radial head excision with MCL repair is an acceptable option for treatment of patients with elbow dislocation and irreparable radial head fracture.

  18. Sword-Like Trauma to the Shoulder with Open Head-Splitting Fracture of the Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Panagopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Head-splitting fractures occur as a result of violent compression of the head against the glenoid; the head splits and the tuberosities may remain attached to the fragments or split and separate. Isolated humeral head-splitting fractures are rare injuries. Favorable results with osteosynthesis can be difficult to achieve because of the very proximal location of the head fracture and associated poor vascularity. We present a case of a 67-year-old man who sustained a severe, sword-like trauma to his left shoulder after a road traffic accident with associated isolated open Gustilo-Anderson IIIA humeral head-splitting fracture. Bony union was achieved with minimal internal fixation but the clinical outcome deteriorated due to accompanying axillary nerve apraxia. To our knowledge, this type of sword-like injury with associated humeral head-split fracture has not previously been reported.

  19. Sword-Like Trauma to the Shoulder with Open Head-Splitting Fracture of the Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Andreas; Pantazis, Konstantinos; Iliopoulos, Ilias; Seferlis, Ioannis; Kokkalis, Zinon

    2016-01-01

    Head-splitting fractures occur as a result of violent compression of the head against the glenoid; the head splits and the tuberosities may remain attached to the fragments or split and separate. Isolated humeral head-splitting fractures are rare injuries. Favorable results with osteosynthesis can be difficult to achieve because of the very proximal location of the head fracture and associated poor vascularity. We present a case of a 67-year-old man who sustained a severe, sword-like trauma to his left shoulder after a road traffic accident with associated isolated open Gustilo-Anderson IIIA humeral head-splitting fracture. Bony union was achieved with minimal internal fixation but the clinical outcome deteriorated due to accompanying axillary nerve apraxia. To our knowledge, this type of sword-like injury with associated humeral head-split fracture has not previously been reported. PMID:27478665

  20. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4 array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

  1. Energetics of Marine Turbine Arrays - Extraction, Dissipation and Diminution

    CERN Document Server

    Nishino, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    A two-scale modelling approach is discussed to predict the performance and energetics of a large number (more than a few hundred) of marine turbines installed as a power farm in a general coastal environment. The kernel of this approach is that the outer (coastal-scale) model/simulation is to assess the reduction of flow passing through a given farm area as a function of the increase of head loss across the farm, whereas the inner (device-scale) model/simulation uses this function to account for the (otherwise unknown) effect of coastal dynamics for that farm site. Large-eddy simulations (LES) of periodic open channel flow (with a porous plate model representing turbines) are then presented as the device-scale part of such a two-scale model of large marine turbine arrays. Results demonstrate how the energetics of turbine arrays (i.e. extraction, dissipation and diminution of energy in the entire farm area) may change depending on the characteristics of the farm site, array configuration and operating conditio...

  2. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  3. NEUROENDOCRINE DISTURBANCES FOLLOWING HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the main causes of death and disability in young adults, with consequences ranging from physical disabilities to long - term cognitive, behavioural, psychological and social defects. Recently, c linical evidence has demonstrated that TBI may frequently cause hypothalamic – pituitary dysfunction, probably contributing to a delayed or hampered recovery from TBI. CASE REPORT: 32 year s old female presented with a history of fall from two wheeler on back hitting the head on occipital region with no history of vomiting, loss of consciousness, ENT bleed. Her GCS was 15/15. Patient was asymptomatic and was discharged from hospital on fifth day. Seven days after discharge patient again presented with heavine ss in her both breasts associated with pain and whitish discharge from both the nipples and mild fever since last two days. CONCLUSION: TBI is a public health problem that requires more effective strategies to improve the outcome and minimize disability of the affected patients. Changes in pituitary hormone secretion may be observed during the acute phase post - TBI, representing part of the acute adaptive response to the injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances, caused by damage to the pituitary and/or hypothalam us, is a frequent complication of TBI and may occur at any time after the acute event. Pituitary dysfunction presents more frequently as an isolated, and more rarely as a complete, deficiency.

  4. Solid-state array cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strull, G; List, W F; Irwin, E L; Farnsworth, D L

    1972-05-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest shown in the rapidly maturing technology of totally solid-state imaging. This paper presents a synopsis of developments made in this field at the Westinghouse ATL facilities with emphasis on row-column organized monolithic arrays of diffused junction phototransistors. The complete processing sequence applicable to the fabrication of modern highdensity arrays is described from wafer ingot preparation to final sensor testing. Special steps found necessary for high yield processing, such as surface etching prior to both sawing and lapping, are discussed along with the rationale behind their adoption. Camera systems built around matrix array photosensors are presented in a historical time-wise progression beginning with the first 50 x 50 element converter developed in 1965 and running through the most recent 400 x 500 element system delivered in 1972. The freedom of mechanical architecture made available to system designers by solid-state array cameras is noted from the description of a bare-chip packaged cubic inch camera. Hybrid scan systems employing one-dimensional line arrays are cited, and the basic tradeoffs to their use are listed. PMID:20119094

  5. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  6. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  7. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being Treated With Radiation ... How Does Head and Neck Radiation Affect the Mouth? Doctors use head and neck radiation to treat ...

  8. Wavenumber response of Shanghai Seismic Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Seismic array can be traced back to 1950s when it mainly aimed at detecting and distinguishing the signals of nuclear explosion and seismic signals. The research on seismic array includes seismic array techniques and applications of array in geophysics. Array techniques involve array design and data processing methods (Anne, 1990). Nowadays, the continuous development of seismic array¢s theory could relate to many scientific issues in geophysical field (Tormod, 1989; Mykkeltveit, Bungum, 1984). Seismic array is mainly applied to detect weak events. The response characteristic of array is an important indication of array¢s detection ability. Therefore, when we study an array or construct an array, one of the neces-sary works is to calculate the response characteristics of the array (Harjes, 1990). The aperture and layout of array are two dominating geometrical features. The typical aperture of interna-tional array is generally from several to tens kilometers. For instance, arrays with aperture of dozens kilometers aperture are KSA, WRA, YKA, etc, while arrays with several kilometer aperture are ARC, FIN, GEE, etc. Moreo-ver, in the view of array¢s layout, NOR, GER, etc have circle layout, while WRA, YKA, etc have decussating layout. This paper mainly discusses the relation between deployment of array and wavenumber response. With the example of constructing Shanghai Seismic Array, this paper provides one practical solution to search the proper array deployment. In this paper, the simple delay beam technique is adopted to calculate the response characteris-tics of array. Certainly, the different processing methods have different result, but the result from the simple delay beam processing could be enough to reflect the feature of an array.

  9. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  10. [Primary radial head arthroplasty in trauma : Complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Horlohé, K; Buschbeck, S; Wincheringer, D; Weißenberger, M; Hoffmann, R

    2016-10-01

    Radial head fractures are common injuries in elbow trauma. Non-displaced fractures are best treated conservatively. Simple but displaced fractures require anatomic reduction and fixation, typically using screws. The treatment course for complex fractures with multiple fragments is still being debated, as results are less predictable. Radial head resection is not advised if concomitant injuries of the coronoid process or the collateral ligaments with instability are present. Favorable outcomes following open reduction and fixation using plates were reported recently. However, complication rates are very high. Radial head replacement is a valuable tool in treating complex fractures of the radial head with predominantly good and excellent results. Patients who suffer radial head fractures are typically of a younger age, resulting in high functional demands. Certainly, unspecific and specific complications related to radial head arthroplasty were reported in up to 40 % of cases in an acute fracture setting. This article highlights common complications in radial head arthroplasty and aims to present strategies to avoid them. PMID:27600571

  11. Mathematical Simulating Model of Phased-Array Antenna in Multifunction Array Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical simulating model of phased-array antenna in multifunction array radar has been approached in this paper, including the mathematical simulating model of plane phased-array pattern, the mathematical simulating model of directionality factor, the mathematical simulating model of array factor, the mathematical simulating model of array element factor and the mathematical simulating model of beam steering.

  12. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; McGraw, Gregory

    2016-02-02

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  13. Substrate integrated antennas and arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Substrate Integrated Antennas and Arrays provides a single source for cutting-edge information on substrate integrated circuits (SICs), substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding networks, SIW slot array antennas, SIC traveling-wave antennas, SIW feeding antennas, SIW monopulse antennas, and SIW multibeam antennas. Inspired by the author's extensive research, this comprehensive book:Describes a revolutionary SIC-based antenna technique with the potential to replace existing antenna technologiesExamines theoretical and experimental results connected to electrical and mechanical performanceExp

  14. TV-SAT solar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, G.; Rinn, C.; Bastard, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    The electrical and mechanical performance of the TV-SAT direct television broadcasting satellite is described. The 4.5 kW end of life 7.5yr array contains 43,200 back surface reflector solar cells. The first, 3.1 kW, array consists of two identical wings, providing power during transfer and geostationary orbit. Each wing is made up of four carbon fiber panels. The outboard panel of each wing is deployed at 90 deg in transfer orbit, during which the satellite is three axis stabilized.

  15. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the ultr

  16. Free surface height deformation upstream of an array of model marine hydrokinetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Krane, M.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in flow velocity and free surface height upstream of an array of model marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices are measured in small-scale flume. These models consist of a stationary perforated plate mounted to a cylinder. The perforated plates mimic the blockage ratio and head loss effects of rotating blades on the flow, and the cylinders represent typical support structures for MHK devices. Experimental results are used to for two purposes. First, they will be used validate numerical simulations being conducted in parallel. Second, they will be used to determine a spatial arrangement for a field testing array that optimizes energy extraction. The operating hypothesis is that the proper spatial arrangement of a MHK array can modify the incident flow so as to increase the fluid energy incident upon some of the MHK devices in the array, increasing the energy produced by the array. The testing is conducted in the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, and 1.25 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&HL) at Bucknell University. Within the facility a small-scale testing platform which consists of a nozzle insert is used to accelerate the flow into a test section (2 ft wide, 2.5 ft long, and 0.75 ft deep), where the cylinder arrays are located. The model MHK devices sizes are scaled using the test section floor turbulent boundary layer thickness. Flow field measurements are performed using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Mapping of the free surface is accomplished with an ultrasonic liquid level finder. Both devices are positioned using a programmable gantry system that has access to the entire test section. For each array configuration tested, both the free surface height and flow field upstream of the model MHK array are accurately mapped. These measurements are combined with the free surface height measurements to estimate the total fluid energy upstream of the array.

  17. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Guanghua [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0385 (United States)

    2008-04-21

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity.

  18. Head impact exposure in youth football: middle school ages 12-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    The head impact exposure experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact exposure in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players aged 12-14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s², and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s². Similar to the head impact exposure experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact exposure, and child-specific brain injury criteria.

  19. Repellency against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    The head louse problem increases at all levels of the international societies due to activities or life conditions that lead to often hair contacts among people. Lice occur exclusively on humans. Thus, they avoid dropping down from a head and therefore accept even a bad smelling hair of new a host. Due to this behaviour, there are only a few products on the markets which dare to claim a repellency activity that protects humans from infestation with head lice. The present study shows that a combination of an extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus (monk pepper) and the compound paramenthan-3,8-diol (which is also found in some plants, e.g. Eucalyptus) act synergistically and are able to protect human hair for at least 7 h from invasion of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). The recently developed product containing both compounds is named Licatack Preventive Spray. PMID:20054562

  20. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recovery or increase the chances for long-term problems. B You can’t see a concussion like ... or "pressure" in head Nausea or vomiting Balance problems or dizziness Double or blurry vision Sensitivity to ...

  1. Engineering science and mechanics department head named

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Ishwar K. Puri, professor of mechanical engineering and executive associate dean of engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, will become the head of Virginia Tech•À_ó»s Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Aug. 1.

  2. "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" / Triin Thalheim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thalheim, Triin, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu. Lisatud "Filmi ajaloolised võtmetegelased"

  3. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file...

  4. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational ... Associations) Listen to a Radio PSA Coach and Team [Audio: 0:30 seconds] Mom and Daughter [Audio: ...

  5. Bathymetry--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  6. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  7. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  8. Head Start Program Information Report (HSPIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about children enrolled in the Head Start program and information about their families. Data about the children include: age, type of program attended,...

  9. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” ... Enter your full name as you'd like it to appear on your completion certificate. Name: Submit

  10. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  11. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  12. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Schwannomas of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kanatas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells. Malignant change in head and neck schwannomas is rare, with the incidence varying between 8 and 13.9%. In this review, we discuss the presentation and the management of head and neck schwannomas. The issues and difficulties based on our own experience as well as the experience of published reports from the literature are presented.

  14. Imaging of accidental paediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Phua Hwee [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Choie Cheio Tchoyoson [National Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neuroradiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-15

    Head trauma is the most common form of injury sustained in serious childhood trauma and remains one of the top three causes of death despite improved road planning and safety laws. CT remains the first-line investigation for paediatric head trauma, although MRI may be more sensitive at picking up the full extent of injuries and may be useful for prognosis. Follow-up imaging should be tailored to answer the specific clinical question and to look for possible complications. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of accidental paediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head trauma is the most common form of injury sustained in serious childhood trauma and remains one of the top three causes of death despite improved road planning and safety laws. CT remains the first-line investigation for paediatric head trauma, although MRI may be more sensitive at picking up the full extent of injuries and may be useful for prognosis. Follow-up imaging should be tailored to answer the specific clinical question and to look for possible complications. (orig.)

  16. Neck injury response to direct head impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have observed flexion of the upper or upper/middle cervical spine and extension at inferior spinal levels due to direct head impacts. These studies hypothesized that hyperflexion may contribute to injury of the upper or middle cervical spine during real-life head impact. Our objectives were to determine the cervical spine injury response to direct head impact, document injuries, and compare our results with previously reported in vivo data. Our model consisted of a human cadaver neck (n=6) mounted to the torso of a rear impact dummy and carrying a surrogate head. Rearward force was applied to the model's forehead using a cable and pulley system and free-falling mass of 3.6kg followed by 16.7kg. High-speed digital cameras tracked head, vertebral, and pelvic motions. Average peak spinal rotations observed during impact were statistically compared (P<0.05) to physiological ranges obtained from intact flexibility tests. Peak head impact force was 249 and 504N for the 3.6 and 16.7kg free-falling masses, respectively. Occipital condyle loads reached 205.3N posterior shear, 331.4N compression, and 7.4Nm extension moment. We observed significant increases in intervertebral extension peaks above physiologic at C6/7 (26.3° vs. 5.7°) and C7/T1 (29.7° vs. 4.6°) and macroscopic ligamentous and osseous injuries at C6 through T1 due to the 504N impacts. Our results indicate that a rearward head shear force causes complex neck loads of posterior shear, compression, and extension moment sufficient to injure the lower cervical spine. Real-life neck injuries due to motor vehicle crashes, sports impacts, or falls are likely due to combined loads transferred to the neck by direct head impact and torso inertial loads. PMID:22613632

  17. Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Nör, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Most cancers contain a small sub-population of cells that are endowed with self-renewal, multipotency, and a unique potential for tumor initiation. These properties are considered hallmarks of cancer stem cells. Here, we provide an overview of the field of cancer stem cells with a focus on head and neck cancers. Cancer stem cells are located in the invasive fronts of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) close to blood vessels (perivascular niche). Endothelial cell-initiated signalin...

  18. Relative femoral head size in early hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruccini, R S; McHenry, H M

    1978-07-01

    Relative growth of the human femur head is studied by a logarithmic principal components method. Growth rates differ according to the population sampled and the other body dimensions being compared, and especially according to sex. The results do not support biomechanical assumptions of strongly positive allometry of the femur head, which have been used to argue that the australopithecine hip joint was not relatively small. PMID:98052

  19. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varkey, Prashanth; Liu, Yi-Tien; Tan, Ngian Chye

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. Multimodality treatment is often the only way to achieve improved function, quality of life, and survival, calling for a multidisciplinary team approach, particularly in view of the rapid advances being made in various fields. The roles of the head and neck surgeon and reconstructive surgeon are discussed, together with the input afforded by specialists in areas such as diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, medical onco...

  20. Miniaturised cylinder head production by rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Rodrigo; Monteiro, A. Caetano; Martins, Jorge; Coene, Stijn; Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J

    2009-01-01

    This work shows the development of the design and manufacturing of a very small engine, namely its head. The engine works under the 4-stroke cycle, therefore having a very complex cylinder head, housing the camshaft, valves and its auxiliaries (seats, guides, springs), spark plug, inlet and exhaust passages and a coolant chamber. The geometries, both inner and outer are highly intricate which makes the production of such a part a very difficult job. In addition, when the engine is...

  1. Application of ultrasonic phased array technique for inspection of stud bolts in nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stud bolt is one of crucial parts for safety of reactor vessels in nuclear power plants. Cracks initiation and propagation were reported in stud bolts using closure of reactor vessel and head. Stud bolts are inspected by ultrasonic technique during overhaul periodically for the prevention of stud bolt failure and radioactive leakage from nuclear reactor. In conventional ultrasonic testing for inspection of stud bolts, crack was detected by using shadow effect. It take too much time to inspect stud bolt by using conventional ultrasonic technique. In addition, there were numerous spurious signal reflected from every thread. In this study, the advanced ultrasonic phased array technique was introduced for inspect stud bolts. The phased array technique provide fast inspection and high detectability of defects. There are sector scanning and linear scanning method in phased array technique, and these scanning methods were applied to inspect stud bolt and detectability was investigated.

  2. On the influence of microphone array geometry on HRTF-based Sound Source Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua;

    2015-01-01

    algorithms; the more similar the HRTFs of different angles to the HRTF of the target angle, the worse the performance. However, we also show how the microphone array geometry can assist in differentiating between the HRTFs of the different angles, thereby improving performance of HRTF-based SSL algorithms....... Furthermore, to demonstrate the analysis results, we show the impact of HRTFs similarities and microphone array geometry on an exemplary HRTF-based SSL algorithm, called MLSSL. This algorithm is well-suited for this purpose as it allows to estimate the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA) of the target sound using any...... number of microphones and any geometries of the microphone array around the head....

  3. Head CT scan in Iranian minor head injury patients: evaluating current decision rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Robab; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Shirani, Farzaneh; Payandemehr, Pooya; Bahramimotlagh, Hooman; Ramezani, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to select one of the seven available clinical decision rules for minor head injury, for managing Iranian patients. This was a prospective cohort study evaluating medium- or high-risk minor head injury patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Patients with minor head trauma who were eligible for brain imaging based on seven available clinical decision rules (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS)-II, Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (NCWFNS), New Orleans, American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Guideline, Scandinavian, and Canadian computed tomography (CT) head rule) were selected. Subjects were underwent a non-contrast axial spiral head CT scan. The outcome was defined as abnormal and normal head CT scan. Univariate analysis and stepwise linear regression were applied to show the best combination of risk factors for detecting CT scan abnormalities. Five hundred patients with minor head trauma were underwent brain CT scan. The following criteria were derived by stepwise linear regression: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 15, confusion, signs of basal skull fracture, drug history of warfarin, vomiting more than once, loss of consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, and age over 65 years. This model has 86.15 % (75.33-93.45 %) sensitivity and 46.44 % (46.67-51.25 %) specificity in detecting minor head injury patients with CT scan abnormalities (95 % confidence interval). Of seven decision rules, only the Canadian CT Head Rule possesses seven of the eight high-risk factors associated with abnormal head CT results which were identified by this study. This study underlines the Canadian CT Head Rule's utility in Iranian minor head injury patients. Our study encourages researchers to evaluate available guidelines in different communities. PMID:26407978

  4. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Papademetris, Xenophon; Tucker, Don M

    2016-01-01

    BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM) or finite element model (FEM) created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG) measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa). BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages. PMID:27293419

  5. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM or finite element model (FEM created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa. BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages.

  6. Protection of the side of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, A; Mills, N J

    1996-07-01

    The side of the head is a frequent impact site for pedal cyclists, motorcyclists, and industrial workers. It is vulnerable to impact, yet many helmet standards do not have impact tests at the side of the helmet. Laboratory impact tests should reproduce the phenomena in real impacts, but usually they do not allow the headform to rotate, or ignore the effect of the neck on the motion of the head. The authors designed a linkage, simulating the flexibility of the neck, for use with anthropomorphic dummies in helmet testing. Impacts at the side of the helmet, normal to the helmet surface, were made with flat and hemispherical strikers. Head rotation during impacts caused the impact site to move, in some cases to below the level protected by the helmet. The peak angular head acceleration correlated with the peak linear accelerations. Neck flexibility means that helmets can protect the head from higher kinetic energy impacts than those specified in standards using immovable headforms or impact anvils. The load spreading efficiency of polypropylene foam, used in soft shell bicycle helmets, is better than that of polystyrene foam. The authors conclude that the side of the head can be protected by a suitable helmet design.

  7. Modulation of Head Movement Control During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Verstraete, Mary C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of the head relative to the trunk within a gait cycle during gaze fixation. Nine normal subjects walked on a motorized treadmill driven at 1.79 m/sec (20 s trials) while fixing their gaze on a centrally located earth-fixed target positioned at a distance of 2m from their eyes. The relative motion of the head and the net torque acting on it relative to the trunk during the gait cycle were used as measures of coordination. It was found that the net torque applied to the head counteracts the destabilizing forces acting on the upper body during locomotion. The average net torque impulse was significantly different (p less than 0.05) between the heel strike and swing phases and were found to be symmetrical between the right and left leg events of the gait cycle. However, the average net displacement of the head relative to the trunk was maintained uniform (p greater than 0.05) throughout the gait cycle. Thus, the coordination of the motion of the head relative to the trunk during walking is dynamically modulated depending on the behavioral events occurring in the gait cycle. This modulation may serve to aid stabilization of the head by counteracting the force variations acting on the upper body that may aid in the visual fixing of targets during walking.

  8. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  9. Effect of heading perception on microsaccade dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Persiani, Michela; Perazzolo, Monica; Squatrito, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    The present study shows the relationship between microsaccades and heading perception. Recent research demonstrates that microsaccades during fixation are necessary to overcome loss of vision due to continuous stimulation of the retinal receptors, even at the potential cost of a decrease in visual acuity. The goal of oculomotor fixational mechanisms might be not retinal stabilization, but controlled image motion adjusted to be optimal for visual processing. Thus, patterns of microsaccades may be exploited to help to understand the oculomotor system, aspects of visual perception, and the dynamics of visual attention. We presented an expansion optic flow in which the dot speed simulated a heading directed to the left or to the right of the subject, who had to signal the perceived heading by making a saccade toward the perceived direction. We recorded microsaccades during the optic flow stimulation to investigate their characteristics before and after the response. The time spent on heading perception was similar between right and left direction, and response latency was shorter during correct than incorrect responses. Furthermore, we observed that correct heading perception is associated with longer, larger and faster microsaccade characteristics. The time-course of microsaccade rate shows a modulation across the perception process similar to that seen for other local perception tasks, while the main direction is oriented toward the opposite side with respect to the perceived heading. Microsaccades enhance visual perception and, therefore, represent a fundamental motor process, with a specific effect for the build-up of global visual perception of space. PMID:27327105

  10. Cold head maintenance with minimal service interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovinsky, A. L.; Michael, P. C.; Zhukovsky, A.; Forton, E.; Paradis, Y.; Nuttens, V.; Minervini, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    Turn-key superconducting magnet systems are increasingly conduction-cooled by cryogenerators. Gifford-McMahon systems are reliable and cost effective, but require annual maintenance. A usual method of servicing is replacing the cold head of the cryocooler. It requires a complicated design with a vacuum chamber separate from the main vacuum of the cryostat, as well as detachable thermal contacts, which add to the thermal resistance of the cooling heat path and reduce the reliability of the system. We present a rapid warm-up scheme to bring the cold head body, which remains rigidly affixed to the cold mass, to room temperature, while the cold mass remains at cryogenic temperature. Electric heaters thermally attached to the cold head stations are used to warm them up, which permits conventional cold head maintenance with no danger of contaminating the inside of the cold head body. This scheme increases the efficiency of the cooling system, facilitates annual maintenance of the cold head and returning the magnet to operation in a short time.

  11. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  12. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  13. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  14. Light weight digital array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.; Maas, N.; Bolt, R.; Anitori, L.

    2010-01-01

    A light weight SAR has been designed, suitable for short range tactical UAVs, consisting of a fully digital receive array, and a very compact active transmit antenna. The weight of the complete RF front is expected to be below 3 kg, with a power consumption below 30 W. This X-band system can provide

  15. PHARUS : PHased ARray Universal SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paquay, M.H.A.; Vermeulen, B.C.B.; Koomen, P.J.; Hoogeboom, P.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been developed. The project is called PHARUS, an acronm for PHased ARray Universal SAR. This instrument serves remote sensing applications. The antenna system contains 48 active modules (expandable to 96). A module

  16. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  17. High density arrays of micromirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, J. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolman, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    We established and achieved our goal to (1) fabricate and evaluate test structures based on the micromirror design optimized for maskless lithography applications, (2) perform system analysis and code development for the maskless lithography concept, and (3) identify specifications for micromirror arrays (MMAs) for LLNL's adaptive optics (AO) applications and conceptualize new devices.

  18. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2001-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on active array antennas, giving examples of modern practical systems. There are many valuable lessons presented for designers of future high standard multifunction radar systems for military and civil applications. The book will appeal to graduate level engineers, researchers, and managers in the field of radar, aviation and space technology.

  19. BOLOMETRIC ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin lms have been developed at INAOE, speci cally boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon lms. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible con gurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit speci cally designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  20. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly. PMID:27268975

  1. [Genes associated with tobacco smoke-associated cancer of head and neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, Krzysztof; Giefing, Maciej; Jarmuz, Małgorzata; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the current techniques used for the identification of genes involved in tobacco smoke-associated cancers. The focus is set on the techniques derived from the conventional cytogenetics and includes fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomes hybridization (CGH) and its further improvement that is array-CGH, and other aspects of microarray DNA technology. The second part deals with the main findings concerning participation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in development and progression of tobacco smoke-associated head and neck cancers. PMID:19189577

  2. Arrayed primer extension in the "array of arrays" format: a rational approach for microarray-based SNP genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitø, Niels G F; Tan, Qihua; Nyegaard, Mette;

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a new version of the arrayed primer extension (APEX) protocol adapted to the 'array of arrays' platform using an instrumental setup for microarray processing not previously described. The primary aim of the study is to implement a system for rational cost-efficient genotyping ...

  3. Overhead shoulder press-In-front of the head or behind the head?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark R. McKean; Brendan J. Burkett

    2015-01-01

    Background:Using a cross-sectional design comparison, two overhead press techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) were compared. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of behind the head or in-front of the head overhead pressing technique on shoulder range of movement (ROM) and spine posture. The overhead press is commonly prescribed exercise. The two techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) may influence joint mechanics and therefore require an objective analysis. Methods: Passive shoulder ROM quantified using goniometric measures, dynamic ROM utilised three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical mea-sures (120 Hz) of 33 participants performing overhead pressing in a seated position. The timing and synchronisation of the upper limb shoulder and spine segments were quantified and influence of each technique was investigated. Results:The in-front technique commenced in lordotic position, whilst behind the head technique commenced in kyphotic position. Behind the head technique started with less thoracic extension than in-front condition. The thoracic spine remained extended and moved between 12° and 15° regardless of gender or technique. The techniques resulted in a significant difference between genders. Males were able to maintain a flat or normal lumbar lordosis, whereas females tended to kyphotic. Conclusion:Shoulder ROM was within passive ROM for all measures except external rotation for males with the behind the head technique. To avoid possible injury passive ROM should be increased prior to behind the head protocol. Females showed greater spine movements, suggesting trunk strengthening may assist overhead pressing techniques. For participants with normal trunk stability and ideal shoulder ROM, overhead pressing is a safe exercise (for the shoulder and spine) when performed either in-front of or behind the head.

  4. Head tilt is pronounced after an ipsilateral head roll in patients with vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutila, Topi; Aalto, Heikki; Hirvonen, Timo P

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to measure utricular function by directly quantifying head tilt in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients using regular video-oculography (VOG) equipment with integrated head-position sensor, and to correlate the results with patients' symptoms and signs. We recorded head tilting after exclusion of visual cues (static head tilt), and after returning to the centre following lateral head rolls towards each side [subjective head vertical (SHV)]. Head tilt in 43 patients was measured preoperatively and approximately 4 months postoperatively, and compared to that of 20 healthy subjects. Symptoms were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Static head tilt in patients was significantly greater than in controls (1.0° ± 0.9°) preoperatively (1.6° ± 1.5°, p = 0.04) and postoperatively (1.7° ± 1.5°, p = 0.01). Mean SHV in patients was significantly greater than in controls (1.2° ± 1.0°) preoperatively (2.0° ± 1.9°, p = 0.03) and postoperatively (2.5° ± 1.8°, p = 0.001), increasing non-significantly after surgery (p = 0.3). Side-specific SHV after ipsilateral head rolls was significantly greater than after contralateral head rolls preoperatively (2.8° ± 3.3° vs. -0.5° ± 3.0°, p = 0.001) and postoperatively (3.3° ± 3.0° vs. 0.6° ± 3.2°, p side becomes most evident after returning from an ipsilateral head roll.

  5. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  6. The Allen Telescope Array as Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2007-12-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a new radio interferometer that has begun scientific operations in 2007. Many of the technologies, techniques, and observing modes developed for the ATA are directly applicable to the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). The ATA is a pioneer of the LNSD, which refers to a large number (LN) of small diameter (SD) dishes to create the array. This concept underlies nearly all SKA designs. Other relevant technologies are the offset Gregorian ATA antenna, the ATA wideband log periodic feed, transport of broadband data over fiber optic cables, and flexible digital signal processing electronics. The small dishes of the ATA gives it extraordinary wide-field imaging and survey capability but also require new solutions for calibration and imaging. Real time imaging, rapid response to transients, and thinking telescope technology are also under development. Finally, the ATA is developing commensal observing modes, which enable multiple simultaneous science programs, such as SETI, transient surveys, and HI surveys. Opportunities exist for community members to perform scientific investigations as well as develop techniques and technology for the SKA through use of the ATA.

  7. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  8. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  9. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...... efficiency and the ones that maximize the array distributed directivity. Simulation results using a symmetric uniform circular array (UCA) operating in an indoor clustering environment are provided....

  10. Far-infrared imaging antenna arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Neikirk, Dean P.; Rutledge, David B.; Muha, Michael S.; Park, Hyeon; Yu, Chang-Xuan

    1982-01-01

    A far-infrared imaging antenna array has been demonstrated for the first time. The array is a line of evaporated silver bow-tie antennas on a fused-quartz substrate with bismuth-microbolometer detectors. The measured optical transfer function shows that the system is diffraction limited. This imaging array should find direct application in fusion plasma diagnostics. If the microbolometers can be replaced by more sensitive diode detectors, the array should also find application in radiometry a...

  11. Leakage analysis of crossbar memristor arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-07-01

    Crossbar memristor arrays provide a promising high density alternative for the current memory and storage technologies. These arrays suffer from parasitic current components that significantly increase the power consumption, and could ruin the readout operation. In this work we study the trade-off between the crossbar array density and the power consumption required for its readout. Our analysis is based on simulating full memristor arrays on a SPICE platform.

  12. The Automatic indexing of Grey Literature by Subject Headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System

    OpenAIRE

    Kocourek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution is devoted to the automatic indexing of grey literature by subject headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System in the National repository of grey literature. The paper describes the initial situation, previous experience, analysis, stages of implementation and demonstration of indexing.

  13. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  14. Microneedle array electrode for human EEG recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, Regina; Bystrova, S.N.; Putten, van M.J.A.M; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Microneedle array electrodes for EEG significantly reduce the mounting time, particularly by circumvention of the need for skin preparation by scrubbing. We designed a new replication process for numerous types of microneedle arrays. Here, polymer microneedle array electrodes with 64 microneedles, i

  15. Infinite Bandwidth : Long Slot Array Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Lee, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with the properties of a long slot array fed by an array of periodically located feeds spaced at a Nyquist interval. The study begins with the rigorous Green's function (GF) of a single long slot which was extended to an infinite array structure. After this, the input impedance prope

  16. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.;

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  17. Plane wave imaging using phased array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Phased arrays are often used for rapid inspections. Phased arrays can be used to synthesize different wave fronts. For imaging, focused wave fronts are frequently used. In order to build an image, the phased array has to be fired multiple times at the same location. Alternatively, different data acq

  18. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  19. Ferroelectric transistor memory arrays on flexible foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, A. van; Kam, B.; Cobb, B.; Rodriguez, F.G.; Heck, G. van; Myny, K.; Marrani, A.; Vinciguerra, V.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we successfully fabricated and operated passive matrix P(VDF-TrFE) transistor arrays, i.e. memory arrays in which no pass-transistors or other additional electronic components are used. Because of the smaller cell, a higher integration density is possible. We demonstrate arrays up to

  20. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  1. Recent Results from Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, M

    2015-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum Xmax are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20 degrees radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 sigma. The measured Xmax is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 10^18.2 eV - 10^19.2 eV.

  2. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  3. Quantitative detection of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit-Binnun, Nava; Lindner, Ariel B; Zik, Ory; Eshhar, Zelig; Moses, Elisha

    2003-03-15

    We introduce a quantitative method that utilizes scanning electron microscopy for the analysis of protein chips (SEMPC). SEMPC is based upon counting target-coated gold particles interacting specifically with ligands or proteins arrayed on a derivative microscope glass slide by utilizing backscattering electron detection. As model systems, we quantified the interactions of biotin and streptavidin and of an antibody with its cognate hapten. Our method gives quantitative molecule-counting capabilities with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and demonstrates a broad dynamic range while retaining easy sample preparation and realistic automation capability. Increased sensitivity and dynamic range are achieved in comparison to currently used array detection methods such as fluorescence, with no signal bleaching, affording high reproducibility and compatibility with miniaturization. Thus, our approach facilitates the determination of the absolute number of molecules bound to the chip rather than their relative amounts, as well as the use of smaller samples.

  4. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  5. A distributed array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R.; Kovitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station communication system will use microwave frequency radio links to carry digitized information from sender to receiver. The ability of the antenna system to meet stringent requirements on coverage zones, multiple users, and reliability will play an important part in the overall multiple access communication system. This paper will describe the configuration of a multibeam conformal phased array antenna and the individual microwave integrated components incoporated into this antenna system.

  6. Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, E.J.

    2000-08-07

    The long-range goal of this project is to develop the optical and mechanical design of a micromirror array for adaptive optics that will meet the following criteria: flat mirror surface ({lambda}/20), high fill factor (> 95%), large stroke (5-10 {micro}m), and pixel size {approx}-200 {micro}m. This will be accomplished by optimizing the mirror surface and actuators independently and then combining them using bonding technologies that are currently being developed.

  7. ISO camera array development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, F.; Cesarsky, C.; Agnese, P.; Rouan, D.

    1989-01-01

    A short outline is given of the Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM), one of the 4 instruments onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), with the current status of its two 32x32 arrays, an InSb charge injection device (CID) and a Si:Ga direct read-out (DRO), and the results of the in orbit radiation simulation with gamma ray sources. A tentative technique for the evaluation of the flat fielding accuracy is also proposed.

  8. Optical MEMS-based arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2003-07-01

    Industrial Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) developers are rapidly bringing to demonstration inertial radio frequency, and optical MEMS devices and components. The Army has a requirement for compact, highly reliable, and inexpensive laser beam steering components for missile seekers and unmanned aerial vehicles remote sensing components to provide a fast scanning capability for pointing, acquisition, tracking, and data communication. The coupling of this requirement with recent developments in the micro-optics area, has led scientists and engineers at the Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) to consider optical MEMS-based phased arrays, which have potential applications in the commercial industry as well as in the military, as a replacement for gimbals. Laser beam steering in commercial applications such as free space communicataion, scanning display, bar-code reading, and gimbaled seekers; require relatively large monolithic micro-mirrors to accomplish the required optical resolution. The Army will benefit from phased arrays composed of relatively small micro-mirrors that can be actuated through large deflection angles with substantially reduced volume times. The AMCOM Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has initiated a research project to develop MEMS-based phased arrays for use in a small volume, inexpensive Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) seeker that is particularly attractive because of its ability to provide large field-of-regard and autonomous target acquisition for reconnaissance mission applications. The primary objective of the collaborative project with the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is to develop a rugged, MEMS-based phased arrays for incorporation into the 2-D scanner of a LADAR seeker. Design challenges and approach to achieving performance requirements will be discussed.

  9. Array-based photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S. Thomas; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chen, Yu

    2005-03-22

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous or sequential, rapid analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. A photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array including a body having at least three recesses or affinity masses connected thereto is used in conjunction with a photoacoustic spectroscopy system. At least one acoustic detector is positioned near the recesses or affinity masses for detection of acoustic waves emitted from species of interest within the recesses or affinity masses.

  10. Head-on/Near Head-on Collisions of Neutron Stars With a Realistic EOS

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, E; Gressman, P T; Iyer, S; Miller, M; Suen, W M; Zhang, H M; Evans, Edwin; Gressman, Philip; Iyer, Sai; Miller, Mark; Suen, Wai-Mo; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2003-01-01

    It has been conjectured that in head-on collisions of neutron stars (NSs), the merged object would not collapse promptly even if the total mass is higher than the maximum stable mass of a cold NS. In this paper, we show that the reverse is true: even if the total mass is {\\it less} than the maximum stable mass, the merged object can collapse promptly. We demonstrate this for the case of NSs with a realistic equation of state (the Lattimer-Swesty EOS) in head-on {\\it and} near head-on collisions. We propose a ``Prompt Collapse Conjecture'' for a generic NS EOS for head on and near head-on collisions.

  11. Rotation axes of the head during positioning, head shaking, and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Mikhail; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore

    2007-11-01

    Static head orientations obey Donders' law and are postulated to be rotations constrained by a Fick gimbal. Head oscillations can be voluntary or generated during natural locomotion. Whether the rotation axes of the voluntary oscillations or during locomotion are constrained by the same gimbal is unknown and is the subject of this study. Head orientation was monitored with an Optotrak (Northern Digital). Human subjects viewed visual targets wearing pin-hole goggles to achieve static head positions with the eyes centered in the orbit. Incremental rotation axes were determined for pitch and yaw by computing the velocity vectors during head oscillation and during locomotion at 1.5 m/s on a treadmill. Static head orientation could be described by a generalization of the Fick gimbal by having the axis of the second rotation rotate by a fraction, k, of the angle of the first rotation without a third rotation. We have designated this as a k-gimbal system. Incremental rotation axes for both pitch and yaw oscillations were functions of the pitch but not the yaw head positions. The pivot point for head oscillations was close to the midpoint of the interaural line. During locomotion, however, the pivot point was considerably lower. These findings are well explained by an implementation of the k-gimbal model, which has a rotation axis superimposed on a Fick-gimbal system. This could be realized physiologically by the head interface with the dens and occipital condyles during head oscillation with a contribution of the lower spine to pitch during locomotion. PMID:17898142

  12. Head injury: audit of a clinical guideline to justify head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there is contention about which patients to scan. The UK National Health Service Clinical Guideline (CG) 56 provides criteria for selecting patients with clinically important brain injury who may benefit from a head CT scan, while minimising the radiation and economic burden of scanning patients without significant injury. This study aims to audit the documentation of the use of these guidelines in a busy UK trauma hospital and discusses the comparison with an Australian (New South Wales (NSW) ) head injury guideline. A retrospective cohort study of 480 patients presenting with head injury to the emergency department over 2 months was performed. The patient notes were assessed for documentation of each aspect of the clinical guidelines. Criteria were established to assess the utilisation of the CG 56. A database of clinical data was amalgamated with the head CT scan results for each patient. For the UK CG 56, 73% of the criteria were documented, with the least documented being 'signs of basal skull fracture' and 'amnesia of events'. Thirty-two per cent of patients received head CT and of these, 24% (37 patients) were reported to have pathology. Twenty-four patients underwent head CT without clinical justification being documented, none of which had reported pathology on CT. The study shows that the head injury guidelines are not being fully utilised at a major UK trauma hospital, resulting in 5% of patients being exposed to ionising radiation without apparent documented clinical justification. The NSW guideline has distinct differences to the CG 56, with a more complex algorithm and an absence of specific time frames for head CT completion. The results suggest a need for further education and awareness of head injury clinical guidelines.

  13. Effect of clenching with a mouthguard on head acceleration during heading of a soccer ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Keishiro; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Konno, Michiyo; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Concussions are acceleration-deceleration injuries that occur when biomechanical forces are transmitted to the cerebral tissues. By limiting acceleration of the head, enhanced cervical muscle activity derived from clenching with a mouthguard (MG) may reduce the incidence or severity of concussions following impact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of voluntary clenching with a proper MG on acceleration of the head during "heading" of a soccer ball. Eleven male high school soccer players (mean age, 16.8 years) participated in the study. Each player was given a customized MG. An automated soccer machine was used to project the ball at the participants at a constant speed. The participants headed the ball under 3 different oral conditions: drill 1, heading freely performed without instruction and without the MG; drill 2, heading performed as the subject was instructed to clench the masseter muscles tightly while not wearing the MG; drill 3, heading performed as the subject was instructed to clench tightly while wearing the MG. Each participant repeated each drill 5 times. Linear acceleration of the head was measured with a 3-axis accelerometer. Activity of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles was measured by wireless electromyography. Weak masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity was observed during drill 1. After the soccer players had been instructed to clench their masseter muscles (drills 2 and 3), statistically significant decreases in head acceleration and increases in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity were observed (P < 0.05; paired t test). The effect was stronger when the players wore the MG. Dentists should encourage soccer players to habitually clench while wearing a proper mouthguard to strengthen cervical muscle resistance as a way to mitigate the damage caused by heading.

  14. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  15. Perfusion CT of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel, E-mail: arazek@mans.edu.eg; Tawfik, Ahmed Mohamed, E-mail: ahm_m_tawfik@hotmail.com; Elsorogy, Lamiaa Galal Ali, E-mail: lamia2elsorogy@hotmail.com; Soliman, Nermin Yehia, E-mail: nermin_eid@hotmail.com

    2014-03-15

    We aim to review the technique and clinical applications of perfusion CT (PCT) of head and neck cancer. The clinical value of PCT in the head and neck includes detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as it allows differentiation of HNSCC from normal muscles, demarcation of tumor boundaries and tumor local extension, evaluation of metastatic cervical lymph nodes as well as determination of the viable tumor portions as target for imaging-guided biopsy. PCT has been used for prediction of treatment outcome, differentiation between post-therapeutic changes and tumor recurrence as well as monitoring patient after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. PCT has a role in cervical lymphoma as it may help in detection of response to chemotherapy and early diagnosis of relapsing tumors.

  16. Corrado Pettenati acting head of ETT

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the departure of Juan Antonio Rubio, Corrado Pettenati has been appointed as the acting head of the ETT unit with effect from 1 August. He joined CERN in 1995 as head librarian, reorganizing and modernizing the library before becoming deputy leader of ETT from June 2000 to April 2004. Previously, he worked at the European University Institute in Florence from 1976, developing automated library systems and becoming head of the computer centre in 1985. He has also been a software analyst and a telecommunications specialist. In 2003 he was appointed as member of the steering committee of the Cellule de Coordination Documentaire Nationale pour les Mathématiques de Grenoble, and in 2004 became a member of the EULER - European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences - Scientific Advisory Board, based in Germany. He was born in 1946 and graduated with a degree in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic in Milan in 1969.

  17. A human head phantom for experimental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of nuclear particles in a human head experiment a phantom preserving similar tissues as well as similar anthropomorphic characteristics was used. In this work a biologic equivalent tissue material was developed, maintaining the chemical composition and tissue density, based on enriched PMMA. A humanoid head phantom was built using a human skull as a base, donated by the Morphology Department of the Institute for Biologic Sciences-ICB/UFMG. Muscles were replaced with biologic equivalent tissue material following anatomic precepts. The phantom presents: formalized animal salivary glands, brain and submandibular lymph nodes; human teeth; hair; prosthetic eyes and nose as well as human equivalent skin containing silicone and animal collagen. This phantom present several important conditions as human morphological characteristics, equivalent biological tissue and the head bone structure. It will be used in radiotherapy and brachytherapy studies, dosimetry and quality control of medical diagnostic image. (author)

  18. Survival of social relationships following head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, G; Ford, B; Moran, C

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective search through the medical records at a rehabilitation hospital in Melbourne, Australia, identified 38 subjects (within the age range 19-34 years) suffering the effect of a severe closed-head injury 2-10 years post-trauma. In regard to social relationships, availability of post-trauma close attachment figures and looser social networks were markedly reduced for the head-injured group in relation to a matched community control group. However, they did not generally perceive these social relationships as inadequate when compared to a normal control sample. Moreover, within the head-injured group the perception of inadequate social relationships was not significantly associated with minor psychiatric disturbance. The implications of these results in terms of the social bond theory of depression are discussed, and issues in long-term social support of this population are raised.

  19. Measured Aperture-Array Noise Temperature of the Mark II Phased Array Feed for ASKAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chippendale, A P; Beresford, R J; Hampson, G A; Shaw, R D; Hayman, D B; Macleod, A; Forsyth, A R; Hay, S G; Leach, M; Cantrall, C; Brothers, M L; Hotan, A W

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the aperture-array noise temperature of the first Mk. II phased array feed that CSIRO has built for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. As an aperture array, the Mk. II phased array feed achieves a beam equivalent noise temperature less than 40 K from 0.78 GHz to 1.7 GHz and less than 50 K from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz for a boresight beam directed at the zenith. We believe these are the lowest reported noise temperatures over these frequency ranges for ambient-temperature phased arrays. The measured noise temperature includes receiver electronics noise, ohmic losses in the array, and stray radiation from sidelobes illuminating the sky and ground away from the desired field of view. This phased array feed was designed for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array.

  20. Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A

    2009-08-31

    Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.

  1. Silver nanorod arrays for photocathode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilayurganapathy, Subramanian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Joly, Alan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); El-Khoury, Patrick Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Greg W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schwenzer, Birgit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pandey, Archana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kayani, Asghar N. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Hess, Wayne P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-16

    In this study, we explore the possibility of using plasmonic Ag nanorod arrays featuring enhanced photoemission as high-brightness photocathode material. Silver nanorod arrays are synthesized by the DC electrodeposition method and their dimensionality, uniformity, crystallinity and oxide/impurity content are characterized. These Ag nanorod arrays exhibit greatly enhanced two-photon photoemission under 400 nm femtosecond pulsed laser excitation. Plasmonic field enhancement in the array produces photoemission hot spots that are mapped using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). The relative photoemission enhancement of nanorod array hot spots relative to that of a flat Ag thin film is found to range between 102 and 3 x 103.

  2. Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic

  3. Variability of blowfly head optomotor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R; Egelhaaf, M; Grewe, J; Warzecha, A K

    2009-04-01

    Behavioural responses of an animal are variable even when the animal experiences the same sensory input several times. This variability can arise from stochastic processes inherent to the nervous system. Also, the internal state of an animal may influence a particular behavioural response. In the present study, we analyse the variability of visually induced head pitch responses of tethered blowflies by high-speed cinematography. We found these optomotor responses to be highly variable in amplitude. Most of the variability can be attributed to two different internal states of the flies with high and low optomotor gain, respectively. Even within a given activity state, there is some variability of head optomotor responses. The amount of this variability differs for the two optomotor gain states. Moreover, these two activity states can be distinguished on a fine timescale and without visual stimulation, on the basis of the occurrence of peculiar head jitter movements. Head jitter goes along with high gain optomotor responses and haltere oscillations. Halteres are evolutionary transformed hindwings that oscillate when blowflies walk or fly. Their main function is to serve as equilibrium organs by detecting Coriolis forces and to mediate gaze stabilisation. However, their basic oscillating activity was also suggested to provide a gain-modulating signal. Our experiments demonstrate that halteres are not necessary for high gain head pitch to occur. Nevertheless, we find the halteres to be responsible for one component of head jitter movements. This component may be the inevitable consequence of their function as equilibrium and gaze-stabilising organs. PMID:19329750

  4. Adaptive sensor array algorithm for structural health monitoring of helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-04-01

    The adaptive neural network is a standard technique used in nonlinear system estimation and learning applications for dynamic models. In this paper, we introduced an adaptive sensor fusion algorithm for a helmet structure health monitoring system. The helmet structure health monitoring system is used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull. Installed inside the helmet system, there is an optical fiber pressure sensors array. After implementing the adaptive estimation algorithm into helmet system, a dynamic model for the sensor array has been developed. The dynamic response characteristics of the sensor network are estimated from the pressure data by applying an adaptive control algorithm using artificial neural network. With the estimated parameters and position data from the dynamic model, the pressure distribution of the whole helmet can be calculated following the Bazier Surface interpolation method. The distribution pattern inside the helmet will be very helpful for improving helmet design to provide better protection to soldiers from head injuries.

  5. Iso-array rewriting P systems with context-free iso-array rules

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari, K; Kalyani, T.; Thomas, D G; Nagar, A. K.; Thamburaj, R.

    2014-01-01

    A new computing model called P system is a highly distributed and parallel theoretical model, which is proposed in the area of membrane computing. Ceterchi et al. initially proposed array rewriting P systems by extending the notion of string rewriting P systems to arrays (2003). A theoretical model for picture generation using context-free iso-array grammar rules and puzzle iso-array grammar rules are introduced by Kalyani et al. (2004, 2006). Also iso-array rewriting P...

  6. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  7. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  8. Tunneling magnetoresistive heads for magnetic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sining

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics is emerging to be a new form of nanotechnologies, which utilizes not only the charge but also spin degree of freedom of electrons. Spin-dependent tunneling transport is one of the many kinds of physical phenomena involving spintronics, which has already found industrial applications. In this paper, we first provide a brief review on the basic physics and materials for magnetic tunnel junctions, followed more importantly by a detailed coverage on the application of magnetic tunneling devices in magnetic data storage. The use of tunneling magnetoresistive reading heads has helped to maintain a fast growth of areal density, which is one of the key advantages of hard disk drives as compared to solid-state memories. This review is focused on the first commercial tunneling magnetoresistive heads in the industry at an areal density of 80 approximately 100 Gbit/in2 for both laptop and desktop Seagate hard disk drive products using longitudinal media. The first generation tunneling magnetoresistive products utilized a bottom stack of tunnel junctions and an abutted hard bias design. The output signal amplitude of these heads was 3 times larger than that of comparable giant magnetoresistive devices, resulting in a 0.6 decade bit error rate gain over the latter. This has enabled high component and drive yields. Due to the improved thermal dissipation of vertical geometry, the tunneling magnetoresistive head runs cooler with a better lifetime performance, and has demonstrated similar electrical-static-discharge robustness as the giant magnetoresistive devices. It has also demonstrated equivalent or better process and wafer yields compared to the latter. The tunneling magnetoresistive heads are proven to be a mature and capable reader technology. Using the same head design in conjunction with perpendicular recording media, an areal density of 274 Gbit/in2 has been demonstrated, and advanced tunneling magnetoresistive heads can reach 311 Gbit/in2. Today, the

  9. MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE HEAD SKIN

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Tamas; Doinita Radulescu; Lucian Popa; C. Tarasi; Cristina Stanescu; R. Nita

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is known as a tumor with high malignancy. The development of a melanoma on the head skin is even more severe, as prognosis, because of the limitted possibilities for large excision and high potential of diffusion in the wide vascular network. We treated 11 cases with MM head localisation in a period of 10 years. The rate of survival is very poor (6 months – 4 years after surgery). We used skin graft or fasciocutaneous flap for the regional reconstruction after exc...

  10. Penetrating wounds of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrsdoerfer, R A; Johns, M E; Cantrell, R W

    1979-12-01

    Wounding capability of bullets is primarily releated to velocity. Bullet mass and shape, and specific gravity of body tissues being struck by the missile, are lesser factors. Seventy cases of penetrating wounds of the head and neck were treated during a six-year period. Vascular injuries were more common with neck wounds, while face and head injuries (extracranial) were similar to maxillofacial trauma. It is recognized that hemorrhage at the base of the skull is difficult to treat, and contemporary training in temporal bone and base of skull surgery is mandatory for the critical management of these wounds.

  11. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  12. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.;

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques as...... well as the clinical procedure. A critical review of the literature is also presented, regarding treatment results of the different techniques and indications for treatments. The possibilities for PDT for head and neck cancer in Denmark are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6/5...

  13. Head first PHP and MySQL

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    If you're ready to create web pages more complex than those you can build with HTML and CSS, Head First PHP & MySQL is the ultimate learning guide to building dynamic, database-driven websites using PHP and MySQL. Packed with real-world examples, this book teaches you all the essentials of server-side programming, from the fundamentals of PHP and MySQL coding to advanced topics such as form validation, session IDs, cookies, database queries and joins, file I/O operations, content management, and more. Head First PHP & MySQL offers the same visually rich format that's turned every title in th

  14. Luminosity considerations: head-on collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For true head-on collisions, measuring luminosity appears to be straightforward. Small crossing angles, even if they work, complicate the situation very much--especially if one wishes to know the luminosity better than 10 percent. However, except for the possible necessity of some extra trim magnets, it is hard to see how these considerations can affect the design of the energy doubler/saver (ED/S) collider in a significant way. If true head-on collisions are implemented, a monitor of luminosity and interaction region location can be placed away from the experiment. For small angle crossings, the experimenters have to include such facilities in their experimental design

  15. MR of head and neck hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper defines the MR characteristics of head and neck hemangiomas and to evaluate the role of MR in their diagnosis and management. Eighteen pediatric and young adult patients with head and neck hemangiomas (six neck, six face, three eyelid, two scalp, and one parotid) underwent high-field-strength 1.5-T MR imaging. Conventional spin-echo sequences with T1 and T2 weighting were performed. In addition, one-third of patients underwent MR angiography and gadolinium enhancement. The hemangiomas were isointense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images

  16. Nutrition in Patients with Head Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Totur; Meryem Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    The need of energy increases by 40% in patients with a head trauma, when compared to people who are living a normal life. This ratio reaches to 200% in some cases. It is important to give a nutrition support which can satisfy the energy need resulted from the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic states and that is enough to help to fix the immunologic state and achieve a better result in healing the injury. When oral nutrition is not possible in the patient with a head trauma, their ...

  17. Hydro-thermal power flow scheduling accounting for head variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors treat the problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems with variable head hydro plants employing the power flow equations to represent the network. Newton's method is used to solve the problem for a number of test systems. A comparison with solutions with fixed head is presented. In general the optimal schedule requires higher slack bus and thermal power generation and cost in the case of variable head hydro plant than that required by the fixed head hydro plant in all demand periods. Correspondingly, the hydro generation is less in the case of variable head hydro plant compared to fixed head hydro plant. A negligible difference in voltage magnitudes in all the time intervals, but it is observed that slightly higher voltages occur in the case of the fixed head hydro plant. Higher power and energy losses occur in the case of variable head hydro plants compared to the fixed head hydro plants

  18. MEG inversion using spherical head model combined with brain-shaped head model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun

    2001-01-01

    The spherical head model has been widely used in magnetoen cephalography (MEG) as a simple forward model for calculating the external mag netic field producing by neural currents in a human brain. But this model may lead to an inaccurate result, even if the computation speed is fast. For more precise computation, realistic brain-shaped head model is used with the boundary element method (BME), but at greatly increased computational cost. When solving MEG inverse problem by using optimization methods, the forward problem must often be solved for thousands of possible source configurations. So if the brain-shaped head model is used in all iterative steps of optimization, it may be computationally infeasible for practical application. In this paper, we present a method about using compound head model in MEG inverse solution. In this method, first spherical head model is used for a rough estimation, then brain-shaped head model is adopted for more precise solution. Numerical simulation indicates that under the condition of same accuracy, the computation speed for the present method is about three times faster than a method using the brain-shaped head model at all iterations.

  19. The Early Outcomes with Titanium Radial Head Implants in the Treatment of Radial Head Comminuted Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jijun; YANG Shuhua; HU Yong

    2007-01-01

    The study assessed the early functional outcomes with cemented titanium implants of ra- dius in the treatment of comminuted fractures of radial heads. The functional outcomes of arthro- plasty with cemented titanium implants of radius in the treatment of radial head fractures (Mason Type Ⅲ: 6; Mason Type Ⅳ: 4) in l0 consecutive patients (mean age, 38 years) were evaluated over a mean time of 23.7 months (18-31 months). The patients were assessed on the basis of physical ex- amination, functional rating (Mayo) and radiographic findings. The parameters evaluated included motion, stability, pain, and grip strength. Five patients were considered to have excellent results, 4 patients had good results and 1 patient had fairly good results. There were no cases of infection, prosthetic failure, heterotopic ossification or dislocation. When medial collateral ligament was injured, radial head became the main stabilizing structure of the elbow. Titanium radial head implant may provide the stability similar to that of native radial head. We believe that titanium radial head im- plants may be indicated for the Mason Type Ⅲ and Mason Type Ⅳ radial head fractures.

  20. ARCHAEOMETALLURGICAL STUDIES OF SPEAR HEADS AND ARROW HEADS OF THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE SITES OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanova, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative spectroscopy analysis of spear heads and arrow heads of Middle Bronze Age sites of Azerbaijan (second part of the III to the middle of the II millennium BC) has been made to determine the type of the alloy taking into account the accepted limits of natural impurity in metals ( - 0.5% and more). The analyses have shown that copper is the basic materials in all of them. Metallurgical classification the results of sixteen analysis spear heads have shown three of them made of arsenic...

  1. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Trojahner; C. Grelck

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming imp

  2. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Trojahner; C. Grelck

    2007-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming imp

  3. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Trojahner; C. Grelck

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming imp

  4. A Device to Record Infant Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Clement; Bullinger, Andre

    1976-01-01

    The device described is a system to indicate left-to-right head position. It is limited to indicating relative left-right movements without vertical or up-down discrimination. Although developed for newborns, the system can be applied to older subjects by using a holding device for the infant. (JH)

  5. Chondrosarcomas of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Fernandez-Miranda, J.C.; Strojan, P.; Bree, R. de; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Ferlito, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma represents approximately 11 % of all primary malignant bone tumors. It is the second most common sarcoma arising in bone after osteosarcoma. Chondrosarcomas of the head and neck are rare and may involve the sinonasal tract, jaws, larynx or skull base. Depending on the anatomical locat

  6. Division Heads and Role Strain Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William M.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a study of the extent to which ambiguous and conflicting circumstances contribute to role strain perceptions among community college division heads. Clarifies how working conditions and personal attributes affect job expectations. Finds experience, age, outlook, and job satisfaction to be strong influential factors. (DMM)

  7. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic exercise, but only to increase an athlete’s heart rate–meaning 5-10 minutes on an exercise ... running. C Begin activities that increase the athlete’s heart rate and incorporate limited body or head movement– ...

  8. Kiirlaenud kohe vastuolus heade kommetega / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mis kuulutab heade kommetega vastuolus olevaiks ning tühiseiks laenutehingud, kus laenuvõtja suudab hiljem tõendada oma erakorralisi vajadusi, sõltuvussuhet, kogenematust või muid selliseid asjaolusid ning väidab, et talle tehti laenu andes liiga

  9. Issues on Dummy-Head HRTFs measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    random- value at DC and the effect can be seen well within the audio frequencies. We have measured HRTFs on a commercially available dummy-head Neumann KU-100 and analyzed issues associated to calibration, DC correction and low-frequency response. Informal listening tests suggest that the ripples seen...

  10. Public Bicycle Share Programs and Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Barry; Moore, Lynne; Nathens, Avery B.; Hunte, Garth; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of North American public bicycle share programs (PBSPs), which typically do not offer helmets with rentals, on the occurrence of bicycle-related head injuries. Methods. We analyzed trauma center data for bicycle-related injuries from 5 cities with PBSPs and 5 comparison cities. We used logistic regression models to compare the odds that admission for a bicycle-related injury would involve a head injury 24 months before PBSP implementation and 12 months afterward. Results. In PBSP cities, the proportion of head injuries among bicycle-related injuries increased from 42.3% before PBSP implementation to 50.1% after (P < .01). This proportion in comparison cities remained similar before (38.2%) and after (35.9%) implementation (P = .23). Odds ratios for head injury were 1.30 (95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.67) in PBSP cities and 0.94 (95% confidence interval = 0.79, 1.11) in control cities (adjusted for age and city) when we compared the period after implementation to the period before. Conclusions. Results suggest that steps should be taken to make helmets available with PBSPs. Helmet availability should be incorporated into PBSP planning and funding, not considered an afterthought following implementation. PMID:24922150

  11. Mechatronic design of the Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, Ludo C.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the mechatronic design of the Twente humanoid head, which has been realized in the purpose of having a research platform for human-machine interaction. The design features a fast, four degree of freedom neck, with long range of motion, and a vision system with three degrees of f

  12. Laser working head in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser working head is claimed for operating inside a tube of the type that is delimited by a tubular wall incorporating a window for the passage of the laser beam across which the laser beam strikes a working zone situated opposite the window. The tubular wall incorporates a localized zone, surrounding the window, of reduced thickness

  13. Skull X-Rays for Head Injury

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    The effect of abolishing skull X-rays on the rate of admission, use of computer tomography (CT), radiation dose per head injury, and detection of intracranial injuries was determined in patients, aged 1 to 14 years, presenting to the ED at Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK.

  14. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  15. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion, ...

  16. Ten days of head down tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M H; Jacobsen, H; Norsk, P;

    1997-01-01

    The initial response to bed rest involves an increase in central blood volume leading to a an enhanced renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes. Within 24 hours of head-down bed rest a new steady state condition occurs with a sustained reduction of plasma volume, extracellular fluid volume, tota...

  17. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  18. Bill Gates,Head of Microsoft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿钧

    2001-01-01

    As a teenager in 1972, Bill Gates once said that he would be a millionaire by the time he was 20. Only 15 years later he was a billionaire. And by 1992, as head of the Microsoft company,he became the richest man in America with assets(资产) ofabout US$ 6. 3 billion.

  19. Head and neck cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S; Nör, J E

    2012-04-01

    Most cancers contain a small sub-population of cells that are endowed with self-renewal, multipotency, and a unique potential for tumor initiation. These properties are considered hallmarks of cancer stem cells. Here, we provide an overview of the field of cancer stem cells with a focus on head and neck cancers. Cancer stem cells are located in the invasive fronts of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) close to blood vessels (perivascular niche). Endothelial cell-initiated signaling events are critical for the survival and self-renewal of these stem cells. Markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), CD133, and CD44 have been successfully used to identify highly tumorigenic cancer stem cells in HNSCC. This review briefly describes the orosphere assay, a method for in vitro culture of undifferentiated head and neck cancer stem cells under low attachment conditions. Notably, recent evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are exquisitely resistant to conventional therapy and are the "drivers" of local recurrence and metastatic spread. The emerging understanding of the role of cancer stem cells in the pathobiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas might have a profound impact on the treatment paradigms for this malignancy. PMID:21933937

  20. Biomedical Techniques for Post Head Trauma Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Judith V.

    The nature and effects of head trauma are discussed. Among the most common deficits noted are impaired cognition, difficulties in oral and written communication, sensory problems, and marked personality changes. Suggestions are offered for dealing with each type of deficit, such as using alarm clocks and other tools to remind the individual about…

  1. Nutrition in Patients with Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Totur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of energy increases by 40% in patients with a head trauma, when compared to people who are living a normal life. This ratio reaches to 200% in some cases. It is important to give a nutrition support which can satisfy the energy need resulted from the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic states and that is enough to help to fix the immunologic state and achieve a better result in healing the injury. When oral nutrition is not possible in the patient with a head trauma, their energy need is satisfied through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Though parenteral nutrition had held an important role in feeding patients with head trauma, enteral nutrition is applied much more widely today. Enteral and parenteral nutrition both has their own advantages and disadvantages. In the clinical and laboratory studies that had been held, it was found that enteral nutrition improved the systemic immunity, decreased the incidence of the major infectious complications, decreased the metabolic response to trauma, protected the intestinal mucosa, and protected the ecologic balance of the microflora. In this article, it is investigated through the importance of the feeding in patients with a head trauma and reasons to chose enteral nutrition

  2. Evolution: Five Heads Are Better Than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick C

    2016-04-01

    Three newly discovered species of fig-living nematodes display remarkable diversity in head morphology depending on their local environment. This shows that a great deal of ecological diversity can be maintained in the absence of substantial genetic variation. PMID:27046815

  3. Head injury and risk for Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Lee, Pei-Chen;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between head injuries throughout life and the risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in an interview-based case-control study. METHODS: We identified 1,705 patients diagnosed with PD at 10 neurologic centers in Denmark in 1996-2009 and verified their diagnoses...

  4. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  5. Study of rectenna array connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, T.; Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H. [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Engineering Research Inst.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted in which a new rectenna working at 2.45 GHz microwave was developed for ground-to-ground microwave power transmission. The new rectenna consists of an antenna section and a rectifying section. The new design is simple and therefore more accurate than a micro-strip type patch antenna. The efficiency of conversion of microwave power to direct current depends on the mutual dependence of antenna elements and circuit conditions of rectifying sections. A series of experiments were conducted to analyze the rectenna characteristics and a method for efficiently connecting rectenna arrays was proposed. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  6. Sentinel-3 Solar Array Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Y.; Reutenauer, X.; Mouret, G.; Guerrere, S.; Ergan, A.; Ferrando, E.; Riva, S.; Hodgetts, P.; Levesque, D.; D'Accolti, G.

    2011-10-01

    Sentinel-3 is primarily a mission to support services relating to the marine environment, with capability to serve numerous land-, atmospheric- and cryospheric- based application areas. The mission's main objective is to determine parameters, such as sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperatures, as well as ocean- and land-surface colours with high-end accuracy and reliability. For this mission, Thales Alenia Space has been selected as the spacecraft prime contractor and is also responsible for the solar array. In this frame, TAS leads a European industrial team, comprising Selex Galileo for the photovoltaic assembly and Patria for the panel substrate.

  7. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  8. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  9. Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L

    1996-07-01

    The first year of the mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Australia saw increased helmet wearing from 31% to 75% of cyclists in Victoria and from 31% of children and 26% of adults in New South Wales (NSW) to 76% and 85%. However, the two major surveys using matched before and after samples in Melbourne (Finch et al. 1993; Report No. 45, Monash Univ. Accident Research Centre) and throughout NSW (Smith and Milthorpe 1993; Roads and Traffic Authority) observed reductions in numbers of child cyclists 15 and 2.2 times greater than the increase in numbers of children wearing helmets. This suggests the greatest effect of the helmet law was not to encourage cyclists to wear helmets, but to discourage cycling. In contrast, despite increases to at least 75% helmet wearing, the proportion of head injuries in cyclists admitted or treated at hospital declined by an average of only 13%. The percentage of cyclists with head injuries after collisions with motor vehicles in Victoria declined by more, but the proportion of head injured pedestrians also declined; the two followed a very similar trend. These trends may have been caused by major road safety initiatives introduced at the same time as the helmet law and directed at both speeding and drink-driving. The initiatives seem to have been remarkably effective in reducing road trauma for all road users, perhaps affecting the proportions of victims suffering head injuries as well as total injuries. The benefits of cycling, even without a helmet, have been estimated to outweigh the hazards by a factor of 20 to 1 (Hillman 1993. Cycle helmets-the case for and against. Policy Studies Institute, London). Consequently, a helmet law, whose most notable effect was to reduce cycling, may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. Despite the risk of dying from head injury per hour being similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, cyclists alone have been required to wear head protection. Helmets for motor

  10. Two dimensional coupled oscillators array with rhombus structure and its application in active antenna array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI LongJun; JIANG YongHua; LIU LongHe

    2008-01-01

    Beam scanning and forming can be achieved by coupled oscillators array without phase shifter. Active antenna array based on coupled oscillators array has the virtue of low cost, high integration, and high efficiency. Traditional two dimensional coupled oscillators array has been arranged on rectangular lattices, and phase difference of adjacent elements is limited to [-90°, 90°]. Therefore, the beam scanning range is limited to [-30°, 30°] from normal for half wavelength element spacing. A new two dimensional coupled oscillators array with rhombus structure is presented. Phase control method and phase error of the array are also provided. Stability of the array is analyzed, and stable condition is given. When this coupled oscillators array with rhombus structure is used in active antenna array, theoretical results show that phase difference of adjacent elements reach the limit of [-180°,180°] along the horizontal and vertical directions. Therefore, it has wider beam scanning range than that of a rectangular lattice structure.

  11. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  12. [Severe head injuries during Judo practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Hondo, Hideki; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Shinbara, Yuzo; Nimura, Yuji; Tomatsu, Taisuke

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate the characteristic features of Judo head injuries and to propose safety measures and a reaction manual on how to prevent and to deal with such accidents in Japan. Thirty cases of severe head injuries suffered during Judo practice were enrolled in this study. They have made insurance claims for damage compensation and inquiries about Judo accidents attributed to the All Japan Judo Federation, from 2003 to 2010. The average age of the patients was 16.5 year old. The incidence of injury showed 2 peaks in different academic grade levels; one is in the first year of junior high-school (30.0%, n=9) and the other is in senior high school (26.7%, n=8). Around half of them were beginners. Four cases (13.3%) had past history of head trauma or headache and dizziness before a catastrophic accident, suggesting the presence of a second impact. Lucid interval was observed in 25 cases (83.3%). Most patients (93.3%) suffered acute subdural hematoma associated with avulsion of a cerebral bridging vein. Of patients who underwent emergency removal of the hematoma, 15 patients (50%) died and 7 patients (23.3%) entered a persistent vegetative state. Based on these findings, we propose an emergency manual with safety measures for effectively preventing and treating Judo head injuries in an appropriate manner. To reduce the disastrous head injuries in Judo, the safety measures and an optimal action manual should be reconsidered and widely spread and accepted by society. PMID:22128268

  13. Pipe headings. Pressure penetration of accessible pipe headings. 2. ed.; Rohrvortrieb. Durchpressungen begehbarer Leitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schad, H.; Braeutigam, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA); Bramm, S.

    2008-07-01

    The book presents a general outline of the principle and techniques of pipe heading and the present state of instrumenation. Damage in pipe headings is gone into, i.e. types of damage, dage patterns, causes, and potential secondary damage. The last chapter contains preventive measurs, recommendations and additional technical requirements selected from a large number of typical damage cases. They can be helpful in all stages of pipe heading in that they help to assess the residual risk, prevent constructional damage, and minimize the cost of damage in pipe headings. In the 2nd edition print errors were corrected and an adaption of new standards to the new stat-of-the-art carried out. (orig./GL) [German] Die unterirdische Bauweise gewinnt im Kanal- und Leitungsbau an Bedeutung. Der Rohrvortrieb laesst sich an die Randbedingungen anpassen. Die Fortschritte in der Maschinen- und Steuerungstechnik haben den kostenguenstigen und umweltschonenden Einsatz der Durchpresstechnik erweitert. (orig.)

  14. Features of structure of skin of hairy part of head of men at androgenic defluxion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostilenko Yu.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilized by us universal innovative method of morphological researches provided the receipt of original information, which not only complement the known facts but also in more depth expose principles of device of skin of hairy part of head of men in a norm and after an androgenic pelade. In the process of androgenic pelade degradation foremost intradermal hair follicles undergo sclerosis. In the reticulated layer of derma degrading hair follicles substituted with connective tissue. Complete loss of hair at an androgenic defluxion, results in compensatory reorganization of skin of hairy part of head, which is expressed in a substitution of hypodermis connecting tissue by fatty tissue, blood vessels formation in all layers of skin of with prevaliation of venous among, and also, in the considerable increase of concentration of sebaceous glands in the reticulated layer of derma. In spite of complete loss of hair at an androgenic pelade, germ epithelial elements, being sources of formation of thin (abortive hairsprings array patterns of which are saved in the skin of hairy part of head, hidden in the layer of sebaceous glands. On the basis of the actual findings in our work revealed, that loss of hairs at an androgenic defluxion filled in due to the physiological hypertrophy of other tissue constituents of skin.

  15. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  16. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; van Straten, Willem; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Wang, Jingbo; Levin, Yuri

    2013-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  17. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Richard N.

    2015-08-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to observe 22 millisecond pulsars in three bands: 40cm (band centre 732 MHz), 20cm (1369 MHz) and 10cm (3100 MHz). Coherent de-dispersion systems are used for the 40cm and 20cm bands and digital polyphase filterbanks are used for the 20cm and 10cm bands. Observations are made at intervals of two to three weeks and observations times for each pulsar in each band are typically one hour. Regular PPTA observations commenced in early 2005 but earlier timing data, primarily in the 20cm band, exist for many of the pulsars back to 1994. Pipeline processing scripts are based on PSRCHIVE routines and take into account instrumental offsets. Timing analyses include modelling of dispersion variations and red and white noise in the data. The primary scientific goal of the PPTA project is the detection of gravitational waves, either a stochastic background from supermassive black-hole binary systems in distant galaxies or from individual binary systems. The PPTA data sets have many other applications including establishment of a pulsar-based timescale, improvement of solar-system ephemerides and studies of the individual pulsars. PPTA data sets have been made available to the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium and analysis of the combined data sets is progressing. Recent developments, both instrumental and science-related, will be described.

  18. Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Derek Michael

    2015-11-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions result from complex periodic changes in the concentration of the reactants. In spatially ordered ensembles of candle flame oscillators the fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen atoms with respect to that of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen produces an oscillation in the visible part of the flame related to the energy released per unit mass of oxygen. Thus, the products of the reaction vary in concentration as a function of time, giving rise to an oscillation in the amount of soot and radiative emission. Synchronisation of interacting dynamical sub-systems occurs as arrays of flames that act as master and slave oscillators, with groups of candles numbering greater than two, creating a synchronised motion in three-dimensions. In a ring of candles the visible parts of each flame move together, up and down and back and forth, in a manner that appears like a “worship”. Here this effect is shown for rings of flames which collectively empower a central flame to pulse to greater heights. In contrast, situations where the central flames are suppressed are also found. The phenomena leads to in-phase synchronised states emerging between periods of anti-phase synchronisation for arrays with different columnar sizes of candle and positioning.

  19. Energy transfer in macromolecular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Jenkins, Robert D.

    2003-11-01

    Macromolecular systems comprised of many light-sensitive centres (the photosynthetic unit, dendrimers, and other highly symmetric multichromophore arrays) are important structures offering challenges to theoreticians and synthetic chemists alike. Here we outline novel photophysical interactions predicted and observed in such arrays. Using the tools of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) we present quantum amplitudes for a variety of higher-order resonance energy transfer (RET) schemes associated with well-known nonlinear optical effects such as two- and three-photon absorption. The initial analysis is extended to account for situations where the participant donor species are identical and exist in a highly symmetric environment, leading to the possible formation of excitons. It emerges from the QED theory that such excitons are closely associated with the higher-order RET processes. General results are interpreted by analyzing particular molecular architectures which offer interesting features such as rate enhancement or limitation and exciton pathway quenching. Applications in the areas of photosynthesis, molecular logic gates and low-intensity fluorescence energy transfer are predicted.

  20. One-dimensional Array Grammars and P Systems with Array Insertion and Deletion Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Freund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the (one-dimensional array counterpart of contextual as well as insertion and deletion string grammars and consider the operations of array insertion and deletion in array grammars. First we show that the emptiness problem for P systems with (one-dimensional insertion rules is undecidable. Then we show computational completeness of P systems using (one-dimensional array insertion and deletion rules even of norm one only. The main result of the paper exhibits computational completeness of one-dimensional array grammars using array insertion and deletion rules of norm at most two.

  1. Radiometric stability of Phase 3 WISP arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David S.; Marlow, Steven A.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Murrer, Robert Lee

    2000-07-01

    Phase 3 WISP arrays and BRITE arrays are currently being used extensively in many projection systems in many different facilities. These arrays have not been annealed at the factory, and previous tests with the arrays have revealed instabilities in the radiometric output when the arrays are driven at higher voltages. In some applications, the instabilities can be avoided by operating the arrays at lower voltages. In many KHILS applications, it is desirable to drive the arrays with the highest possible voltages to simulate hot missile targets. In one KHILS application (the KHILS VAcuum Cold Chamber, KVACC), the arrays are cooled to near cryogenic temperatures and then driven to high voltages. At lower substrate temperatures, the characteristic responses of the emitters change. Thus, it is important that the response and the stability of the radiometric output of the arrays be well understood for various substrate temperatures, and that the arrays either be annealed or operated below the voltage where the emitters begin to anneal. KHILS has investigated annealing procedures in the past, but there was concern that the annealing procedures themselves -- driving the arrays at high voltages for long times -- would damage the arrays. In order to understand the performance of the arrays better, and to reduce risks associated with driving the arrays at high voltages and operating the arrays at low substrate temperatures, a systematic measurement program was initiated. The radiometric output of new Phase 3 WISP arrays was accurately measured as a function of voltage and time. Arrays designated for testing were driven to the higher voltages and the radiometric output was measured for as long as two hours. Curves indicative of the annealing were observed, and it was determined that the maximum stable output without annealing was about 500 K (MWIR apparent temperature). Blocks of emitters were annealed and tested again. It was determined that stable output of as much as 680 K

  2. Head-to-head comparison of two online nomograms for prostate biopsy outcome prediction

    OpenAIRE

    M. de OLIVEIRA; Marques, V.; Carvalho, AP; Santos, A.

    2011-01-01

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In recent years, several nomograms were developed in an effort to decrease the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. The European SWOP-PRI and the North American PCPT are among the most popular. However, evidence on the relative predictive accuracy is lacking. A head-to-head comparison on the diagnostic accuracy of two previously validated prostate cancer risk predictors on biopsy confirmed the superiority ...

  3. Effects of Head Rotation and Head Tilt on Pharyngeal Pressure Events Using High Resolution Manometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Cheol Ki; Ryu, Ju Seok; Song, Sun Hong; Koo, Jung Hoi; Lee, Kyung Duck; Park, Hee Sun; Oh, Yoongul; Min, Kyunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe changes in pharyngeal pressure during the swallowing process according to postures in normal individuals using high-resolution manometry (HRM). Methods Ten healthy volunteers drank 5 mL of water twice while sitting in a neutral posture. Thereafter, they drank the same amount of water twice in the head rotation and head tilting postures. The pressure and time during the deglutition process for each posture were measured with HRM. The data obtained for these two postures we...

  4. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Haecker, U.; Kaufmann, E.; Hartmann, C.; Jurgens, G; Knoechel, W.; Jaeckle, H.

    1995-01-01

    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines. We have cloned and molecularly characterized the crocodile (croc) gene which encodes a new family member from Drosophila. croc is expressed in the head anlagen of the blastoderm embryo under the control of the anterior, the dorsoventral and the terminal maternal organizer systems. The croc mutant phenotype indicates th...

  5. Investigation of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging by means of surface and array radiofrequency coils at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Wietske; Marques, José P; Hergt, Martin; Gruetter, Rolf

    2009-10-01

    In this investigation, high-resolution, 1x1x1-mm(3) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7 T is performed using a multichannel array head coil and a surface coil approach. Scan geometry was optimized for each coil separately to exploit the strengths of both coils. Acquisitions with the surface coil focused on partial brain coverage, while whole-brain coverage fMRI experiments were performed with the array head coil. BOLD sensitivity in the occipital lobe was found to be higher with the surface coil than with the head array, suggesting that restriction of signal detection to the area of interest may be beneficial for localized activation studies. Performing independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data, we consistently detected BOLD signal changes and resting state networks. In the surface coil data, a small negative BOLD response could be detected in these resting state network areas. Also in the data acquired with the surface coil, two distinct components of the positive BOLD signal were consistently observed. These two components were tentatively assigned to tissue and venous signal changes. PMID:19261421

  6. Interferometric Plasmonic Lensing with Nanohole Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-18

    Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) of nanohole arrays in gold films maps propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from lithographically patterned structures. Strong near field photoemission patterns are observed in the PEEM images, recorded following low angle of incidence irradiation of nanohole arrays with sub-15 fs laser pulses centered at 780 nm. The recorded photoemission patterns are attributed to constructive and destructive interferences between PSPs launched from the individual nanoholes which comprise the array. By exploiting the wave nature of PSPs, we demonstrate how varying the array geometry (hole diameter, pitch, and number of rows/columns) ultimately yields intense localized photoemission. Through a combination of PEEM and finite-difference time-domain simulations, we identify the optimal array geometry for efficient light coupling and interferometric plasmonic lensing. We show a preliminary application of inteferometric plasmonic lensing by enhancing the photoemission from the vertex of a gold triangle using nanohole array.

  7. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  8. Sky reconstruction for the Tianlai cylinder array

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiao; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Li, Yichao; Wu, Fengquan; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply our sky map reconstruction method for transit type interferometers to the Tianlai cylinder array. The method is based on the spherical harmonic decomposition, and can be applied to cylindrical array as well as dish arrays and we can compute the instrument response, synthesised beam, transfer function and the noise power spectrum. We consider cylinder arrays with feed spacing larger than half wavelength, and as expected, we find that the arrays with regular spacing have grating lobes which produce spurious images in the reconstructed maps. We show that this problem can be overcome, using arrays with different feed spacing on each cylinder. We present the reconstructed maps, and study the performance in terms of noise power spectrum, transfer function and beams for both regular and irregular feed spacing configurations.

  9. Flexible Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施克仁; 阙开良; 郭大勇

    2004-01-01

    In ultrasonic phased-array testing, most probes are rigid with fixed elements. However, when testing a cambered piece, a rigid probe cannot be used directly, but an ultrasonic chock or coupling media must be used, which adds cost and reduces the accuracy. The objective of this research was to improve the tests of cambered pieces. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe was developed to do the flexible phased-array testing. The key technologies in the flexible phased-array probe include the probe design and the phased-array control. A new method was developed to design the flexible probe according to the curvature of the piece and the test depth. The method includes the calculation of the element's height (he), the relative rotation angle ((e), the distance between the adjoining elements (de), and the element's effective testing range. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe has been developed using this method.

  10. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  11. One-year results of cemented bipolar radial head prostheses for comminuted radial head fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laun, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comminuted radial head fractures (Mason type III continue to pose a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. When internal fixation is not possible, radial head arthroplasty has been advocated as the treatment of choice. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and radiological short-term results of patients with Mason type III radial head fractures treated with a cemented bipolar radial prosthesis. Methods: Twelve patients received cemented bipolar radial head hemiarthroplasty for comminuted radial head fractures. In all patients a CT scan was obtained prior to surgical treatment to assess all associated injuries. Postoperatively an early motion protocol was applied. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at an average of 12.7 months.Results: According to the Mayo Modified Wrist Score, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the functional rating index of Broberg and Morrey, and the DASH Score good to excellent results were obtained. Grip strength and range of motion were almost at the level of the unaffected contralateral side. Patient satisfaction was high, no instability or signs of loosening of the implant, and only mild signs of osteoarthritis were seen.Conclusion: Overall good to excellent short-term results for primary arthroplasty for comminuted radial head fractures were observed. These encouraging results warrant the conduction of further studies with long-term follow-up and more cases to see if these short-term results can be maintained over time.

  12. BabyMEG: A whole-head pediatric magnetoencephalography system for human brain development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti; Pratt, Kevin; Mascarenas, Anthony; Miller, Paul; Han, Menglai; Robles, Jose; Cavallini, Anders; Power, Bill; Sieng, Kosal; Sun, Limin; Lew, Seok; Doshi, Chiran; Ahtam, Banu; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Grant, Ellen; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Paulson, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a 375-channel, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system ("BabyMEG") for studying the electrophysiological development of human brain during the first years of life. The helmet accommodates heads up to 95% of 36-month old boys in the USA. The unique two-layer sensor array consists of: (1) 270 magnetometers (10 mm diameter, ˜15 mm coil-to-coil spacing) in the inner layer, (2) thirty-five three-axis magnetometers (20 mm × 20 mm) in the outer layer 4 cm away from the inner layer. Additionally, there are three three-axis reference magnetometers. With the help of a remotely operated position adjustment mechanism, the sensor array can be positioned to provide a uniform short spacing (mean 8.5 mm) between the sensor array and room temperature surface of the dewar. The sensors are connected to superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) operating at 4.2 K with median sensitivity levels of 7.5 fT/√Hz for the inner and 4 fT/√Hz for the outer layer sensors. SQUID outputs are digitized by a 24-bit acquisition system. A closed-cycle helium recycler provides maintenance-free continuous operation, eliminating the need for helium, with no interruption needed during MEG measurements. BabyMEG with the recycler has been fully operational from March, 2015. Ongoing spontaneous brain activity can be monitored in real time without interference from external magnetic noise sources including the recycler, using a combination of a lightly shielded two-layer magnetically shielded room, an external active shielding, a signal-space projection method, and a synthetic gradiometer approach. Evoked responses in the cortex can be clearly detected without averaging. These new design features and capabilities represent several advances in MEG, increasing the utility of this technique in basic neuroscience as well as in clinical research and patient studies.

  13. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-10-07

    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  14. Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute head trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, R; Kennedy, P G

    1987-01-01

    A case of classical Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute head trauma is described. The association of Guillain-Barré syndrome with head injury per se is not well recognized, and a possible immunological explanation is proposed.

  15. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Patient Health Information News ... particular strain of HPV. 66% of the time, oral cancers will be found as late stage three and ...

  16. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  17. Arc inhibitors for lower hybrid waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discontinuity at the mouth of a phased array between waveguide fields and plasma fields gives rise to strong, localized electric fields at the septa, especially if the array is excited asymetrically. Methods are suggested for modifying these fields to reduce the possibility of arcing. Probe measurements of the fields near the septa show that small but significant reductions of the local fields are possible and might raise the maximum power handling capability of an array

  18. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  19. A Study of End-Fed Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kondylis, Konstantinos; Zimourtopoulos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a general analysis of end-fed space arrays with application to self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles. A number of test array models were simulated, constructed and their radiation pattern was then measured. The experimental and computational results were found to be in good agreement. The developed software applications are available through the Internet as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.

  20. Halbach arrays in precision motion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumper, D.L.; Williams, M.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Halbach array was developed for use as an optical element in particle accelerators. Following up on a suggestion from Klaus Halbach, the authors have investigated the utility of such arrays as the permanent magnet structure for synchronous machines in cartesian, polar, and cylindrical geometries. Their work has focused on the design of a novel Halbach array linear motor for use in a magnetic suspension stage for photolithography. This paper presents the details of the motor design and its force and power characteristics.

  1. Towed array beamforming during ship's maneuvering

    OpenAIRE

    Felisberto, P; Jesus, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Towed hydrophone arrays are commonly used for determining the spatial characteristics of the underwater acoustic field. The assumption that the hydrophones lie in a straight and horizontal line is often made when beamforming the hydrophone outputs. However, due to tow vessel motion, ocean swells and currents the array adopts a nonlinear shape and the beamformer output is degraded. To estimate the positions of the hydrophones an array was instrumented with a set of positioning sensors: compass...

  2. ANTENNAS ARRAY ADJUST WITH ADAPTIVE NEURONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padrón

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an array failure correction for Linear Antenna Array (LAA is presented. This is carried out by means ofan Adaptive Artificial Neural Network (AANN that adjusts the amplitude and phase at beamforming. Theappropriated corrections are given, when one, or two, or three elements have a failure in the antenna linear array.The AANN corrects the corresponding parameters in the radiation pattern obtained due to the failure, when weknow the coefficients of the array factor (AF. This yields a reduction of side lobe level and some interferencesdisappear.

  3. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  4. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  5. Cosmic ray effects in microcalorimeter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, C.K. E-mail: cak@lheapop.gsfc.nasa.gov; Boyce, K.R.; Brown, G.V.; Cottam, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.L.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F.S.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Tillotson, W.A

    2004-03-11

    We have identified signals resulting from cosmic rays and environmental gamma rays depositing energy in the pixels and in the silicon frame of the Astro-E2/X-Ray Spectrometer microcalorimeter array. Coincidences between pixels and between the array and an anti-coincidence detector determined the nature of the events. Pulse shapes and amplitudes from the cosmic ray events helped refine the thermal model of the array chip. We discuss how future arrays can be optimized either for the greatest background rejection or for the highest source count rates.

  6. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  7. Enhanced reflection from inverse tapered nanocone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando da [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Kangwanwatana, Chuan; Montelongo, Yunuen; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-04

    We computationally and experimentally demonstrate enhanced reflection effects displayed by silicon-based inverted nanocone arrays. A 3D finite element model is used to characterize the optical properties of the nanocone arrays with respect to the change in polarization and incident angles. The nanocone arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography in hexagonal and triangular geometries with a lattice constant of 300 nm. The fabricated devices show a two-fold increase in reflection compared with bare silicon surface, as well as a strong diffraction within the visible and near-infrared spectra. The nanocone arrays may find a variety of applications from optical devices to energy conservation technologies.

  8. Imaging antenna array at 119 µm

    OpenAIRE

    Neikirk, Dean P.; Tong, Peter P.; Rutledge, David B.; Park, Hyeon; Young, Peter E.

    1982-01-01

    A focal-plane imaging antenna array has been demonstrated at 119 µm. The array is a line of evaporated silver bow-tie antennas with bismuth microbolometer detectors on a silicon substrate. Radiation is coupled into the array by a lens placed on the back of the substrate. The bolometers are thermally isolated from the silicon substrate with a half-micron layer of polyimide. The array performance is demonstrated by coherent imaging of a series of holes at half the diffraction-limited cut-off fr...

  9. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the tho

  10. Effect of The Swimmer's Head Position on Passive Drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the head position on passive drag with a towing-line experiment in a swimming pool. The tests were performed on ten male swimmers with regional level swimming skills and at least 10 years of competitive swimming experience. They were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at three speeds (1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 m/s) and in two body positions (arms above the swimmer's head and arms alongside the body). These two body positions were repeated while the swimmer's head was positioned in three different ways: head-up, head-middle and head-down in relation to the body's horizontal alignment. The results showed a reduction of 4-5.2% in the average passive drag at all speeds when the head was down or aligned to the swimmer's arms alongside the body, in comparison to the head-up position. A major significant decrease of 10.4-10.9% (p < 0.05) was shown when the head was down or aligned at the swimmer's arms above the swimmer's head. The passive drag tended to decrease significantly by a mean of 17.6% (p < 0.001) for all speeds examined with the arms alongside the body position rather than with the arms above the head position. The swimmer's head location may play an important role in reducing hydrodynamic resistance during passive underwater gliding.

  11. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. II. Head Movements during Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Schilstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax. The yaw turns of the tho

  12. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  13. Magnetic behaviour of narrow track thin-film heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druyvesteyn, W.F.; Raemaekers, E.L.M.; Verhaar, R.D.J.; Wilde, de J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Groenland, J.P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of the trackwidth on the performance of thin film heads has been tested. Results of experiments on the wafer have indicated an increase in the head efficiency with decreasing trackwidth. This was underlined by measurements of the head fringe field and tape recording experiments. A mode

  14. Catastrophic Head Injuries in High School and Collegiate Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Frederick O.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the incidence of catastrophic head injuries within high school and college sports. Data from a national surveillance system indicated that a football-related fatality occurred every year except one from 1945-99, mainly related to head injuries. From 1984-99, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Deaths and…

  15. Design and Realization of Array Signal Processor VLSI Architecture for Phased Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Govind Rao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A method for implementing an array signal processor for phased array radars. The array signal processor can receive planar array antenna inputs and can process it. It is based on the application of Adaptive Digital beam formers using FPGAs. Adaptive filter algorithm used here is Inverse Q-R Decomposition based Recursive Least Squares (IQRD-RLS [1] algorithm. Array signal processor based on FPGAs is suitable in the areas of Phased Array Radar receiver, where speed, accuracy and numerical stability are of utmost important. Using IQRD-RLS algorithm, optimal weights are calculated in much less time compared to conventional QRD-RLS algorithm. A customized multiple FPGA board comprising three Kintex-7 FPGAs is employed to implement array signal processor. The proposed architecture can form multiple beams from planar array antenna elements

  16. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  17. AGATA - Advanced Gamma Tracking Array

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, S; Alikhani, B; Ameil, F; de Angelis, G; Arnold, L; Astier, A; Ataç, A; Aubert, Y; Aufranc, C; Austin, A; Aydin, S; Azaiez, F; Badoer, S; Balabanski, D L; Barrientos, D; Baulieu, G; Baumann, R; Bazzacco, D; Beck, F A; Beck, T; Bednarczyk, P; Bellato, M; Bentley, M A; Benzoni, G; Berthier, R; Berti, L; Beunard, R; Bianco, G Lo; Birkenbach, B; Bizzeti, P G; Bizzeti-Sona, A M; Blanc, F Le; Blasco, J M; Blasi, N; Bloor, D; Boiano, C; Borsato, M; Bortolato, D; Boston, A J; Boston, H C; Bourgault, P; Boutachkov, P; Bouty, A; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Brawn, I P; Brondi, A; Broussard, S; Bruyneel, B; Bucurescu, D; Burrows, I; Bürger, A; Cabaret, S; Cahan, B; Calore, E; Camera, F; Capsoni, A; Carrió, F; Casati, G; Castoldi, M; Cederwall, B; Cercus, J -L; Chambert, V; Chambit, M El; Chapman, R; Charles, L; Chavas, J; Clément, E; Cocconi, P; Coelli, S; Coleman-Smith, P J; Colombo, A; Colosimo, S; Commeaux, C; Conventi, D; Cooper, R J; Corsi, A; Cortesi, A; Costa, L; Crespi, F C L; Cresswell, J R; Cullen, D M; Curien, D; Czermak, A; Delbourg, D; Depalo, R; Descombes, T; Désesquelles, P; Detistov, P; Diarra, C; Didierjean, F; Dimmock, M R; Doan, Q T; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dorangeville, F; Dosme, N; Drouen, Y; Duchêne, G; Dulny, B; Eberth, J; Edelbruck, P; Egea, J; Engert, T; Erduran, M N; Ertürk, S; Fanin, C; Fantinel, S; Farnea, E; Faul, T; Filliger, M; Filmer, F; Finck, Ch; de France, G; Gadea, A; Gast, W; Geraci, A; Gerl, J; Gernhäuser, R; Giannatiempo, A; Giaz, A; Gibelin, L; Givechev, A; Goel, N; González, V; Gottardo, A; Grave, X; Grȩbosz, J; Griffiths, R; Grint, A N; Gros, P; Guevara, L; Gulmini, M; Görgen, A; Ha, H T M; Habermann, T; Harkness, L J; Harroch, H; Hauschild, K; He, C; Hernández-Prieto, A; Hervieu, B; Hess, H; Hüyük, T; Ince, E; Isocrate, R; Jaworski, G; Johnson, A; Jolie, J; Jones, P; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Judson, D S; Jungclaus, A; Kaci, M; Karkour, N; Karolak, M; Kaşkaş, A; Kebbiri, M; Kempley, R S; Khaplanov, A; Klupp, S; Kogimtzis, M; Kojouharov, I; Korichi, A; Korten, W; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Kurz, N; Ky, B Y; Labiche, M; Lafay, X; Lavergne, L; Lazarus, I H; Leboutelier, S; Lefebvre, F; Legay, E; Legeard, L; Lelli, F; Lenzi, S M; Leoni, S; Lermitage, A; Lersch, D; Leske, J; Letts, S C; Lhenoret, S; Lieder, R M; Linget, D; Ljungvall, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Lotodé, A; Lunardi, S; Maj, A; van der Marel, J; Mariette, Y; Marginean, N; Marginean, R; Maron, G; Mather, A R; Mȩczyński, W; Mendéz, V; Medina, P; Melon, B; Menegazzo, R; Mengoni, D; Merchan, E; Mihailescu, L; Michelagnoli, C; Mierzejewski, J; Milechina, L; Million, B; Mitev, K; Molini, P; Montanari, D; Moon, S; Morbiducci, F; Moro, R; Morrall, P S; Möller, O; Nannini, A; Napoli, D R; Nelson, L; Nespolo, M; Ngo, V L; Nicoletto, M; Nicolini, R; Noa, Y Le; Nolan, P J; Norman, M; Nyberg, J; Obertelli, A; Olariu, A; Orlandi, R; Oxley, D C; Özben, C; Ozille, M; Oziol, C; Pachoud, E; Palacz, M; Palin, J; Pancin, J; Parisel, C; Pariset, P; Pascovici, G; Peghin, R; Pellegri, L; Perego, A; Perrier, S; Petcu, M; Petkov, P; Petrache, C; Pierre, E; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pignanelli, M; Piqueras, I; Podolyak, Z; Pouhalec, P Le; Pouthas, J; Pugnére, D; Pucknell, V F E; Pullia, A; Quintana, B; Raine, R; Rainovski, G; Ramina, L; Rampazzo, G; La Rana, G; Rebeschini, M; Recchia, F; Redon, N; Reese, M; Reiter, P; Regan, P H; Riboldi, S; Richer, M; Rigato, M; Rigby, S; Ripamonti, G; Robinson, A P; Robin, J; Roccaz, J; Ropert, J -A; Rossé, B; Alvarez, C Rossi; Rosso, D; Rubio, B; Rudolph, D; Saillant, F; Şahin, E; Salomon, F; Salsac, M -D; Salt, J; Salvato, G; Sampson, J; Sanchis, E; Santos, C; Schaffner, H; Schlarb, M; Scraggs, D P; Seddon, D; Şenyiğit, M; Sigward, M -H; Simpson, G; Simpson, J; Slee, M; Smith, J F; Sona, P; Sowicki, B; Spolaore, P; Stahl, C; Stanios, T; Stefanova, E; Stézowski, O; Strachan, J; Suliman, G; Söderström, P -A; Tain, J L; Tanguy, S; Tashenov, S; Theisen, Ch; Thornhill, J; Tomasi, F; Toniolo, N; Touzery, R; Travers, B; Triossi, A; Tripon, M; Tun-Lanoë, K M M; Turcato, M; Unsworth, C; Ur, C A; Valiente-Dobon, J J; Vandone, V; Vardaci, E; Venturelli, R; Veronese, F; Veyssiere, Ch; Viscione, E; Wadsworth, R; Walker, P M; Warr, N; Weber, C; Weisshaar, D; Wells, D; Wieland, O; Wiens, A; Wittwer, G; Wollersheim, H J; Zocca, F; Zamfir, N V; Ziȩbliński, M; Zucchiatti, A

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realization of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly-segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterization of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorith...

  18. Microlens arrays with integrated pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Microlenses are important optical components that image, detect, and couple light. But most synthetic microlenses have fixed position and shape once they are fabricated, so their possible range of tunability and complexity is rather limited. By comparison, biology provides many varied, new paradigms for the development of adaptive optical networks. Here, we discuss inspirational examples of biological lenses and their synthetic analogs. We focus on the fabrication and characterization of biomimetic microlens arrays with integrated pores, whose appearance and function are similar to highly efficient optical elements formed by brittlestars. The complex design can be created by three-beam interference lithography. The synthetic lens has strong focusing ability for use as an adjustable lithographic mask and a tunable optical device coupled with the microfluidic system. Replacing rigid microlenses with soft hydrogels provides a way of changing the lens geometry and refractive index continuously in response to external stimuli, resulting in intelligent, multifunctional, tunable optics.

  19. Scanning strategies for imaging arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, A

    2008-01-01

    Large-format (sub)millimeter wavelength imaging arrays are best operated in scanning observing modes rather than traditional position-switched (chopped) modes. The choice of observing mode is critical for isolating source signals from various types of noise interference, especially for ground-based instrumentation operating under a bright atmosphere. Ideal observing strategies can combat 1/f noise, resist instrumental defects, sensitively recover emission on large scales, and provide an even field coverage -- all under feasible requirements of telescope movement. This work aims to guide the design of observing patterns that maximize scientific returns. It also compares some of the popular choices of observing modes for (sub)millimeter imaging, such as random, Lissajous, billiard, spiral, On-The-Fly (OTF), DREAM, chopped and stare patterns. Many of the conclusions are also applicable other imaging applications and imaging in one dimension (e.g. spectroscopic observations).

  20. The International Pulsar Timing Array

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, R N

    2013-01-01

    The International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) is an organisation whose raison d'etre is to facilitate collaboration between the three main existing PTAs (the EPTA in Europe, NANOGrav in North America and the PPTA in Australia) in order to realise the benefits of combined PTA data sets in reaching the goals of PTA projects. Currently, shared data sets for 39 pulsars are available for IPTA-based projects. Operation of the IPTA is administered by a Steering Committee consisting of six members, two from each PTA, plus the immediate past Chair in a non-voting capacity. A Constitution and several Agreements define the framework for the collaboration. Web pages provide information both to members of participating PTAs and to the general public. With support from an NSF PIRE grant, the IPTA facilitates the organisation of annual Student Workshops and Science Meetings. These are very valuable both in training new students and in communicating current results from IPTA-based research.

  1. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise;

    2007-01-01

    Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology...... (lemon-shaped), 18.4% with aneuploidy (mostly strawberry-shaped). 19.5% were dolicocephalic, most secondary to fetal position or oligohydramnios (see table). 13 had confirmed craniosynostosis, including thanatophoric dysplasia, Craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Aperts syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, I......-cell disease, Muenke craniosynostosis and two with an as yet undefined craniosynostosis syndrome. Overall, 16.5 % had an underlying genetic syndrome. Conclusions: Abnormal fetal head shape may be a normal variant, but is commonly associated with a wide variety of underlying pathologies. In view of the high...

  2. Exploding Head Syndrome:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Ganguly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exploding head syndrome (EHS is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These events were described ‘as if there are explosions in my head’. A neurologic examination, imaging studies, and a polysomnogram ensued, and the results led to the diagnosis of EHS. Conclusion: EHS is a benign, uncommon, predominately nocturnal disorder that is self-limited. No treatment is generally required. Reassurance to the patient is often all that is needed.

  3. The epidemiology of head injury in Cantabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Barquero, A; Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Austin, O; Pascual, J; Gaite, L; Herrera, S

    1992-11-01

    The epidemiology of head injury was studied in Cantabria, Spain, using a methodological design consisting of a cross-selectional analysis of one year of duration and an additional one year follow-up of all the patients included in the initial sample. The 477 cases identified represent a rate of 91/100,000, with males showing a head injury rate 2.7 times higher that than for females. Sixty per cent of all cases involved traffic accidents, falls accounted for 24% and industrial accidents were the cause in 8%. The annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 19.7/100,000. Over 92% of all deaths occurred prior to hospital admission. The presence of alcohol intoxication was evaluated in 211 cases by determining the osmolar gap. It was found that 51% of all the cases examined presented clear evidence of acute alcohol intoxication. PMID:1294388

  4. Head mass in chronic pancreatitis: Inflammatory ormalignant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit K Dutta; Ashok Chacko

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of developingpancreatic cancer. This often presents as a mass lesionin the head of pancreas. Mass lesion in the head ofpancreas can also occur secondary to an inflammatorylesion. Recognising this is crucial to avoid unnecessarysurgery. This is sometimes difficult as there is an overlapin clinical presentation and conventional computedtomography (CT) abdomen findings in inflammatory andmalignant mass. Advances in imaging technologies likeendoscopic ultrasound in conjunction with techniqueslike fine needle aspiration, contrast enhancement andelastography as well as multidetector row CT, magneticresonance imaging and positron emission tomographyscanning have been shown to help in distinguishinginflammatory and malignant mass. Research is ongoingto develop molecular techniques to help characterisefocal pancreatic mass lesions. This paper reviews thecurrent status of imaging and molecular techniquesin differentiating a benign mass lesion in chronicpancreatitis and from malignancy.

  5. Malnutrition associated with head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifeh Haghjoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancerous patients, under the chemotherapy or radiotherapy, are at high risk of malnutrition due to the associated complications with the treatment procedures such as chewing problems, dysphagia, nausea etc. Considering the patients’ history of alcohol consumption, smoking or any other diseases and performing several physical examinations are essential in early identification of high-risk patients for nutritional complications, losing unintentional weight and fat free mass. In this review, we tried to briefly explain the risk of malnutrition in patients with head and neck cancers who are undergoing surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Oral nutrition, nasogastric tube and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy  are different methods of nutritional interventions, which have been compared due to their efficacy in maintaining the patients’ weight. In this study, we reviewed the results obtained in clinical trials about the efficacy of intense nutritional intervention on limiting the chemoradiotherapy-associated complications in patients with head and neck cancers.

  6. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya K Aggarwal; Ashwani Soni; Daljeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries.We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high energy trauma due to road traffic accident.He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39.He received cementless total hip replacement.At latest follow-up of 2.3 years,functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95.Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now.The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity,possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries.

  7. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  8. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the risk oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully three-dimensional mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors are brought together in a ROAAM probabilistic framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is 'physically unreasonable'. (orig.)

  9. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is 'physically unreasonable'. (author)

  10. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  11. Imaging of head and neck venous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flis, Christine M.; Connor, Stephen E. [King' s College Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are non proliferative lesions that consist of dysplastic venous channels. The aim of imaging is to characterise the lesion and define its anatomic extent. We will describe the plain film, ultrasound (US) (including colour and duplex Doppler), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), conventional angiographic and direct phlebographic appearances of venous malformations. They will be illustrated at a number of head and neck locations, including orbit, oral cavity, superficial and deep facial space, supraglottic and intramuscular. An understanding of the classification of such vascular anomalies is required to define the correct therapeutic procedure to employ. Image-guided sclerotherapy alone or in combination with surgery is now the first line treatment option in many cases of head and neck venous malformations, so the radiologist is now an integral part of the multidisciplinary management team. (orig.)

  12. Wavelength tunable, 264 J laser diode array for 10 Hz/1ms Yb:YAG pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Albach, D.; Assémat, F.; Bahbah, S.; Bourdet, G.; Piatti, P.; Pluvinage, M.; Vincent, B.; LeTouzé, G.; Mattern, T.; Biesenbach, J.; Müntz, H.; Noeske, A.; Venohr, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Lucia [1,2] Laser program, under development at the LULI laboratory, aims at delivering a 1030 nm, 100J, 10 Hz, 10 ns pulse train. The two laser heads used in the amplification stage relies on water-cooled mm-thick Yb:YAG disks, each of them pumped by a 34×13 cm2 Laser Diode Array (LDA). For each LDA, the 88 QCW diodes stacks manufactured by DILAS GmbH will be tiled in an 8×11 arrangement. Fine wavelength tuning is performed through bias current adjustment, water temperature control and conductivity adjustment. Wavelength homogeneity experimental verification has been validated.

  13. Array size scaling of passive coherent beam combination in fiber laser array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhao Xue; Bing He; Jun Zhou; Jinchong Xue; Zhen Li; Houkang Liu; Qihong Lou

    2012-01-01

    Array size scaling of passive coherent beam combination is explored theoretically.The Strehl ratio variation with wavelength is simulated in 4-,9-,16-,and 25-channel fiber arrays.The average Strehl ratio and phase error are calculated.The Strehl ratio is found to be near 100% for arrays with less than 5 fibers,but decreases significantly for larger arrays.These results are in good agreement with the recent experimental results.

  14. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: System Architecture and Specifications of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hotan, A. W.; Bunton, J. D.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Humphreys, B.; Jeffs, B. D.; Shimwell, T.; Tuthill, J.; Voronkov, M.; G. Allen; Amy, S.; Ardern, K.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L; Bannister, K.; Barker, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope - the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, which is a prototype of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a 6-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least 9 dual-pola...

  15. Calculation and analysis of correlation curves between Lanzhou Seismic Array sites and assessment of primary array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝春月; 郑重; 周公威

    2003-01-01

    By using the waveform data recorded during the site survey of Lanzhou Seismic Array, the author calculated andanalyzed the correlation of the signal and noise between the site pairs and found that the ideal radii of the twoconcentric rings for Lanzhou Seismic Array were 380 m and 1500 m, respectively. According to the radius limitand other requirements, nine sites were chosen to make a seismic array, and then the detection and location abilityof the array were estimated.

  16. Comparison of an electrically-small planar antenna array with a conventional monopole array

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, PR; Hilton, GS; Craddock, IJ; Fletcher, PN

    2002-01-01

    A new type of linear array is proposed which utilises annular slot antennas operating in the 'DC' mode. These conformal elements are electrically-small and have wire-monopole-like radiation patterns. A thorough analysis of this array's performance is provided, with a comparison against the performance of an equivalent wire monopole array given at each stage. It is shown that, overall, the characteristics of the conformal, electrically-small, annular-slot array are very similar to that of the ...

  17. The optic nerve head in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert RA Bourne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ll types of glaucoma involve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The key to detection and management of glaucoma is understanding how to examine the optic nerve head (ONH. This pictorial glossary addresses the following issues: how to examine the ONH; normal characteristics of the ONH; characteristics of a glaucomatous ONH; how to tell if the glaucomatous optic neuropathy is getting worse;‘pitfalls and pearls’.

  18. Radiofrequency ablation of two femoral head chondroblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petsas, Theodore [Department of Radiology, University of Patras (Greece); Megas, Panagiotis [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Patras (Greece)]. E-mail: panmegas@med.upatras.gr; Papathanassiou, Zafiria [Department of Radiology, University of Patras (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pain relief and prevention of further growth. Open surgical techniques are associated with complications, particularly when the tumors are located in deep anatomical sites. The authors performed RF ablation in two cases of subarticular femoral head chondroblastomas and emphasize its positive impact. The clinical course, the radiological findings and the post treatment results are discussed.

  19. A child with severe head banging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granana, N; Tuchman, R F

    1999-09-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy with a developmental disorder presenting with severe head banging. Clinical evolution was consistent with diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, stuttering, and Tourette's syndrome. This report emphasizes the overlap between developmental disorder phenotypes. There is a need to understand the natural history and relationship of specific symptoms that occur in developmental disorders to devise effective and appropriate intervention strategies.

  20. Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Yun-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The majority of skin cancers of the head and neck are nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of NMSC. Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm of skin, and the ideal adjuvant therapy has not yet been found, although various options for treatment of skin cancer are available to the patient and physician, allowing high cure rate and excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes. Sunscreen protection and early evaluation of ...